October 2014




Geology and geologo-prospecting works


E.A. Korolev, A.A. Eskin, E.O. Statcenko, I.N. Plotnikova (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Fluid channels of upward deep solutions migration in dense carbonate rocks of Bashkirian stage

Key words: limestone, oil, migration, x-ray tomography, fluid dynamic channels, fluids.

Fluid dynamic channels of deep solutions upward migration in dense carbonates of the Bashkirian stage oil reservoirs have been investigated. The morphological features of the structure of channels penetrating dense carbonate rocks have been reviewed. In all cases the fluid dynamic channels in limestone have a central cylindrical bore, from which rare side branches run. The communicating cavities are observed around the channels. The hollows of channels and cavities surrounding them are partially or completely healed with authigenous calcite doped with dolomite. Nature and sequence of structure transformations of fluid dynamic channels voids are due to changes in the composition of fluids under the influence of the oxidation products of hydrocarbons. There are two development stages of the channels: 1) formation of cylindrical channel on account of the processes of carbonate rocks dissolution; 2) mudding (healing) of channels’ voids with authigenous calcite. Adjusted fluid dynamic channels in dense rocks provide the possibility of vertical flow for water-oil fluids during the formation of oil deposits.

References
1. Korolev E.A., Morozov V.P., Leonova L.V., Lithological indicators of hydrocarbon fluids migration in the Volgian fault zone within the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 4, pp. 199-210.
2. Migurskiy A.V., Diz"yunktivnaya tektonika i neftegazonosnost' platformennykh oblastey: na primere yuga Sibirskoy platformy (Disjunctive tectonics and oil and gas platform areas: on the example the southern Siberian Platform): Thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Novosibirsk, 1997.
3. Kayukova T.P., Kurbskiy G.P., Yusupova T.N., Gabitova R.K., Mutalapova R.I., Nigmedzyanova L.Z., Romanov G.V., Mukhamedshin R.Z., Features of the composition and properties of oils in the sequence of productive strata in
Tatarstan (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1993, no. 5, pp. 27-43.
4. Kurbskiy G.P., Geokhimiya neftey Tatarii (Geochemistry of oils of Tatarstan), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 168 p.
5. Shepel' K.Yu., Isaev V.I., Likutov A.R., Statsenko E.O., Studies of the structure the area between the perforation channels on a universal computer tomograph(In Russ.), Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, 2013,

no. 2, pp. 48-51.


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E.A. Korolev, V.P. Morozov, G.A. Krinari, .. Eskin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Lithogenetic transformations in fluid migration zones of shielding clay rocks caused by water-oil fluids

Key words: clay rocks, shielding rocks, transformation of clay minerals, fluid migration.

The mineral composition of the Visean clay rocks were researched as a shielding rocks of oil reservoirs in Tournaisian stage. It was shown that the shielding clay rocks aren't absolutely impenetrable. They can pass water fluids through the rocks under certain conditions. There is a transformation of clay minerals in clay rocks on the ways of fluid migrations. Initial minerals of kaolinite and mica collapse and are transformed to mixed layer phases of illite-divermiculite-smectite. It is possible to assume transformations of clay minerals take place with participation of the microbe communities, considering that the similar occurs in soil forming processes.
References
1. Shaydullin I.A., Krinari G.A., Displacement of oil-water contact in the sediments of the Bobrikovsky Horizon of Tatarstan: Reasons, Mechanisms, and Implications (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya: Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 3, pp. 212–219.
2. Sakharov B.A., Lindgreen H., Salyn A.L., Drits V.A., Determination of Illite-Smectite structures using multispecimen x-ray diffraction profile fitting, Clays & Clay Minerals, 1999, V. 47, no. 5, pp. 555566.
3. Krinari G.A., Morozov V.P., Korolev E.A., Pikalev S.N., Biogenic mechanisms of formation the secondary dolomites with abnormally high porosity (In Russ.), Litosfera Lithosphere, 2004, no. 1, pp. 3140.
4. Korolev E.A., Morozov V.P., Pikalev S.N., Mineralogical criteria for identification the areas of ancient oil-water contacts in carbonate reservoirs of oil (for example Demkinskoe field) (In Russ.), Proceedings of readings dedicated to the 170th anniversary of Golovkinskiy N.A., the 160th anniversary of Shtukenberg A.A., the 200th anniversary of the Geological Museum, Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 2004, pp. 9195.
5. Kol'chitskaya T.N., Mikhaylov N.N., Behavior of clay soils under cyclic loading (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2000, no. 2, pp. 5255.
6. Bogdanovich N.N., The role of physical and chemical processes in the dynamics of oil formation (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Anniversary Conference “Promyslovaya geofizika v 21-m veke. Geoinformatsionnoe obespechenie tekhnologiy uvelicheniya resursnoy azy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya” (Field geophysics in the 21st century. GIS software technologies to enhance resource basics of hydrocarbon raw materials), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2011, pp. 4142.
7. Dobrynin V.M., Gorodnov A.V., Chernoglazov V.N., Davydova O.P., Evaluation of inelastic deformation of clay soils (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Anniversary
Conference Promyslovaya geofizika v 21-m veke. Geoinformatsionnoe
obespechenie tekhnologiy uvelicheniya resursnoy azy uglevodorodnogo
syr'ya (Field geophysics in the 21st century. GIS software technologies to enhance resource basics of hydrocarbon raw materials), Moscow: Publ. of
Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2011, pp. 99100.
8. Krinari G.A., Shinkarev A.A., Giniyatullin K.G., Abiogenic and biogenic decomposition of minerals: differences, mechanisms and practical applications
(In Russ.), Zapiski Vserossiyskogo mineralogicheskogo obshchestva - Proceedings
of the Russian Mineralogical Society, 2005, no 1, pp. 1833
9. Sokolova T.A., The role of soil biota in the weathering of minerals: A review of literature (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie - Eurasian Soil Science, 2011, no. 1, pp. 6481.
10. Maurice P.A., Vierkorn M.A. et al., Dissolution of well and poorly ordered
kaolinites by an aerobic bacterium, Chemical Geology, 2001, V. 180, pp. 8193.
11. Vitvitskiy V.V., Shapenko V.V., New data on the paleotemperatures in Paleozoic carbonate rocks of south-east of the Russian Platform (In Russ.), Doklady AN SSSR, 1976, V. 228, no. 4, pp. 936939.

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G.A. Krinari (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Mixed-layer clay minerals as indicator of diagenesis processes in oil bearing rocs

Keywords: interstratified illite-smectite , diagenesis of oil bearing rocks, x-ray analysis.

To optimize oil production technologies must take account of the extent and causes of secondary changes of structures of illite-smectite phase in oil bearing rocs as result of diagenesis processes, but ordinary relation between concentrations of smectite in interstratified phase and depth is absent. The well-developed method for studying mixed layer phases is fitting, in which the parameters of theoretical basal diffraction spectra of clay minerals are chosen so as to fit experimental curves, in particular, for different preparations of samples. This allows identification of phases fr om alternations of different layers and packets. The fitting method is based on the theory of Markov chains, wh ere the probability characteristics for any sequence of layers are uniform and have the same statistical dispersion. In oil bearing rocs this stipulation is often non real. In this occurrence a procedure for structural investigations of illite-smectite phases was worked out an original method of x-ray analysis. It is establish, that in depth more ≈ 2,3 km the oil bearing collector often contain, as admixture, the mixed-layer clay phases which R = 1 and R = 2 together. May be, it is result of secondary removing of oil-water fluid in the oil deposit, if the percolation effect is present. In this chance, it is possible to establish of the history of the oil deposit.

References
1. Drits V.A., Kossovskaya A.G., Glinistye mineraly: Smektity, smeshanosloynye obrazovaniya (Clay minerals: smectite, mixed lattice mineral), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990, 206 p.
2. Huang W.L., Longo J.M., Peyear D.R., An experimentally derived kinetic
model for smectite-to-illite conversion and its use as a geothermometer,
Clays & Clay Minerals, 1993, V. 41, pp. 162–177.
3. Šrodoń J., Eberl D.D., Illite, in “Micas”, Reviews in Mineralogy: edited by Bailey
S.W., Mineralogy Society of America, 1984, V. 13, pp. 495544.
4. Krinari G.A., Rakhmatulina Yu.Sh., Changes in mineral skeleton of oil reservoir in course of water flooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 56 - 59.
5. Krinari G.A., Khramchenkov M.G., Rakhmatulina Yu.Sh., Changes in the
structures of mixed-layer Illite-Smectite during flooding of Terrigeneous oil
reservoirs (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2014, V. 55, no. 7, pp. 11531167.
6. Krinari G.A., Khramchenkov M.G., Illitization of smectite as nonliving process (In Russ.), Doklady RAN. Geokhimiya, 2005, V. 403, no. 5, pp. 664669.
7. Krinari G.A.,. Khramchenkov M.G., Three-dimensional structure of secondary mica of sedimentary rocks: characteristics and mechanisms of formation (In Russ.), Doklady RAN. Geokhimiya, 2008, V. 423, no. 4, pp. 524529.
8. Rakhmatulina Yu.Sh., Krinari G.A., Revelation of the initial stages of the producing
reservoirs watering by secondary mica restructuring (In Russ.), Georesursy
International Journal of Sciences Georesources, 2012, no. 2 (44),
pp. 3539.
9. Drits V.A., Sakharov B.A., X-ray analysis of minerals mixed lattice mineral
(In Russ.), Proceedings of GIN, 1976, V. 295, 256 p.
10. Yapaskurt O.V., Aspects of the theory of postsedimentary lithogenesis
(In Russ.), Litosfera Lithosphere, 2005, no. 3, pp. 330.
11. Vitvitskiy V.V., Shapenko V.V., New data on the paleotemperatures in Paleozoic
carbonate rocks of south-east of the Russian Platform (In Russ.), Doklady
AN SSSR, 1976, V. 228, no. 4, pp. 936939.
12. Shvydkin E.K., Yakimov A.S., Vasserman V.A., Geofizicheskie i geokhimicheskie tekhnologii prognoza i otsenki neftenosnosti perspektivnykh ob"ektov (Geophysical and geochemical technology of forecasting and evaluation of oil-bearing perspective objects), Kazan': Novoe znanie Publ., 2008, 164 p.
13. Krinari G.A., Korolev E.A., Pikalev S.N., Volcaniclastic material in the Paleozoic strata of Tatarstan: methods for detection and role in the oil industry (In Russ.), Litosfera Lithosphere,, 2003, no. 1, pp. 412.

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V.A. Shmyrina KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), V.P. Morozov, A.I. Bakhtin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Sedimentological and lithogenetic factors determining the reservoir properties of terrigenous rocks

Key words: secondary changes, collector, lithogenesis, oil sands, sedimentogenesis.

Objects of research were oil productive layers of Lower Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic age of the Kustovoye field in Western Siberia. Deposits are presented by the terrigenous rocks which are structurally similar but differ in reservoir properties. The article presents statistical processing of the granulometric analysis data, sediments’ porosity, permeability, and the percentage of clay minerals.

For definition of various factors influence on reservoir properties we plotted several graphics and carried out a statistical processing of analytical data. It allowed to estimate a role of each of them.

The received results allow to estimate a role of two major factors controlling reservoir properties of detrital sediments such as sedimentagenous- catagenetic factor and secondary changes of the imposed character. The most important factor is the kaolinitization. The results should be considered when conducting prospecting works.
References
1. Lebedev B.A., Aristova G.B., Bro E.G., Effect of epigenetic processes on the collectors and cap rock parameters in the Mesozoic sediments of the West
Siberian Lowland (In Russ), Proceedings of VNIGRI, 1976, V. 361, 132 p.
2. Nurgalieva N.G., Korolev E.A., Nuriev A.G. et al., Lithologic-mineralogical changes of terrigene reservoir rocks in natural hydrocarbon reservoirs (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2010, no. 1, pp. 23-26.
3. Predtechenskaya E.A., Shiganova O.V., Fomichev A.S., Catagenetic and hydrochemical anomalies in Lower-Middle Jurassic oil-and-gas bearing deposits in West Siberia as indicators of fluid (In Russ.), Litosfera, 2009, no. 6, pp. 54-65.
4. Ezhova A.V., Conditions of formation of the void space in the Terrigenous
reservoirs of hydrocarbon-bearing fields in the western part of the Tomsk region (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2007, no. 1, pp. 13-19.
5. Nedolivko N.M., Ezhova A.V., Perevertaylo T.G., Polumogina E.D., The influence of granulometric and mineralogical composition on the reservoir properties formation of the sandstone layer in western Moiseyevsky section,
Dvurechensky field (Tomsk oblast) (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta - Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2004, V. 307, no. 5, pp. 48-54.
6. Popov A.Yu., Vakulenko L.G., Relations of the composition and structure
characteristics of silt-sand deposits of the J2 horizon of the Shirotnoe Priobie and reservoir quality (In Russ.), Interekspo Geo-Sibir', 2014, V. 2, no. 1, pp. 120-124.
7. Sakhibgareev R.S., Vtorichnye izmeneniya kollektorov v protsesse
formirovaniya i razrusheniya neftyanykh zalezhey (Secondary changes of collectors in the formation and destruction of oil deposits), Leningrad: Nedra
Publ., 1989, 260 p.
8. Kudamanov A.I., Skachek K.G., The effect of sedimentation and lithogenesis environments on the reservoir properties of the neocomian sediments within the Surgut arch (Western Siberian plate) (In Russ.), Georesursy International Journal of Sciences “Georesources”, 2008, no. 5, pp. 40-43.
9. Mukhametshin R.Z., Desyatkov V.M., Supercollectors in the mid-Cambrian
siltstone-sand beds (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i
gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2006, no. 8, pp. 56-59.

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E.A. Korolev, I.A. Khuzin, A.A. Galeev, Sh.Z. Ibragimov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
Transformation peculiarities of gypsum cover of oil-bearing strata in the outbreak zone (by example of Syukeyevskoye bitumen deposit)

Key words: Upper Kazanian substage, black gypsum, green gypsum, hydrocarbons, magnetite, pyrite.

Transformations of Upper Kazanian gypsum cover of oil-bearing strata in the outbreak zone are considered by example of Syukeyevskoye bitumen deposit. It was established that gypsum exhibits induced color around hydrocarbon fluid migration channels. The gypsum color changes with distance from hydrocarbon migration channels in following sequence: dark-brown – black green white unaltered gypsum. The black color appears due to inclusions of fine dispersed pyrite and magnetite, green — due to iron hydrosulfates. Pyrite and magnetite are the waste products of hydrocarbon-utilizing microbial communities. Iron hydrosulfates are the products of pyrite oxidation. Similar patterns of relationship in gypsum colors enable to reveal ancient and current water-oil fluid migration paths in sulfate rocks.

References
1. Korolev E.A., Morozov V.P., Leonova L.V., Lithological indicators of hydrocarbon fluids migration in the Volgian fault zone within the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 4, pp. 199-210.
2. Troepol'skiy V.I., Gordeev E.V., Istoriya izucheniya, sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy Syukeevskogo mestorozhdeniya bituminoznykh porod kak ob"ekta vozmozhnoy kompleksnoy razrabotki dlya ispol'zovaniya v narodnom khozyaystve (History of the study, the current status and prospects of Syukeevskoe bituminous field as an object of possible complex development for use in the national economy), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1990, 155 p.
3. Burov B.V., Yasonov P.G., Vvedenie v differentsial'nyy termomagnitnyy analiz gornykh porod (Introduction to differential thermomagnetic analysis of
rocks), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1979, 156 p.
4. Morozov V.V., Izomorfnye zameshcheniya i drugie magnitomineralogicheskie osobennosti zheleza v zone gipergeneza (Isomorphic substitution and other magnetomineralogical especially iron in the supergene zone): Thesis of doctor of fisical and mathematical science, Moscow, 2006.

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N.G.Nurgalieva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Lithologic types of Kazanian bituminous rocks of Melekess depression

Key words: Kazanian rocks, lithology, bitumen.

In present paper lithologic types of Kazanian bituminous rocks of Melekess depression are regarded on core samples of structural wells studied by microscopy and genetically interpreted. Characteristics of terrigenous, carbonate and sulphate components were given and discussed in light of multi-step genesis of rocks under inorganic and organic solutions.
References
1. Nurgalieva N.G., Nurgaliev D.K., Paleo-climatic factors of Permian stratigraphic record in the east of the Russian plate (In Russ.), Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye Nauki, 2009, V. 151, no. 3, pp. 167–179.
2. Vinokhodova G.V., Ellern S.S., The structure of the lower part of the Kazan
stage of east of Melekess depression and features of the bitumen distribution (In Russ.), In “Geologiya i geokhimiya neftey i prirodnykh bitumov” (Geology and geochemistry of oil and natural bitumen). Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1985, pp. 825.
3. Vinokhodova G.V., Ellern S.S., The structure of the lower part of the Kazan
deposits of South Tatarstan and surrounding areas in connection with the
evaluation of bituminous-bearing (In Russ.), In Geologiya i geokhimiya
neftenosnykh otlozheniy (Geology and geochemistry of oil-bearing deposits),
Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1987, pp. 96113.
4. Khartman P., Dependence of the crystal morphology from the crystalline
structure (In Russ.), translated from English, In Rost kristallov (Crystal growth),
Part 7, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1967.
5. Troepol'skiy V.I., Ellern S.S., Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftenosnost' Aksubaevo-Melekesskoy depressii (Geological structure and oil bearing of Aksubaevo-Melekess depression), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1964, 658 p.
6. Sakhibgareev R.S., Vtorichnye izmeneniya kollektorov v protsesse
formirovaniya i razrusheniya neftyanykh zalezhey (Secondary changes of collectors during the formation and destruction of oil deposits), Leningrad:
Nedra Publ., 1989, 260 p.
7. Nurgalieva N.G., Microfacies, petrophysics and sequence stratigraphic
framework of carbonateoil-bearing deposits of Kizelovskiy h

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R.Z. Mukhametshin, A.A. Galeev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Diagnosis of ancient oil-water contacts by instrumental techniques

Key words: oil reservoir, oil-water contact, sandstones, bitumens, electron paramagnetic resonance.

Numerous manifestations of bituminous or so called “black sandstones” were identified in oil reservoirs of many oil fields of the Volga-Ural, Kaliningrad region and other areas, which are often associated with ancient oil-water contacts (OWC). Since the processes of natural transformation of oil in reservoirs can cover a significant volume of the deposits this makes it important for diagnostic of phenomena related to ancient OWC. The use of complex of instrumental techniques to study bituminous sandstones of the ancient OWC zones allowed us: a) to reveal transformation of minerals and inhomogeneity of hydrocarbons throughout the section of productive stratum of 15-18 meter in thick; b) to establish geological reasons and transformation mechanisms of conventional oils up to naphthides with anomalous properties; c) to demonstrate that the base of oil column serves as a collector for asphaltene precipitation from the primary heavy oil due to an influx of light crude oil in the multistage process of oil field formation; d) to estimate the time period when present-day reservoir has been filled by the light oil. The practical significance of the results obtained is discussed.
References
1. Mukhametshin R.Z., Role and importance of tar sands in producing formation (In Russ.), Collected papers Prirodnye bitumy i tyazhelye nefti (Natural bitumen and
heavy oil): edited by Belonin M.D., Proceedings of International Scientific and practical conference on the centenary of Prof. Uspensky V.A., St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2006, pp. 231-245.
2. Mukhametshin R.Z., Geologicheskie osnovy effektivnogo osvoeniya i izvlecheniya trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti (Geological basis for efficient development and extraction of stranded oil): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical sciencesb Moscow, IGiRGI, 2006.
3. Sakhibgareev R.S., Vtorichnye izmeneniya kollektorov v protsesse formirovaniya i
razrusheniya neftyanykh zalezhey (Secondary changes of collectors in the formation
and destruction of oil deposits), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1989, 260 p.
4. Mukhametshin R.Z., Petrova L.M., Yusupova T.N., Nurgaliev D.K., Reconstruction of
the conditions the formation of the Devonian oil deposits of Bavlinskoye field and its importance (In Russ.), Collected papers Opyt razvedki i razrabotki Romashkinskogo i
drugikh krupnykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Volgo-Kamskogo regiona (Experience in exploration and development of Romashkinskoye and other major oil fields of the
Volga-Kama region), Kazan': Novoe Znanie Publ., 1998, pp. 381-384.
5. Mukhametshin R.Z., Ivanov A.I., On Indication of the oil fields formation (In Russ.), Collected
papers Novye idei v geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza. Aktual'nye problemy geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza (New ideas in geology and geochemistry of oil and gas.
Actual Problems of geology and geochemistry of oil and gas), Proceedings of The 7th International Conference, Moscow: Geos Publ., 2004, pp. 354-357.
6. Berezin V.M., Gizatullina V.V., Yarygina V.O., Fixed oxidized oil in productive strata of
Bashkortostan fields (In Russ.), Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 1983, V. 65, pp. 43-52.
7. Mukhametshin R.Z., Punanova S.A., Natural bitumen of Paleozoic deposits in Tatarstan: composition, properties, and the possibility of extracting (In Russ.), Collected papers Vysokovyazkie nefti i prirodnye bitumy: problemy i povyshenie effektivnosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy (High viscosity oil and natural bitumen: problems
and improving the efficiency of exploration and development), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan': Fen Publ., 2012, pp. 95-99.
8. Petrova L.M., Yusupova T.N., Foss T.R. et al., Characterization of bitumens from the oilwater
contact zone of the Bavlinskoe oil field (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya – Petroleum
Chemistry, 2004, V. 44, no. 5, pp. 333-339.
9. Klubov B.A., Principal model of the formation of solid bitumen (In Russ.), Collected papers Kondensirovannoe nekristallicheskoe sostoyanie veshchestva zemnoy kory
(Non-crystalline condensed state of matter of the earth's crust), St. Petersburg: Nauka Publ., 1995, pp. 77-84.
10. Spravochnik po geokhimii nefti i gaza (Handbook of geochemistry of oil and gas): edited Neruchev S.G., St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 1998, 576 p.
11. Burov B.V., Nurgaliev D.K., Yasonov P.G., Paleomagnitnyy analiz (Paleomagnetic analysis), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1986, 168 p.
12. Hilton J., Greigite and the magnetic properties of sediments, Limnol. Oceanogr., 1990, V. 35, pp. 497-508.
13. Mukhametshin R.Z., Kayukova G.P., Geochemical aspects of the oil deposits formation of South-Tatar arch (In Russ.), Collected papers Geokhimicheskoe modelirovanie i materinskie porody neftegazonosnykh basseynov Rossii i stran
SNG (Geochemical modeling and source rock of oil and gas basins in Russia
and CIS), Proceedings of International Conference, St. Petersburg: Publ. of VNIGRI, 2000, pp. 119-127.
14. Andreeva L.N., Berezovskaya M.V., Tsyro L.V. et al., The use of instrumental methods for the characterization of the age and origin of oil (In Russ.), Proceedings of III International Conference on Petroleum Chemistry, Part 1, Tomsk: Publ. of RASKO, 1997, pp. 92-94.
15. Gilinskaya L.G., EPR spectra of V(IV) complexes and the structure of oil porphyrins (In Russ.), Zhurnal strukturnoy khimii Journal of Structural Chemistry, 2008, V. 49, no. 2, pp. 259-268.

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D.I. Khassanov, K.I. Brednikov, B.G. Chervikov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Application of a dipole-electrical sounding with induced polarization for the exploration natural deposits of bitumen and high-viscosity oil inthe Republic of Tatarstan

Key words: dipole electro sounding, electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization, Ufimian facies.

The article presents the results of the application of a dipole-electrical sounding with induced polarization (DES-IP) for the exploration of natural deposits of bitumen and high-viscosity oil. The field work was carried out with multiple data overlapping. It's allowed us to construct geoelectrical sections with high resolution in lateral and vertical direction. The results indicate the prospectivity of the method DES-IP for the study of deposits of natural bitumen, and high-viscosity oil. The method DES-IP has higher performance as compared to vertical electrical sounding method. This method is more adapted to work with signal of high man-made electromagnetic noise. After data set interpretation the location of bitumen deposits become more accurate.

References
1. Borovskiy M.Ya., Exploration geophysics at stages of development of bitumen- perspective territories and objects (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2005, no. 9, pp. 166-168.
2. Borovskiy M. Ya., Uspenskiy B.V., Yakimova I.A., Problems of development of natural bitumen and heavy oils: environment, geophysical methods of accounting and valuation of the environmental impact (In Russ.), Collected papers “Prirodnye bitumy i tyazhelye nefti” (Natural bitumen and heavy oils), Proceedings of Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya, St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2006, pp. 498-510.
3. Khamidullina G.S., Nurgaliev D.K., Khasanov D.I., Peculiarities of the electromagnetic probing data interpretation in the search of hydrocarbon accumulations (In Russ.), Georesursy International Journal of Sciences Georesources, 2012, no. 4 (46), pp. 26-30.
4. Khamidullina G.S., Khasanov D.I., Brednikov K.I., Present-day geodynamics and properties of the oil of the Tatarstan oil fields (In Russ.), Georesursy International Journal of Sciences Georesources, 2011, no. 6, pp. 2-6.
5. Nourgalieva N.G., The Ufimian Ashalchinskie facies in Southern Tatarstan:
Reservoir characteristics, Georesources, 2000, no. 2(2), pp. 24-29.
6. Akishev I.M., Volkov Yu.V., Gilyazova F.S., Reserves and resources of natural bitumen of the Tatar ASSR (In Russ.), Collected papers Kompleksnoe osvoenie prirodnykh bitumov i vysokovyazkikh neftey (Integrated development of natural bitumen and high viscosity oil), Proceedings of All-Union Conference on integrated development of natural bitumen and high viscosity oil, Kazan', 1992, pp. 21-26

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E.R. Ziganshin, G.S.Khamidullina, E.O. Statcenko (Kazan (Volga) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Method ofthe flow zone indicator collector determining

Key words: porosity, permeability, flow zone indicator (FZI), the specific surface of a porous, computed tomography.

This article discusses the use of computed tomography to measure the specific surface of a porous carbonate reservoir in order to calculate the flow zone indicator (FZI) of reservoir. The object of the study were Upper Tournaisian substage carbonate reservoirs at one of the oil fields of Nurlatsky oil zone, located on the eastern side of Melekess depression Volga-Ural anteclise. A reservoir model of a hydraulic unit is obtained for each studied sample. Based on research it can be concluded that the parameter is strongly associated with FZI facies and depositional processes and also for the quantitative characteristics may be used successfully FZI computed-tomographic technique, by determining the specific area in contact with the fluid surface.
References
1. Tiab D., Donaldson E.C., Petrophysics: Theory and practice of measuring
reservoir rock and fluid transport properties, Gulf Professional Publishing; 3 edition, 2011, 976 p
2. Khusnullina G.R., The role of texture analysis in the study of deposits of
Vikulovskaya suite on Krasnoleninskoye field (West Siberia) (In Russ.), Collected papers “Prioritetnye i innovatsionnye napravleniya litologicheskikh issledovaniy” (Priority and Innovative directions of lithological studies), Proceedings of IX Ural lithological meeting, Ekaterinburg: Publ. of IGG UrO RAN, 2012, pp. 177-178.
3. Khusnullina G.R., Pryadko A.V., The role of lithofacies heterogeneity of deposits of Vikulovskaya suite in constructing 3D geological model Krasnoleninskoye field (West Siberia) (In Russ.), Interuniversity scientific thematic collection Litologiya i geologiya goryuchikh iskopaemykh (Lithology and Geology of Fossil Fuels), V. VI (22), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of USMU, 2012, pp. 130-138.
4. Al'-Khidir K.E., Benzaguta M.S., Tight carbonate reservoir characterization
(In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal Neftegazovoe delo - Electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2013, no. 2, URL:
http://ogbus.ru/eng/authors/Al-KhidirKE/Al-KhidirKE_1.pdf
5. MorozovV.P., Kozina E.A., Carbonate rocks of the Lower Carboniferous Tournaisian stage (In Russ.), Atlas porod osnovnykh neftenosnykh gorizontov paleozoya respubliki Tatarstan (Atlas of basic rocks of the Paleozoic oil horizons of Tatarstan), Kazan': PFGart Publ., 2007, 201 p.
6. Korolev E.A., Morozov V.P., Leonova L.V., Lithological indicators of hydrocarbon fluids migration in the Volgian fault zone within the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 4, pp. 199-210.
7. Korolev E.A., Eskin A.A., Morozov V.P., Kol'chugin A.N., Plotnikova I.N.,
Pronin N.V., Nosova F.F., The relationships between petroleum composition
and viscosity of oil and petrophysical properties of oil reservoirs (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 32-33.
8. Morozov V.P., E.A. Korolev E.A., Lithogenetic types of limestone of Lower and Middle Carboniferous eastern part of the Melekess depression, secondary processes of transformation, communication with the oil bearing
(In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki, 2006, V. 148, no. 1, pp. 13-21.

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A.V. Stepanov, R.N. Sitdikov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The possibility of using a shallow seismic in detailing the structure of heavy oil reservoirs at the stage of exploration in conditions of the western slope of the South-Tatar arch

Key words: heavy oil; shallow seismic; digital signal processing; seismic attribute

The technique of research, especially graph processing and the results of shallow seismic survey on Varvarkinskaya heavy oil reservoir located within the western slope of the South Tatar arch are presented in this article. It is found that the kinematic and dynamic parameters of the reflected waves react to heterogeneity of the structure of productive sandstone member Ufimian time (P2ss). The obtained results allow us to consider shallow seismic as a potential tool for refinement heavy oil drainage boundary and structural features of the reservoirs in the geological conditions of the western slope of the South Tatar arch.
References
1. Tikhanov P.M. Bariev I.A., Bitumen and Ozokerite (In Russ.), In “Geofizicheskie metody poiskov i razvedki nemetallicheskikh poleznykh iskopaemykh” (Geophysical methods of prospecting and exploration of non-metallic minerals), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, pp. 63–68.
2. Stepanov A.V., World experience to control the development of heavy oil
and natural bitumen by seismic method (In Russ.), Collected papers Problemy povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy na pozdney stadii (Problems of increasing the efficiency of oil fields development in the late stage), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan': FEN Publ., 2013, pp. 3337.
3. Uspenskiy B.V., Valeeva I.F., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology of natural bitumen deposits in the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': PF Gart Publ., 2008, 347 p.
4. Khisamov R.S., Borovskiy M.Ya., Gatiyatullin N.S., Geofizicheskie metody poiskov i razvedki mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov v Respublike Tatarstan (Geophysical methods of prospecting and exploration of natural bitumen in the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 247 p.
5. Ekimenko V.A., Morkovskaya T.V., Dobrovol'skaya Zh.K., Prospecting the
high-lying deposits of viscous oil by CDP method in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.) Collected papers Problemy povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy na pozdney stadii (Problems of increasing the efficiency of oil fields development in the late stage), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan': FEN Publ., 2013, pp. 148153.
6. Stepanov A.V., On statistical forecasting the near-surface velocity on logging data along latitudinal regional seismic profile of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Collected papers Voprosy geologo-geofizicheskikh issledovaniy Tatarstana i sopredel'nykh oblastey (Issues of geological and geophysical studies of
Tatarstan and neighboring regions), Proceedings of KSU, 1991, pp. 8798.

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G.S. Khamidullina, E.V. Utemov, A.G. Kharisov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Application of fractal dimensionwave field for seismiczone picking

Key words: fractal co-dimension, seismic section, seismic complex, chronostratic section, sequences.

The article discusses the use of the vertical derivative of the local dimension (Hurst exponent) on a small scale as a basis for fact-logical seismic-stratigraphic analysis and selection sequences. This article gives an example of the seismic profile located near arched structures North-Western strike formed on the joint portion of the central and Eastern parts of the board Melekess depression Volga-Uralanticlise. As a result of seismic-stratigraphical analysis the authors located ten sequences that span the sedimentation processes in time periods ranging from Givetian to Vereiskian time. Based on the studies we are concluded that the value of the local fractal dimension (Hurst exponent) of the wave field can be used for analysis and construction of seismic-stratigraphic chronostratic section.

References
1. Feder J., Fractals, Plenum Press, New York, 1988.
2. Turcotte D.L., Fractals and chaos in geology and geophysics, New York,
1997, 398 p.
3. Utemov E.V., Nekotorye aspekty ispol'zovaniya analiza fraktal'nykh svoystv geofizicheskikh dannykh pri ikh geologicheskoy interpretatsii (Some aspects of the analysis of the fractal properties of geophysical data for their geological interpretation), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1998, 11 p.
4. Mandelbrot B.B., The fractal geometry of nature, San Francisco, 1982,
460 p.
5. Vail P.R., Seismic stratigraphy interpretation using sequence stratigraphy interpretation procedure, Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy, Amer.
Assoc.Petrol.Geol. – Stud.Geol., 1987, V. 27, no. 1, pp. 110.
6. Nurgalieva N.G., Utemov E.V., Kosarev V.E., Prediction of non-anticlinal hydrocarbon traps based on correlation of fractal dimension the curves of
gamma ray log (In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal “Neftegazovoe
delo” The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2007, no. 1, pp.
URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Nurgalieva/Nurgalieva_1.pdf.
7. Nurgalieva N.G., Nurgaliev D.K., Spectral analysis of lithological parameter series in the interruption containing sections (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki, 2008, V. 150, no. 1, pp. 157167.
8. Geologiya Tatarstana: Stratigrafiya i tektonika (Geology of Tatarstan:
Stratigraphy and tectonics): edited by Burov B.V., Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2003, 403 p.

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R.V. Archipov, V.D. Skirda, M.M. Doroginitskiy (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Studying residual fluid in anisotropic natural core GR-201 and NAV-221 by NMR relaxometry

Key words: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), self-diffusion, relaxation, porous media.

Abstract

Indices FFI (free fluid index - the index of free fluids, which corresponds to the fraction of the liquid in the macropores and therefore quite easily retrievable) and BVI (bound volume index - index-related (residual) fluids - the proportion is difficult to extract the liquid in either the micropores in which the liquid is held by strong capillary forces, or in the closed pores) were calculated from the analysis of the relaxation data obtained in the case of complete saturation of the core samples with water/hexane. Comparative analysis of the relaxation characteristics of the cores before and after thermochemical treatment is given. Residual fluid and its influence on the spectrum shape of relaxation times are defined according to the relaxation data.
References
1. Maklakov A.I., Skirda V.D., Fatkullin N.F., Samodiffuziya v rastvorakh i rasplavakh polimerov (Self-diffusion in solutions and polymer melts), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1987, 224 p.
2. Archipov R.V., Romanova E.E., Sagidullin A.I., Skirda V.D., Internal magnetic field gradients as information source about porous media characteristics, Journal of Applied Magnetic Resonance, 2005, V. 29, no. 3, pp. 481-495.
3. Skirda V.D., Mutina A.R., Archipov R.V., Pulsed field gradient NMR study of the translation mobility in porous media: Restricted diffusion, internal magnetic fields, flows and molecular exchange (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskie nauki, 2005, V. 147, no. 2, pp. 68-80.
4. Arkhipov R.V., Skirda V.D., The nuclear magnetic resonance method in researches of structure of porous space in the conditions of a filtration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 64-67.
5. Kleinberg R.L. et al., Novel NMR apparatus for investigating an external
sample, J. Magn. Reson, 1992, V. 97, no. 3, pp. 466-485.
6. Freedman R. et al., A new NMR method of fluid characterization in reservoir rocks: Experimental confirmation and simulation results, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 1-4 October 2000, Book of theses, Dallas, USA 2000, 15 r.
7. Hürlimann M.D. et al., Diffusion-editing: New NMR measurement of saturation and pore geometry, Annual Meeting of the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts 2-5 June 2002, Book of theses, Oiso, Japan 2002, 4 r.
8. Sen P.N., Resistivity of partially saturated carbonate rocks with microporosity, Geophysics, 1997, V. 62, pr. 415-425.
9. Dunn K.J., LaTorraca G.A., Bergman D.J., Permeability relation with other
petrophysical parameters for periodic porous media, Geophysics, 1999, V. 64,
no. 2, pp. 470 - 478.
10. Katz A.J., Thompson A.H., Quantitative prediction of permeability in
porous rock, Phys. Rev. B, 1986, V. 34, no. 11, pp. 8179-8181.

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R.V. Archipov, V.D. Skirda (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.I. Sagidullin (Oxford Instruments Molecular Biotools Ltd., UK, Abingdon)
Studying anisotropic natural core GR-201 and NAV-221 by NMR

Key words: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), self-diffusion, relaxation, porous media

The paper presents results of the research core GR-201 and the NAV-221, characterized by spatial anisotropy. Translational mobility of the molecules diffusing in dependence not only on the diffusion time, but the orientation of the sample relative to the direction of the external magnetic field gradient is studied.
References
1. Archipov R.V., Romanova E.E., Sagidullin A.I., Skirda V.D., Internal magnetic field gradients as information source about porous media characteristics, Journal of Applied Magnetic Resonance, 2005, V. 29, no. 3, pp. 481–495.
2. Stejskal E.O., Tanner J.E., Self diffusion measurements: spin-echoes in presence of a time dependent field gradient, J. Chem. Phys., 1965, V. 42, no. 1, pp. 288292.
3. Song Y.-Q., Hürlimann M.D., Flaum C.J., A method for rapid characterization of diffusion, J. Magn. Reson, 2003, V.161, pp. 222-223.

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M.G. Khramchenkov, E.M. Khramchenkov, V.V. Petrukha (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The valuation of swelling rate of clayey rock

Key words: swelling, deformations, total load, compression experiments.

Theoretical basis for constructing models of swelling argillaceous rocks, including oil reservoirs, is the following representation of the thermodynamics of emerging clay osmotic pressure created by ions-compensators negative electric charge of clay particles. This charge is caused by heterovalent substitution of iron ions in the octahedral sites and silicon ions in tetrahedral sites. In equilibrium, the osmotic pressure is balanced by the external loadding pressure of the outer system. In the case when the system is not in equilibrium, we can assume that the rate of relaxation of the system to equilibrium is proportional to the difference between the inducement (osmotic pressure) and deterrent (external load) swelling factor.

References
1. Krinari G.A., Rakhmatullina Yu.Sh., Changes in mineral skeleton of oil reservoir in course of water flooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 56 – 59.
2. Shaydullin I.A., Krinari G.A., Displacement of oil-water contact in the sediments of the Bobrikovsky horizon of Tatarstan: reasons, mechanisms, and implications (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski KFU. Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 3, pp. 212-219.
3. Kul'chitskiy L.I., Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy formirovaniya svoystv glinistykh porod (Physico-chemical properties of the basis for the formation of clay soils), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 178 p.
4. Lazarenko E.K., Kurs mineralogii (The course of Mineralogy), Moscow:
Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1963, 559 p.
5. Yakobson A., Yavleniya tiksotropii v peremyatykh myagkikh glinakh
(Thixotropic phenomenon crumpled soft clays), In Inzhenerno-geologicheskie
svoystva glinistykh porod i protsessy v nikh (Engineering geological properties of clay rocks and processes in them), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1972, pp. 25 34.
6. Sorochan E.A., Stroitel'stvo sooruzheniy na nabukhayushchikh gruntakh
(Construction of facilities on the swelling soils), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1989, 312 p.

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E.A. Korolev, A.N. Kolchugin, V.P. Morozov, N.M. Nizamutdinov, N. V. Pronin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The reasons of low efficiency of oil extraction from reservoirs of the Vereyskian horizon at Akanskoye oilfield

Key words: Akanskoye oilfield, vereysky horizon, reservoirs, petrophysical properties, fluid coposition.

The authors researched oil reservoirs of Vereyskian horizon at Akanskoye oilfield. Oilfield is located on the east of the Melekess depression (the Tatarstan Republic). Two types of reservoir were identified: clastic and carbonate. Clastic type is presented by sandstones, and carbonate is presented by bioclastic, fine grained limestone. Geophysical data show that reservoirs are low productive, but in core samples they are characterized by regular, uniform oil saturation. By methods of optic-microscopic researches and nuclear magnetic resonance it was established that sandstones and limestones have a good petrophysical properties. Studying of composition of the water oil fluids, which are filling pore space of reservoirs are showed the high share of water and motionless hydrocarbons. In general, we consider low productive of Vereyskian reservoirs is result of oil oxidation processes, including content of authigenous dolomite and calcite as indicator of water-flooding processes. Obviously that extent of water-flooding in multilayer reservoirs is various. This cause low productivity some reservoirs.
References
1. Suetenkov V.S., Shulikova A.G., Features of the structure of oil fields of the Middle Carboniferous of Novoelhovskoe field (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1987, no. 2, pp. 54-56.
2. Krinari G.A., Eskina G.M., Kol'chugin A.N. et al., Lithology and mineralogy data as characteristic of identification of history and mechanisms of formations of oil deposits in carbonate rocks (In Russ.), Litosfera Lithosphere, 2013, no. 1, pp. 146-157.
3. Kolchugin A.N., Morozov V.P., Korolev E.A., Diagenesis of Carboniferous carbonate rocks reservoirs case study (Central part of Volga-Ural Basin), World Applied Sciences Journal, 2013, no. 24 (6), pp. 712-718.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


T.R. Zakirov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.I. Nikiforov (Institute of Mechanics and Engineering, Kazan Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, RF, Kazan)
Simulation of heat treating the oil collector using acid exposure on near-wellbore zone

Key words:mathematic modeling, thermal conductivity, acid, function distribution.

The study deals with the problem of thermal exposure on the oil reservoir using acidizing of near-wellbore zone. There is a comparison of the oil recovery factor in cases of conventional water flooding, water flooding with the injection of coolant, water flooding with acid exposure and mixed technology. The obtained results show that the joint exposure of heat and acid treatment is the most effective mode of the oil recovery.
References
1. Burzhe Zh., Surio P., Kombarnu M., Termicheskie metody povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Thermal EOR methods) translated from French, Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 422 p. Original
2. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi
plastov (Secondary and tertiary EOR methods), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985,
308 p.
3. Bulgakova G.T., Sharifullin A.R., Kharisov R.Ya. et al., Laboratory and theoretical researches of matrix acid-based carbonates processing (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2010, no. 5, pp. 26.
4. Bulgakova G.T., Kharisov R.Ya., Sharifullin A.R., Pestrikov A.V., Optimizing the acidizing operations of horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 102105.
5. Hoefner M.L., Fogler H.S., Pore evolution and channel formation during flow and reaction in porous media, AIChE Journal, 1988, V. 34, no. 1, pp. 45-54.
6. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v
prirodnykh plastakh (The movement of fluids and gases in natural reservoirs),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 207 p.
7. Zakirov T.R., Nikiforov A.I., Acid effect on multilayer oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Vychislitel'nye metody i programmirovanie, 2013, V. 14, no. 5057.
8. Kotyakhov F.I., Fizika neftyanykh i gazovykh kollektorov (Physics of oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 288 p.
9. Zakirov T.R., Nikiforov A.I., Modeling acid impact in water flooding oil reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2012, no. 6, pp. 6265.

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V.V. Emelyanov, I.G. Gazizov, A.D. Salikhov (Oil and Gas Production Department Prikamneft, RF, Elabuga), I.N. Plotnikova, F.F. Nosova, N.V. Pronin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The prospects for increasing of oil reserves in territory of the Prikamneft due to the discovery of new deposits in Kosvinsko-Radaevskih strata

Key words: Kama-Kinel Troughs System, oil, migration, clinoforms, non-anticline traps, Kosvinsky horizon, geochemical studies.

The article discusses the possibility of growth of oil reserves in existing fields on the late stage of development. Increase of the reserves is possible due to new oil deposits in Kosvinsky horizon of Lower Carboniferous in the south-eastern part of the North-Tatar arch. Based on the review and re-interpretation of geophysical data of the wells and geochemical studies of the oil from the Pervomayskoye and Komarovskoye oilfields prospects of the Kama-Kinel system troughs were studied. The article provides a preliminary assessment of the minimum reserves growth and economic efficiency calculation of changes and shifts of production facilities on 5 wells. The object of changes - production wells, which are fully developed oil deposits in the Middle Devonian Timan horizon. These wells should begin production of another new oil deposits in Kosvinsky horizon of the Lower Carboniferous.

References
1. Fortunatova N.K., Shvets-Teneta-Guriy A.G., Gumarov R.K. et al., Clinoform bodies in Paleozoic carbonate sections of Kama-Kinel trough system - new type of exploration oil objects in West Tatarstan (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2006, no. 1, pp. 2533.
2. Troepol'skiy V.I., Ellern S.S., Badamshin E.Z. et al., Geological history, structure, and oil content of the Kama-Kinel troughs in Tatarstan and methods of oil exploration in them (In Russ.), Collected papers “Geologiya i neftenosnost' Kamsko-Kinel'skikh progibov” (Geology and oil content of the Kama-Kinel troughs), Kazan', 1970, pp. 2548.
3. Larochkina I.A., Nenarokov S.Yu., Shikarova T.V., Prospects of oil content of Elkhovskiy horizon of Kama-Kinel trough system in Tatarstan (In Russ.), Collected papers Geologiya i osvoenie resursov nefti v Kamsko-Kinel'skoy sisteme progibov (Geology and development of oil resources in the Kama-Kinel trough system), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1991.
4. Kafichev V.G., Conditions of oil migration within the Tatar arch and
Melekess depression (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza The journal Oil and
Gas Geology, 1984, no. 8, pp. 1417.
5. Muslimov R.Kh., Postnikov A.V., Plotnikova I.N., The role of endogenous factors in the formation and distribution of oil and gas potential of sedimentary basins (on example Tatarstan) (In Russ.), Georesursy International Journal of Sciences Georesources, 2005, no. 1 (16), pp. 3739.
6. Plotnikova I.N., The modern renewal process of hydrocarbon reserves: hypotheses and facts (In Russ.), Georesursy International Journal of Sciences Georesources, 2004, no. 1, pp. 4041.
7. Plotnikova I.N., Pronin N.V., Nosova F.F., On the source of oil generation in Pashiysky horizon of Romashkinskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 1, pp. 3335.
8. Nosova F.F., Pronin N.V., Plotnikova I.N. et al., The complex approach to the geochemical research of oil and organic substance with the purpose of
planning of geological exploration work for oil and gas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 7, pp. 7275.
9. Plotnikova I.N., Salakhidinova G.T., Nosova F.F. et al., Geochemical criteria for detecting of the areas of the oil deposits replenishment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2014, no. 3, pp. 8487.
10. Kayukova G.P., Romanov G.V., Plotnikova I.N., Geochemical aspects of
the oil deposits replenishment process research (In Russ.), Georesursy International Journal of Sciences Georesources, 2012, V. 47, no. 5, pp. 3740.
11. Muslimov R.Kh., Glumov I.F., Plotnikova I.N. et al., Oil and gas fields - self-developing and constantly renewable objects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2004, Special issue, pp. 4349.
12. Muslimov R.Kh., Plotnikova I.N., About shale oil of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 1215.
13. Plotnikova I.N., New data of the present-day active fluid regime of fractured zones of crystalline basement and sedimentary cover in the eastern
part of Volga-Ural region, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 2008, no. 97, pp. 11311142.
14. Plotnikova I.N., Nonconventional hydrocarbon targets in the crystalline
basement, and the problem of the recent replenishment of hydrocarbon reserves, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 2006, no. 89, pp. 335338.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


M.V. Chertenkov, A.I. Chuiko, D.A.Mett, S.S.Sukhodanova (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Perm)
Determination of the relationship between the filtration parameters and seismic data on the example of the Lower Permian deposits Varandeyskoye field

Key words: hydrodynamic modeling, pressure transient test, seismic.

During the creation of geological and hydrodynamic models, the distribution of the parameter of permeability in the inter-well space is characterized by considerable uncertainty. Until now, due to poor knowledge of the filtration properties of the reservoir, most high conductivity areas allocated directly by increasing the permeability of the matrix by a certain amount, taken quite indicative and not having adequate justification. Nowadays the most promising method in terms of describing the distribution of permeability in geological and hydrodynamic models is search of depending between seismic attribute and filtration parameters.

References
1. Chertenkov M.V., Chuyko A.I., Mett D.A., Using well test data for detailed geological and hydrodynamic models (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 4850.
2. Khromova I.Yu., Migration of duplex waves as a method of mapping fractured zones of tectonic oenesis (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2008, no. 3, pp. 37-47.

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D.A. Glushenkov, A.V. Ekimenko, O.O. Nagibin, N.G. Glavnov, O.E. Kurmanov, Yu.G. Voronin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Risk minimization while drilling complex geological objects

Key words: conceptual geological modeling, facial analysis, interpretation of seismic data, connection of geological aspects with well test data.

In a complex reservoir during planning new drilling and well intervention at later stages of development of the field, it is necessary to apply an integrated approach to the study of geology aspects of reservoir: sedimentological core description, analysis of seismic, facies modeling, connection geological characterization of reservoir with production data. Conceptual geological modeling helps to make operational decision-making and minimize risks associated with geological uncertainties.
References
1. Kontorovich A.A., Surkov V.S., Trofimuk A.A. et al., Neftegazonosnye
basseyny i regiony Sibiri (Oil and gas basins and regions of Siberia), Part 2. Zapadno-Sibirskiy basseyn (West Siberian Basin), Novosibirsk, 1994, 201 p.
2. Leeder M.R., Sedimentology: Process and Product, 1982, 344 p.
3. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel – litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies -
lithologic oil and gas traps), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984. 258 s.
4. Reading H.G., Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy, London, England: Blackwell Science Ltd., 1996, 688 p.
5. Selley R.C., Ancient Sedimentary Environments, London: Chapman & Hall, 1978.
6. Chernova O.S., Litologo-fatsial'nyy i formatsionnyy analiz neftegazonosnykh tolshch (Litho-facies and formational analysis of oil and gas strata), Tomsk, 2008, 265 p.
7. Kurmanov O.E., Glavnov N.G., Balenko P.S. et al., Application of conceptual geological modeling in the development of oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 5861.
8. Pemberton S.G., Shanley K., Dolson J., Core Description Manual for Siliciclastic Cores, Tyuman, 2007.

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Karaseva T.V., Anikeenko O.M. (KamNIIKIGS JSC, RF, Perm), V.I. Gorbachev (NPC Nedra JSC, RF, Yaroslavl)
New data on the formation of oil and gas potential in the Western Urals area of folding

Key words: thrust zone, oil and gas potential, bitumen, source rock.

The main purpose of this paper is to study the processes of formation of oil and gas potential in the Ural thrusts by the example of the Arakaevskaya key 1 well area located in the Sverdlovsk region in the poorly studied Lower-Serginsky perspective oil and gas area of West-Ural folding zone. According to the results of a comprehensive study of core and geophysical investigations have revealed a complex structure of the well section, divided into three parts (autochthon, parautochthon and allochthon), no oil shows and the development of the gas in the allochthon. Throughout the studied sections revealed widespread bitumen, as oil degradation products, and at the bottom of parautochthonous presence destroyed oil deposit, which occur in the generation of the Upper Devonian source rocks. According to the results of 1D basin modeling using palinspastic reconstruction concluded that the identified gas content in the Lower-Middle Carboniferous allochthonous rocks caused by the generation of gases in the source rocks after development processes of thrust dislocations and possibly at the expense of the destruction of the oil deposit. Due to the fact that Arakaevskaya well is drilled in the frontal part of thrust we suggested the possibility of oil deposits conservation in other areas of the Lower-Serginsky perspective oil and gas area. The results can be used to assess the petroleum and gas potential of the zone of folding of the Sverdlovsk region and other regions.
References
1. Adams O.C., Oline W.F., Petroleum potential of South-Western Wyoming and adjacent areas, Symposium of Rocky mountain association of geologist, 1990, pp. 129–141.
2. Williams B., New California field added to list of United States giants, Oil and Gas J., 1984, V. 82, no. 5, pp. 134-136.
3. Anikeenko O.M., Transformation products of oil in the sections of the parametric wells (In Russ.), Collected papers “Geologiya v razvivayushchemsya mire” (Geology in the developing world), Proceedings of VI Scientific and Practical Conference of Students and Young Scientists with international participation, Perm': PGNIU, 2013, V. 1, pp. 207210.
4. Anikeenko O.M., Karaseva T.V., Khopta I.S., The results of the study the bitumen in the context of parametric well (In Russ.), Vestnik PGNIU, 2013, V. 2(19), pp. 79-86.
5. Sanfirova S.S, Karaseva T.V., Forms of occurrence the solid bitumen in the Silurian sediments of Kolvinskaya deep well as a reflection of the migration, accumulation and degradation of oil (In Russ.), Collected papers Rezul'taty
glubokogo i sverkhglubokogo bureniya, problemy neftegazonosnosti i
rudonosnosti (The results of the deep and ultra-deep drilling, oil and gas potential problems and ore-bearing), Perm': Publ. of KamNIIKIGS, 2000, pp. 8187.
6. Karaseva T.V., Gorbachev V.I., Titova G.I., Frik M.G., Isotope-geochemical criterions of the West Siberian deep deposits gas content (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 6, pp. 20-30.
7. Provorov M.V., Features of structure and petroleum potential of Upper Tournaisian paleoshelf northern and western regions of the Ural-Volga (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza The journal Oil and Gas Geology,1992, no. , pp. 21-28.
8. Melkishev O.A., Galkin V.I., Kozhevnikova E.E., Karaseva T.V., Prediction of zonal hydrocarbon potentials Devonian clastic sediments on the south of Perm Region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 4-8.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


I.T. Mischenko, K.A. Bravichev, A.N. Zagainov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Rf, Moscow)
Justification of cyclic flooding of reservoirs with supercollectors at passing of deformation processes

Key words: reservoir with supercollector, cyclic flooding, asymmetrical cycle, deformation processes, numerical researches.

The article presentsresults of numerical researches of oil recovery processes with cyclic flooding application for reservoirs with supercollectors. Estimation of influence of elastic deformations at net reservoir stress variation is carried out. It’s shown that elastic deformations lead to increasing of formation pressure decrease period duration, resulting in oil recovery increase and water-oil ratio decrease.

References
1. Mishchenko I.T., Bravichev K.A., Gubanov V.B., Acceptable limits of variation of effective pressure, excluding irreversible deformation of the system (In Russ.) Neft', gaz i biznes, 2009, no. 10, pp. 51-53.
2. Mishchenko I.T., Bravicheva T.B., Ermolaev A.I., Vybor sposoba ekspluatatsii skvazhin neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami (Selecting the method of well operation in oil fields with hard-to-recover reserves), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2005, 448 p.
3. Mishchenko I.T., Bravichev K.A., Zagaynov A.N., Improving of development efficiency of the porous fractured type carbonate reservoirs with low-permeability hydrophilic matrix (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 10, pp. 34-42.
4. Mishchenko I.T., Bravichev K.A., Zagaynov A.N., Laws of the porous fractured type carbonate reservoirs properties influencing on development efficiency

at water flooding (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 11, pp. 35-42.


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V.A.Baikov, R.Z. Zulkarniev, A.. Zorin, I.V. Fahretdinov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Waterflood control at Priobskoye multizone reservoir with dual injection equipment

Key words: geomechanics, strain-stress state, poroelastic, low permeable reservoirs, fracturing, injection wells, fracture initiated by injection.

Work is directed on the solution of the problems arising at joint operation of non-uniform layers on filtrational and capacitor properties in the course of flooding. The developed strategy of use of the equipment of dual copletion and the solved problem of design of this process allowed to increase success of application of technology at management of flooding of a multisheeted deposit of the Priobskoye field.

References
1. Baykov V.A., Usmanov T.S., Zul'karniev R.Z., Fakhretdinov I.V., Injection regulation
on the water injection wells of Priobskoe field with equipment for dual
injection (In Russ.), Proceedings of VII Scientific and Practical Conference“
Geologiya i razrabotka mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami”
(Geology and development of fields with hard to recover reserves), Gelendzhik, 18-21 sentyabrya 2012 g.
2. Fakhretdinov I.V., Management of flooding the multizone Priobskoe field
with equipment for dual injection (In Russ.), Proceedings of VII Regional'naya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya konferentsiya molodykh spetsialistov OOO RNUfaNIPIneft' (VII Regional scientific-technical conference of young specialists "RN-UfaNIPIneft"), Ufa, 21-22 marta 2013 g.
3. Frenkel' N.Z., Gidravlika (Hydraulics), Moscow: GEI Publ., 1956, 233 p.
4. Basniev K.S., Dmitriev N.M., Rozenberg G.D., Neftegazovaya gidromekhanika (Oil and gas hydromechanics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 208 p.

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A.V. Fomkin, A.M. Petrakov, A.R. Bench, R.Yu. Zhukov (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow) V.V. Vereshchagin (RUSVIETPETRO JV LLC, RF, Moscow)
Effect for method of changing fluid flow direction on the field with carbonate reservoir

Key words: carbonate reservoir, enhanced oil recovery, method of changing fluid flow direction,

The paper presents the test results for method of changing fluid flow direction on the field with carbonate reservoir. Incremental oil production on the trial field is 2.5 th. tonnes due to injection capacity redistribution in 4 injection wells.
References
1. Sharbatova I.N., Surguchev M.L., Tsiklicheskoe vozdeystvie na neodnorodnye neftyanye plasty (Cyclical impact on heterogeneous oil reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 120 p.
2. Kryanev D.Yu., Nestatsionarnoe zavodnenie. Metodika kriterial'noy otsenki vybora uchastkov vozdeystviya (Unsteady flooding. Methodology for criteria
estimation of selection the impact site), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2008,
208 p.
3. Suchkov B.M., Dobycha nefti iz karbonatnykh kollektorov (Oil production
from carbonate reservoirs), Moscow – Izhevsk, 2005, 688 p.
4. Bokserman A.A., Gavura V.E., Zheltov Yu.P. et al., Uprugo-kapillyarnyy tsiklicheskiy metod razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Elasto-capillary
cyclic method of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1968,
pp. 322.
5. Bocharov V.A., Surguchev M.L., Estimation of influence of changing the direction filtration flows on parameters of oil field development (In Russ.), Proceedings of VNII, 1974, V. 49, pp. 109-115.
6. Shul'ev Yu.V, Vinokhodov M.A., Kryanev D.Yu. et al., The use of the methods of improved oil recovery and address wells treatments at the fields of Slavneft-Megionneftegaz OAO (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2012, no. 1, pp. 64 66.

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A.P. Kondakov, S.V. Gusev, T.M. Surnova (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), V.R. Bayramov (Surgutneftegas OJSC, RF, Surgut)
The results of the application of technology to reduce water production of producing wells at low permeability reservoirs

Key words: flow diverting technologies, reservoir, oil recovery, selective isolation of water production , chemical effect, technical and economic efficiency.

Given are the results of the application of technology to reduce water production in producing wells of low permeability reservoirs of Surgutneftegas OJSC fields - the new trend of chemical stimulation. The optimal time to stop the well on the reaction after reduction water production is determined.


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E.O. Sazonov (Bashneft-Dobicha LLC, RF, Ufa), U.V. Zeigman (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Sensitivity model analysis under diverter technology conditions and uncertainties. Express method of efficiency estimation

Key words: hydrodynamic simulation, mathematical simulation, diverter technologies, polymers, efficiency prediction, express method, numerical experiment, correlations, recovery factor increase.

The article presents numerical experiment results within simulation of diverter technology application. They reflect influence of geological uncertainties factors and technological realization of this enhanced oil recovery method.On the initial step of decision making about advisability of diverter technology application would be optimally to have an express method allows estimating technological efficiency of operation under the minimal set of input data. Such express method was produced during analysis of numerical experiment results, empirical relationships were derived. They allow estimating a technological efficiency of this technology application. It depends on complex parameter that is function of heterogeneity of permeability, technological parameters of realization and properties of fluids.
References
1. Sazonov E.O., Hydrodynamic simulation of reservoir fluids filtration at
diverter technology conditions, Electronic scientific journal "Oil and Gas
Business", 2013, Issue 3, pp. 109–119, URL: http://www.ogbus.ru/eng/authors/
SazonovEO/SazonovEO_1e.pdf.
2. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Stepanova G.S., Matematicheskaya teoriya
eksperimenta v dobyche nefti i gaza (The mathematical theory of the experiment in the extraction of oil and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 228 p.
3. Box G., Behnken D., Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables, Technometrics, 1960, V. 2, pp. 455475.
4. Surguchev M.L., Gorbunov A.T., Zabrodin D.P. et al.,Metody izvlecheniya ostatochnoy nefti (Methods for extraction of residual oil), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 347 p.
5. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi
plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 309 p.
6. Nalimov V.V., Teoriya eksperimenta (The theory of the experiment),
Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1971, 208 p.
7. Basniev K.S., Kochina I.M., Maksimov V.M., Podzemnaya gidromekhanika (Underground fluid mechanics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993, 416 p.
8. Todd M., Longstaff W., The development, testing and application of a numerical simulator for predicting miscible flood performance, SPE 3484, 1972.

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M.R. Yakubov, D.N. Borisov (Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Research Center, RAS, RF, Kazan), Sh.G. Rakhimova, M.I. Amerkhanov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk)
Effect of solvent composition on heavy oil displacement while modeling

Key words: heavy oil production, solvent injection, asphaltene deposits.

The paper discusses the issues of modeling of heavy oil production processes. Results of laboratory modeling of oil displacement with a composite light-alkane based solvent in different in-situ conditions are presented. It has been shown that adjustment of solvent composition may preclude asphaltenes deposition, which, ultimately, increases heavy oil displacement efficiency.
References
1. Rassenfoss S., A tricky tradeoff - can adding a little solvent yield a lot more heavy crude?, JPT, 2012, no. 6, pp. 58-64.
2. Orr B., ES-SAGD: Past, Present, and Future, Paper SPE 129518, presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October 2009.
3. Boone T. et al., An integrated technology development plan for solventbased recovery of heavy oil, Paper SPE 150706, 2011.
4. Stark S., Increasing Cold Lake recovery by adapting steamflood principles
to a bitumen reservoir, Paper SPE 145052, 2011.
5. Gupta S., Gittins S., Semianalytical approach for estimating optimal solvent
use in solvent aided SAGD process, Paper SPE 146671, 2011.
6. Edmunds N., Moini B., Peterson J., Advanced solvent-additive processes by
genetic optimization, JCPT, 2010, V. 49, no. 9, pp. 34-41.
7. Ibatullin T.R., Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage enhancement using hydrocarbon solvents (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10, pp. 74-76.
8. Rakhimova Sh.G., Amerkhanov M.I., Khisamov P.C., The possibility of using petroleum solvents in steam stimulation technology (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2009, no. 2, pp. 101-103.

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S.K. Sokhoshko, Zh.M. Kolev (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, RF, Tyumen)
Oil inflow to a well with complicated wellbore trajectory in layered reservoir

Key words: oil well, wellbore trajectory, inflow, productivity.

Developing layered reservoirs the issue of inflow performance in well with complicated trajectory with account of layered payzone reservoirs which are divided by impervious layers is very important. The paper reviews the performance of inclined well with perforated casing and complicated trajectory in layered reservoir in stationary conditions. Inclined well with complicated wellbore trajectory in layered reservoir can penetrate reservoir a number of times. Calculation method for this case is shown and calculations are given for inflow profile and velocity profile along the well with account of geological and physical characteristics of payzones. Velocity profile of inflow is calculated along the well with account of mechanical cuts in well.

References
1. Borisov Yu.P., Pilatovskiy V.P., Tabakov V.P., Razrabotka neftyanykh
mestorozhdeniy gorizontal'nymi i mnogozaboynymi skvazhinami (Oil field development using horizontal and multilateral wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1964, 154 p.
2. Sokhoshko S.K., Kolev Zh.M., Inflow profile towards the slant borehole of an oil well on the stationary mode (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2014, no. 3, pp. 33-40.
3. Idel'chik I.E., Spravochnik po gidravlicheskim soprotivleniyam (Handbook
of hydraulic resistance): edited by Shteynberg M.O., Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1992, 672 p.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery


G.A. Tsvetkov, G.P. Khizhnyak (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), A.V. Shumilov (Permneftegeofizika OAO, RF, Perm), I.A. Chernykh (LUKOIL-PERM LLC, RF, Perm)
Estimation of accuracy characteristics of the control parameters of angular deviations of the tiltmeters initial orientation installation sites during hydrofracturing

Key words: measuring navigation heads, tiltmeter , well, coordinates inaccuracy and receiver orientation, accelerometer , orientation, spatial angular horizon and azimuth deviation, azimuth mismatch of installation sites for equipment of monitoring and diagnostics of cracks development.

The problem of creating an automated measurement system using instruments and inertial navigation means , allowing to increase the accuracy of measurement of the angular mismatch of installation sites for scientific equipment , taking into account the dynamic measurement error, is considered on the basis of the executed research , hydrofracturing parameters control analysis . Enhancing the functionality of the measuring system is achieved by an additional measurement of spatial angular deviations, the angle of azimuthal mismatch of installation sites. The estimation of the accuracy characteristics of spatial angular deviations of installation sites for equipment for well logging fr om calibration errors, installation inaccuracy, tilt angles, incorrect initial orientation of devices.

References
1. Aksel'rod S.M., Real-time mode geophysical monitoring while formation hydrofracturing:
capabilities, implementations and lim itations (Based on foreign
publications) (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2014, V. 4(238), pp. 84–116.
2. Sashurin A.D., Balek A.E., Improvement of field measurement of stress-deformed
state of the large massif parts (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo
issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 11, pp. 105120.
3. Lyskov I.A., Musikhin V.V., Kashnikov Yu.A., Monitoring of deformation
processes the earth's surface using radar interferometry methods (In Russ.),
Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2010, no. 5, pp. 1116.
4. Gubaydullin M.G., Kostin N.G., Glushkov D.V., GOHFER replicator applicatoin
for modelling of formation hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo
natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 2, pp. 5560.
5. Vasil'ev V.A., Verisokin A.E., Hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta.Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013, no. 6, pp. 101110.
6. Tsvetkov G.A., Yushkov I.R., Vyatkin O.I., Balueva N.Yu., Research of variation of geomagnetic axis giroinklinometra in azimut without taking into account changes of variations of the geomagnetic field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 3141.
7. Tsvetkov G.A., Automatic measuring system of control the dimensional angular deviations (In Russ.), Collected papers “Pribory i metody izmereniy” (Devices and methods of measurement), 2012, no. 2(5), pp. 5762.
8. Tsvetkov G.A., Egorov M.A., Estimation of accuracy characteristics of automated measuring systems of control the dimensional angular deviations
(In Russ.), Collected papers Pribory i metody izmereniy (Devices and methods of measurement), 2013, no. 1(6), pp. 6063.
9. Tsvetkov G.A., Balueva N.Yu., Kryukov S.A., Perfection of gyro-inclinometers accuracy during calibration at space orientation plants (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2010, no. 12, pp. 2829.
10. Tsvetkov G.A., Project of automated operated precision device of dimensional orientation of rate-gyro systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 3539.

11. US Patent no. 4378693, Deflection measuring system, April, 1983.


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Transport and oil preparation


S.V. Chernyshov, I.Z. Fakhretdinov, M.Yu. Tarasov, S.S. Ivanov (Giprotyumenneftegas OAO, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen)
Features of calculations of heat and material balances of the collection, treatment and transportation of oil and gas in the environment of HYSYS

Key words: mathematical modeling, the process of collection, treatment and transportation of oil and gas, HYSYS.
This article describes the experience of Giprotyumenneftegaz in HYSYS mathematical modeling of the collection, treatment and transportation of oil and gas, as well as the further development of simulation. It describes the problems encountered in modeling of the composition of the raw material input to the preparation of oil facilities - the definition of gas oil factor used in the calculation of material balances oil separation plants. The authors suggest possible solutions for these problems and select the most appropriate.

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A.A. Tarasenko, P.V. Chepur (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, RF, Tyumen); S.V. Chirkov (Giprotruboprovod OAO, RF, Moscow)
Study inherent stiffness of veltical steel cylindrical tanks

Key words: inherent stiffness, RVS, steel storage tank, ANSYS, differential settlements.

Thesis

There are cases when changing the properties of the reservoir base or complete removal of the segments of the base or foundation sludge tank occurs. This paper considers the limiting case - the complete absence of sector base, varying along a circular arc. We created finite element model of RVS-20000, which takes into account all the structural elements of metal tank, including support ring girder frame and roofing sheets. Various combinations of loading are analyzed. For maximum operational loads we considered unfavorable combination. Calculations are made for filling and emptying the tank. The values of the maximum possible deformation of the outer contour of the bottom sediment are evaluated in the development of non-uniform basis for this size tank. The parameters obtained intrinsic rigidity (deformability) of reservoirs can be used to develop new technical standards for tanks.
References
1. Tarasenko A.A., Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie krupnogabaritnykh
rezervuarov pri remontnykh rabotakh (Stress-strain state of large
tanks during repair works): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen', 1991.
2. Tarasenko A.A., Razrabotka nauchnykh osnov metodov remonta vertikal'nykh stal'nykh rezervuarov (Development of scientific basis of methods of vertical steel tanks repair): Thesis of doctor of technical science, Tyumen', 1999.
3. Khoperskiy G.G., Tarasenko A.A., Experimental study of the deformation of the tank wall at non-uniform subsidence of foundation (In Russ.), Izvestiya
vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 1997, no. 6, pp. 128.
4. Tarasenko A.A., Nikolaev N.V., Khoperskiy G.G., Sayapin M.V., Stress-strain state of the tank wall at non-uniform subsidence of foundation (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 1997, no. 3, pp. 75-79.
5. Khoperskiy G.G., Ovchar Z.N., Tarasenko A.A., Nikolaev N.V., Determination of non-uniform component of subsidence of tanks, causing non-axisymmetric deformation (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 1997, no. 5, pp. 80-85.
6. Tarasenko A.A., Sayapin M.V., The results of the statistical analysis of the
measurements of non-uniform subsidence of the outer contour of the bottom
of the vertical steel tanks (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 1999, no. 1,
pp. 52-56.
7. Tarasenko A.A., Chepur P.V., Chirkov S.V., The recearch of changes in stressstrain state vertical steel storage tanks with development of differential settlement outdoor circuit bottom(In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya = Fundamental research, 2013, no. 10(15), pp. 3409-3413, URL: www.rae.ru/fs/?section= content&op=show_article&article_id=10002344.
8. Chepur P.V., Tarasenko A.A., Tarasenko D.A., The stress-strained state research of steel storage tankwith a lip protrusioninfluence linked outer circuit
bottom differential settlement (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya =
Fundamental research, 2013, no. 10(15), pp. 3441-3445, URL:
www.rae.ru/fs/?section=content&op=show_article&article_id=10002350.
9. Tarasenko A.A., Chepur P.V., Chirkov S.V., Tarasenko D.A., Steel storage oil tank simulated using ansys workbench 14.5 (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya = Fundamental research, 2013, no. 10(15), pp. 3404-3408, URL: www.rae.ru/fs/?section=content&op=show_article&article_id=10002343.
10. Slepnev I.V., Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe uprugo-plasticheskoe sostoyanie stal'nykh vertikal'nykh tsilindricheskikh rezervuarov pri neravnomernykh osadkakh osnovaniya (Stress-strain elastic-plastic state of steel vertical cylindrical tanks with of non-uniform subsidence of foundation): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1988.

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N.S. Arbuzov, M.N. Fedoseyev (IMS Industries Ltd, RF, Moscow), M.V. Lurye (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Using gas hood for protection of oil-tanker terminals from the hydraulic shocks

Key words: oil-tanker terminal, tank, oil-loading pipeline, pressure, hydraulic shock, pressure surge, gas hood, safety valve, the protection system, mathematical simulation, method of characteristics.

Protection of oil-loading pipelines of the tanker-terminals against hydraulic pressure surge by using devices called ‘gas hood’ is studied in this paper. The gas hood is a residential dampener tank are usually 5-20 m3 (in the simplest case it is short segment of a pipe closed at one end) partially filled with an inert gas such as nitrogen. This device is intended to protect the oil-loading pipeline against the leaks of oil or oil product to the sea water occurring as result of a hydraulic shock arising in the event of an emergency when valves are fast closed down. The hood has a gas trap for an emergency discharge of the oil into the tank in the event of hydraulic shock. The advantage of these devices to other systems for the same purpose is that they avoid the installation of cumbersome open containers for receiving liquids and pumps for pumping it back into the pipeline. The volume of the gas hood and the initial gas pressure therein to reduce pressure in the oil-loading pipeline to an acceptable value is determined in this article. In particular, it is shown that the combined protection system, consisting from two gas hoods (on the quay and on the coast) has a higher efficiency with a smaller volume tank, installed at the quay.
References
1. Rakhmatullin Sh.I., Gumerov A.G., Verushin A.Yu., Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov - Problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2009, V. 2 (76), pp. 76–78.
2. Arbuzov N.S., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2011, no. 4, pp. 129131.
3. Aronovich G.V., Kartvelishvili N.A., Lyubimtsev Ya.K., Gidravlicheskiy udar i uravnitel'nye rezervuary (Water hammer and surge tanks), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1968, 248 p.
4. Streeter V.L., Wylie E.V., Hydraulic transients, NY: Ms Graw-Yill, 1967, 327 p.
5. Fox J.A., Hydraulic analysis of unsteady flow in pipe networks, The Macmillan Press, 1977, 234 p.
6. Polyanskaya L.V., Issledovanie nestatsionarnykh protsessov pri izmenenii
rezhima raboty nefteprovodov s tsentrobezhnymi nasosami (Study of unsteady
processes in oil pipeline has operational changes with centrifugal
pumps): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1965.
7. Lur'e M.V., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie protsessov truboprovodnogo
transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Mathematical modeling of processes
of oil and gas pipeline transport), Publ. of RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2012, 456 p.

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Information technology


P.V. Vinogradov, E.I. Sergeev, E.A. Sadreev, E.R. Nugumanov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Characteristic features of integrated model for Saratovsko-Berkutovskaya Group of fields

Key words: integrated model, modeling of development, optimization, joint calculation, multiphase flow.

The article is devoted to integrated modeling of field development. This approach was used for production forecast of Saratovsko-Berkutovskaya Group of gas-condensate fields. An integration tool with balancing and optimization algorithms connecting reservoir simulation, wells, network, and process facility models has been developed.

References
1. Morozov I.S., Kharitonov A.N., Kiselev M.N., Skorobogach M.A., Integrated modeling systems to improve management efficiency of field development (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' - GAS Industry of Russia, 2011, no. 10., pp.31-35.
2. Aksyutin O.E., Bereznyakov A.I., Kharitonov A.N. et al., Development of
management systrem for field development using modern information technologies (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' - GAS Industry of Russia, 2007, no. 11, pp. 23–28.

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Ecological and industrial safety


V.V. Seredin, A.O. Starodumova (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), M.V. Pushkareva (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), L.O. Leibovich (NIPPPPD Nedra Ltd., RF, Perm)
Experimental study of hydrocarbon pollution spread in geological environment

Key words: hydrocarbon pollution, subsoils, experimental research.

This research is devoted to the experimental study of hydrocarbon pollution spread in different kinds of subsoils. Hydrocarbon stress was created of the engine oil, subsoils are presented in small and medium size sand, silty fine clay, in air-dry state and of different humidity. It was founded that the depth of hydrocarbon contamination distribution in soils is determined by lithology. For all soils the maximum contamination occurs in the first day, and the maximum rate of penetration of hydrocarbons is observed in the first 4 hours after the emergency oil spill on the earth's surface. Clay with humidity above the limit rolling prevent the penetration of hydrocarbons in the soil and can act as oil resistance.
References
1. Krupoderov I.V., Moseyskin V.V., Modeling of hydrocarbon pollution of the geological environment in the Voronezh oil depot of "Voronezhnefteproduct" (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten', 2012, no. 11, pp. 273–281.
2. Ognyanik N.S., Paramonova N.K., Briks A.L. et al., Osnovy izucheniya zagryazneniya geologicheskoy sredy (Foundations for the study of pollution of the geological environment), Kiev: A.P.N. Publ., 2006, 278 s.
3. Khaustov A.P., Redina M.M., Forecast of anthropogenic risks of pollution of geological environment with petroleum products (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya neft' gaz, 2012, no. 6, pp. 1720.
4. Molokova N.V., Konnykh M.A., Modeling of the dynamics of spreading of
spilled hydrocarbons taking into account the gravity-capillary interaction,
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Mathematics & Physics, 2012, no. 5(4), pp. 462470.
5. Kachenov V.I., Seredin V.V., Karmanov S.V., On the effect of oil pollution on soil properties (In Russ.), Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Zapadnogo Urala, 2011, no. 14, pp. 164165.
6. Kuznetsov F.M., Kozlov A.P., Seredin V.V., Pimenova E.V., Rekul'tivatsiya neftezagryaznennykh pochv (Recultivation of oil-contaminated soils), Perm': Publ. of RIO PGTU, 2003, 198 p.
7. Seredin V.V., Issledovanie prostranstvennogo raspredeleniya uglevodorodov v pochvogruntakh i vodakh na territoriyakh, zagryaznennykh neft'yu i nefteproduktami (The study of the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons in soils and waters in areas contaminated by oil and oil products), Perm': Publ. of RIO PGTU, 1998, 110 p.
8. Seredin V.V., Matematicheskie metody v gidrogeologii i inzhenernoy geologii (Mathematical methods in hydrogeology and engineering geology),
Perm': Publ. of PSU, 2011, 120 p.
9. Seredin V.V., Kachenov V.I., Siteva O.S., Paglazova D.N., Regularities investigation of clay particles coagulation (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2013, no.10-14, pp. 31893193.

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Ya.M. Semchuk, E.E. Skyba (Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk)
Studies of the influence capillary rise of groundwater distribution of oil pollution in the soil zone of aeration

Key words: capillary rise, capillary fringe, the physical model, filtration and infiltration.

The article presents theoretical information about the formation of capillary phenomena in clays, loams and sands of the aeration zone. It is established that the height and speed of capillary rise varies and increases with the dispersion of the soil. Experiments on a physical model investigated the effect of capillary rise in soils on the distribution of oil pollution. It is established that capillary forces hold the oil in the soil area at a certain distance from the level of groundwater flow.
References
1. Kessel'man G.S., Makhmudbekov E.A., Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy
pri dobyche, transporte i khranenii nefti i gaza (Protecting the environment
during production, transport and storage of oil and gas), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1981, 256 p.
2. Sedenko M.V., Osnovy gidrogeologii i inzhenernoy geologi (Fundamentals of hydrogeology and engineering geology), 3rd ed., Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1979, 200 p.
3. Gorv L.M., Osnovi modelyuvannya v gdro ekolog (Fundamentals of hydraulic modeling in ecology), Kiev: Libd' Publ., 1996, 336 p.
4. Semchuk Ya.M.,Collected papers “Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologiy dobychi
i pererabotki kaliynykh rud Prikarpat'ya” (Improved technologies of extraction
and processing of potash ores of Carpathian region), Cherkasy: Publ.
of ONIITEKhIM, 1984, pp. 86 – 95.
5. Mironenko V.A., Shestakov V.N., Osnovy gidrogeomekhaniki (Fundamentals of hydrogeomechanics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 296 p.
6. Semchuk Ya.M., Govdyak R.M., Derzhavniy mzhvdomchiy naukovo
tekhnchniy zbrnik: Rozvdka rozrobka naftovikh gazovikh rodovishch: Burnnya naftovikh gazovikh sverdlovin, 2001, V.38, Part 2, pp. 151 157.
7. Lange O.K., Gidrogeologiya (Hydrogeology), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola
Publ., 1969, 367 p.

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