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MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW

338.45
A.M. Mastepanov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow; Institute of Energy Strategy, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Coronavirus and the resulting crisis: about the prospects of the world economy and energy

Keywords: coronavirus pandemic, coronavirus crisis, forecasts, global economy, energy consumption, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources (RES), oil, natural gas, coal, electric power industry, investment in the energy sector, diversification of the Russian economy, oil and gas chemistry, resource-innovative sustainable development

The article is devoted to changes in the global economy and energy that have occurred over the past year and a half. The main driving forces of these changes are shown - price and trade wars and sharply increased volatility in world commodity markets, the coronavirus pandemic accompanied by an economic recession and a collapse in energy prices. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the coronavirus crisis on the global economy and energy consumption is considered. Various estimates of the impact of this crisis on the development of economic processes and their evolution are shown, and it is concluded that in the conditions of high uncertainty, all these estimates deserve careful consideration. The main uncertainties related to the economic prospects, including the trajectory of the pandemic, the consequences and duration of measures to contain the spread of the virus, strategies for its re-emergence, as well as the form and speed of recovery of people as the pandemic recedes, as well as shape and speed of people recovering as the pandemic is removed, and the uncertainties associated with overcoming the crisis are identified. The analysis of existing forecasts for the development of the economic situation and energy consumption in the current year, made by the World Monetary Fund, the European Commission, the International Energy Agency, the OPEC Secretariat and other organizations is carried out. Special attention is paid to estimates and forecasts of demand for oil and petroleum products in conjunction/connection with the need to accelerate the transition to clean energy in order to mitigate the risks of climate change, successes in the development of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, and technological development in general. The forecast of investment in the energy sector of the global economy made by the IEA and the main changes in investment activity due to the crisis caused by the coronavirus are examined in detail. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the possible impact of this crisis on the energy sector of the Russian economy and on the prospects for the development of energy in Russia, especially its oil and gas industry. It is concluded that the global multi-level crisis should finally become the impetus that will force us to take real steps towards overcoming the dependence of the Russian economy on raw materials and forming an innovative economy based on high-tech industrial production. This crisis should become an additional reason for the country's leadership to take all possible measures to accelerate the diversification of the Russian economy, ensure the development of oil and gas chemistry and other industries related to deep processing of natural resources, and accelerate the transition to the rails of resource-innovative sustainable development.

References

1. Mastepanov A.M., Mirovaya energetika novye vyzovy (World Energy New challenges), Report at the Nice Club's annual forum Energy and Geopolitics, URL: http://www.iehei.org/Club_de_Nice/2010/MASTEPANOV_2010.pdf

2. Mastepanov A.M., The world at a break or a new reality: prospects for the development of the energy industry and its oil and gas sector (In Russ.), Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom, 2020, no. 5, pp. 9-10.

3. URL: https://rbc.us20.list-manage.cjm/track/click?u=9593212aae48ef980d8 bc6b57&d=a38263a3f4&e=9626405cf2

4. Global Energy Review 2020. The impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on global energy demand and CO2 emissions, IEA, April 2020, URL: https://webstore.iea.org/login?ReturnUrl=%2fdownload%2fdirect%2f2995

5. European Economic Forecast. Spring 2020, Institutional paper no. 125, May 2020, URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/business-economy-euro/economic-performance-and-forecasts/economic-forecast...

6. Europes moment: Repair and prepare for the next generation, URL: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1590732521013&uri=COM:2020:456:FIN

7. URL: https://www.ecfr.eu/article/commentary_the_coronavirus_a_geopolitical_earthquake?

8. Protivodeystvie krizisu: prioritetnye zadachi dlya mirovoy ekonomiki (Countering the Crisis: Priorities for the World Economy), URL: https://www.imf.org/ru/News/Articles/2020/04/07/sp040920-SMs2020-Curtain-Raiser

9. World Economic Outlook, April 2020: The Great Lockdown, URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/04/14/weo-april-2020

10. OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report April 2020; OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report May 2020, URL: https://momr.opec.org/pdf-download/

11. Oil Market Report, URL: https://www.iea.org/reports/oil-market- report-

12. Oil 2020. Analysis and forecast to 2025, IEA, 9 March 2020, 120 r., URL: https://www.iea.org/reports/oil-2020

13. World Energy Investment 2020. IEA, May 2020, 207 r., URL: https://webstore.iea.org/download/direct/3003

14. Mastepanov A.M., Energy transition as a new challenge for the global oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2019, no. 2, pp. 62-69.

15. Mastepanov A.M., Energy transition: what should the oil and gas world get ready for (In Russ.), Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom, 2019, no. 10(178), pp. 5-14.

16. Oganesyan T., Bol'shaya zelenaya sdelka ES (Big green EU deal), URL: https://stimul.online/articles/sreda/bolshaya-zelenaya-sdelka-es/

17. Sidorovich V., Evropeyskoe Zelenoe soglashenie i ego posledstviya dlya Rossii (The European Green Agreement and its implications for Russia), URL: https://renen.ru/the-european-green-deal-and-its-implications-for-russia/

18. Sadyrkin P., Zelenyy shans. Koronavirus menyaet mirovuyu ekonomiku. Kak Rossiya mozhet vyigrat' ot etogo? (Green chance. Coronavirus is changing the global economy. How can Russia benefit from this?), URL: https://lenta.ru/articles/2020/05/08/chance/

19. Kortunov A.V., Balans slabostey. Kak epidemiya izmenit otnosheniya Rossii i ES (Balance of weaknesses. How the epidemic will change relations between Russia and the EU), URL: https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81601?mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiWm1

20. Gabuev A., Umarov T., Ekstrennoe sblizhenie. Kak pandemiya usilit zavisimost' Rossii ot Kitaya (Emergency rapprochement. How a pandemic will increase Russia's dependence on China), URL: https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81633

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-6-12

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622.276+622.279.012
A.F. Andreev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.A. Sinelnikov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), G.N. Buliskeriya (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), S.I. Petrushkin (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), O.A. Sergeeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Technological strategy for implementing the concept of sustainable development of a vertically integrated oil company

Keywords: sustainable development, technological strategy, strategic management, integration, technological management

The need for more complete coordination of strategic and technological goals in the short and long term in the formation of strategic plans for sustainable development of vertically integrated oil companies has required the development of the concept of technological strategy. Scenario-based forecasting of issues related to the technological development of oil production shows that the new technological strategy should be based on the principles of introducing world-class technologies. A key area of the technological strategy should be a set of fundamentally new breakthrough technologies that are currently being tested in world oil and gas practice. The technological strategy should be perceived as a tool participating in the asset management of the company, making a significant contribution to the creation of its value, and as an integral part of the sustainable development strategy embodying the main technical, technological and organizational and managerial innovations. Economic goals related to the acquisition, operation and replacement of technology should be set taking into account the specifics of the technological strategy in each business segment of the company. Expanding the capabilities of strategic analysis by specifying the technological factor and incorporating the technological strategy into consideration allows management to receive answers to fundamental questions related to the implementation of the strategic goals of the company. Among them: whether the company, within the framework of the chosen technological strategy, can count on achieving a competitive advantage; to what extent the implementation of this technological strategy can ensure the strategic security and economic independence of the company in the long term; whether the scale and flexibility of the chosen technological strategy contribute to the solution of the strategic tasks of sustainable development.

The article discusses the problem of establishing a dynamic correspondence between strategic, innovative and technological activities in the formation of strategic plans in the context of the implementation of the company's sustainable development strategy. Among the main issues considered is the systematization of key factors for the sustainable development of the company, the concept of the company's technological strategy and the innovative aspect of its implementation.

References

1. Sinel'nikov A.A., Implementing strategic approach to management of oil and gas company technological development (In Russ.), Trudy Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina = Proceedings of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2013, no. 3, pp. 119137.

2. Sinel'nikov A.A., Strategic management of long-term plan of technological development of oil and gas companies (In Russ.), Trudy Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina = Proceedings of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2013, no. 4, pp. 116131.

3. Andreev A.F., Sinel'nikov A.A., Renkel' K.A., Lopovok G.B., Upravlenie innovatsionnoy deyatel'nost'yu i osnovy patentnogo dela v neftegazovom komplekse (Management of innovation and the basics of patenting in the oil and gas sector), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2013, 358 p.

4. Buliskeriya G.N., Sinel'nikov A.A., Management of innovation processes in oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2014, no. 3, pp. 2531.

5. Buliskeriya G.N., Otsenka i vybor organizatsionno-upravlencheskikh prioritetov tekhnologicheskogo obespecheniya neftegazovykh proektov (Assessment and selection of organizational and managerial priorities for technological support of oil and gas projects): thesis of candidat of economical science, Moscow, 2017.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-13-17

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338.45:622.276
I.Sh. Khasanov (MGIMO University, RF, Moscow; Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Applying the principles of profit sharing in innovative projects

Keywords: production sharing agreement, innovations, research and development

The article dwells on the principles of profitable production sharing incremented in production sharing agreements, i.e. profitable production sharing with regard to reaching a certain level of internal rate of return (IRR). The article suggests applying these principles to capital- intensive, expensive and high- risk research and development projects, as well as to innovative ones. The conducted analysis reveals that these principles can partially offset the risks of the company (investor) when implementing innovative projects. In addition, a multivariate profit sharing scale has been elaborated which is based on the changes of input parameter points. Both external (oil prices, the USD rate of exchange, etc.) and internal (the success of scientific research, the success of development and introduction, capital and exploitation expenses, innovative products cost, etc.) factors may appear as an input parameter. The scale implies that the investor's share of profit depends on achieving an internal rate of return of 20% (in this particular example). The use of a multi-variant profit sharing scale will allow the investor to hedge risks and ensure the reliability of achieving the innovative projects planned economic results. A significant advantage of such profit-sharing model is the possible receiving of additional revenue by the state during the periods of relative increase in the value of the input parameter (for example, oil prices). Additional revenue can be received from the very beginning of the project, taking into account the current situation for an innovative project, instead of being built upon the fixed rate of income tax.

References

1. Khasanov I.Sh., Ekonomicheskiy analiz rossiyskikh SRP i razrabotka skhemy mnogovariantnogo razdela produktsii mezhdu investorom i gosudarstvom (Economic analysis of Russian PSAs and development of a multivariate production sharing scheme between investor and state): thesis of candidate of economical science, Ufa, 2007.

2. Khasanov I.Sh., Investitsionnyy analiz printsipov razdela pribyl'noy produktsii (Investment analysis of the principles of profitable production sharing), Ufa: Neftegazovoe delo Publ., 2006, 22 p.

3. Khasanov I.Sh., Mardanov T.T., For fields developed under PSA conditions, improved tools for evaluating economic efficiency are needed (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2006, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/HasanovI/HasanovI_1.pdf

4. Khasanov I.Sh., Dunaev V.F., Bakhtizin R.N., Ismagilov A.F., Methodology for substantiating a multivariate production division in the development of oil fields under PSA conditions (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2003, no. 2, pp. 59.

5. Alparov R.M., Khasanov I.Sh., Meshkov I.A., Opportunities for strengthening methods of evaluating economic performance of the innovative projects (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 811.

6. Dunaev V.F., Belkina E.Yu., Khasanov I.Sh., Formirovanie sistemy upravleniya nauchno-issledovatel'skimi i opytno-konstruktorskimi rabotami neftegazovoy kompanii (Formation of a control system for research and development in the oil and gas company), Ufa: Mir Pechati Publ., 2015, 208 p.

7. Belkina E.Yu., Khasanov I.Sh., Polovinkin E.A., The methods of russian oil and gas companies of evaluating the effect of innovative projects (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2011, no. 4, pp. 7073.

8. Ismagilov A.F., Belkina E.Yu., Khasanov I.Sh., Bortsvadze L.N., A technique of an estimation of innovative projects efficiency in Rosneft NK OAO (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 12, pp. 1013.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-18-21

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338.45:622.276
A.V. Fomkin (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.M. Petrakov (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), E.N. Baikova (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), R.R. Rayanov (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), M.A. Kuznetsov (Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas LLC, RF, Noyabrsk), S.M. Ishkinov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Application of new methodical approaches to increasing the profitability of production of the base well stock in conditions of low oil prices on the world market

Keywords: system-targeted impact on the reservoir, profitability of production, cost of oil, net income, reduction of OPEX, energy consumption, leveling injection profile of wells, non-stationary waterflooding, physicochemical EOR methods, additional oil production, increase in recoverable reserves, reduction of associated water production, reduction of unproductive injection of water

In the context of the reduction in oil production under the OPEC agreement and the decrease in the cost of oil on the world market, possibly for a long-term period, one of the main strategic tasks of the Russian oil and gas industry is to increase the profitability of operating the base well stock in brownfields by reducing of oil production cost. Decrease in oil production, increase in water cut in well production, decrease in reservoir pressure require an increase in the cost of electric energy for lifting fluid, oil gathering and processing, and injection of produced water. The energy costs of the brownfields can be up to 5060 % of all OPEX for oil production. A promising direction for increasing profitability are low-cost measures aimed at decline volumes of produced water and reducing energy consumption with a simultaneous increase in additional oil production and residual recoverable reserves.

The article discusses the results of applying technologies to increase the efficiency of operating the base well stock using the example of PJSC Slavneft-Megionneftegaz. Slavneft-Megionneftegas PJSC has performed 2,364 well operations of leveling injection profile of wells using 27 different technologies under the principles of a systematic approach since 2006. At 338 injection well sites works on non-stationary waterflooding was carried out. The additional oil production after leveling injection profiles well treatment is more than one thousand tons per well, the percentage of success of these works is about 90%.The cumulative additional oil production as of March 1, 2020 amounted to 2.7 mln tons, the decrease in produced water - 14.1 mln tons, unproductive injection of water decreased by 20.4 mln m3; the accumulated net income of the subsoil user exceeded 4.5 bln rubles.

According to VNIIneft, in the current conditions of OPEC oil production decline and low oil prices, the cost of additional oil production from the leveling injection profiles well treatment is about $ 2.12.5 per barrel, which is about 2.7 times lower than the cost of basic production without this works.The proposed approaches have great relevance, high resistance to risk factors, cost-effective and have great potential for further replication in the Western Siberias fields and the whole of Russia with aim to ensure financial stability in a worsening macroeconomic conditions.

References

1. Vadimova E., Cunning, taxes and calculation methods: what is behind the figures for production costs in IPO Saudi Aramco? (In Russ.), Neft' i kapital, 2019, URL: https://oilcapital.ru/article/general/15-11-2019/

2. URL: https://ria.ru/20171025/1507529919.html

3. URL: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/7998817

4. URL: https://1prime.ru/energy/20191113/830544350.html

5. URL: http://www.energovector.com/strategy-kak-elektrizuetsya-neft.html

6. Ivanovskiy V.N., Energy of oil production: the main directions of energy consumption optimization (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2011, no. 6.

7. Khavkin A.Ya., Sorokin A.V., Energy assessment of oil production intensification methods (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo=Oil Industry, 1999, no. 6, pp. 2425.

8. Vinogradova O., Expertise (In Russ.), Neftyanaya vertikal', 1998, no. 78, pp. 4243.

9. Patent no. 2513787 RF, Method for oil deposit development based on system address action, Inventors: Krjanev D.Ju., Zhdanov S.A., Petrakov A.M.

10. RD 39-0147035-254-88R, Rukovodstvo po primeneniyu sistemnoy tekhnologii vozdeystviya na neftyanye plasty mestorozhdeniy Glavtyumenneftegaza (Guidance on the application of systemic technology for influencing oil strata of Glavtyumenneftegaz fields), Moscow Tyumen - Nizhnevartovsk, VNII, 1988, 236 p.

11. Certificate of the Russian Federation on state registration of a computer program no. 2019660578, PC SVP.

12. Fomkin A.V., Petrakov A.M., Rayanov R.R. et al., Software for the system technology of reservoir stimulation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 3, pp. 102106.

13. 10 let effektivnogo sotrudnichestva nauki i proizvodstva v sfere uvelicheniya nefteotdachi. Perspektivy novogo urovnya otraslevogo vzaimodeystviya (10 years of effective cooperation between science and production in the field of enhanced oil recovery. Prospects for a new level of industry interaction), Proceedings of XVIII scientific and practical conference of deposits with hard-to-recover reserves, Tyumen, 1820 of September 2018, Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2018, 23 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-22-26

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

551.35.001.5
M.A. Cherenkova (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC, RF, Moscow), N.A. Malyshev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Lower Cretaceous shelf-edge delta as a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in the Barents Sea basin

Keywords: Arctic shelf, the Barents Sea, terrigenous sediments (siliciclastic sedimentary rocks), facies analysis, Lower Cretaceous, sequence, sedimentation model, shelf-edge delta

In 2019, RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC, a subsidiary of Rosneft Oil Company, carried out a regional project on Cretaceous deposits (structural and depositional environment reconstruction) in the Russian territory of the Barents Sea in order to explore new potential objects and increase the resource base at Rosneft. The algorithm of the studies included the interpretation of seismic data, the analysis of well data and outcrops of the islands within the Barents Sea, the identification of typical seismic facies and their depositional interpretation, the choice of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction intervals, the analysis of thickness and seismic facies maps and finally, facies-palaeogeographic reconstructions. Sequence stratigraphy was used as the main interpretation method. Thus sequence boundaries and maximum flooding surfaces were justified and correlated as a chronostratigraphic framework. As a result, seven sequences were identified in the Lower Cretaceous interval: five sequences in the Neocomian interval (approximately the third order) and 2 sequences in the Aptian-Albian interval (2 orders). Mapping was carried out at two levels: combined LST + TST and HST.

One of the most interesting results of the study is the recognition and mapping of stepped-dipping steeply falling clinoform bodies associated with forced regression in three Neocomian sequences. These bodies were interpreted as deposits of deltas of shelf edges. According to the literature data, deposits of a similar genesis are characterized by a high content of sand material and have good reservoir properties.

The results of this study can significantly reduce the risks associated with the reservoir properties for the objects within the zone of distribution of these deposits.

References

1. Seldal J., Lower Cretaceous: the next target for oil exploration in the Barents Sea, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 2005, V. 6, pp. 231240.

2. Zhuravlev V.A., Korago E.A., Kostin D.A. et al., Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1 000 000 (State geological map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1,000,000), Seriya Severo-Karsko-Barentsevomorskaya. List R-39,40 o. Kolguev proliv Karskie Vorota. Ob"yasnitel'naya zapiska (Series North-Kara-Barents Sea. Sheet R-39.40 - Kolguev Island - Kara Gate. Explanatory letter), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Kartograficheskaya fabrika VSEGEI, 2014, 405 p.

3. Burguto A.G., Zhuravlev V.A., Zavarzina G.A. et al., Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State geological map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1,000,000), Ser. Severo-Karsko-Barentsevomorskaya. List S-36, 37. Barentsevo more (zap. i tsentr. chasti). Ob"yasnitel'naya zapiska (Series North-Kara-Barents Sea. Sheet S-36, 37. Barents Sea (western and central parts). Explanatory letter), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Kartograficheskaya fabrika VSEGEI, 2016, 144 p.

4. Cherkesov O.V., Burdykina M.D., O stratifikatsii mezozoya Novoy Zemli po nakhodkam pereotlozhennoy fauny (On the stratification of the Mesozoic of Novaya Zemlya based on finds of redeposited fauna), In: Paleontologicheskaya osnova stratigraficheskikh skhem paleozoya i mezozoya ostrovov Sovetskoy Arktiki (The paleontological basis of the stratigraphic patterns of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic islands of the Soviet Arctic), Leningrad: Publ. of NIIGA, 1981, pp. 8599.

5. Mordasova A.V., Usloviya formirovaniya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti verkhneyursko-nizhnemelovykh otlozheniy Barentsevomorskogo shel'fa (Formation conditions and oil and gas prospects of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits of the Barents Sea shelf): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2018.

6. Nikishin A., Petrov E., Cloetingh S. et al., Geological structure and history of the Arctic Ocean based on new geophysical data: Implications for palaeoenviroment and palaeoclimate. Part 2. Mesozoic to Cenozoic geological evolution, Earth-Science Reviews, 2019, DOI: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.103034.

7. Kairanov B., Escalona A., Mordasova A. et al., Lower Cretaceous tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Northcentral Barents Sea, Journal of Geodynamics, 2018, pp. 183198, DOI: 10.1016/j.jog.2018.02.009.

8. Posamentier H.W., Allen G.P., James D.P., Tesson M., Forced regressions in a sequence stratigraphic framework: concepts, examples and exploration significance, AAPG Bull., 1992, v. 76, DOI:10.1306/BDFF8AA6-1718-11D7-8645000102C1865D.

9. Gurari F.G., Stroenie i usloviya obrazovaniya klinoform neokoma Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity (istoriya stanovleniya predstavleniy) (The structure and formation conditions of the Neocom clinoforms of the West Siberian Plate (history of the formation of representations)), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 2003, 141 p.

10. Nezhdanov A.A., Seysmogeologicheskiy analiz neftegazonosnosti otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri dlya tseley prognoza i kartirovaniya neantiklinal'nykh lovushek i zalezhey UV (Seismogeological analysis of the oil and gas potential of sediments in Western Siberia for the forecast and mapping of non-anticlinal traps and hydrocarbon deposits): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Tyumen', 2004.

11. Porebski S., Steel R., Shelf-margin deltas: their stratigraphic significance and relation to deep water sands, Earth-Science Reviews, 2003, v. 62, pp. 283326, DOI: 10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00161-7.

12. Posamentier H.W., Morris W.R. Aspects of the stratal architecture of forced regressive deposits, In: Sedimentary responses to forced regressions: edited by Hunt D., Gawthorpe R.L., Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 2000, V. 172, pp. 19 46.

13. Kolla V., Biondi P., Long B., Fillon R., Sequence stratigraphy and architecture of the Late Pleistocene Lagniappe delta complex, northeast Gulf of Mexico, In: Sedimentary responses to forced regressions: edited by Hunt D., Gawthorpe R.L., Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., 2000, V. 172, pp. 291327.

14. Aksu A.E., Piper D.J.W., Progradation of Late Quaternary Gediz delta, Turkey, Mar. Geol., 1983, V. 54, pp. 125.

15. Tesson M., Posamentier H.W., Gensous B., Stratigraphic organization of Late Pleistocene deposits of the western part of the Golfe du Lion shelf (Langedoc shelf), western Mediterranean Sea, using high-resolution seismic and core data, AAPG Bull., 2000, V. 84, pp. 119150.

16. McMaster R.L., de Boer J., Ashraf A., Magnetic and seismic reflection studies on continental shelf off Portuguese Guinea, Guinea, and Sierra Leone, West Africa, AAPG Bull., 1970, V. 54, pp. 158167.

17. Pegler E.A., Mid- to Late Quaternary environments and stratigraphy of the southern Sierra Leone shelf, West Africa, J. Geol. Soc. London., 1999, V. 156, pp. 977990.

18. Nemec W., Steel R.J., Gjelberg J. et al., Anatomy of collapsed and re-established delta front in Lower Cretaceous of eastern Spitsbergen: gravitational sliding and sedimentation processes, AAPG Bull., 1988, V. 72, pp. 454476.

19. Steel R.J., Crabaugh J., Schellpeper M. et al., Deltas versus rivers on the shelf edge: their relative contributions to the growth of shelf margins and basin-floor fans (Barremian and Eocene, Spitsbergen), Proceedings of GCSSEPM Foundation 20th Ann. Res. Conf., Deepwater Reservoirs of the World, Houston, 2000, pp. 9811000.

20. Simonova V.A., Karyakin Yu.V., Kotlyarova A.V., Physical and Chemical Conditions of Basaltic Magmatism at the Franz Josef Land Archipelago (In Russ.), Geokhimiya = Geochemistry International, 2019, V. 64, no. 7, pp. 700725.

21. Abashev V.V., Metelkin D.V., Vernikovskiy V.A. et al., Novye dannye o vozraste bazal'tovogo magmatizma arkhipelaga Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa (New data on the age of basaltic magmatism of the Franz Josef Land archipelago), Proceedings of 51th Tectonic meeting Problemy tektoniki kontinentov i okeanov (Problems of tectonics of continents and oceans), Part 1, Moscow, 2019, pp. 38.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-28-33

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550.8.072
T.Yu. Alferova (IGIRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), R.V. Peisakhov (IGIRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), A.R. Minyazeva (IGIRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), O.V. Khusaeva (IGIRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), E.Yu. Arkhipova (IGIRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Khramtsova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), T.E. Topalova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Snokhin (Kynsko-Chaselskoye Neftegaz LLC, RF, Tyumen), R.R. Shakirov (Kynsko-Chaselskoye Neftegaz LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Facies analysis of the Pokur formation around Novo-Chaselskoye and Zapadno-Chaselskoye fields

Keywords: Pokur formation, facies, facies analysis, reservoir properties, seismic facies analysis

This paper describes the facies modeling results of the PK1 formation on the Novo-Chaselskoye and the Zapadno-Chaselskoye fields located in the north of Western Siberia. The target object (PK1 formation) is characterized by extremely high lateral and vertical heterogeneity, unstable properties and lithological variability. All these structural features of the object are due to its polygenic composition. According to regional data, the accumulation of the PK1 formation occurred within the coastal accumulative plain, periodically flooded by the sea. Four sediment parasequences were defined in the PK1 formation based on facial core analysis, log data interpretation and seismic: continental sediments (PK14), transition zone sediments (PK13, PK12) and coastal marine sediments (PK11). 2D facies maps were constructed for each parasequence. Relations between permeability and porosity were defined for each facies group, forecast maps of reservoir prospective zones were constructed. It was defined that sand sediments of river channels (PK14), tidal channels (PK13, PK12) and prefrontal beach areas (PK11) have the best reservoir properties. At the bottom of the PK1 formation there are river channel and tidal channel sediments which have the highest permeability. This factor can be one of the reasons of the early water breakthrough during the production drilling in the superimposed channel zones. Final results of this work let us determine the optimal wells positions to achieve planned production levels and reduce risks of the early water breakthrough.

References

1. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies - lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.

2. Zhemchugova V.A., Prakticheskoe primenenie rezervuarnoy sedimentologii pri modelirovanii uglevodorodnykh sistem (The practical application of reservoir sedimentology in the modeling of hydrocarbon systems), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2014, 344 p.

3. Alekseev V.P., Litologo-fatsial'nyy analiz (Lithofacial analysis), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of USMA, 2002, 147 p.

4. Zhemchugova V.A., Berbenev M.O., Naumchev Yu.V., New seismic technologies for better field exploration (Case study of upper cretaceous reservoirs in West Siberia) (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2015, no. 3, pp. 8088.

5. Ol'neva, T.V. Zhukovskaya E.A., Seismic facies analysis range of possibilities for the study of paleo fluvial systems (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2016, no. 2, pp. 29.

6. Kontorovich A.E., Ershov S.V., Kazanenkov V.A. et al., Cretaceous paleogeography of the West Siberian sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 2014, V. 55, no. 56, pp. 745776.

7. Nedolivko N.M., Perevertaylo T.G., Barkalova A.M., Genetic features and depositional environment of the Upper Pokur Formation in the southeast of the Pur-Taz interstream area (In Russ.), Akademicheskiy zhurnal Zapadnoy Sibiri, 2015, V. 11, no. 1(56), pp. 9195.

8. Berbenev M.O., Osobennosti stroeniya i uglevodorodnaya produktivnost' otlozheniy pokurskoy svity na Russko-Chasel'skom megavale (Zapadnaya Sibir') (Structural features and hydrocarbon productivity of deposits of the Pokur formation at the Russo-Chaselsky megaval (Western Siberia)), In: Osadochnye basseyny, sedimentatsionnye i postsedimentatsionnye protsessy v geologicheskoy istorii (Sedimentary basins: sediment and post-sediment processes in geological history), 2013, V. I, pp. 8589.

9. Zunde D.A., Popov I.P., Some methodology applied for construction of sequence-stratigraphic model of Pokur suite deposits (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 5459.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-34-39

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552.12(470.53)
.V. Garshina (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), D.. azakov (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), I.L. Nekrasova (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), P.. Khvoshchin (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), .. Predein (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), .P. azymov (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), V.. Zhdanov (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), B.. Osovetsky (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), G.V. nesev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Application of X-ray tomography method for estimation of drilling agents influence on sedimentary rocks in the process of borehole drilling and completion

Keywords: X-ray tomography, fracture, porosity, experiments, drilling agents, void space maps

The results of experimental studies on the influence of drilling fluids on clay rocks which are unstable in the process of borehole drilling and other drilling agents on the sandy rocks for estimation of the changes in void space of collectors are presented. The experiments are executed with the core samples which are placed in drilling agents and stand there in definite time which give the opportunity to model the real processes of their influence on the rocks with high fracture or porosity. The preliminary estimation of the drilling agents influence on the rock void space is produced on the base of visual comparison of X-ray tomography imaginations of experimental samples before and after the agent influence. The quantitative estimation is carried out with application of the original methods of X-ray tomography data processing, with help of which the size distribution of fissures and pores is calculated, as well as the maps of volume fracture and porosity of samples are constructed. Under modeling the processes for clay covers two drilling fluids are used with different content of mineral salts. As to the influence of drilling agents on porosity space of sandy collector there are successively used drilling fluid, stimulation of afflux, and processing by acid composition. The getting data give the opportunity to produce the proved calculation of microcolmatant fractional composition for drilling fluids, to value its inhibiting properties, and to accept the reliable decisions on the use of acid compositions.

References

1. Abrosimov A.A., Razrabotka metodik opredeleniya fil'tratsionno-emkostnykh svoystv i ostatochnoy vodonasyshchennosti gornykh porod po dannym rentgenovskoy tomografii i chislennogo modelirovaniya (Development of the methodology for definition of filtration and capacity properties and residual water-saturation of rocks with application of X-ray tomography and numerical modeling): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2017.

2. Zhukovskaya E.A., Lopushnyak Yu.M., Application of X-ray tomography for investigation of terrigenous and carbonate collectors (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 2008, no. 1, pp. 2527.

3. Eremenko N.M., Murav'eva Yu.A., Application of the X-ray microtomography for porosity determination in borehole core (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 3, pp. 112.

4. Nekrasova I.L., Kazymov K.P., Predein A.A. et al., Change of the composition and texture of terrigenious rocks under the influence of drilling fluids (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2017, no. 6, pp. 3743.

5. Shaldybin M.V., Lopushnyak Yu.M., Filimonov S.Yu., Skripkin A.G., Vozmozhnosti komp'yuternoy tomografii kerna dlya prognoza kollektorskikh svoystv osadochnykh gornykh porod (The opportunities of core X-ray tomography for prognosis of collector properties of sedimentary rocks), In: Osadochnye basseyny, sedimentatsionnye i postsedimentatsionnye protsessy v geologicheskoy istorii (Sedimentary basins: sediment and post-sediment processes in geological history), 2013, V. III, pp. 270273.

6. Van Geet M., Swennen R., Wevers M., Quantitative analysis of reservoir rocks by microfocus X-ray computerized tomography, Sedimentary Geology, 2000, V. 132, no. 12, pp. 2536.

7. Avetisyan N.G., Vybor tipa burovogo rastvora dlya bureniya v neustoychivykh porodakh (The choice of drilling fluid type for drilling in unstable rocks), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1983, 31 p.

8. Gabuzov G.G., The estimation of influence of drilling fluid properties on stability of clay rocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1983, no. 9, pp. 3436.

9. Ivanov M.K., Burlin Yu.K., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Petrofizicheskie metody issledovaniya kernovogo materiala (Terrigennye otlozheniya) (Petrophisical methods of sore material study (Terrigenous deposits), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2008, 112 p.

10. Osipov V.I.,Sokolov V.N., Eremeev V.V., Glinistye pokryshki neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Clay covers of oil and gas deposits), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2001, 238 p.

11. Abrams A., Mud design to minimize rock impairment due to particle invasion, JPT, 1977, no. 6, pp. 586592.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-40-44

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.1/.4
T.M. Bondarenko (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow; Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), D.A. Mett (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), V.D. Nemova (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), G.A. Usachev (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), E.Yu. Popov (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), A.N. Cheremisin (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow)
Laboratory investigation of air injection in kerogen-bearing rocks. Part 1: Development of combustion front control methods

Keywords: kerogen-bearing rocks, combustion tube, air injection, combustion front, synthetic oil

High-pressure combustion tube test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of air injection in terms of hydrocarbons generation from kerogen bearing rocks and to compare combustion front quenching techniques. The test consisted of several stages including air injection, stop of air injection, reigniting and quenching of combustion front with nitrogen. As a result, temperature profiles along the tube were obtained and it was shown that the temperature of 200C is sufficient for effective and stable high-temperature oxidation of absorbed hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes and kerogen. Successful reigniting indicates a high probability of igniting after the air injection shutdown due to various reasons, including technological. The maximum temperature reached in the model was 920C. The combustion front propagated faster in the zones packed with consolidated core samples, simulating the fracture or the permeable channels. It can be explained by the breakthrough of the combustion front through the permeable zones. At the same time, combustion in areas with consolidated samples continued at a slower rate. The consolidated sample and the crushed rock burn at different rates, but the peak temperatures are the same. Two methods of combustion front quenching were compared, namely air injection shutdown and nitrogen purge. When the air injection stopped, the core model cooled down faster than during nitrogen purge. It can be explained by the displacement of the trapped oxygen in the model by injected nitrogen, which led to the continuation of oxidation reactions until all oxygen consumed by oxidation reactions. In the case of air injection shut down oxygen was observed in evolved gases. Evolved gas composition was determined, which can serve as "in-situ thermometer" of the processes, and indicator of what lithologic types of rocks affected by the combustion front.

References

1. Kalmykov G.A., Stroenie bazhenovskogo neftegazonosnogo kompleksa kak osnova prognoza differentsirovannoy nefteproduktivnosti (The structure of the Bazhenov oil and gas bearing complex as the basis for the forecast of differentiated oil production): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2016.

2. Jacobs T., Shale EOR delivers, so why wont the sector go big?, JPT Digital Editor, 2019, V. 71, no. 5, https://doi.org/10.2118/0519-0037-JPT.

3. Secure fuels from domestic resources: Profiles of companies engaged in domestic oil shale and tar sands resource and technology development, 2011, URL: https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/SecureFuelsReport2011.pdf.

4. Bokserman A.A., Grayfer V.I., Kokorev V.I., Chubanov O.V., Thermogas recovery method (In Russ.), Interval, 2008, no. 7, pp. 26-33.

5. Moore R.G., Mehta S.A., Ursenbach M.G., A guide to high pressure air injection (HPAI) based oil recovery, SPE-75207-MS, 2002,

 https://doi.org/10.2523/75207-MS

6. Gutierrez D., Moore R.G., Ursenbach M.G., Mehta S.A., The ABCs of in situ combustion simulations: From laboratory experiments to the field scale, SPE-148754-MS, 2011, https://doi.org/10.2118/148754-MS.

7. Kök M. V., Guner G., Bagc S., Application of EOR techniques for oil shale fields (in-situ combustion approach), Oil Shale, 2008, V. 25, pp. 217225. https://doi.org/10.3176/oil.2008.2.04.

8. Bondarenko T.M. et al., Laboratory modeling of high-pressure air injection in oil fields of Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 3, pp. 3439.

9. Nikitina E.A., Tolokonskiy S.I., Shchekoldin K.A., Analysis of laboratory studies and field test results for thermal and gas EOR method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2018, no. 9, pp. 6267.


10. Bondarenko T., Evaluation of high-pressure air injection potential for in-situ synthetic oil generation from oil shale: Bazhenov formation: Ph.D Thesis, 2018.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-46-50

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622.276.43
A.Kh. Shakhverdiev (Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University, RF, Moscow), S.V. Arefiev (LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym), A.V. Denisov (Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University, RF, Moscow), R.R. Yunusov (LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym)
Method for restoring the optimal mode of operation of the reservoir well system, taking into account the instability of the displacement front

Keywords: dynamics of non-stationary flooding, instability of the displacement front, growth models, optimality criteria, stagnant zones, well interference, pressure characteristic of the pump

Waterflooding practice shows the negative consequences, referred to by experts as viscous instability of the displacement front, finger-shaped displacement front, premature water breakthrough, fractal geometry of the displacement front and other versions, including those related to the instability of the displacement front. All these phenomena eventually lead to a violation of the reservoir pressure maintenance well optimization pumping equipment control. Therefore, it is important to substantiate the physical mechanism of the formation and advance of the displacement front and the early forecast of growth or faster rate of unstable movement of the water phase in the flow at certain sites and stages of the dynamic process of non-stationary waterflooding.

The article presents fragments of a scientific and methodological system approach that includes a number of independent tasks that are organically combined with non-stationary flooding in conditions of instability of the displacement front. Among the necessary and priority tasks determination of stagnant and poorly drained zones of the reservoir is considered by calculating the coefficients of normalized specific production rates for oil, water and liquid. Distribution of the producing well stock by technological groups for oil and water recovery according to the Pareto principle is analyzed. The mutual interference of wells of the producing and injection stock is determined by establishing a statistical and causal relationship. It is discussed the optimization of the system reservoir well subsurface equipment by monitoring and the control operating practices of production and injection wells based on calculations of the dynamics of the discriminant criterion for oil and water growth models. Regulation of pressure characteristics of pumps in accordance with the requirements of the optimization conditions of the system reservoir well subsurface equipment is considered.

It is shown the application of the obtained criteria and decisive rules in the form of a program for control operating practices of the production and injection well stock and a program of geological and technical measures to involve in the development of stagnant and poorly drained zones and increase the productivity of marginal wells. The article considers as an example an element of the productive formation of the Nong-Yegan field.

  References

1. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Dinamicheskie protsessy v neftegazodobyche: sistemnyy analiz, diagnoz, prognoz (Dynamic processes in the oil and gas production: systems analysis, diagnosis, prognosis), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 254 p.

2. Mandrik I.E., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Nauchno-metodicheskie i tekhnologicheskie osnovy optimizatsii protsessa povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Scientific and methodological and technological basis for EOR optimization), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2010, 288 p.

3. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Sistemnaya optimizatsiya protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (System optimization of oil field development process), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 452 p.

4. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., System optimization of non-stationary floods for the purpose of increasing oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 4450.

5. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Mandrik I.E., Aref'ev S.V., Alternative concept of monitoring and optimization water flooding of oil reservoirs in the conditions of instability of the displacement front (In Russ.),Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,  2019, no. 12, pp. 118123.

6. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Qualitative analysis of quadratic polynomial dynamical systems associated with the modeling and monitoring of oil fields, Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics, 2019, V. 40, no. 10, pp. 16951710.

7. Arnol'd V.I., Teoriya katastrof (Catastrophe theory), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990, 128 p.

8. Kreyg F.F., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy pri zavodnenii (Applied waterflood field development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 191 p.

9. Shaohua Gu, Yuetian Liu, Zhangxin Chen, Cuiyu Ma, A method for evaluation of water flooding performance in fractured reservoirs, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2014,  V. 120, pp. 130140.

10. Wang Dashun, Di Niu, Huazhou Andy Li, Predicting waterflooding performance in low-permeability reservoirs with linear dynamical systems,

SPE-185960-PA, 2017.

11.  Nigmatullin R.I., Dinamika mnogofaznykh sred (The dynamics of multiphase media), Part 2, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 360 p.

12. Rodygin S.I., Water-cut dynamics in oil-saturated porous media under pressure waves propagation. Numerical Simulations (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2012, no. 1 (43), pp. 3134.


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-52-57

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622.276.1/.4.001
G.Yu. Shishaev (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), I.V. Matveev (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), G.A. Eremyan (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), V.V. Demyanov (Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom, Edinburgh), S.V. Kaygorodov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Geologically plausible computer-aided history matching on the example of one the oil fields

Keywords: geological modeling, hydrodynamic modeling, history matching, geologically plausible model, objective function

The existing methods for history matching (HM) in hydrodynamic modeling do not meet requirements for geologically plausible model. That significantly affects the quality and predictive ability of this models and hence the success of investment decisions. In this paper, the method of automatic HM is presented. The method provides geological parameters control with preserving of identified petrophysical and geological uncertainty that significantly affect reservoir development process. Firstly, based on measured data and data from fields-analogues, realistic limits for each parameter and relationship in model were identified. Further, in order to provide the geologically plausible simulation model within a given geological concept, variation of one parameter or relationship during HM leads to variation of others parameters related to it within previously identified uncertainty range. For example, changes in parameters for porosity calculations leads to changes in parameters for permeability calculations, other model characteristics which related to permeability and so on. Iterative algorithm evolution strategy is used for automatic HM. During HM objective function based on mismatch of calculated and historical data for 50 well of sector model of one of the oil fields is minimized. As a result, number adapted models were obtained that demonstrate a good quality of HM. Based on these adapted simulation models forecasting of wells working parameters is made with taking into account the uncertainty of the initial data and geological characteristics. The distinctive feature of proposed method is the rejection of single deterministic relationships between petrophysical and geological parameters in favor of variations of these parameters within identified uncertainty range. This method allows speeding up HM and providing control of geological realism of simulation models. As a result, confidence in forecasting based on a set of adapted and geologically plausible models is increased.

References

1. Hajizadeh Y., Christie M., Demyanov V., Comparative study of novel population-based optimization algorithms for history matching and uncertainty quantification: PUNQ-S3 revisited, SPE-136861-MS, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2118/136861-MS.

2. Rwechungura R., Dadashpour M., Advanced history matching techniques reviewed, SPE-142497-MS, 2011, https://doi.org/10.2118/142497-MS.

3. Cancelliere M., Verga F., Viberti D., Benefits and limitations of assisted history matching, SPE-146278-MS, 2011, https://doi.org/10.2118/146278-MS.

4.  D.J. Schiozer, Almeida Netto S.L., Ligero E.L., Maschio C., Integration of history matching and uncertainty analysis, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 2005, V. 44, no. 7, https://doi.org/10.2118/05-07-02.

5. Yeh Tzu-Hao et al., Reservoir uncertainty quantification using probabilistic history matching workflow, SPE-170893-MS, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/170893-MS.

6. Caers J., Modeling uncertainty in the Earth sciences, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

7. Kaleta V., van Essen G., van Doren J. et al., Coupled static/dynamic modeling for improved uncertainty handling, SPE-154400-MS, 2012, https://doi.org/10.2118/154400-MS.


8. Chong E., Wan Mohamad W.N., Rae S. et al., Integrated Static and dynamic modelling workflow for improved history matching and uncertainty modelling, SPE-176097-MS, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2118/176097-MS.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-58-61

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622.276.43.001
S.V. Stepanov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen; Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen), A.N. Tyrsin (Ural Federal University, RF, Ekaterinburg), A.A. Ruchkin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), T.A. Pospelova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Using entropy modeling to analyze the effectiveness of the waterflooding system

Keywords: entropy modeling, differential entropy, waterflooding, well interaction

Analysis of the flooding system is the most important task when supporting the development of oil fields. The use of hydrodynamic modeling to solve this problem is resource-intensive and characterized by significant uncertainties. An effective alternative to hydrodynamic modeling for the analysis of the flooding system can be entropy modeling, the use of which for this task is first justified in this paper. Within the framework of the developed approach, the modeling object-the "reservoir-wells" system is considered as a multidimensional stochastic system with potentially interconnected elements. In this case, the system is open, which allows us to consider the differential entropy as the sum of the entropy of randomness (describes the interaction of the system with the environment) and the entropy of self-organization (describes the processes within the system). Together, this allows a more objective approach to the analysis of the flooding system than other methods.

The article presents the theory of the developed method. In particular, it is noted that the calculation of differential entropy uses the apparatus of mathematical statistics. In this case, multidimensional random vectors are the vector of producing wells and the vector of injection wells with data defined for the selected time intervals.

The article shows an example of its application to a synthetic oilfield. The oilfield is located in a reservoir with a complex distribution of permeability. Development of the oilfield is carried out by wells with complex dynamics of flow rate and injection rate. The entropy modeling is applied to analyze the interwell connectivity between producers and injectors for the entire object and between individual pairs of wells. A comparison of the coefficients obtained using entropy modeling and using the CRM model is presented. A very high level of compliance was obtained for all wells, which indicates the validity of the results of entropy modeling.

References

1. Stepanov S.V., Pospelova T.A., New concept of mathematical modeling for making reservoir engineering decisions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 4, pp. 5053.

2. Zakharyan A.Z., Ursegov S.O., From digital to mathematical models: a new look at geological and hydrodynamic modeling of oil and gas fields by means of artificial intelligence (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 12, pp. 144148.

3. Mohaghegh S.D., Abdulla F., Abdou M. et al., Smart proxy: an innovative reservoir management tool; case study of a giant mature oilfield in UAE, SPE-177829-MS, 2015.

4. Khachkuruzov G.A., Osnovy obshchey i khimicheskoy termodinamiki (Fundamentals of general and chemical thermodynamics), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1979, 268 p.

5. Landau L.D., Lifshits E.M., Statisticheskaya fizika (Statistical physics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1976, 584 p.

6. Shannon C.E., A mathematical theory of communication, The Bell System Technical Journal, 1948, V. 27, pp. 379423, 623656.

7. Gel'fand I.M., Kolmogorov A.N., Yaglom A.M., Kolichestvo informatsii i entropiya dlya nepreryvnykh raspredeleniy (Amount of information and entropy for continuous distributions), Proceedings of III All-Union Mathematical Congress, V. 3, Moscow: Publ. of USSR Academy of science, 1958, pp. 300320.

8. Tyrsin A.N., Entropiynoe modelirovanie mnogomernykh stokhasticheskikh sistem (Entropy modeling of multidimensional stochastic systems), Voronezh: Nauchnaya kniga Publ., 2016, 156 p.

9. Prigogine I., Introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processes, Interscience, New York, 1961.

10. Tyrsin A.N., Sistemnyy analiz. Modeli i metody (System analysis. Models and methods), Voronezh: Nauchnaya kniga Publ., 2019, 167 p.

11. Stepanov S.V., Sokolov S.V., Ruchkin A.A. et al., Considerations on mathematical modeling of producer-injector interference (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie. Neft', gaz, energetika = Tyumen State University Herald. Physical and Mathematical Modeling. Oil, Gas, Energy, 2018, V. 4, no. 3, pp. 146164.

12. Ruchkin A.A., Stepanov S.V., Knyazev A.V. et al., Applying CRM model to study well interference (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie. Neft', gaz, energetika = Tyumen State University Herald. Physical and Mathematical Modeling. Oil, Gas, Energy, 2018, V. 4, no. 4, pp. 148168.

13. Zelenin D.V., Stepanov S.V., Bekman A.D., Ruchkin A.A., Research of mechanisms for accounting of wells interaction when using various methods of mathematical modeling (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 12, pp. 3945.


14. Ayvazyan S.A., Enyukov I.S., Meshalkin L.D., Prikladnaya statistika: Issledovanie zavisimostey (Applied statistics: Dependency research), Moscow: Finansy i statistika Publ., 1985, 488 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-62-67

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622.276.6
R.N. Fakhretdinov (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Fatkullin (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), D.F. Selimov (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), M.A. Kuznetsov (Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas LLC, RF, Noyabrsk), S.M. Ishkinov (Slavneft-Megionneftegas PJSC, RF, Megion)
Laboratory and field tests of AC-CSE-1313-B reagent as the basis of water control technologies

Keywords: gel-forming reagent AC-SE-1313-B, comparative laboratory studies, rheological characteristics, polymer-gel SPA-Well technology, pilot tests, technological efficiency, water control technologies for injection and production wells

A new effective modification of the AC-CSE-1313-A reagent used in water control technologies, repair and insulation works the AC-CSE-1313-B reagent (polymer-gel SPA-Well technology) has been developed. The reagent AC-CSE-1313-B is a ready-made chemical composition. The gel-forming system in SPA-Well technology is obtained by dissolving the commercial form of the reagent in technical water. An aqueous solution of the AC-CSE-1313-B reagent under reservoir conditions forms a visco-plastic gel screen in the zones of water advance. Laboratory studies have found that the reagent AC-CSE-1313-B is thermostable at temperatures up to 130 ºC, not subject to mechanical destruction during the preparation of the working solution and its injection into the reservoir, and has several advantages, such as increased rheological characteristics, reduced corrosion activity, and ease of application (reduces complexity and improving safety at work). The rheological and technical characteristics of gels based on the AC-CSE-1313-B reagent are not inferior to similar characteristics of gels based on commercially used polymers.

Pilot tests of the SPA-Well water control technology for injection wells using the AC-CSE-1313-B reagent were conducted in 2019 at the Vyngapurovskoye (2 wells) and Tailakovskoye (2 wells) fields. At the Vyngapurovskoye field additional oil production (AOP) for 8 months after treatment was 823 and 887 tons per well, which exceeds the AOP obtained at the field for the same period by the water control technologies using other gel-forming compositions, as well as solutions based on PAA. At the Tailakovskoye field the AOP for 8 months was 724 and 1690 tons per well, the effect continues. The calculated forecast AOP by the end of 2020 will be more than 2000 tons per well, which significantly exceeds the efficiency of the water control technology with the use of similar gel-forming compounds.

Taking into account the positive results of laboratory and field tests, the gel-forming reagent AC-CSE-1313-B is recommended for industrial use in water control technologies as a more effective analog of the currently used gel-forming and polymer compositions.

References

1. Patent no. 2592932 RU, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., Selimov D.F.

2. Vinokhodov M.A., Yarkeev A.R., Kuznetsov M.A. et al., Technological efficiency of applying the new gelling AC-CSE-1313 technology in oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 10, pp. 9094.

3. Kuznetsov M.A., Ishkinov S.M., Kuznetsova  T.I. et al., The constantly developed research and production programs of industrial adaptation of injectivity profile leveling technologies for low permeability reservoirs of Slavneft-Megionneftegas OJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 106110.

4. Tastemirov S.A., Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh. et al., The experience of AC-CSE-1313 technology at the Priobskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 4, pp. 7073.


5. The decision to grant a patent on 03/11/2020. Sostav dlya povysheniya neftedobychi (Composition for increasing oil production), Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Selimov D.F., Tastemirov S.A. et al.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-68-71

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622.276.3
O.N. Shevchenko (VolgogradNIPImorneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC)
The forecast of the flow rate of horizontal wells under nonlinear filtering conditions

Keywords: horizontal well, nonlinear filtering, oil production rate, forecast of oil production

Recently, it is necessary to note the presence of negative dynamics in the deterioration of the structure of reserves of newly discovered fields, and most of the latter are already classified as hard-to-recover, confined to develop with a complex geological structure, low permeability, and high oil viscosity, complicated by the presence of faults, active plantar waters and gas caps. Drilling of hard-to-recover reserves takes place with horizontal wells. It is quite difficult to reliably predict the parameters of the operation of deposits, the performance of horizontal wells obtained with the help of modern hydrodynamic stimulators is unreliable, which ultimately leads to the formation of an insufficiently rational development system, and the resulting complications during operation in field conditions have to be solved at the expense of significant amounts of material and labor resources. One of the main parameters when making a technical and economic assessment of a reservoir is the flow rate of each horizontal well taken separately. Analytical methods for calculating the horizontal well flow rate show a high error due to the use of the classical linear filtration law, whereas under these conditions, fluid filtration cannot be described by the linear Darcy law. In conditions of high-viscosity oils and a low-permeable reservoir, there is an initial pressure gradient due to the rheological properties of the filtered liquid and high values of the surface friction coefficient. In the conditions of a thin oil fringe and an increased gas factor, the limiting filtration rates are observed due to the mode of dissolved gas, and the flow of fluid is described by a nonlinear law. It is proposed to take a new look at the problem of determining the forecast flow rate of a horizontal well, using known approaches to solving this issue.

References

1. Basniev K.S., Kochina I.N., Maksimov V.M., Podzemnaya gidromekhanika

(Underground fluid mechanics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993, 416 p.

2. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v prirodnykh plastakh (Movement of liquids and gases in natural reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 211 p.

3. Khristianovich S.A., Groundwater movement not following Darcy's law

(In Russ.), Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika, 1940, V. 4, no. 1, pp. 3352.

4. Basniev S.K., Dmitriev N.M., Rozenberg G.D., Neftegazovaya gidromekhanika (Oil and gas hydromechanics), Moscow-Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2005, 544 p.

5. Butler R.M., Horizontal wells for the recovery of oil, gas and bitumen, Petroleum Society of CIM, Monograph no. 2, 1994.

6. Voronich I.V., Gaydukov L.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Fluid filtration to a horizontal well with variation in the parameters of the damage zone (In Russ), Prikladnaya mekhanika i tekhnicheskaya fizika = Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics, 2011, V. 52, no. 4, pp. 127135.

7.  Chernykh V.A., Chernykh V.V., Matematicheskie modeli gorizontal'nykh i naklonnykh gazovykh skvazhin (Mathematical models of horizontal and inclined gas wells), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2008, 460 p.

8. Khristianovich S.A., Gal'perin V.G., Millionshchikov M.D. et al., Prikladnaya gazovaya dinamika (Applied gas dynamics), Moscow: Publ. of TsAGI, 1948, 148 p.

9. Bernadiner M.G., Entov V.M., Gidrodinamicheskaya teoriya fil'tratsii anomal'nykh zhidkostey (Hydrodynamic theory of the filtration of anomalous liquids), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 197 p.

10. Koroteev M.V., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie gidrodinamicheskikh fil'tratsionnykh techeniy k gorizontal'nym skvazhinam pri nelineynykh zakonakh soprotivleniya sredy (Mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic filtration flows to horizontal wells with nonlinear laws of medium resistance): thesis of candidate of physical and mathematical science,  Moscow, 2004.

11. Markitantova N.A., Chernyaev A.P., Nonlinear filtration to a horizontal well in the case of special nonlinearity (In Russ.), Trudy Moskovskogo fiziko-tekhnicheskogo instituta = Proceedings of MIPT, 2011, V. 3, no. 1, pp. 8892.

12. Markitantova N.A., Chernyaev A.P., Filtration with a power law in the case of asymmetrical wellsite (In Russ.), Trudy Moskovskogo fiziko-tekhnicheskogo instituta = Proceedings of MIPT, 2013, V. 5, no. 4, pp. 151160.


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-72-75

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622.276.6:576.8
E.P. Riabokon (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Methodology for forecasting the oil rate change while elastic wave propagation in the near-wellbore zone of clastic reservoirs

Keywords: elastic wave treatment, near-wellbore zone, permeability, well productivity, geomechanical properties, clastic rock

Oil inflow to the production well is influenced by the permeability of the rock in a near-wellbore zone. Geomechanical properties of the rock are one of the factors determining permeability. As a result of elastoplastic deformations of the rock during the development of the field, the structure of the pore space changes, the permeability of the rock of the near-wellbore zone decreases, which leads to a decrease in the rate of the production well. The wave action of elastic vibrations on the near-wellbore zone is able to restore the permeability of the rock due to the elastic deformation of the rock matrix saturated with the formation fluid. The paper studies the laws of propagation of longitudinal and transverse waves in a saturated porous medium. An example of a permeable piston type tool is provided. When the maximum diameter is reached, the tool transfers elastic energy to the rock matrix (homogeneous at micro and macro levels). An analysis of the Bio equations is performed to estimate the penetration depth of elastic vibrations into the formation. It is shown that the penetration depth depends on the physical and mechanical properties of the rock and saturating fluid, as well as on the parameters of the elastic wave treatment. It is argued that the production well flow rate in the case of a flat-radial inflow of a single-phase fluid depends on the frequency. A technique (mathematical model) for changing the flow rate of a well as a result of the propagation of elastic vibrations (deformations) in a saturated porous medium is developed. To verify the methodology (mathematical model), the wave action was simulated in a vertical well using the finite element method (ABAQUS package). The depth of propagation of elastic vibrations is one meter from the well, which confirms the successful results of the wave action on formations with porosity from 15 to 21 % and permeability from 0.126 to 0.763 μm2 in wells of similar fields. The developed method can be used to assess the conduct of elastic wave treatment of wells in Perm region.

References

1. Dyblenko V.P., Kamalov R.N., Shariffulin R.Ya., Tufanov I.A., Povyshenie produktivnosti i reanimatsiya skvazhin s primeneniem vibrovolnovogo vozdeystviya (Increasing productivity and reanimation of wells using vibrowave impact), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 381 p.

2. Gadiev S.M., Ispol'zovanie vibratsii v dobyche nefti (Using vibration in oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 159 p.

3. Ryabokon' E.P., Laboratory study on the effect of elastic wave treatment on geomechanical and capillary properties of clastic reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 4, pp. 5457.

4. Biot M.A., Theory of propagation of elastic wave in a fluid saturated porous solid, Part I. Low frequency range, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1956, V. 28, no. 2, pp. 168178.

5. Tuncay K., Corapcioglu M.Y., Wave propagation in fractured porous media, Transport in Porous Media, 1996, no. 23, pp. 237258.

6. Marfin E.A., Ovchinnikov M.N., Uprugie volny v nasyshchennykh poristykh sredakh (Elastic waves in saturated porous media), Kazan': Publ. of Kazan University, 2015, 31 p.

7. Nikolaevskiy V.N., Basniev K.S., Gorbunov A.T., Zotov G.A., Mekhanika nasyshchennykh poristykh sred (Mechanics of saturated porous media), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 339 p.

8. Zaslavskiy Yu.M., On excitation efficiency of the fast and slow Biot waves in water and gas saturated media (In Russ.), Tekhnicheskaya akustika, 2002, no. 2, pp. 1-12.

9. Biot M.A., Theory of propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated porous solid, Part II. Higher frequency range, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1956, V. 28, no. 2, pp. 179191.

10. Suleymanov B.A., Abbasov E.M., Efendieva A.O., Vibrowave impact on the formation and bottomhole zone of wells, taking into account the slippage effect (In Russ.), Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2008, V. 81, no. 2, pp. 100113.

11. Johnson D. L., Koplin J., Dashen R., Theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in fluid saturated porous media, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1987, V. 176, pp. 379402.

12.  Prachkin V.G., Galyautdinov A.G., Wave technology stimulation of oil (In Russ.),  Neftegazovoe delo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 215235.


13. Beresnev I.A., Johnson P.A., Elastic-wave stimulation of oil production: A review of methods and results, Geophysics, 1994, V. 59, no. 6, pp. 10001017.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-76-79

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

004:558.98.04
A.V. Turabaeva (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut)
Development of a methodology for the operational assessment of uninvolved reserves of hydrocarbons

Keywords: production, oil, undeveloped reserves, hydrocarbon raw materials, field, deposits, development, operation, hard-to-recover reserves, Optimus Oil prototype, effective oil-saturated thickness, permeability, porosity

Currently, on the territory of Western Siberia the main cost-effective hydrocarbon reserves have been identified and are involved in the development. These reserves are concentrated in objects with well-predicted properties; reservoir thicknesses are uniform in section and area. To replenish the resource base, the most detailed study of complex deposits and promising objects associated with the Achimov stratum and deposits of the Tyumen formation is required. Of greatest interest to replenish the resource base is the Tyumen formation. Both the whole deposits and its parts are not involved in the development of the fields within which hydrocarbon production is conducted. With a significantly large number of objects there is no single methodology for assessing uninvolved reserves. In order to unify and automate the process of estimating uninvolved reserves, the author develops an algorithm for assessing the quality of reserves and methods for visualizing the results.

In the scientific literature there is no single definition and unambiguous terminology for uninvolved hydrocarbon reserves. To fulfill the tasks, four main criteria were identified: geology, infrastructure, protected area, seismic density. According to the geology criterion, five main characteristics were identified that can be applied by working with the Optimus Oil prototype, a software package that is being developed by specialists of Surgutneftegas PJSC. The Optimus Oil program operates on the basis of queries from existing databases. It analyzes the algorithm for highlighting promising areas. Converts all read grids to a single format (grid size, coordinates, dimension) and a grid calculator. Criteria for assessing the quality of reserves were formed, maps were built, and a prototype was created, in which map reading was implemented, a basic set of tools was introduced. This prototype can be used to evaluate and select any scenario for the development of the study area. The program will allow the phased introduction of promising objects into development at the lowest cost.

References

1. Yakovlev V.V., Khasanov M.M., Sitnikov A.N. et al., The direction of cognitive technologies development in the Upstream Division of Gazprom Neft Company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 69.

2. Kutuzova M., Digital revolution: how the oil and gas industry will change (In Russ.), Neft' i kapital, 2017, URL: https://oilcapital.ru/article/general/05-12-2017/tsifrovaya-revolyutsiya-91a53a31-8a30-4ea7-a680-8d0....

3. Abrovskiy N.P., Tvorchestvo: sistemnyy podkhod, zakony razvitiya, prinyatiya resheniy (Creativity: a systems approach, laws of development, decision making), Moscow: SINTEG Publ., 1998, 312 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-80-83

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276
M.M. Veliev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), V.A. Bondarenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), E.N. Grishenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), R.N. Bahtizin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), E.M. Veliev (Branch of Ufa State Petroleum Technological University in Oktyabrsky, RF, Oktyabrsky)
Experience of asphaltene sediments control during oil production at White Tiger field

Keywords: paraffin, asphaltene, chemical agent, paraffin removal, cleaning interval, gas-liquid flow, inhibitor, de-emulsifier, drag reducer, paraffin deposits, lab test, complex chemicals

Presence of sand, paraffin, H2S, hydrates and salts in producing wells usually lead to complications and frequent remedial works related thereto during operation of oil, gas-oil and gas condensate fields. Such complications during offshore wells operations are worsen and dragged due to metocean conditions, which often prevent smooth and well-timed normalizing of well performance. Sea conditions require thorough attention to preventive measures on asphaltene sediments control in well and oil-field equipment. Presence of resins and asphaltenes lead to wax crystallisation. Existence of sand, clay particles and other solids within the oil contributes to asphaltene sediments hardening, often acting as the centres of paraffin crystallisation.

The article covers the experience of asphaltene sediments control during oil production at White Tiger field. White Tiger field oil is highly paraffinic, with high content of resins and asphaltenes. That creates a number of serious challenges. One of the main factors that complicate the well operation, is the asphaltene sediments deposition on the surface of the downhole equipment, which leads to a reduced workover interval and decreased operational efficiency of the production well stock. The available field data obtained from White Tiger wells performance with applied wire-line operations, indicate the most intense paraffin deposition in the tubing from 1000 m to the well head. Paraffin crystals generate from 1500 m, while at 1000 m paraffins are deposited in a high volume.

References

1. Veliev M.M., Zung L.V., Determination of physical and chemical characteristics of asphalt-tar-wax depositions in flow tubing (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 2(96), pp. 8896.

2. Zung L.V., Veliev M.M., Asphaltene deposits removing and scale prevention (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 3 (97), pp. 4554.

3. Nasyrov A.M., Sposoby bor'by s otlozheniyami parafina (Ways to deal with deposits of paraffin), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1991, 44 p.

4. Nguen T.K., Nguen T.V., Akhmadeev A.G., Veliev M.M., Prevention of deposition and removal of deposits existing in the well tubing and in the process equipment (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2011, no. 2(84), pp. 3039.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-84-89

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

622.692.4.076:620.198/.197
V.V. Vyatkin (Oil and Gas Production Department Komsomolskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), S.O. Khabidenov (Oil and Gas Production Department Komsomolskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), E.S. Toropov (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen)
The experience and prospects for the use of pipes with internal anti-corrosion coating in the pipeline systems construction

Keywords: pipeline, internal anti-corrosion coating, life time

The authors presented approaches to solving the problem of how to increase the corrosion resistance of oil and gas pipelines, flowlines of producing wells, and their connecting parts. The article suggests the use of structures with internal anti-corrosion coating to solve the problem. It is shown the benefits of the integrated approach applied, in particular, in the system of Surgutneftegas PJSC. The strategy includes the introduction of practical engineering solutions and realizing the relevant organizational and technical measures in the production process. These actions constitute establishing and monitoring stringent requirements for the anticorrosive performance of the products in question. The effectiveness of the solutions described in the article confirmed by the data of the technological pilot operation of pipelines owned by OGPD Komsomolskneft. It showed significant multiple decreases of the specific number of incidents associated with failures of piping systems, after equipping them with structural elements having an internal corrosion coating. As an explanation of the practical results obtained, the authors gave some theoretical justifications regarding the features of the course of corrosion processes. We described the mechanism of interaction between the pumped hydrocarbon liquids having abrasive inclusions and the film of oxides located on the inner wall of the pipeline.

The article touches upon an essential feature of the operation of pipelines with internal anti-corrosion coating. It is the need to protect the inside of the welded joint during their installation. The method currently used to solve this problem has several disadvantages. As an alternative to the existing method, we recommend applying several varieties of mastic-free bushings tested and successfully operated by specialists of OGPD Komsomolskneft. Despite a significant increase in reliability indicators when using elements with increased corrosion resistance, the problem of determining the residual life of such pipelines remains unresolved. And the company requires accuracy that is acceptable for making production decisions during the operation of pipeline systems. The solution to this problem may be to provide field pipeline systems with corrosion resistance control units. These items have an easily dismantled section of the pipeline, which is subject to further visual and instrumental inspection. It is shiwn how to predict the residual life of the oil gathering systems of hydrocarbon fields when using the experience of operating nodes of that kind.

References

1. Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety Pravila bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii vnutripromyslovykh truboprovodov (Rules for the safe operation of field pipelines), 2017, URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_146173/

2. OST 153-39.4-010-2002. Metodika opredeleniya ostatochnogo resursa neftegazopromyslovykh truboprovodov i truboprovodov golovnykh sooruzheniy (Methodology for determining the residual life of oil and gas pipelines and pipelines of head structures)

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-90-92

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

622.692.4.052.002
G.V. Nesyn (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), F.S. Zverev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), M.I. Valiev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Universal flow improver for crude oil

Keywords: supramolecules, weak interactions, oulomb and Van der Waals forces, self-assembly structures, reversible and irreversible destruction, pour point depressant, Drag Reducing Agent

Research in supramolecular science makes a great progress last years and will involve probably in its orbit the chemistry of crude oil additives. The main feature of supramolecules is ability to self-assembly after mechanical destruction because of weak bonds between the supramolecular monomer units. Coulomb and Van der Waals interactions as well as hydrogen bonds can form labile compounds that are able to change themselves under applied forces and then recreate their structure. That is the main difference from strong covalent bonds whose cleavage is irreversible. So, supramolecules are self-repairable structures and this property is attractive for developing the Drag Reducing Agents (DRAs) which can recover their activity after high shear stress of centrifugal pump. Conventional DRAs cannot. They radically lose drag reducing activity while passing through main line pump. For another thing weak bonds may dissociate under ambient conditions and that is why supramolecular solution may contain particles of different length this very moment. Furthermore, low molecular weight particles may act as pour point depressant (PPD) while particles of high molecular weight may act as DRA. In most preferable case the supramolecules will be the universal additive for crude oil. But in far as PPDs are consumed while conglomerating with paraffin the supramolecular concentration should be the value of about several hundred parts-per-million.

References

1. Ezrahi S., Tuval E., Aserin A., Properties, main applications and perspectives of worm micelles, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, December 21, no. 128130, pp. 77102, DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2006.11.017

2. Patent US6774094B2, Drag reduction using fatty acids, Inventors: Jovancicevic V., Bartrip K.

3. Gu X., Zhang F., Li Y. et al., Investigation of cationic surfactants as clean flow improvers for crude oil and a mechanism study, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2018, V. 164, pp. 8790.

4. Darabi A., Soleymanzadeh A., Evaluation of drag reduction by cationic surfactant in crude oil, URL: https://www.nisoc.ir/_DouranPortal/Documents/2_20100120_123001.pdf

5. Nesyn G.V., Valiev M.I., Gareev M.M., Degradation-resistant agents reducing hydrodynamic resistance of hydrocarbon liquids (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, V. 9, no. 6, pp. 652659.

6. Zakin J.L., Zhang Y., Ge W., Drag reduction by surfactant giant micelles, In: Giant micelles: Properties and applications: edited by Zana R. , Kaler E.W., Boca Raton (Fl): CRC Press, 2007, pp. 473492.

7. Patent WO2004050805A2, Aluminum carboxylate drag reducers for hydrocarbon emulsions, Inventors: Jovancicevic V., Campbelle S., Ramachandran S.., Hammonds P., Weghorn S.

8. Al-Sabagh A.M. et al., Synthesis and characterization of nanohybrid of poly(octadecylacrylates derivatives)/montmorillonite as pour point depressants and flow improver for waxy crude oil, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2019, V. 136, no. 17, DOI: 10.1002/app.47333.

9. Sabadini E., Francisco K. R., Bouteiller L., Bis-urea-based supramolecular polymer: the first self-assembled drag reducer for hydrocarbon solvents, Langmuir, 2010, V. 26, no. 3, pp. 14821486.

10. Malik S., Mashelkar R.A., Hydrogen bonding mediated shear stable clusters as drag reducers, Chemical Engineering Science, 1995, V. 50(1), pp. 105116, DOI: 10.1016/0009-2509(94)00125-B

11. Bekturov E.A., Troynye polimernye sistemy v rastvorakh (Triple polymer systems in solutions): edited by Zhubanov B.A., Alma-Ata: Nauka Publ., 1975, 252 p.  

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-94-97

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622.692.4.053
R.R. Tashbulatov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), R.M. Karimov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.R. Valeev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), B.N. Mastobaev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Development of a methodology for multi-dimensional optimization of energy consumption of the trunk oil pipeline system due to the formation of cargo flows of specially formed mixtures of oil from various fields

Keywords: branched trunk oil pipeline system, oil mixing, multi-grade oil mixture, rational mixing

The article is devoted to a new task of forming cargo flows of oil fr om various fields through the system of trunk oil pipelines with the ability to control the rheological properties of the pumped product due to the rational mixing of oil from various fields at the nodal points of the pipeline system at oil pumping stations with tank farms. The need to set this task is due to the current trend of increasing the share of production of high-viscosity and high-viscosity oils and the urgent need to involve them in the trunk pipeline transport. Its solution allows formation of routes for oil flows from various fields with minimum total energy costs for pumping. To determine the mixing parameters at nodal points, the standard algorithm of multidimensional optimization is proposed as the main calculation module: the simplex method. The target function is represented as total energy consumption for pumping, depending on the concentration of oil mixing at the nodal points of the main oil pipeline system. A method for calculating the target function for any branched network of oil trunk pipelines using algorithms for constructing a mixing tree and determining its properties using a tree traversal algorithm is proposed. The issues of determining the lim it of permissible mixing based on ensuring mass balance and preserving the quality reserve of delivered oil to consumers are also considered. As an example, the problem is solved for an element of a trunk oil pipeline system with four oil mixing nodes in the case of an increase in the oil viscosity of one of the suppliers. Multi-dimensional optimization of energy consumption for this system has revealed the possibility of increasing its energy efficiency by more than 2 %.

References

1. Katsal I.N., O kachestve nefti v sisteme magistral'nogo transporta OAO AK Transneft' (On the quality of oil in the trunk transportation system of Transneft, JSC), Proceedings of 4th international Conference Argus Rynok rossiyskoy nefti 2014 (Argus Russian Oil Market 2014), URL: https://www.transneft.ru/pressroom/docs8.

2. Katsal I.N., Lyapin A.Yu., Dubovoy E.S. et al., On the formation of oil traffic in oil trunk pipelines system of JSC Transneft (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 2(22), pp. 9295.

3. Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Mastobaev B.N., Increasing energy-efficiency of pipeline transportation by the way of optimal flows distribution and compounding of rheologically complicated kinds of oils (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 3, pp. 1318.

4. Tashbulatov R.R., Prognozirovanie vyazkostno-temperaturnykh kharakteristik techeniya smesey pri sovmestnoy transportirovke razlichnykh neftey v sisteme magistral'nykh nefteprovodov (Prediction of the viscous-temperature characteristics of the flow of mixtures during the joint transportation of various oils in the system of main oil pipelines): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2019.

5. Akhnazarova S.L., Kafarov V.V., Metody optimizatsii eksperimenta v khimicheskoy tekhnologii (Experiment optimization methods in chemical technology), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1985, 327 p.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-98-103

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