November 2022

 11/2022 ( 1189)


M.V. Skaryatin (Gubkin UniversityRF, Moscow), S.A. Zaytceva (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow), T.A. Timoshenko (Scientific Arctic Centre LLC, RF, Moscow), N.A. Malyshev (Rosneft Oil Company, Moscow), V.E. Verzhbitskiy (Rosneft Oil Company, Moscow), V.V. Obmetko (Rosneft Oil Company, Moscow), A.A. Borodulin (Rosneft Oil Company, Moscow), B.I. Ikhsanov (Rosneft Oil Company, Moscow)
Structural styles of the Russian Chukchi Sea sedimentary cover and related hydrocarbon plays

Keywords: Arctic, shelf, Chukchi Sea, structural styles, oil and gas traps, plays

Structural styles (or structural paragenesis in Russian literature) in the sedimentary cover result from tectonic processes that took place during the basin evolution. Hydrocarbon traps within regions with a single structural style can share similar structure and tectonic development features. This, in turn, may determine the commonality of risk factors such as the retention, vertical migration etc. In addition, traps of different structural styles can vary significantly in size, hydrocarbon resources compactness, and reservoir structural heterogeneity level. We identified and mapped areas characterized by various structural styles in the Russian Chukchi Sea sedimentary cover. These include areas of predominant basement draping, extension, transtension, compression, transpression, and mobilized salt- and shale related deformations. Among extensional structural styles, we separated thin-skinned deformations from thick-skinned ones. Identified structural styles analysis resulted in hydrocarbon plays (structural and combined trap families) definition. The least geological risks determined by structural factors can be expected in plays associated with inversion structures across the Chukchi monocline, basement drapes across the Chukchi monocline and the South Chukchi trough, and in plays related to the North Chukchi trough thin-skinned extension. These plays definition allow us to narrow focus of further works on hydrocarbon evaluation of the Chukchi Sea sedimentary cover.


1. Luk'yanov A.V., Shcherba I.G., Parageneticheskiy analiz struktur kak osnova tektonicheskogo rayonirovaniya i sostavleniya srednemasshtabnykh strukturnykh kart skladchatykh oblastey (Paragenetic analysis of structures as a basis for tectonic zoning and compiling medium-scale structural maps of folded areas), Collected papers Tektonika Sibiri (Tectonics of Siberia), 1972, V. 5, pp. 1524.

2. Harding T.P., Lowell J.D., Structural styles, their plate-tectonic habitats, and hydrocarbon traps in petroleum provinces, AAPG Bulletin, 1979, V. 63, no. 7, pp. 10161058, DOI:10.2110/pec.85.37.0051

3. Mazarovich A.O., Sokolov S.Y., Tectonic subdivision of the Chukchi and East Siberian seas, Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, 2003, V. 5, no. 3, pp. 185202, DOI:10.2205/2003ES000120

4. Ikhsanov B.I., Pozdnemezozoyskie i kaynozoyskie deformatsii osadochnykh basseynov akvatorii Chukotskogo morya (Pozdnemezozoyskie i kaynozoyskie deformatsii osadochnykh basseynov akvatorii Chukotskogo morya): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2014.

5. Nikishin A.M., Malyshev N.A., Petrov E.I., Geological structure and history of the Arctic Ocean, Housten: EAGE Publications bv, 2014, 88 p.

6. Malyshev N.A., Obmetko V.V., Borodulin A.A., Hydrocarbon potential of the Eastern Arctic sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2010, no. 1, pp. 2028.

7. Verzhbitskiy V.E., Malysheva S.V., Sokolov S.D. et al., Problems of tectonics and petroleum potential of Russian sector of the Chukchi sea (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 8-13.

8. Verzhbitsky V.E., Sokolov S.D., Frantzen E.M. et al., The South Chukchi sedimentary basin (Chukchi sea, Russian Arctic): Age, structural pattern, and hydrocarbon potential, Tectonics and sedimentation: Implications for petroleum systems, 2012, V. 100, pp. 267290, DOI:10.1306/13351557M1003534

9. Grantz A., Eittreim S., Geology and physiography of the continental margin north of Alaska and implications for the origin of the Canada basin, California, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, 1979, DOI:10.3133/ofr79288

10. Lawver L.A., Scotese C.R., A review of tectonic models for the evolution of the Canada Basin, The Arctic Ocean Region. The Geology of North America, Geological Society of America, 1990, pp. 593618, DOI:10.1130/DNAG-GNA-L.593

11. Homza T.X., Bergman S.C., A geologic Interpretation of the Chukchi Sea Petroleum Province: Offshore Alaska, USA, AAPG Memoir, 2019, V. 119,

12. Skaryatin M.V.,
Batalova A.A., Vorgacheva E.Yu. et al., Salt tectonics and petroleum
prospectivity of the Russian Chukchi Sea (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =
Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 1217,
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-8-14

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D.V. Fedorova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.A. Astafiev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), V.M. Yatsenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.G. Kalmykov (NIR Foundation LLC, RF, Moscow), I.V. Novosadova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen),
Specifics of Bazhenov formation properties evaluation with complex method using core and magnetic resonance logging data for reservoir porosity determination

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, radiolarite, reservoir, kerogen, extraction, porosity, magnetic resonance logging

Nowadays Bazhenov formation is one of the major points of interest for tight oil production in Russian Federation. Bazhenov formation specifics includes complex mineralogical composition varying along vertical and lateral direction, high organic matter content and its transformation products, unusual pore structure and reservoir properties evaluation uncertainty. Bazhenov formation organic matter can be represented both as solid unsolvable in organic solvents kerogen, and as hydrocarbon compounds (HCC). HCC can be in movable or in bound state depending on their composition, position in pore structure and reservoir temperature. Thus, choosing the way of core samples preparation for correct petrophysical properties evaluation, movable fluid amount estimation and usage of core data for adjusting logging based porosity determination method, is a serious challenge. For Bazhenov formation porosity estimation by acoustic log, neutron log and density log, it is necessary to take into account influence of complex composed argillaceous minerals and, especially important to take into account kerogen influence that has contrast physical properties. As an alternative method, magnetic resonance logging can be used to determine porosity. Magnetic resonance logging data must be interpreted using transverse relaxation time cutoff adjusting to appropriate core data to obtain effective porosity.


1. Petersile V.I., Komar N.V., Frenkel S.M., Methods for the Bazhenov formation reserves assessment (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2018, no. 5, pp. 5159, DOI: 10.31087/0016-7894-2018-5-51-59

2. Alekseev A.D., Antonenko A.A., Zhukov V.V., Strizhnev K.V., The differentiated approach of the reserves estimation for source rock formations (In Russ.), SPE 182074-RU, 2016, DOI:10.2118/182074-MS

3. Rylander E. et al., NMR 2 distributions in the Eagle Ford shale: Reflections on pore size, SPE-164554-MS, 2013, DOI:10.2118/164554-MS

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-15-19

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I.R. Khaziev (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), D.D. Klychev (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), T.R. Rakhimov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), E.Yu. Chernikov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), K.V. Kudashov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.P. Filimonov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Application of independent calculation of stochastic inversion of directional resistivity measurements for horizontal wells geosteering

Keywords: geosteering, reservoir mapping, stochastic inversion

Currently, due to the depletion of oil and gas fields and their entry into the late stage of development, as well as due to the involvement in the development of more and more complex reservoirs, the drilling of horizontal wells is of high relevance. When solving the problem of horizontal wells geosteering there is a number of difficulties, the main of which are the geometric uncertainty in the geological structure of the formation in the direction of horizontal wellbore drilling, as well as the uncertainty in determining wellbore position relative to the formation boundaries. In this regard, there are risks of unstable argillites and coals entering the intervals, which can lead to emergency situations, as well as decrease efficiency of horizontal wells drilling. The small investigation radius of logging methods such as gamma ray, density, neutron porosity, and density image while drilling, as well as distance of logging measurement point to the bit, significantly reduces the efficiency of decision-making to change the wellbore trajectory in order to prevent entering the non-reservoir interval. Predicting the trend of the formation structure in advance, before formation change, makes it possible to make proactive decisions to change the wellbore trajectory in order to reduce the length of the drilling interval outside the reservoir. This makes it possible to increase well productivity at the drilling stage, significantly reduce the risk of exiting the target interval into unstable rocks and minimize losses during drilling a horizontal section of a well in a low-thickness reservoir. To achieve this goal, a technique for mapping contrasting boundaries with different electrical resistivity at a distance from the wellbore has been widely used. This method is based on the calculation of inversion from the measured readings of mid-depth probes of resistivity logging.


1. Akselrod S.M., Advance navigation in horizontal drilling (Based on foreign publications) (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2012, no. 9 (219), pp. 87122.

2. Glinskikh V.N., Nikitenko M.N., Danilovskiy K.N. et al., Telemetric logging systems: software and methodological support in the process of drilling deviated-horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2017, no. 10, pp. 4249.

3. Moskaev I.A., Danilovskiy K.N., Glinskikh V.N., Nikitenko M.N., Geonavigatsiya naklonno-gorizontalnykh skvazhin po dannym vysokochastotnogo elektromagnitnogo karotazha v protsesse bureniya (Geosteering of deviated-horizontal wells according to high-frequency electromagnetic logging data while drilling), Proceedings of Trofimuk readings 2017, Novosibirsk, 2017, pp. 261264.

4. Shumikhin A.A., Sukhanov A.E., Primenenie geonavigatsii pri burenii v kollektorakh nebolshoy moshchnosti (Application of geosteering when drilling in low-thickness reservoirs), Proceedings of All-Russian scientific and practical conference with international participation Sovremennye tekhnologii izvlecheniya nefti i gaza. Perspektivy razvitiya mineralno-syrevogo kompleksa (rossiyskiy i mirovoy opyt) (Modern technologies for oil and gas extraction. Prospects for the development of the mineral resource complex (Russian and world experience)), Izhevsk, 2016, pp. 314325.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-20-23

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D.V. Evdokimov (Samara NIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara), .V. Nozhkina (Samara NIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara), V.. pitonov (Samara NIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara; Samara State Technical University, RF, Samar), .S. Kozyrev (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen), N.I. rmolaev (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen), N.R. Loginov (Samotlorneftegas JSC, RF, Nizhnevartovsk), D.D. Krepostnov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
New approach in estimation of strengthening compositions effectiveness for solidification of unstable formations during drilling

Keywords: strengthening compositions, filtration in low-permeability rocks, stability of mudstones, assessment of reinforcing properties

The complexity of processes, which occur during drilling unstable mudstone formations, and absence of proven methods for estimation of drilling fluid filtrate influence on low-permeability rocks give motivation for search of ways to perform such estimation. The volume of drilling fluid filtrate is one of key factors for stability of mudstone formations. Generally, the increase of filtrate volume decreases the time of stable condition for such formations. In order to reduce the impact of this factor the compositions that used in industrial and civilian construction for ground strengthening were examined. Strengthening compositions consist of strengthening component and solidification / activation component. Sodium silicate and different modifications of carbamide resin can be used as a strengthening component. Water solutions of acids and salts can be used as a solidification component.

This article describes a single-solution formation strengthening compositions in which the mixing of strengthening and solidification component is made on the surface and multi-solution compositions which imply the one-by-one transfer of components to the unstable interval. For quantitative estimation of an effect of strengthening solutions was deigned the approach that at first step includes the bridging of ceramic disk with the lowest allowable permeability. The change of ceramic disk permeability allows to quantify the bridging effect of compositions. At second step the estimation of reaction of strengthening compositions and model rock samples which are loaded at 2,5% of the sample strength limit at constant temperature. The method of forming samples from core material allows to achieve good convergence of results. The time from the start of experiment till the crash of sample or its 15% deformation comparing to initial length is the sample stability time. The result of this work can initiate the process of integration of technologies that used in industrial and civilian construction for ground strengthening in oil and gas wells construction process.


1. Kapitonov V.A., Fedosenko O.V., Yurchenko V.V., Considering the factors that affect the stability of argillites (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 10, pp. 2225.

2. Korolev A.V., Ryabtsev P.L., Mosin V.A. et al., Regulation of drilling mud density while drilling an interval of production casing string in West Siberian fields (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2013, no. 1, pp. 2327.

3. Kozhin V.N., Koval' M.E., Evdokimov D.V. et al., Basic approaches to the selection of drilling fluid systems and the technology of their application to prevent complications in the interval of the Koshaisky sediments at the Samotlorsky field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2021, no. 9(633), pp. 3740, DOI 10.33285/0207-2351-2021-9(633)-37-40

4. Nozhkina O.V., Nechaeva O.A., Lelyakov A.D., Identification of factors in qualitative penetration of deposits with the tendency to collapse at the fields of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2021, no. 1, pp. 4447.

5. Bochko E.A., Nikishin V.A., Uprochnenie neustoychivykh gornykh porod pri burenii skvazhin (Hardening of unstable rocks during well drilling), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 168 p.

6. Iler R., The chemistry of silica: Solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry, N.Y.: Chichester: Wiley-lnterscience Publ., 1979, 866 p.

7. Minibaev V.V., Gryaznov I.V., Konovalov E.A. et al., Elaboration and using experience of silico-gel reagents and drilling fluids (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2010, no. 2, pp. 47-48.

8. Li Tszin'yan, Experimental study and application prospect on alkali metal silicate in the process of drilling (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2012, no. 3, pp. 8191.

9. Posobie po khimicheskomu zakrepleniyu gruntov in"ektsiey v promyshlennom i grazhdanskom stroitel'stve (k SNiP 3.02.01-83) (Manual on the chemical fixation of soils by injection in industrial and civil engineering (to SNiP 3.02.01-83)), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 128 p.

10. Boykov E.V. et al., Razrabotka vosproizvodimoy metodiki odnoosnogo szhatiya iskusstvennykh kernov dlya otsenki ingibiruyushchego deystviya burovykh rastvorov (Development of a reproducible technique for uniaxial compression of artificial cores to assess the inhibitory effect of drilling fluids), Collected papers Reagenty i materialy dlya stroitel'stva, ekspluatatsii i remonta neftyanykh, gazovykh skvazhin: proizvodstvo, svoystva i opyt primeneniya. Ekologicheskie aspekty neftegazovogo kompleksa (Reagents and materials for the construction, operation and repair of oil and gas wells: production, properties and application experience. Environmental aspects of the oil and gas complex), Proceedings XX International Scientific and Practical Conference, 710 June 2016, Vladimir: Arkaim Publ., 2016.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-24-27

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A.V. Khokhlov (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen), E.V. Bembak (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.S. Kozyrev (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Mishin (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen), D.D. Krepostnov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Influence of solids control equipment efficiency on technical and economic indicators of well drilling

Keywords: solids removal equipment, solids control efficiency (SCE), drilled solids, drilling fluid, technical and economic indicators, drilling rates, non-productive time

Today the solids control efficiency (SCE) and the drilled solids content are of high importance. The SCE impact on technical and economic indicators of well drilling in Western Siberia has been analyzed based on the accumulated statistical data in this article. A special registration form has been developed to systematize the information collection. One entry of the register corresponds to one complete well interval (production hole, horizontal wellbore, sidetrack) and contain required parameters and SCE. The quality of the initial information is checked, incorrect data are excluded, before analysis start. The solids control register has been implemented on three projects in Western Siberia, more than 3000 entries have been consolidated in current state. Data collected statistics on 200 drilling rigs and 10 drilling fluid service companies. The authors identified key parameters for evaluating the SCE: rate of penetration; non-productive time; specific volume of drilling fluid preparation; solids content; average number of deviations of drilling fluid parameters. Production holes, horizontal wellbores, sidetracks were analyzed. According to collected information SCE ranges from 20 to 90%. Increasing in the SCE up to 90% in production hole section (220.7 mm hole size, 1563 m average length) leads to decline in specific volume of drilling fluid preparation per 1 m of drilling by 28%, in solids content by 12.1%. The average number of deviations of drilling fluid parameters per well is reduced by 61.5%. Equipment washout risks are reduced by 63%. Well construction rate increases (32%).Optimizing solids control equipment showed economic effect. The additional dilution volume of drilling fluid (in absence of solids control efficiency optimization work) and the waste volume caused by low SCE for the production hole section was 7.58%, for horizontal wellbore section 9.73%, for the sidetrack 8.73%. The importance and potential of improving the SCE is demonstrated. Control and management solids content by the efficient operation of the solids control equipment allows to reduce direct well construction costs.


1. Guo Q., Wang Y., Deplaude O., Fout G., Improving drilling economics through drilling fluids and solids control in the Eagle Ford Case examples and results, SPE-170525-MS, 2014, DOI:10.2118/170525-MS

2. Bembak E.V., Kozyrev A.S., Mishin A.V., Current approaches and the state of industry documents in assessing solids control equipment (In Russ.), Burenie i neft, 2021, no. 9, pp. 34-40.

3. Bembak E.V., Kozyrev A.S., Mishin A.V., Khokhlov A.V., The realities of systematic collection of information on the operation of equipment for cleaning drilling fluids (In Russ.), Burenie i neft, 2022, no. 1, pp. 36-40.

4. Bembak E.V., Kozyrev A.S., Mishin A.V. et al., Shaker screen current state and impact on drilling fluid solids removal efficiency (In Russ.), Burenie i neft, 2022, no. 3, pp. 32-35.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-28-31

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D.R. Gilmiev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.P. Kovalenko (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), E.A. Khrebtova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), R.A. Yagudin (Kharampurneftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen), P.I. Baturin (Kharampurneftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen), O.A. Loznyuk (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.A. Minulin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Methodology for assessing the zones of reserves localization of a multilayer development object by analytical meth

Keywords: field development, reserves localization, oil field, geological and technical operations

The article considers a set of analytical solutions that allow localizing oil reserves of a multilayer facility developed by a joint fund. Due to the high share of oil production from the use of geological and technical measures, it is necessary to plan their implementation pointwise. One of the main factors influencing the decision to carry out geological and technical operations is the residual oil reserves. Despite constant improvements in the methods of exploration and modeling of residual reserves, it is often impossible to obtain timely reliable information about the amount of reserves depleted and their development coverage. Therefore, the assessment of reserves localization zones is an urgent task. The purpose of the work is to create a tool for determining the zones of oil reserves localization in a multilayer field, its testing and results comparison with the data obtained using other methods. The essence of the developed method is as follows: based on the solution of the material balance equation, the volume of unproductive injection by wells is estimated. Production and injection are divided between layers, taking into account the presence of hydraulic fractures in the reservoir. Based on the results of calculating the distribution of production and injection by well-layers, drainage areas are estimated. As a result, coverage maps are built for each layer of each well, on the basis of which areas with a minimum impact of the drainage process are identified, which are of interest for the selection of geological and technical operations. The proposed solution takes into account the distribution of production and injection in proportion to the conductivity of the hydraulic fracture; in addition, it has such advantages as ease of use, calculation speed, functionality and reliability.


1. Batalov D.A., Razrabotka metoda lokalizatsii ostatochnykh zapasov nefti na pozdnikh stadiyakh razrabotki (Development of a method for localization of residual oil reserves in the late stages of field development): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen, 2015.

2. Meyer V.A., Geofizicheskie issledovaniya skvazhin (Well logging), Leningrad: Publ. of LSU, 1981, 463 p.

3. Gladkov E.A., Geologicheskoe i gidrodinamicheskoe modelirovanie mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Geological and hydrodynamic modeling of oil and gas fields), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2012, 99 p.

4. Bozhenyuk N.N., Strekalov A.V., Some methods of simulation model history-matching (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, V. 15, no. 2, pp. 4249.

5. Pyatibratov P.V., Metody adaptatsii gidrodinamicheskikh modeley na osnove modelirovaniya okoloskvazhinnykh zon (Methods of adaptation of hydrodynamic models based on modeling near-wellbore zones): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2005.

6. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003, 261 p.

7. Paffengol'ts K.N., Borovikov L.I., Zhamoyda A.I., Geologicheskiy slovar' (Geological vocabulary), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1973.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-32-36

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A.A. Zernin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), R.A. Molokov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), K.V. Zharkova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), Yu.A. Plitkina (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.F. Sharipov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.I. Deryugin (RN-Vankor LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), R.R. Nigmatullin (RN-Vankor LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), V.V. Klassen (RN-Vankor LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk)
Design and prospects for the use of inflow control devices at the Tagulskoye oil-gas-condensate field

Keywords: continental deposits, contact reserves, gas caps, oil-water zone, hard-to-recover oil reserves, horizontal wells, wellbore segmentation, multilateral wells, fishbone, autonomous inflow control device, inflow profile alignment

The article presents the Rosnefts experience in designing autonomous inflow control devices and the prospect of this equipment using at the oil-gas-condensate field. Most of the reservoirs of the Tagulskoye field belong to continental deposits, which are characterized by a strong variability and the presence of unpredictable replacement zones. At the same time, different fluid contacts can be distinguished in the reservoirs of one formation due to the lenticular structure. The main difficulties during the Tagulskoye field development are related to undesirable fluids inflow into production wells; a decrease in reservoir pressure due to a shift in the input of reservoir pressure maintenance system; technological problems in isolation of gas- and water-saturated intervals. In connection with the above reasons, the Tagulskoye field is developing using such technologies as drilling multilateral wells according to the fishbone design, inflow control devices (ICD) and well operation at minimum drawdowns. The process of choosing passive or autonomous ICD is considered. Bench testing and the process of selecting candidates for using the ICD are described. The expected results when using ICD are given. Technical and economic assessment and the planned effect from the introduction of this technology are discussed. When the effectiveness of this technology is confirmed, the use of autonomous ICD in the project fund will increase the production of seams in the zone of contact reserves. Based on the results of the trial operation, a decision will be made to replicate the use of autonomous inflow control devices within the perimeter of Rosneft Oil Company.


1. Vladimirov I.V., Problemy razrabotki kontaktnykh vodoneftyanykh zon (Problems of development of contact oil-water zones), Collected papers Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov (Improving the efficiency of developing hard-to-recover reserves), Proceedings of VNIIneft', 2008, V. 138.

2. Milyushkina A.S., Urvantsev R.V., Application estimation of the choke type inflow control devices in the conditions of the lower cretaceous sediments of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Mezhdunarodnyy studencheskiy nauchnyy vestnik, 2018, no. 2.

3. Akhmadeev R.F., Ayushinov S.P., Islamov R.R. et al., Justification of using inflow control devices for the effective development of oil rims (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 12, pp. 124127, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-12-124-127

4. Zaripov A.T., Shaykhutdinov D.K., Bisenova A.A., Assessment of feasibility of inflow control devices to produce extra-heavy oil reserves of Tatneft PJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 7, pp. 4446, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-7-44-46

5. Vasil'ev V.V., Vasil'ev V.N., El'sov P.V. et al., Application of inflow control devices in horizontal sidetrack wells in formation AB4-5 of the Samotlorskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 4, pp. 8488, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-4-84-88

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-37-41

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.. Loznyuk (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), .V. Martynov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.D. Usachev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
MARS: scenarios monitoring and analysis system

Keywords: gas fields, gas-condensate fields, digital model, flow simulation model, integrated model, field digital twin, automation, permanent integrated models (PIM), gas gathering system, RN-Alfa, information system MARS, product life management (PLM), building information modeling (BIM)

Correctly predicted production profiles and technological indicators for gas and gas condensate fields may require the use of integrated models that take into account mutual influence of a reservoir and surface infrastructure. In the last decade, their more complex versions - PIM (permanent integrated models) have been used. Widespread application of PIM is constrained by various challenges, including both technical and informational ones. To solve the latter, it was proposed and decided to create a corporate information system MARS (scenarios monitoring and analysis). The first version of the system is considered mainly as a tool of business analytics in the development and operation of oil and gas condensate fields. Thus, the introduction of MARS in the short term will save time and funds when optimizing the development system using PIM, and increase the reliability of decisions made. The long-term goal of implementing MARS system is to create and support full-fledged digital twins of oil and gas assets. The main advantages of digital twins versus PIM will be: 1) real-time access to telemetry data and prompt accounting and use of these data in the models; 2) implementation of tools for storage and analysis of big data, optimization algorithms based on the up-to-date digital technologies (Machine Learning, AI, neural networks); 3) model type in a digital twin. Models of objects (gas treatment units, booster compressor station, etc.) supplement conventional permanent integrated models of processes (fluid flow in a reservoir, pipeline flow, finished product processing). At the same time, models in a twin are interdependent, a change in the elements of one of them leads to a change in the associated models. Transition to a digital twin with the introduction of object models will allow to implement such approaches as Product Life Management (PLM) aimed at reducing well downtime, likelihood of accidents and increasing the efficiency of logistics; and Building Information Modeling (BIM) to reduce costs and errors in field infrastructure designing. According to the economic assessment, a positive effect from the system implementation will exceed expenditures (for its creation and operation) by more than 2 times.


1. Gruppa kompaniy TsIFRA. Tsifrovye dvoyniki neftegazovogo mestorozhdeniya i aktiva: chto oni mogut dat otrasli i chto nuzhno, chtoby ikh sozdat (CIFRA group of companies. Digital twins of an oil and gas field and an asset: what they can give the industry and what is needed to create them), URL:

2. Infrastrukturnyy tsentr Tekhnet NTI. Tsifrovye dvoyniki v vysokotekhnologicheskoy promyshlennosti. Ekspertno-analiticheskiy doklad (Digital twins in the high-tech industry. Expert-analytical report), 2019, URL:

3. Chto takoe PLM (What is PLM), URL:

4. Talapov V., BIM: chto pod etim obychno ponimayut. ISICAD (BIM: what is usually understood by this. ISICAD), URL:

5. Chto takoe BIM i zachem novye tekhnologii nuzhny developeram i gosstrukturam (What is BIM and why developers and government agencies need new technologies), 2019, URL:

6. Balakin M., Integrirovannoe reshenie programmnogo obespecheniya HYSYS-AXSYS-PlantWisen (Integrated software solution HYSYS-AXSYS-PlantWisen), URL:

7. Martynov A.V., Malyushko D.S., Tropin A.V., The MARS system as a tool for improving the efficiency of work in terms of hydrodynamic and integrated modeling of gas and gas condensate fields(In Russ.), Inzhener-neftyanik, 2021, no. 3, pp. 34-38.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-42-46

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Yu.A. Pityuk (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.Sh. Zakiryanov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), N.A. Makhota (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Serdyuk (RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC RF, Nefteyugansk), I.R. Safin (RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC RF, Nefteyugansk), D.A. Kravec (RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC RF, Nefteyugansk), A.V. Pestrikov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), S.N. Matveev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.G. Klimentiev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Digitalization of hydraulic fracturing processes

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, digitalization, automation, management of hydraulic fracturing processes, hydraulic fracturing simulator, IT-solution, in-field implementation

More than 15,000 hydraulic fracturing operations are performed annually at the fields of Rosneft Oil Company. The process of planning, preparing and conducting hydraulic fracturing is technically and organizationally complex, affecting many production services of subsidiaries of Rosneft Oil Company, hydraulic fracturing service companies and research and design institute of Rosneft Oil Company. To digitalize the process of preparing and conducting hydraulic fracturing, a prototype of the Support for hydraulic fracturing processes module was developed as part of the corporate information system

RN-KIN, which is also a plug-in for the corporate hydraulic fracturing simulator RN-GRID. The proposed IT-solution provides role-based access for users according to the functions performed, sequential movement and execution of an application for hydraulic fracturing, preparation of recommendations for hydraulic fracturing, automatic collection of initial data from corporate databases, synchronization with the RN-GRID, generation of relevant design reports , redesign, actual hydraulic fracturing and their approval, monitoring the implementation of the stages of hydraulic fracturing, automatic formation of a list of hydraulic fracturing operations, hydraulic fracturing data analytics. To quickly respond to events about key changes in the system and effective communication between process participants, a notification system and a chat have been developed. Conventionally, the structure of the application can be divided into an automatic workplace of the customer and the hydraulic fracturing contractors. The customer is responsible for providing initial data, preparing recommendations, agreeing on designs, redesigns, and hydraulic fracturing reports, while the service company is responsible for hydraulic fracturing job and preparing relevant reports. The proposed digital solution allows optimizing the interaction between the customer and contractors, increasing the structure of hydraulic fracturing information, including initial data for hydraulic fracturing design, designs, redesigns, actual data and hydraulic fracturing reports. Currently, the digital solution is being tested on the basis of RN-Yuganskneftegas (a key subsidiary of Rosneft Oil Company), which performs about 30% of all hydraulic fracturing operations in the Company.


1. Akhtyamov A.A., Makeev G.A., Baydyukov K.N. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator RN-GRID: from software development to in-field implementation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 5, pp. 9497, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-5-94-97

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-47-52

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A.B. Noskov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.V. Bylkov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), .. Shportko (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.V. Naumov (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development, LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Unified catalog of downhole pumping equipment in Rosneft Oil Company as an element of systematization and digitalization of recovery efficiency enhancement processes on the basis of Mekhfond Information System

Keywords: information system (IS), IS Mekhfond, IS Infrastructure, IS Submersible Wells Equipment, IS Tubing Hangers, Unified Equipment Catalog (UEC), RosPump module, equipment selection, operation of artificial lift well stock, difficult well stock

Artificial lift is the main oil production method used in Russia and worldwide. In Rosneft Oil Company artificial lift is used for over 95% producing wells. Selection (design) of pumping equipment is one of the most important stages of the well life cycle. Rosneft uses RosPump module of the corporate information system (IS) Mekhfond to design pumping equipment. IS Mekhfond is designed to create an expert and analytical system in oil and gas production subsidiaries and the headquarters the Company, which enables standardization of approaches to resolving the issues of selecting submersible and field equipment, the monitoring and management of artificial lift well stock, planning and control of wellwork. To ensure the integration of equipment data between different related IS into a single information field, we need a unified directory of equipment and components, a catalog that is used by all IS by key identifiers, which allows users to populate information systems with data at different stages and for different operational tasks, and to use data of certain IS in other IS, in particular, the array of technological parameters, for efficiency of operation. The above tasks were resolved by means of the Unified Equipment Catalog (UEC). The UEC is a unique, on a similar scale, digitized database of parameters and characteristics of downhole pumping equipment, integrated with the Company's related information systems for operational accounting, performance analysis, and selection of downhole pumping equipment. The UEC is of great practical importance for systematization and digitalization of the process to ensure efficient operation of artificial lift well stock, and for robust selection of pumping equipment in Rosneft Oil Company. The article outlines the composition of the UEC, describes the stages of the UEC development, and provides examples of its use in corporate information systems.


1. Kosilov, D.A. Mironov, D.V. Naumov I.V., Mekhfond corporate system: achieved results, medium-term and long-term perspectives (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 11, pp. 7073, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2018-11-70-73

2. Certificate of official registration of a computer program no. 2006613402. RosPump, Authors: Urazakov K.R., Bondarenko K.A., Khabibullin R.A.

3. Certificate of official registration of a computer program no. 2019617213. Programma informatsionnoy sistemy upravleniya mekhanizirovannym fondom skvazhin (The program of the information system for the management of mechanized well stock), Authors: Akhtyamov A.R., Volkov M.G., Noskov A.B.

4. Tekhnologicheskiy buklet PAO NK Rosneft' (Technological booklet of Rosneft Oil Company PJSC), Moscow: Publ of Rosneft' PJSC, 2019, pp. 197199.

5. Lunin D.A., Minchenko D.A., Noskov A.B. et al., System to improve operational quality of artificial lift wells of Rosneft Oil Company in response to negative impact of complicating factors (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 4, pp. 8691, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-4-86-91

6. Rukovodstvo pol'zovatelya modulya RosPump (RosPump module user guide), Moscow: Publ of Rosneft' PJSC, 2022, pp. 188191.

7. Patent RU 2773403 C1, Method for regulating the energy consumption of oil-producing downhole equipment, Inventors: Noskov A.B., Zuev A.S., Volokitin K. Yu. et al.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-54-58

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L.V. Zarya (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.A. Pavlov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), R.Yu. Kanaev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.S. Sivokon (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), N.G. Gilev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), .. Popov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), U.S. Poverenniy (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar)
Development of geotechnical monitoring of oil and gas fields construction facilities in the permafrost zone of Russia

Keywords: geotechnical monitoring, mechanical safety, geotechnical risks, foundations monitoring, objects prioritization, objects ranking, permafrost

The article presents the approach of Rosneft Oil Company to the selection and prioritization of facilities for the development of oil and gas fields located in the Arctic zone of Russia for the implementation of geotechnical monitoring. The relevance of the geotechnical monitoring development and implementation as a mandatory set is shown. Measures on the basis of the geotechnical monitoring make it is possible to ensure the safe operation of assets throughout their life cycle. Implemented approaches allow Rosneft Oil Company to put into practice a comprehensive assessment and prioritization of the potential consequences of accidents and incidents at hazardous production facilities, taking into account gradation by engineering and geological conditions, hazard class of structures, the principle of permafrost using, as well as the severity of consequences for people, the environment and damage to production. New approaches have been proposed to develop regulatory requirements for the introduction of geotechnical monitoring at existing facilities, because for a significant number of previously built facilities, the need for geotechnical monitoring was not regulated despite the influence of the global warming trend on the state of permafrost. The classification of Rosneft Group companies by the level of geotechnical monitoring organization has allowed to unify approaches to the development of technical, organizational competencies and the development of monitoring culture. Taking into account the proposed methodology, a geotechnical monitoring development plan was formed at Rosneft Oil Company, which included the development of criteria, the ranking of facilities, the analysis of the current status of the monitoring organization, the inventory of networks, the monitoring organization at high-priority facilities, the formation of monitoring schedules, the development of the Company's competencies and regulatory framework


1. Sivokon' I.S., Proizvodstvennye riski v neftegazovoy otrasli. Struktura, otsenka i analiz (Production risks in the oil and gas industry. Structure, evaluation and analysis), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2021, 184 p.

2. Anfimov M.V., Markeev V.A., Sivokon' I.S., Tolstorozhikh S.V., Development of risk-oriented control to health and safety system management (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 3, pp. 118122, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-3-118-122

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-59-63

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.N. Avrenyuk (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.G. Didichin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.A. Pavlov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.A. Kalimullin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.Sh. Baigildin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.M. Timerbulatov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.A. Sabirov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), P.V. Poteshkin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
3D engineering for Rosneft oil producing facilities construction

Keywords: engineering, laser scanning, 3D modeling, information model, facilities construction

RN-BashNIPIneft LLC (research and design institute of Rosneft Oil Company) over the past 15 years has completed more than 100 oil and gas field development projects using information modeling technology for capital construction projects. The technological basis of such projects is a convenient, transparent and comprehensive environment for the transfer of engineering data, such as terrestrial and airborne laser scanning, an information model of a capital construction object, as well as our own development for managing the release of project products - the SAPSAN 2020 information and analytical system for engineering document management. The main share of design and survey work at the institute is represented by projects for the, modernization, reconstruction and technical re-equipment of field development facilities. One of the first stages in such projects is the stage of laser scanning of an existing object, which starts from the competent statement of the reference terms by project chief engineer and ends with the export of laser scanning data to a computer-aided design system for subsequent modeling and issuance of design estimates. The success of the project as a whole directly depends on the quality of the work of surveyors at this stage. At the next stage, 3D modeling is carried out using a single catalog of 3D products, which is constantly updated by the specialists of RN-BashNIPIneft for all corporate institutions of Rosneft Oil Company. At the same time, at all stages of the project implementation, a single information space of the SAPSAN 2020 is used. This information system ensures an increase in the transparency, manageability and efficiency of the process of producing high-quality project products. Since 2020, a specialized institute for information modeling technologies in design and construction has been operating on the basis of the RN-BashNIPIneft.


1. Poteshkin P.V., Tilirbulatov R.M., Avrenyuk A.N. et al., Relevance of new approaches to research on the causes of reservoirs strain (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 5053, DOI:

2. Avrenyuk A.N., Asadullina G.S., Timerbulatov R.M., Praktika primeneniya rezul'tatov nazemnogo lazernogo skanirovaniya kak osnovy dlya 3D proektirovaniya ploshchadnykh ob"ektov modernizatsii, rekonstruktsii i tekhperevooruzheniya mestorozhdeniy (The practice of applying the results of ground-based laser scanning as a basis for 3D design of areal facilities for the modernization, reconstruction and technical re-equipment of fields), Proceedings of scientific and practical conference Aktual'nye zadachi neftegazokhimicheskogo kompleksa. Dobycha i pererabotka (Actual tasks of the petrochemical complex. Extraction and processing), Moscow, 21-22 November 2019, Moscow, 2019, pp. 124126.

3. Vasil'ev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Sal'nikov A.P. et al., About application of the surface laser scanning in oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 4(16), pp. 4751.

4. Ivanov A.V., Razrabotka metodiki geodezicheskogo kontrolya inzhenernykh ob"ektov na osnovanii dannykh nazemnogo lazernogo skanirovaniya (Development of a method for geodetic control of engineering facilities based on ground-based laser scanning data): thesis of candidate of technical science, Novosibirsk, 2012.

5. Tishkin V.O., Technique of data assemblage and processing, received in 3D scanning process (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta informatsionnykh tekhnologiy, mekhaniki i optiki, 2011, no. 1(71), pp. 8792.

6. Sal'nikov A.P., Otsenka napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya rezervuarov po rezul'tatam nazemnogo lazernogo skanirovaniya (Estimation of stress-strain state of reservoirs based on the results of ground-based laser scanning): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2016.

7. Vasil'ev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Sal'nikov A.P. et al., Work performance on 3-d laser scanning of the vertical stock tank with pontoon (VSTP) 20000 (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 1(17), pp. 5459.

8. Gimenez L., Hippolyte J.L., Robert S. et al., Review: Reconstruction of 3D building information models from 2D scanned plans, Build, 2015, V. 2, pp. 2435, DOI:10.1016/j.jobe.2015.04.002

9. Dongsheng Li, Jiepeng Liu, Yan Zeng et al., 3D model-based scan planning for space frame structures considering site conditions, Automation in Construction, 2022, V. 140, pp. 3445, DOI:10.1016/j.autcon.2022.104363

10. Wałach D., Piotr Kaczmarczyk G., Application of TLS remote sensing data in the analysis of the load-carrying capacity of structural steel elements, Remote Sens., 2021, V. 13, pp. 4147, DOI:

11. Miller R.B., Small C., Cities from space: Potential applications of remote sensing in urban environmental research and policy, Environ. Sci. Policy, 2003, V. 6, pp. 129137, DOI:10.1016/S1462-9011(03)00002-9

12. Soudarissanane S., Lindenbergh R., Gorte B., Reducing the error in terrestrial laser scanning by optimizing the measurement set-up, Proceedings of XXI ISPRS Congress, Commission I-VIII, 3-11 July 2008, Beijing, China, pp. 615620.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-64-67

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.Yu. Nevyadovskiy (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), .V. Osiyanov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), .. Veklich (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), P.. Nikulshin (All-Russian Research Institute for Oil Refining JSC, RF, Moscow), .. Botin (All-Russian Research Institute for Oil Refining JSC, RF, Moscow), S.V. Tarazanov (All-Russian Research Institute for Oil Refining JSC, RF, Moscow), I.I. Zanozina (Middle Volga Oil Refining Research Institute JSC, RF, Novokuibyshevsk), .K. Krpukhin (Middle Volga Oil Refining Research Institute JSC, RF, Novokuibyshevsk), V.V. Knovalov (SamaraNIPIneft, RF, Samara), .S. Kirillov (SamaraNIPIneft, RF, Samara)
Developing and implementing in Rosneft Oil Company the methods for the determination of organochlorine compounds in chemical reagents

Keywords: organochlorine compounds (OC), chemical reagents, sample preparation, methods for the determination

The negative impact of organochlorine compounds (OCC), as undesirable components of oil, results in increased corrosion of oil refineries equipment. Regulatory restriction of the content of OCC concerns not only the regulation of the concentration of OCC in oil, but also in potential "pollutants" of commercial oil. The most obvious such potential pollutants are chemical reagents that are used in the oil production, preparation and transportation. To prevent this risk it is necessary to ensure the control of each batch of chemical products entering the oil production facilities. At the same time, similar requirements should be applied by producers of chemical products when controlling the quality of chemical reagents. Establishing a clear mechanism for controlling the chemical products quality in relation to the content of OCC is a priority task for Rosneft Oil Company during interacting with suppliers. The task contains two key areas: the establishment of detection limits and methods of determination.

Rosneft Oil Company carried out work on the development and state certification of methods for determining chemical content in reagents. The methods were implemented in subsidiary and communicated to suppliers for symmetrical control of outgoing chemical products. The developed methods make it possible to determine OCC and substances capable of decomposing to OCC under the influence of temperature. The methods are focused on the maximum use of analytical equipment, reagents and accepted procedural approaches available in oilfield laboratories, and also do not contain increased qualification requirements for technical staff. The specificity of the methods lies in the features of the sample preparation of a chemical reagent, taking into account various states of aggregation and features of industrial application, which gives the methods a universal character.


1. Patent RU 2780965 C1, Method for sample preparation of acid-type chemical reagents for determination of organochlorogenic compounds, Inventors: Konovalov V.V., Nikitchenko N.V., Kozhin V.N., Bodogovskiy S.V.

2. Zanozina I.I., Zanozin I.Yu., Spiridonova I.V. et al., Avtorskie khromatograficheskie metodiki izmereniya KhOS v khimreagentakh i nefti (Author's chromatographic methods for measuring COS in chemicals and oil), Proceedings of IV Congress of Russian Analysts, Moscow, 26-30 September 2022, Moscow: Publ. of ONTI GEOKhI RAN, 2022, pp. 445, URL:"ezdAR-Tezisy-v9.pdf

3. Babintseva M.V., Volkova N.E., Prokof'eva O.V. et al., Ekstraktsiya kak priem probopodgotovki v analize khimreagentov, primenyaemykh pri dobyche neftyanogo syr'ya (Extraction as a method of sample preparation in the analysis of chemicals used in the production of petroleum raw materials), Proceedings of IV Congress of Russian Analysts, Moscow, 26-30 September 2022, Moscow: Publ. of ONTI GEOKhI RAN, 2022, pp. 414, URL:"ezdAR-Tezisy-v9.pdf

4. Ivannikov V.I., Sedimentation and de-sedimentation of a formation bottom zone in wells (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 4, pp. 56-60.

5. Patent RU 2743205 C1, Method for preparing samples of oilfield chemical reagents forming water-hydrocarbon emulsions and water-hydrocarbon emulsions for the determination of organochlorine compounds and organically bound chlorine, Inventors: Lestev A.E., Frolova A.V., Rizvanova G.D.

6. Tatyanina O.S., Abdrakhmanova L.M., Sudykin S.N., Zhilina E.V., Obrazovanie legkoletuchikh khlororganicheskikh soedineniy pri pervichnoy peregonke nefti v rezul'tate razlozheniya khimicheskikh reagentov, soderzhashchikh soli chetvertichnykh ammonievykh soedineniy (Formation of volatile organochlorine compounds during primary distillation of oil as a result of decomposition of chemical reagents containing salts of quaternary ammonium compounds), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', Naberezhnye Chelny: Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz Publ., 2017, V. 85, pp. 363369.

7. Kozlov S.A., Frolov D.A., Kuz'mina E.P. et al., Establishment of reasons for the formation of chloric-organic compounds in commodity oil (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 5(605), pp. 6469.

8. Patent RU 2734388 C1, Method of determining content of organic chlorine in oil after hydrochloric acid treatments, Inventors: Tat'yanina O.S., Gubaydulin F.R., Sudykin S.N., Zhilina E.V.

9. Patent RU 2713166 C1, Method of preparing samples of oil-field chemicals for determining organochlorine compounds and organically bound chlorine, Inventors: Lestev A.E., Frolova A.V.

10. Patent RU 2740991 C1, Method of determining content of organic chlorine in chemical reagents used in oil production, Inventors: Tat'yanina O.S., Gubaydulin F.R., Sudykin S.N., Abdrakhmanova L.M.

11. Patent RU 2746648 C1, Method for preparation of samples of oil field chemicals for determination of organic chlorine compounds and organically binded chlorine, Inventors: Lestev A.E., Frolova A.V., Rizvanova G.D

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-68-72

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S.R. Bembel (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
Geological models and hydrocarbon prospects of the eastern part of the Krasnoleninsky arch

Keywords: oil and gas reservoir, geological model, seismic attributes, Paleozoic, 3D seismic survey, local basement ledges, tectonic faults

The article presents a short summary of features of the geological models of hydrocarbon deposits located in lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Paleozoic intervals of the eastern part of Krasnoleninsky arch. These features were defined by complex practical analysis of 3D seismic data, core data, well logging and field development data. Geomorphological and facial details of deposits structure of Vikulovo formation of lower Cretaceous period, which served as the foundation for 3D geological models (which in turn define the development project of object VK1), are presented. To evaluate the oil prospects of Tyumen suite we suggested using detailed seismic-facial analysis based on in-depth processing of 3D seismic data. This analysis is used to find patterns in productive intervals distribution. Analysis of 3D seismic drilling in Paleozoic formations intervals of the upper pre-Jurassic complex shows a connection between revealed oil deposits and local basement protrusions with deep discontinuous disturbances, which may control local flows of hydrocarbon fluids. Enhanced reservoir-rock regions, presumably connected with areas with maximal number of fractures in regions with tectonic disturbances located at most profound basement protrusions, were defined as the result of this research.

Effective prediction of productive regions and geological section intervals is based on the use of modern complex geological exploration, which includes 3D seismic scanning paired with paleogeomorphological and lithofacial analysis. Nowadays the results of interpretation of this geological and geophysical information are used in solving the problems of detailed characterisation of geological structures during evaluation of hydrocarbon reserves, geological modelling, prediction of filtration and capacity properties of productive intervals and creating projects of field and reservoir development. Complex interpretation of well logging data, well testing data, core data and 3D seismic data is the most important instrument in defining the geometry of deposits in Vikulovo layers with increased well productivity. It is also vital in prediction of promising zones in Tyumen suite section and exploration of deposits in Paleozoic formations.


1. Bembel' S.R., Geologiya i kartirovanie osobennostey stroeniya mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza Zapadnoy Sibiri (Geology and mapping of structural features of oil and gas fields in Western Siberia), Tyumen: Publ. of TIU, 2016, 216 p.

2. Bembel' S.R., Sovremennye tekhnologii neftyanoy seysmorazvedki pri poiske i prognoze produktivnosti zalezhey nefti i gaza v Zapadnoy Sibiri (Modern technologies of oil seismic exploration in the search and forecast of the productivity of oil and gas deposits in Western Siberia), Collected papers Sovremennye tekhnologii neftegazovoy geofiziki (Modern technologies of oil and gas geophysics), Proceedings of mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, 17-18 May 2018, Tyumen': TIU, 2019, pp. 69.

3. Atlas Geologiya i neftegazonosnost Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga (Geology and oil and gas bearing of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug): Khanty-Mansiysk: Publ. of V.I. Shpielman Scientific and Analytical Center of Rational Subsurface Management AU, 2004, 146 p.

4. Bembel' R.M., Bembel' S.R., Geologicheskie modeli i osnovy razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza Zapadnoy Sibiri (Geological models and fundamentals of exploration and development of oil and gas fields in Western Siberia), Tyumen: Publ. of TIU, 2022, 220 p.

5. Bembel' S.R., Avershin R.V., Bembel' R.M., Kislukhin V.I., Geological model and optimal well placement substantiation at the western part Tyumen suite layers of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2020, no. 6, pp. 8-24, DOI: 10.31660/0445-0108-2020-6-8-24

6. Bembel' S.R., Seismological criteria of geometrization of productive zone of the pre-Jurassic complex on the example of the north-eastern part of Krasnolininski Arch of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 7, pp. 6872, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-7-68-72

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-74-78

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M.A. Huseynova (Oil and Gas Research and Design Institute, SOCAR, the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku)
The study of petrophysical parameters using seismic lines to identify non-anticline traps in the Qala-Turkan area (Azerbaijan)

Keywords: lithological trap, stratigraphic trap, tectonically screened trap, non-anticline trap, seismic data, petrophysics

The article discusses the features of the petrophysical properties of the productive strata in the deposits of the Qala suite of the Qala-Turkan area. The identified productive horizons were analyzed. The distribution of petrophysical parameters in the area has been studied. As a result of studies carried out by the common depth point (CDP) method, the relationship of promising areas with non-anticline traps was revealed using seismic data. Diagnostic criteria for identifying these traps have been established, the variability of petrophysical features (porosity, net-to-gross, clay content carbonate content, permeability) has been analyzed, and the presence of residual oil and gas reserves has been assessed. The results of the analysis of the area distribution of predicted values of petrophysical parameters (porosity, net-to-gross, permeability, clay content and carbonate content) showed that sand layers are gradually replaced by clay layers in the direction from northwest to southeast. The formation of traps is associated with the southeastern marginal part of the sedimentation basin. Based on the results of comparison of well data, it was established that lithological wedging occurs on the wings and in the periclinal parts of the developing consedimentary uplift. It has been established that non-anticline traps of the lithological type, accompanied by a sharp variability in the lithological composition of the deposits, are irregularly distributed over the area. The overlap of individual reservoirs with impermeable deposits in the zone of location of tectonic blocks in the depth interval of 30003700 m was revealed. Local uplifts were identified here, eroded in arched parts and overlain by impermeable rocks (with angular unconformities). They are non-anticline lithologically shielded nest-like traps complicated by tectonic faults. The observed sharp change in petrophysical parameters indicates that the traps are confined to reservoir rocks.


1. Iskenderov M. Otchet 087-2007 Prognoz litofatsialnogo sostava, kollektorskikh svoystv i perspektiv neftegazonosnosti otlozheniy nizhnego otdela Produktivnoy tolshchi na osnove kompleksnogo analiza geologo-geofizicheskikh dannykh (GIS, kerna i seysmiki) na mestorozhdeniyakh vostochnoy chasti Absheronskogo poluostrova (Forecast of the lithofacies composition, reservoir properties and prospects for oil and gas potential of the deposits of the lower section of the Productive stratum based on a comprehensive analysis of geological and geophysical data (well logging, core and seismic data) at the fields of the eastern part of the Absheron Peninsula), Baku: Publ. of NIPINeftegaz, 2014, pp. 2730, 3642, 204215.

2 Guseynova M.A., Non-anticlinal types of traps and their distribution pattern in the Sulu-Tepe field (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2016, no. 23, pp. 5966.

3. Ganbarov Ya.Kh., Ibragimli M.S., Classification of non-anticlinal types of traps found in the Yevlakh-Agjabedi depressions (In Russ.), azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2007, no. 8, pp. 14.

4. Novruzov A.G. Otchet 081-2007 Izuchenie litofatsialnogo sostava neantiklinalnykh lovushek v pliotsenovykh otlozheniyakh yugo-zapadnoy periklinalnoy chasti Kalinskoy skladki kompleksnymi geofizicheskimi metodami i prognoz neftegazonosnosti (Study of the lithofacies composition of non-anticlinal traps in the Pliocene deposits of the southwestern periclinal part of the Kalinskaya fold by complex geophysical methods and forecast of oil and gas potential), Baku: Publ. of NIPINeftegaz, 2007, pp. 4759, 78108.

5. Kerimov B.D., Guseynov G.M., Gadzhizade Z.A., Vezirova R.A., Poiski nefti i gaza i neftepromyslovaya geologiya (Oil and gas prospecting and oilfield geology), Baku: Maarif Publ., 1991, pp. 146181.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-80-83

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V.M. Yatsenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), E.V. Gavrilova (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), K.V. Toropov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.M. Burakov (ROSPAN INTERNATIONAL JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy), R.I. Makaev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.D. Latypov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Kolonskikh (National Gas Company LLC, RF, Moscow)
Method for localizing the Bazhenov formation promising zones

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, primary hydrocarbons migration, hydrocarbons formation kinetics, hydrocarbons generation, frittle thickness, promising zones pediction

The Bazhenov formation is the largest oil and gas source formation in the West Siberian oil and gas bearing province, whose reserves are classified as hard-to-recover. The Bazhenov formation deposits are both the most significant hydrocarbons source rocks in the province and an independent oil and gas reservoir. Formation has a complex geological structure, which directly affects the mobile hydrocarbon reserves heterogeneous distribution. Analysis of implementing approaches experience to the unconventional reservoir development regarding to Bazhenov formation reservoirs shows that the reservoirs distribution is characterized by lateral variability and is not controlled by a structural factor. The lack of sure signs of reservoir evolution identifying zones and assessing their productivity is one of the most important risks achieving successful Bazhenov reserves development. The sweet spot zones are interpreted to be laterally limited areas in which the source rock maturity degree is sufficient to form liquid and moving hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities to operate wells that will be profitable.

This paper presents a method for localizing Bazhenov formation promising zones which is based on the kerogen transformation model with a prediction of the achievable pore pressure, taking into account the material balance and rock stress. The approach is based on a consistent physical and mathematical model that describes the kerogen conversion kinetics with a subsequent increase in pore pressure in the source rock and the formed liquid hydrocarbons vertical migration into the nearest reservoirs due to auto-fluid fracturing of the clay tight formation-barriers for the oil source rock. The simulation result is visual map of prospective areas for the Bazhenov formation development that allows to determine the priority well drilling areas.


1. Shutko S.Yu., Dubrovskiy D.A., Lopatnikov A.N., Scenario forecast of oil production parameters from low-permeability oil and gas reservoirs of the Bazhenov formation (In Russ.),, 2018, no. 10, pp. 56 64.

2. Braduchan Yu.V., Golbert A.V., Gurari F.G. et al., Bazhenovskiy gorizont Zapadnoy Sibiri (stratigrafiya, paleogeografiya, ekosistema, neftenosnost) (Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia (stratigraphy, paleogeography, ecosystem, oil bearing)), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1986, 217 p.

3. Zavyalets A.N., Skvortsova L.A., Zamyatina E.V., Tolstolytkin V.P., Opredelenie obshchey poristosti porod bazhenovskoy svity metodami promyslovoy geofiziki (Determination of the total porosity of rocks of the Bazhenov formation by methods of field geophysics), In: Osobennosti podscheta zapasov nefti v bazhenovskikh otlozheniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Features of calculating oil reserves in the Bazhenov deposits of Western Siberia), Tyumen, 1985, pp. 2637.

4. Kontorovich A.E., Rodyakin S.V., Burshteyn L.M. et al., Porosity and oil saturation of pore space in the Bazhenov formation rocks (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2018, no. 5, pp. 6173, DOI: 10.31087/0016-7894-2018-5-61-73.

5. Patent RU 2572525 C1, Reservoir location method for oil-source formations, Inventors: Suleymanov D.D., Ziganbaev A.Kh., Islamov R.A. et al.

6. Patent RU 2762078 S1 RF, Method for localizing promising zones in oil source strata, Inventors: Sergeychev A.V., Yatsenko V.M., Toropov K.V. et al.

7. Burnham A.K., A simple kinetic model of oil generation, vaporization, coking, and cracking, Energy & Fuels, 2015, no. 29, pp. 7156−7167, DOI:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02026

8. Chen Z., Liu S. X., Jiang Ch., Quick evaluation of source rock kerogen kinetics using hydrocarbon pyrograms from regular Rock-Eval analysis, Energy & Fuels, 2017, no. 31, pp. 832−1841, DOI:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01569

9. Chen Z., Liu X., Jiang Ch. et al., Inversion of source rock hydrocarbon generation kinetics from Rock-Eval data, Fuel, 2017, V. 194, pp. 91101, DOI:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.12.052

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-84-88

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Yu.A. Arbatskaya (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), V.G. Volkov (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), A.G. Pushkarskiy (Vostsibneftegas JSC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), N.M. Kutukova (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), F.A. Isbir (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Drilling support within the Yurubchen-Tokhomo zone: integrated approach, issues and solutions

Keywords: production drilling, carbonate reservoir, cavernosity, paleocuts, fault, conceptual model

Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoe major oil-gas-condensate field in Eastern Siberia is unique and has no analogues in the world. The article considers qualities of its reservoir structure. Results of integrated exploratory and production drilling analysis are presented. Main success factors are identified based on seismic data analysis, well logging, production logging, well testing, field development history and current geological concepts.

A complex structure of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoe field is conditioned by a plenty of deposits with different oil-water and gas-oil contacts of two uneven geological complexes. The Riphean reservoir consists of carbonate non-permeable matrix with many capacity components presented as fractures and caverns. Also there are multiple discontinuities in reservoir section, intense variability of roof altitude connected with the presence of paleocuts. Vendian geological complex deposits are highly dissected and have small effective reservoir thickness. The main component of the reservoir capacity is cavernosity. According to that fact, an important goal is the most intensive leaching zones prediction. Cavernous intervals are confined to roof part of Riphean and paleocuts slopes. In addition, there is observed degradation of filtration and capacitive properties to the bottom of Riphean sediments. An important factor influencing the operation is the location of the horizontal wellbore relative to fractures and macrofractures, which provoke breakthroughs of the underlying water and gas of the vast gas cap. In the most cases, unsuccessful production wells are located in the north part of the deposit. There is small effective capacitance and lack of caverns in oil saturated part of the reservoir. Successful production wells are drilled to high-capacitance zones, mostly consisting of cavernous component and in 70% of cases they are located nearby paleocuts.


1. Bagrintseva K.I., Krasil'nikova N.B. et al., Formation conditions and properties of the Riphean carbonaceous reservoirs of the Yurubcheno-Tokhomsk deposit (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2015, no. 1, pp. 2440.

2. Kutukova N.M., Rekonstruktsiya geologicheskogo stroeniya, usloviy formirovaniya i prognoz uglevodorodnykh skopleniy rifeyskikh otlozheniy Kamovskogo svoda Baykitskoy anteklizy Vostochnoy Sibiri: na primere Yurubcheno-Tokhomskogo mestorozhdeniya (Reconstruction of the geological structure, formation conditions and forecast of hydrocarbon accumulations of the Riphean deposits of the Kamovsky arch of the Baikit anteclise in Eastern Siberia: on the example of the Yurubcheno-Tokhomsky field): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2020.

3. Afanas'ev I.S., Antonenko D.A., Kutukova N.M. et al., System optimization of design solutions for the development of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 1013.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-90-93

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I.A. Pakhlyan (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Armavir)
Experimental assessing conformity of the theoretical equation of characteristics of jet mixer for the preparation of drilling flushing and grouting solutions

Keywords: relative dimensionless pressure drop, ejection, jet apparatus, velocity coefficient, characteristic equation, full-scale sample

The quality of drilling and grouting solutions directly affects the speed of construction, service life and efficiency of well repair. Jet mixers are used for sealing and primary dispersion of components of drilling flushing and grouting solutions. They are simple, reliable and technologically advanced. However, more than a century of field experience of their use in drilling, development and overhaul of wells has shown that the jet mixer design is imperfect; weak ejection, unstable supply of materials to the mixing chamber, wetting of materials in the funnel, involvement of a large amount of air in solutions are observed. Further improvement of designs and technology of jet mixers is possible by developing calculation and design methods. We need an adequate equation for calculating jet mixer characteristics as a liquid-gas jet apparatus, that is, the dependence of the dimensionless pressure drop on the ejection coefficient.

The article presents analysis and calculation of jet mixer based on the known theoretical equations of the characteristics of liquid-gas jet devices (with diffusor and diffusorless), taking into account the velocity coefficients of the main elements such as nozzle, inlet section of the mixing chamber, mixing chamber, diffuser. Calculations are performed for ideal and real liquids, the dependences of the relative dimensionless pressure drop on the ejection coefficient are presented. It is shown that the theoretical characteristics reliably reflect only the general tendency of the ejection coefficient to increase with a decrease in the dimensionless pressure drop, but differ significantly from the experimental envelope curves based on the test results of full-scale samples of manufactured jet mixers.


1. Pakhlyan I.A., Problems and prospects of using hydro-ejector mixers in the preparation of drilling fluids and process liquids (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 11, pp. 112114, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-112-114

2. Pakhlyan I.A., Improvement of hydro-jet mixers for the preparation of drilling flushing and grouting solutions (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2015, no. 11, pp. 8891.

3. Mishchenko S.V., Modernizatsiya oborudovaniya i sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii prigotovleniya tamponazhnykh rastvorov (Modernization of equipment and improvement of technology for the preparation of cement slurries): thesis of candidate of technical science, 2014. Krasnodar, 2014.

4. Patent RU 2442686 C1, Jet blender, Inventors: Proselkov Yu.M., Pakhlyan I.A.

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8. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Prospects of development of jet pumps well operation technology in Russia, SPE-176676-MS, 2015, DOI: 10.2118/176676-MS.

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10. Tsegel'skiy V.G., Struynye apparaty (Inkjet devices), Moscow: Publ. of Bauman University, 2017, 573 p.

11. Drozdov A.N., Utilization of associated petroleum gas with using of existing field infrastructure (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 7477.

12. Drozdov A.N., Problems in WAG implementation and prospects of their solutions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 100-104.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-94-97

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A.I. Ipatov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), M.I. Kremenetsky (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), D.N. Gulyaev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.M. Krichevsky (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Improving oil recovery of a field with high water cut and low recovery of initial recoverable reserves

Keywords: oil recovery, initial recoverable reserves, reservoir pressure maintenance system, horizontal wells, production logging, well-testing, spontaneous hydraulic fracturing, geological modelling, dynamic reservoir modeling

Today it is trendy to pursuit of the development of hard-to-recover reserves, companies often do not pay due attention to the huge reserves at conventional reservoirs that has become difficult to recover due to ineffective field development. At the same time, the fields have a well-developed infrastructure, as well as favorable reservoir properties. The reason for stopping thousands of producing wells at such fields, as usual, is early time injected water breakthrough because non-optimal development, casing of high production at the early stage of reservoir development and ignoring reservoir surveillance and well diagnostics. Using the example of the analysis of reservoir surveillance results during development of one of the large oil fields, the authors show how the problems grew and led to the actual loss of half of the initially recoverable reserves. For this reservoir and its analogues production enhancement operations are developed for field productivity reactivation with the justification of their effectiveness. The information basis for current reserves localization is reservoir dynamic model calibration on the results of historical and additionally conducted production logging, well-testing and cross-well tests. Accounting for the injection and production vertical profile, clarifying areal displacement coverage of the reservoir, accounting for cross-flows, reservoir properties distribution and the current reservoir pressure made it possible to identify the most promising areas for production enhancement. Logs in transit wells confirmed dynamic model reliability. Drilling of horizontal wells and optimization of the production and injection targets are planned.


1.  Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Primenenie promyslovo-geofizicheskogo kontrolya dlya optimizatsii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Application of field geophysical control to optimize the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2020.

2. Golev A., Glava Rosnedr Kiselev zayavil, chto zapasov nefti v Rossii khvatit na 58 let (The head of Rosnedr Kiselev said that oil reserves in Russia will last for 58 years), URL:

3. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Gulyaev D.N., Informatsionnoe obespechenie i tekhnologii gidrodinamicheskogo modelirovaniya neftyanykh i gazovykh zalezhey (Information support and technologies of hydrodynamic modeling of oil and gas deposits), Izhevsk: Publ. of Izhevsk Institute of Computer Research, 2012, 896 p.

4. Zhdanov I.A., Pakhomov E.S., Aslanyan A.M. et al., Integrated technology of brown field study to increase production and oil recovery (In Russ.), PROneft. Professionalno o nefti, 2020, no. 2, pp. 61-66, DOI:

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-98-102

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M.. Silin (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), L.. Magadova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), L.F. Davletshina (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.B. Gubanov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), .. Merzlyakov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Studying the influence of a hydrophobization composition on porous media

Keywords: hydrophobization, wettability alteration, reservoir properties, residual water

This article considers the effect of a hydrophobizing additive on the change in the wettability of a porous medium. The geological and technical operations number is growing due to the development of depleted fields and new fields with complex reservoir conditions. During geological and technical operations hydrophobization of porous medium surface is necessary to prevent negative consequences of surface wettability changes. The geological and technical operations can lead to an increase in the water saturation of the bottomhole zone, water blockades formation and a decrease in the relative phase permeability of the hydrocarbon phase. To study this interaction, a series of filtration tests was carried out on sandstone models. Free volume tests of the hydrophobizing additive on the surface of quartz glass and the porous medium showed the potential for changing the wettability of a hydrophilic surface due to its treatment with a solution of surfactants under static conditions. During experiments under dynamic conditions, the potential for changing the wettability of the rock was shown when it was treated with an aqueous solution with different concentrations of a reagent. As a result, a correlation between the specific surface area of the porous medium and the concentration of the water repellent in the solution was established. At the determined empirically optimum concentration of the hydrophobizing additive the resistance factor for the aqueous phase was less than 1, which indicates an increase of water mobility. This was directly confirmed by experiments to determine the residual water saturation during injection of oil phase into a model porous medium - the coefficient of residual water saturation for a model of a porous medium treated with a hydrophobizing additive turned out to be 2 times lower than for a model that was not treated with a hydrophobizing additive solution.


1. Folomeev A.E., Vakhrushev S.A., Khatmullin A.R. et al., Reducing the negative impact of workover fluids on Sorovskoe oilfield sandstone formation by their modification (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov, 2022, V. 333, no. 2, pp. 2637, DOI:

2. Vorobev A.E., Martin Z.T., Vorobev K.A., Mechanism of fluid migration in reservoirs-collectors, Gorniy vestnik Uzbekistana, 2019, V. 2019, no. 3, pp. 2228.

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5. Gazizov A.Sh. et al., Hydrophobization of rocks in the bottomhole zone as a method of increasing well production rates and reducing the water cut of the produced fluid (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, no. 1, pp. 1-12.

6. Krupin S.V., D'yakonov G.S., Obukhova V.B. et al., The first results of the application of enhanced oil recovery technology based on modified silica sol (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2010, no. 10, pp. 332-335.

7. Vlasova L.I. et al., Preparation and hydrophobizing properties of carboxylic acid N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]amide hydrochlorides (In Russ.), Zhurnal prikladnoy khimii = Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2017, V. 90, no. 7, pp. 890895.

8. Zhang L. et al., Wettability of a quartz surface in the presence of four cationic surfactants, Langmuir, 2010, V. 26, no. 24, pp. 1883418840, DOI:10.1021/la1036822

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-103-107

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E.A. Nikitina (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), I.N. Nikitina (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), S.A. Charuev (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Estimation of the phase stability of high-viscosity oils using differential scanning calorimetry

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oil dispersion system, colloidal instability index, high-viscosity oils

Last years, the structure of oil reserves both in the world and in Russia is constantly changes to increasing of hard-to-recover reserves share. A significant part of hard-to-recover reserves is represented by high-viscosity heavy oils. According to the classification of reserves and resources of oil and combustible gases of the Russian Federation, oil with a viscosity of more than 30 mPas is high-viscosity oils, their share is 55% of the total Russian oil reserves. During production of high-viscosity oil, especially by enhanced oil recovery methods, and during heavy hydrocarbons transportation and processing there is a high probability of changing of oil system phase state and precipitation of resin-asphaltene substances. Therefore, fluid colloidal stability has decisive importance. The study of oil system stability allows a more reasonable approach to the choice of solvents to improve the oil rheological properties and prevent the precipitation of resin -asphaltene substances.

The article is devoted to preliminary assessment of phase stability of high-viscosity oil by differential scanning calorimetry. The proposed calorimetric method is less laborious in comparison with existing methods for determining the group composition of oil and calculating the instability index based on SARA components. In general, the calorimetric method is more advanced method for assessing the oil phase stability and is of practical and scientific interest. Authors carried out studies of the physicochemical properties, kinetic parameters of the oxidation of oil with a viscosity in the range from 63 to 70035 mPas. A calorimetric method is proposed for estimating phase stability of oil with the value of the activation energy of oil oxidation in the high-temperature region.


1. Cherkasova E.I., Safiullin I.I., Features of high-viscosity oil production (In Russ.), Vestnik tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2015, V. 18, no. 6, pp. 105-108.

2.Syunyaev Z.I., Safieva R.Z., Syunyaev R.Z., Neftyanye dispersnye sistemy (Oil dispersed systems), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1998, 448 p.

3. Akbarzadeh K., Hammami A., Kharrat A., Asphaltenes - problematic but, rich in potential, Oilfield Review, 2007, Summer, pp. 22-43.

4. Sheu E.Y., Storm D.A., Colloidal properties of asphaltenes in organic solvent, In: Asphaltenes: Fundamentals and applications: edited by Sheu E.Y., Mullins O.C., New York: Plenum Press, 1995, 244 p.

5. Ashoori S., Sharifi M., Masoumi M., Salehi M.M., The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability, Egypt. J. Pet., 2017, no. 26, pp. 209213, DOI:

6. Kovaleva O.V., Modelirovanie protsessa okisleniya ostatochnoy nefti pri zavodnenii (Modeling the oxidation process of residual oil during waterflooding), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1988, 88 p.

7. Klinchev V.A., Zatsepin V.V., Ushakova A.S., Telyshev S.V., Laboratory studies and implementation of in-situ combustion initiation technology for air injection process in the oil reservoirs, SPE-171244-MS, 2014,

8. Petrova L.M., Abbakumova N.A., Foss T.R., Romanov G.V., Structural features of asphaltene and petroleum resin fractions (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2011, V. 51, no. 4, pp. 262-266, DOI:

9. Leon O., Rogel E., Espidel J., Torres G., Asphaltenes: structural characterization, self-association, and stability behavior, Energy & Fuels, 2000, V. 14, pp. 610, DOI:
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-108-110

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D.R. Ardislamova(RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), K.R. Kadyrova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.I. Sypchenko (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.I. Fedorov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.S. Khabirov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.V. Siniakov (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara), B.O. Mikhailov
Using clustering methods in hydraulic fracturing modeling

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, well logging, geomechanical modelling, machine learning, clustering, mechanical facies

Using lithology to average the properties of rock is a general approach in the construction of mechanical properties models. At the same time, lithotype is a kind of classification that does not use elastic properties of rocks directly. In this paper, clustering algorithms are considered for constructing mechanical facies models. Acoustic logging data is used as a basis for clustering. The clustering procedure is performed in the space of dynamic elastic modules and leads to the vertical stratification of the formation onto layers with similar acoustic properties. As the basis, authors use popular machine learning algorithms, which provide the necessary control (selection of the number of clusters, automatic calculation of the number of clusters) and the determinism of the solution. In addition, a voting method based on all the standard algorithms used is implemented. The clustering algorithms are implemented in the RN-SIGMA software as a separate module. One practical example shows the effect of the minimum allowable thickness of the interlayers on the clustering result. The results of clustering by mechanical facies are compared with the results of constructing a mechanical model based on lithology, general properties and differences are shown. Based on the constructed clustering model, calculations of hydraulic fracturing design for Domanic deposits were carried out. The influence of discretization method on the result of the design is shown. In addition, it is shown that the design calculation time is significantly reduced when clustering is used compared to the uniform discretization of the calculated grid by height. Using the clustering tool allows the engineer to either reduce the calculation time of a specific hydraulic fracturing design, or increase its accuracy by increasing the sampling without increasing the calculation time.


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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-112-117

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A.R. Bikmetova (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), G.F. Asalkhuzina (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), A.Ya. Davletbaev (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa University of Science and Technology, RF, Ufa), V.A. Shtinov (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), G.A. Makeev (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), V.P. Miroshnichenko (RN-Yuganskneftegas, LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk), G.A. Schutsky (RN-Yuganskneftegas, LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk), A.V. Sergeichev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Estimating parameters in the horizontal wells with multistage fracturing using reservoir modeling and tracer analysis

In the context of low-permeable reservoirs development, the ports efficiency evaluation during multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells is an urgent task. One of the methods for assessing the inflow profile along a horizontal wellbore is tracer analysis with the placement of several types of tracers in the intervals of hydraulic fracturing ports (stages). This paper describes the steps for creating a hydrodynamic model in the RN-KIM enterprise software package and model matching to the results of tracer analysis, where several types of tracer were injected during each stage of hydraulic fracturing. Preliminary estimates of reservoir and well completion parameters are presented by decline analysis in the RN-VEGA enterprise software package for well testing interpretation. The results obtained from the decline analysis were used as an initial approximation for matching of the hydrodynamic model to the curves of changes of the concentration of the carried tracer (tracer fluid) for each stage of hydraulic fracturing. This approach made it possible to quickly match the hydrodynamic model to the well dynamic operation data. The tracer concentration curves for each hydraulic fracturing stage were used to estimate the individual parameters of each fracture. The results of these studies can be used to assess the feasibility of performing selective well interventions in individual wells and planning them in order to increase the well productivity.


1. Kaludzher Z., Toropov K.V., Murtazin R.R. et al., Comparison of field-geophysical and tracer methods to control the inflow profile in horizontal wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 9, pp. 3841, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-9-38-41

2. Kolupaev D., Uchuev R., Bikkulov M. et al., Selection of optimum monitoring technique for wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing on Priobskoe oilfield (In Russ.), SPE-191564-18RPTC-MS, 2018, DOI:

3. Shtun' S.Yu., Sen'kov A.A., Abramenko O.I. et al., The Comparison of Inflow Profiling Technologies for ERD wells including PLT, fiber optics DTS, stationary chemical tracers: A case study from the Caspian offshore Yuri Korchagin field in Russia (In Russ.), SPE-188985-MS, 2017, DOI:10.2118/188985-MS

4. Dulkarnaev M., Ovchinnikov K., Novikov I., Malyavko E., Contemporary technologies of production logging in horizontal wells as a tool for oil and gas fields digitalization (In Russ.), SPE-138358-RU, 2019, DOI:

5. Badykov I.Kh., Baykov V.A., Borshchuk O.S., The software package "RN-KIM" as a tool for hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon deposits (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2015, no. 4, pp. 96103.

6. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.Ya., Il'yasov A.M. et al., Pressure drop analysis before and after fracture closure for test injections before main fracturing treatment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 4145.

7. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Primery issledovaniy i monitoringa gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh s mnogostadiynymi GRP v nizkopronitsaemykh neftyanykh i gazovykh plastakh (Examples of studies and monitoring of horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in tight oil and gas reservoirs), Proceedings of Scientific and technical conference Geofizicheskie i promyslovye issledovaniya gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (Geophysical and field surveys of horizontal wells), Petergof, 2223 April 2015.

8. Shel E., Paderin G., Kabanova P., Retrospective analysis of hydrofracturing with the dimensionless parameters: comparing design and transient tests (In Russ.),

SPE-191707-18RPTC-MS, 2018, DOI:

9. Li K., Gao Y., Lyu Y., Wang M., New mathematical models for calculating proppant embedment and fracture conductivity, SPE-155954-PA, 2015, DOI:

10. Pimenov A.A., Kanevskaya R.D., Mathematical modeling of proppant embedment and its effect on conductivity of hydraulic fracture (In Russ.), SPE-187934-MS, 2017, DOI:

11. Davletbaev A.Ya., Mukhametova Z.S., Simulation of the injection of a liquid into a well in a payout bed with hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2019, V. 92, no. 4, pp. 10741082.

12. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 3540.

13. Certificate of
state registration of computer programs no. 2017663444, Modul' RExLab 2017 PK
RN-KIM (Module RExLab 2017 for PC RN-KIM), Authors: Borshchuk O.S.,
Sergeychev A.V., Solov'ev D.E., Knutova S.R.,
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-118-121

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E.V. Yudin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.N. Gorbacheva (Gazpromneft Digital Solutions LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), N.. Smirnov (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Modeling and optimization of wells operating modes under annular flow conditions

Keywords: annular flow conditions, wells management at current capacities

When artificial lift well operating with a high gas saturation of oil, a flowing mode may occurs through the annular space, due to the inability of the submersible pump to ensure the pumping of the entire produced volume of the gas-liquid mixture. To analyze and optimize the operation of these wells mathematical model and a software module are created. The mathematical model is a system of one-dimensional differential equations. Modeling of the system is divided into three components: the section from the bottomhole to the reception of submersible equipment, the tube and the annulus. The liquid division factor is calculated, on which the volume of liquid entering the annulus depends. The coefficient is calculated by solving the optimization problem for each downhole pressure under consideration. The developed mathematical model is implemented as a software module that allows to get a complete picture of the processes occurring in the well. The module allows to analyze the presence of flowing through the annulus, as well as the distribution of flows and pressures in the tube and annular space of the well for the initial data of interest. Based on the developed model, a functional for optimizing the operating modes of such wells is implemented, which allows determining the optimal control actions on the well to achieve the selected optimization criterion. A comparative analysis of the calculation results using the developed model and commercial software for modeling unsteady multiphase flows, as well as with data from bench studies and field operation, was carried out.

The developed model does not require an additional initial data beyond the standard set of information maintained by field operator. This allows automating the processes of model creation and adaptation.


1. Brill J.P.,Beggs H.D., Two-phase flow in pipes, Oklahoma: U. of Tulsa, 1991.

2. Ansari A.M. et at., A comprehensive mechanistic model for upward two-phase flow in wellbores, SPE-20630-PA, 1994, DOI:

3. Gray H.E., Vertical flow correlation in gas wells: Users manual for API 14B surface controlled subsurface safety valve sizing computer program, 2nd Edition, Dallas: American Petroleum Institute, 1978.

4. Hasan A.R., Kabir C.S., Two-phase flow in vertical and inclined annuli, Intl. J. Multiphase Flow, 1992, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 279-293, DOI:

5. Marquez R.A., Prado M.G., A new correlation for predicting natural separation efficiency, Texas: Lubbock Memorial Civic Centre, 2003.

6. Goridko K., Kobzar O., Verbitsky V., Khabibullin R., Analysis of self flowing through annulus of wells operated with electric submersible pumps, western and Eastern Siberia fields cases (In Russ.), SPE-201878-MS, 2020, DOI: 10.2118/201878-RU.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-122-126

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E.S. Batyrshin (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), R.R. Sharipov (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), M.G. Volkov (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Zhonin (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), S.I. Sypchenko (RN-BashNIPIneft, LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Pestrikov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.N. Serdyuk (RN-Yuganskneftegas, LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk)
Rheological features of guar gum based cross-linked fracturing gels

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, rheology, viscosity, cross-linked gel, thixotropy

Cross-linked guar gels are the most widely used hydraulic fracturing fluids. The selection of a composition allows to obtain a fluid with desired properties most of them concerns fluid rheological behavior. The hydraulic fracturing fluid must have minimal friction losses during pipe flow, it must ensure the creation of a fracture with the required geometry, ensure the transport and distribution of proppant particles along the fracture, and finally, after completion of the hydraulic fracturing, the viscosity of the fluid must significantly decrease for effective fracture cleaning. At the same time, despite the fact that cross-linked gels are systems with well-developed three-dimensional inner structure, it is standard practice to use the simple power dependence to describe their rheological behavior that relates the shear stress with the shear rate.

The article presents the results of studying the rheology of hydraulic fracturing guar gels using the pipe rheometry method, as well as the results of visualization of flows in a rectangular slot channel. The results clearly show the thixotropic behaviour of cross-linked guar gels during the flow of in the range of shear rates typical for hydraulic fracturing. It has been reveald that the steady flow curves of cross-linked gels are nonmonotonic. Dependences of the rheological characteristics of gels on the shear history are obtained. Flow visualization shows that the flow structure of linear and cross-linked gels is qualitatively different. The results of the study indicate the imperfection of the standard rheological model of gels, which can lead to an incorrect result during hydraulic fracturing simulation.


1. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.

2. ISO 13503-1:2011. Petroleum and natural gas industries Completion fluids and materials. Part 1: Measurement of viscous properties of completion fluids.

3. Malkin A.Ya., Isaev A.I., Reologiya. Kontseptsii, metody, prilozheniya (Rheology. Concepts, methods and applications), Moscow: Professiya Publ., 2010, 560 p.

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6. Vernigora D. et al., New fracturing fluid viscosity model to cure power law mistakes (In Russ.), SPE-202064-MS, 2020, DOI:

7. Ustanovka dlya izucheniya transporta propanta i zhidkostey GRP PIK-FL (Installation for studying the transport of proppant and hydraulic fracturing fluids PIK-FL), URL:

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DOI: 10.2118/9334-PA

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-127-131

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A.V. Churakov (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.N. Pichugin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids as an alternative to guar-based reagents

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, well, guar gum, guar, gel, synthetic gel, polyacrylamide, friction reducer, hydraulic fracturing fluid

The article deals with a question related to the prospects of hydraulic fracturing on the territory of the Russian Federation in the current unstable market situation. One of the key directions in solving these problems is a partial departure from the classical guar fracturing fluid to synthetic polyacrylate systems. This is facilitated by the need for alternative technologies to minimize risks in case of changes in the guar cost on the world market. A special place is given to the experience of Gazprom Neft PJSC in the direction of the development of hydraulic fracturing technologies on polyacrylamide. Authors cite historical information on the global use of synthetic polymers in the field of well stimulation and Company's internal experience. Authors show how the technology, initially designed for unconventional deposits stimulation, can be adopted to the conditions of conventional terrigenous reservoirs. The article considers a set of solutions for adapting the technology, evaluating its effectiveness in comparison with standard hydraulic fracturing operations on guar gum in similar geological conditions, as well as technological possibilities for increasing the economic effect of the use of synthetic polymers on various water sources. Generalized analytical results presented in the article on working with synthetic systems, confirmed by practical application in the conditions of conventional formations in Western Siberia, make it possible to withdraw a technological solution from a niche area to them be used to in conditions of stimulation of traditional formations. From an economic point of view, the availability of alternative fracturing fluid systems will make it possible to level volatility in the event of an increase in prices for guar gum.


1. Dzyubenko N.I., Dzyubenko E.A., Potokina E.K., Bulyntsev S.V., Clusterbeans Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. - Properties, use, plant genetic resources and expected introduction in Russia (In Russ.), Sel'skokhozyaystvennaya biologiya, 2017, V. 52, no. 6, pp. 11161128, DOI: 10.15389/agrobiology.2017.6.1116rus

2. Weijers L., Wright ., Mayerhofer . et al., Trends in the North American frac industry: Invention through the shale revolution, SPE-194345-MS, 2019, DOI:

3. Churakov A.V., Pichugin M.N., Fayzullin I.G. et al., Non-guar synthetic hydraulic fracturing gels successful concept of choice (In Russ.), SPE-202057-RU, 2020, DOI:

4. Churakov A.V., Pichugin M.N., Gaynetdinov R.R. et al., Hydraulic fracturing on water from alternative sources: an integrated approach, ways, and solutions, SPE-206634-MS, 2021, DOI:

5. Pichugin M.N., Chistye zhidkosti. Tekhnologicheskie aspekty polevogo primeneniya (Pure liquids. Technological aspects of field application), Proceedings of online symposium SPE GRP v Rossii. Opyt i perspektivy (Hydraulic fracturing in Russia. Experience and prospects), 22-24 September, 2020.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-132-134

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A.G. Akhmadeev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), Pham Thanh Vinh (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), Le Dang Tam (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), K.A. Akhmadeeva (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Vietsovpetro JV experience in cleaning the underwater pipelines

Keywords: oil treatment and transportation, high-paraffin oil, offshore field, marine stationary platform, wellhead platform, floating storage and offloading unit, pipeline corrosion, cleaning pigs, pig launcher/receiver

Vietsovpetro JV, the leading oil company in Vietnam, has been producing hydrocarbons on the shelf of the South China Sea for more than 40 years. The oil produced at the Vietsovpetro fields is mainly highly paraffinic with a paraffin content of up to 25% and a pour point of up to 34 . Subsea pipelines are laid on the seabed at a depth of about 50 m and are constantly in operation. As of 2022, the number of oil pipelines at the fields is 69 lines with a total length of 313.3 km. The total length of gas and gas lift pipelines is 312 km, pipelines of water injection system - 167 km. Most oil pipelines have a long service life and are not thermally insulated. This circumstance creates the preconditions for paraffin deposits formation. There are several types of deposits that form in pipeline systems: solid deposits of wax, gradually formed in non-thermal insulated pipelines during the transportation of hot oil; soft deposits and stagnant zones formed during the transport of low-performance oil with a temperature close to the pour point; inorganic deposits formed in oil and gas pipelines (iron oxides, salt deposits, clay and rocks). In addition, due to a decrease in production, the speed of products transport has decreased, and the water cut has increased, which leads to precipitation of free water and the intensification of corrosion. There is an urgent need for periodic cleaning and in-line diagnostics of pipelines, which is complicated by the fact that most pipelines are not equipped with cleaning and diagnostic tools. The article covers various methods of cleaning pipelines used in Vietsovpetro JV, including alternative methods, which, although do not guarantee complete removal of deposits, allow restoring the productivity of the pipeline and ensuring safe transportation of products. This is the application of solvents - condensate and compressate, flushing with water and purging with gas, as well as combined methods. The greatest effect is achieved when cleaning using mechanical and gel pigs. Specifics of offshore oil and gas production and transport (difficulty in installing pumps, sharp turn angles of pipelines, the presence of large vertical risers up to 70 m high, etc.) do not allow completely copying the mechanical cleaning technologies used onshore. The adaptation and implementation of these technologies in relation to the conditions of offshore fields is being successfully carried out.


1. Nguyen Thuc Khang, Tong Canh Son, Akhmadeev A.G., Le Dinʹ Khoe, Bezopasnyy transport vysokoparafinistykh neftey morskikh mestorozhdeniy v usloviyakh nizkoy proizvoditel'nosti (Secure transport of high-paraffin oil of offshore fields in conditions of low productivity), Proceedings of XX Petersburg International Energy Forum, St. Petersburg, 2010, pp. 154157.

2. Akhmadeev A.G., Tong Canh Son, Pham Thanh Vinh, Subsea pipelines cleaning technologies in the absence of the possibility of using pigging devices (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 124127.

3. Tong Canh Son, Akhmadeev A.G., Le Dinh Hoe, Ivanov S.A., Vosstanovlenie propusknoy sposobnosti morskogo podvodnogo nefteprovoda (Reduction of marine underwater pipeline capacity), Proceedings of the conference Problemy i metody obespecheniya nadezhnosti i bezopasnosti sistem transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Problems and methods of ensuring safety and security of oil, oil products and gas transportation systems), Ufa, 2010, pp. 133134.

4. Nguyen Lam Anh, Le Dang Tam, Nguyen Van Thiet et al., Optimising the operation of pipelines equipped with pigging system for transporting crude oil with high paraffin content, Petrovietnam Journal, 2022, no. 2, pp. 12-18, DOI:

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-135-138

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V.M. Varshitskii (The Pipeline Transport Institute, RF, Moscow), V.I. Surikov (The Pipeline Transport Institute, RF, Moscow), O.A. Kozyrev (The Pipeline Transport Institute, RF, Moscow)
Annular crack growth stability in an underground pipeline

Keywords: pipeline, oil pipeline, annular crack, analytical solution, finite element method

Along curved sections of underground pipelines, in the parent metal of pipes and in butt welds, there may be annular defects. When making a decision on the need for and priority of the repair of a section with an annular defect, the assessment of the hazard associated with such defects is especially important. The hazard of a defect is mainly determined by the amount of damage that can be caused if the defect opens up. The amount of damage, among other factors, significantly depends on the opening size of a through crack. The maximum opening occurs when a crack propagates over the entire cross section (the so-called "guillotine" failure). Experience shows that if a pipeline fails due to its annular defect or if an underground pipeline loaded mainly by bending is defect-free, a through crack most commonly occurs with a small opening (a leak).

The paper describes the conditions for the stable growth of through annular cracks in an underground pipeline along its sections with non-design axis curvature in case of the pipeline deformation loading mainly by bending. These conditions are analyzed depending on the initial crack half-length, critical crack tip opening, geometric parameters of pipes and mechanical properties of pipeline metal, bending radius of the pipeline axis, and mechanical properties of the soil. The growth pattern of a through annular crack is described using the concept of plastic crack tip opening displacement and its critical value. The paper shows that under conditions of deformation loading of an underground pipeline mainly by bending, a through annular crack, which develops from a surface defect due to its growth until breakage of the bridge between the defect tip and the pipeline surface, does not always propagate unstably around the circumference and results in a rupture of the pipeline at its full cross section. To confirm the adequacy of the model used to describe the deformation of a pipeline with an annular through crack in the limit state in the absence of crack growth, we have performed computer simulation of the elastic-plastic stress-strain state of a pipeline with an annular through cut. Examples of calculation using the model proposed are given.


1. Varshitskiy V.M., Kozyrev O.A., Bogach A.A., Limit state of pipeline with circumferential defect (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktovScience & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, no. 4, pp. 408-416, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2019-9-4-408-416

2. Makhnenko V.I., Shekera V.M., Velikoivanenko E.A. et al., Analysis of conditions causing initiation and propagation of corrosion cracks in zones of circumferential joints on main gas pipelines (In Russ.), Avtomaticheskaya svarka, 2009, no. 5, pp. 5-11.

3. Cakiroglu C., Duke K., El-Rich M. et al., Influence of girth weld flaw and pipe parameters on the critical longitudinal strain of steel pipes, Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference. Volume 3: Materials and Joining. Calgary, Alberta, Canada, September 2428 2012, pp. 671-678, DOI:

4. Su Hu, Dr Tyson W.R., Duan D., Technical background of the update of ECA procedures in CSA Z662, The journal pipeline engineering, 2015, 2nd Quarter.

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7. Hauch S., Bai Y., Bending moment capacity of groove corroded pipes, The Proceedings of the Tenth (2000) International offshore and polar engineering conference, 2000, V. II, pp. 253-262.

8. Tyson W.R., Xu S., Ward I. et al., ECA by failure assessment diagram: Case studies, Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference, Volume 3: Materials and Joining. Calgary, Alberta, Canada, September 2428, 2012, pp. 139-147, DOI:

9. Zahoor A., Kanninen M.F., A plastic fracture mechanics prediction of fracture instability in a circumferentially cracked pipe in bending. Part I: J-Integral Analysis, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 1981, V. 103, no. 4, pp. 352-358, DOI:10.1115/1.3263413

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11. Aynbinder A.B., Raschet magistral'nykh i promyslovykh truboprovodov na prochnost' i ustoychivost' (Calculation of main and field pipelines for strength and stability), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 287 p.

12. Varshitskiy V.M., Studenov E.P., Figarov E.N., Kozyrev O.A., Elastic-plastic bending of the pipeline under combined loading (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktovScience & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2021, no. 4, pp. 372-377, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2021-11-4-372-377

13. Varshitskiy V.M.,
Zhulidov S.N., Engineering evaluation of the performance of defect-free girth
welds of underground pipelines in areas with nonnormative axis curvature (In
Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i
nefteproduktovScience & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline
Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 5, pp. 490-495, DOI:
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-139-143

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