|OIL & GAS INDUSTRY|
|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The Middle Carboniferous section in the area of research includes the deposits of Podolskian, Kashirskskian, Vereiskian formations of the Moscovian and the Bashkirian stages, all of them are characterized as highly promising in terms of future exploration and production. The research is aimed to develop a new framework of lithological and petrophysical criteria for characterization of the main rock types. The workflow includes thorough analysis of the results fr om the extended set of core studies and tests such as lithology and petrographic descriptions, profile measurements on the whole core and detailed investigations of core plugs. The rock types are identified from a representative collection of samples which includes all the stratigraphic units of the Middle Carboniferous with maximum areal coverage of the study area in the north-west of Bashkortostan wh ere this play is proved productive and widespread. Under the scope of the research new approaches to petrographic description of the rock types are defined and the obtained results are used to adjust the available dataset and identify certain features within the known lithotypes which control the formation of the void space within the rock. The inferred textural and structural features of the identified lithotypes are also supported by the results of CT core scanning. Such approach to rock characterization helps to define critical petrophysical properties of the studied rocks as well as to set out criteria for their identification from well logs. The paper presents the findings from the detailed lithological and petrographic study of each target stratigraphic unit in the Middle Carboniferous section and the main criteria for their petrophysical characterization.
1. Zoloeva G.M., Farmanova N.V., Tsareva N.V. et al., Izuchenie karbonatnykh kollektorov metodami promyslovoy geofiziki (The study of carbonate reservoirs by the methods of field geophysics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 183 p.
2. Aliev M.M., Yarikov G.M., Khachatryan R.O., Kamennougol'nye otlozheniya Volgo-Ural'skoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Carboniferous deposits of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 262 p.
3. Proshlyakov B.K., Kuznetsov V.G., Litologiya (Lithology), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 444 p.
4. Tyurikhin A.M., Masagutov R.Kh., Vliyanie strukturno-fatsial'nykh usloviy i epigeneza na formirovanie kollektorov kizelovskogo gorizonta Yuzhno-Tatarskogo svoda (The influence of structural-facies conditions and epigenesis on the formation of the collectors of the Kizelov horizon of the South Tatar arch), Ufa, 1997, 206 p.
5. Vissarionova A.Ya., Stratigrafiya i fatsii sredne-nizhnekamennougol'nykh otlozheniy Bashkirii i ikh neftenosnost' (Stratigraphy and facies of the Middle-Lower Carboniferous deposits of Bashkiria and its oil content), Moscow: Gospoptekhizdat Publ., 1959, 222 p.
6. Lozin E.V., Masagutov R.Kh., Minkaev V.N., Stroenie i evolyutsiya osadochnogo chekhla platformennoy Bashkirii v svyazi s zakonomernostyami razmeshcheniya zalezhey nefti i gaza (The structure and evolution of the sedimentary cover of the platform Bashkiria in connection with the regularities of oil and gas deposits location), Ufa, 1989, 338 p.
7. Dobrynin V.M., Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)), Moscow: Neft' i gaz, 2004, 369 p.
8. Dakhnov V.N., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya kollektorskikh svoystv i neftegazonasyshcheniya gornykh porod (Geophysical methods for determining reservoir properties and oil and gas saturation of rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 343 p.
9. Bulgakov R.B., Ishbulatova R.Kh., Privalova O.R., O dostovernosti dannykh laboratornogo analiza kerna kak petrofizicheskoy osnovy interpretatsii GIS (On the reliability of the data of the core laboratory analysis as the foundations of petrophysical log interpretation), Proceedings of nauchnogo simpoziuma “Novye geofizicheskie tekhnologii dlya neftegazovoy promyshlennosti” (New geophysical technologies for the oil and gas industry), Ufa, 2002, 83 p.
10. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza ob’emnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersil’e V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow – Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003, 261 p.
11. Itenberg S.S., Shnurman G.A., Interpretatsiya rezul'tatov karotazha slozhnykh kollektorov (Interpretation of complex reservoirs logging data), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 374 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Rock wettability and its transformation in the process of formation and development of oil deposits is a crucial factor influencing fluid content and many aspects of reservoir performance, especially during water flooding and application of enhanced oil recovery techniques. The concept of saturation of the complex carbonate reservoir with the variable wettability is presented. This concept is applied to the Kizelovsky horizon of Tuymazinskoye field. The results of analysis of the geophysical characteristics show that the cross section is divided into three geological units with significantly different values of the electrical resistivity. By means of joint analysis of core examination and geophysical well logging it is demonstrated that zones of the low-resistivity geological unit are chiefly characterized by hydrophilic type of rock wettability, while limestone of the high-resistivity geological unit – by hydrophobic. Oil saturation model is designed with the assistance of field data and core data based on the capillary gravitational equilibrium concept taking into account variable rock wettability. The results of the relative permeability experiments together with information about the initial water cut of well production, in correspondence with geological unit and perforation depth, allow to identify initial saturation distribution in reservoir.
The presented approach to the creating of the saturation model enables to consider previously ignored factors that affect the efficiency of the reservoir pressure maintenance system and recovery of reserves of particular areas, such as the electrical resistivity of the geological units, the presence of bridges between them, etc. In particular, the identification of the thick lower unit with high water saturation makes it possible to explain the reasons of watering rates of the production wells. Development of detailed reservoir simulation model, that takes into account the presence of three geological units with the variable wettability, helps to clarify the distribution of oil reserves, adequately perform history matching, predict well performance and improve the recovery of reserves.
1. Morozov V.P., Kozina E.A., Karbonatnye porody turneyskogo yarusa nizhnego karbona (Carbonate rocks of Tournaisian stage of Lower Carboniferous), Kazan’: Gart Publ., 2007, 201 p.
2. Gudok N.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Martynov V.G., Opredelenie fizicheskikh svoystv neftevodosoderzhashchikh porod (Determination of the physical properties of oil-and- water-containing rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 592 p.
3. Anderson W.G., Wettability literature survey, SPE 13932, 13933, 13934, 15271, 16323, 16471.
4. Cuiec L., Rock/crude-oil interactions and wettability: an attempt to understand their interrelation, SPE 13211, 1984.
5. Gurbatova I.P., Kuz’min V.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Influence of pore space structure on the scale effect in studying permeability storage capacity of complicatedly built carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 2, pp. 74–82.
6. Terent'ev V.Yu., Gurbatova I.P., D'yakonova T.F. et al., Features of the development of carbonate rocks with mixed wettability and determination of the initial oil saturation coefficient on the example of the Timan-Pechora province fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 86–90.
7. Tiab D., Donaldson E C., Petrophysics: theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport, Elsevier Inc., 2004, 926 p.
8. Kelleher H.A., Braun E.M., Milligan B.E. et al., Wettability restoration in cores contaminated by fatty acid emulsifiers, Petrophysics, 2008, V. 49, no. 1, pp. 49–55.
9. Gant P.L., Anderson W.G., Core cleaning for restoration of native wettability, SPE 14875, 1988.
10. Kaminsky R., Radke C.J., Asphaltenes, water films, and wettability reversal, SPE 39087-1997.
11. Skopec R.A., Proper coring and wellsite core handling procedures: the first step toward reliable core analysis, SPE 28153, 1994.
12. Kanevskaya R.D., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie gidrodinamicheskikh protsessov razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of exploitation of hydrocarbons), Izhevsk: Institut komp'yuternykh issledovaniy, 2002, 140 p.
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The paper presents the chromatographic analysis used for correlation of oils. The method was developed and implemented on the basis of the known geochemical methods: the Erdman-Morris method and oil fingerprinting method. The first method gave the idea of using the relationship of hydrocarbons concentrations of gasoline fractions of oil, similar by chemical structure and boiling temperatures. The second method showed the opportunity to calculate any relations of any components or component pairs well-separated on the chromatogram and the method of graphical representation of results. The results of the chromatographic analysis are represented as star diagrams. The calculated values of ratios of the components or components pairs in oil samples are plotted on the axis.
The chromatographic method allowed typing of oils of complex structure oil fields – R. Trebs and A. Titov oil fields. Oil samples from the main object of R. Trebs oil field (ovinparm horizon – D1op) were identical. With the exceptions of two wells are probably on isolated areas of the field. The D1op horizon of A. Titov oil field is divided into two blocks. These blocks are geographically located in different parts of the field. The similarities and differences between these oil fields observed in chromatographic method are consistent with the results of physico-chemical and PVT properties.
By chromatographic method were also made the calculations for the allocation of production to individual zones in two-layer wells of Sorovskoye oil field. For oil wells, working on an individual layer, the ratios of the components or components pairs were determined. Using these values as markers there was made the calculation of the contribution of each layer in oil production for wells operating on two layers. The results are of good reproducibility for the selected at different times oils from the same well.
The proposed chromatographic method of oil correlations proved to rapid and informative method for establishing genetic relationship of oils, belonging oil to a single reservoir or common source of migration. The method can be applied to any oil fields provided marked differences in the component composition of the gasoline fractions of oils end allowed sampling separately from each layer (the presence of one-layer wells for each object of oil production).
1. Dakhnova M.V., Application of geochemical investigations for exploration, prospecting and development of hydrocacbons fields (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2007, no. 2, pp. 82–89.
2. Halpern H.I., Development and applications of light-hydrocarbon-based star diagrams, AAPG Bulletin, 1995, V .79(6), pp. 801–815.
3. Kaufman R.L., Ahmed A.S., Hempkins W.B., A new technique for the analysis of commingled oils and its application to production allocation calculations, Proceedings of 16th Annual Indonesian Petro. Assoc., 1987, Paper IPA 87-23/21, pp. 247–268.
4. Hunt J., Petroleum geochemistry and geology, W.H.Freeman and Company, New York,1995, 743 p.
5. Novichkova E.V., Korrelyatsiya obraztsov nefti mestorozhdeniya im. R. Trebsa po detal'nomu analizu benzinovykh fraktsiy (po metodu Erdmana i Morrisa) (Correlation of oil samples of the R. Trebs field for a detailed analysis of gasoline fractions (according to the Erdman and Morris's method)), Proceedings of scientific and technical conference of young scientists of BashNIPIneft' LLC, Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2013, pp. 9–10.6. Soboleva E.V., Guseva A.N., Khimiya goryuchikh iskopaemykh (Chemistry of fossil fuels), Publ. of MSU, 2010, 312 p.
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The article proposes a new approach to developing carbonate deposits of Tournaisian stage. The approach is to determine hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir based on lithology and facial analysis. The approach is implemented on Znamenskoye oil-field, where main deposits are situated in Tournaisian layers. Historically, the layer was drilled by directional wells along a triangular grid with the distance of 400 m between the downholes. The analysis shows a significant difference in operation modes of directional wells. Detailed analysis shows that well operation modes depend on lithofacies variability of the layer. According to the results of the lithofacies analysis it was established that the maximum well productivity is provided by the void space of the porous reservoir. It was also shown that the void space of the reservoir consists of several petrophysical classes, which are characterized by their own petrophysical functions. As an example we considered an area characterized by a low rate of reserves recovery. For this area lithofacies analysis was carried out to determine hydrodynamic characteristics the. Based on results of the sector simulation of the area and the analysis of lithofacies maps, recommendations for wells drilling and completion are given. The article shows the actual implementation of industrial works on drilling horizontal wells according to the lithofacies analysis, it is preferable to drill horizontal wells. Drilling results show their high efficiency. It is also established that the watering of horizontal wells is more appropriate. The realization of proposed approach helped to significantly increase the reserves recovery rate. Further selection of wells on Znamenskoye oil field is currently being conducted.
1. Kudayarova A.R., Rykus M.V., Kondrat'eva N.R. et al., Methods of geological and hydrodynamic modeling tournaisian carbonate deposits of Znamenskoye field (the Republic of Bashkortostan) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 18-20.
2. Kudayarova A.R., Rykus M.V., Dushin A.S., Sedimentation models and petrophysical properties of Upper Tournaisian carbonate deposits of the South-Tatar arch of platform Bashkiria (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, V. 14, no. 1, pp. 20-29.3. Lucia F.J., Carbonate reservoir characterization: an integrated approach, Springer, 2007, 336 p.
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Devonian layer terrigenous deposits reserves recovery status was carried out. It is shown that, as a result of long-time development processes, the residual reserves have localized in the roof part of monolithic benches, or in low permeability benches and interlayers. These results are verified by the oil saturation assessment during the operation drilling and the stock restoring by sidetracking. The 80 drilled into the D2ps Tuymazinskoye deposit wells’ operation records show that the initial oil recovery does not exceed 5-6 t/24h and the initial water-cut is more than 85 per cent. The cause of the low production rate is coning, i.e. raising the water-oil sector surface along the borehole axis. In order to assess contact or floating area's size impact on the basic parameters of the reserves recovery, the D2ml Tuymazinskoye oil field Devonian layer terrigenous deposits reservoir compartments having a different floating zone share in the site area recovery analysis has been made. The resulting dependence of the oil recovery factor on the contact space areas shows that the zones with the maximum size contact areas are characterized by low oil recovery factor and poor recovery efficiency. It is shown that, for the floating areas, the recovery is characterized by unfavorably high initial water cut values and its intensive growth in oil recovery range of 0.1 to 0.3. The high accumulated floating areas water-oil ratio tends to be accompanied by high oil well water-cut and a high watering time of the recovered product from the beginning of the site development. To obtain the residual oil reserves higher recovery, a technology has been developed to extract oil reserves from the roofing area, which is based on the phased formation drilling. Multiple regression equations have been worked out to calculate the oil cone formation periods and the subsequent water cone formation period in the contact areas, depending on the reservoir geological and physical parameters and the rate of fluid withdrawals.
1. Permyakov I.G., Razrabotka Tuymazinskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Development of the Tuymazinskoye oil field), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat, 1959, 214 p.
2. Krylov V.A., Osobennosti konusoobrazovaniya pri razrabotke mesto-rozhdeniy nefti i metody bor'by s nimi (Features of coning in oil field development and methods of combating its): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2003.
3. Lapuk B.B., Brudno A.L., Somov B.E., O konusakh podoshvennoy vody v neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniyakh (On cones of bottom water in oil and gas fields), Collected papers “Opyt razrabotki neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy” (Experience in the oil and gas fields development), Moscow: Publ. of Gostoptekhizdat, 1963, pp. 422–429.
4. Telkov A.P., Steklyanin Yu.I., Obrazovanie konusov vody pri dobyche nefti i gaza (Formation of water cones in oil and gas production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1965, 164 p.
5. Shchelkachev V.N., Zoloev T.M., Mikhaylovskiy N.K., Nekotorye osobennosti peremeshcheniya granitsy mezhdu neft'yu i vodoy pri zakonturnomzavodnenii v pologozalegayushchikh plastakh (Some peculiarities of the movement of the boundary between oil and water in the marginal waterflooding in flat layers), Proceedings of MOI, 1953, V. 12, pp. 126–139.
6. Kadyrov R.R., Nizaev R.Kh., Yartiev A.F., Mukhametshin V.V., A novel water shut-off technique for horizontal wells at fields with hard-to-recover oil reserves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 5, pp. 44–47.
7. Ekrann S., On the protection against coning provided by horizontal barriers of limited lateral extent, Proceedings of the 6th European JOR-Symposium in Stavanger, 1991, Norway, May 21–23.
8. Patent no. 2178517 RF, MPK 7 E21V43/16, Method of oil pool development at late stage, Inventors: Yakupov R.F., Gaynullin K.Kh., Razgonyaev N.F., Gabdrakhmanov N.Kh., Yakupov F.M.9. Berezin V.M., Fazovye pronitsaemosti produktivnykh peschanikov dlya nefti i vody (Phase permeabilities of productive sandstones for oil and water), Proceedings of UfNII, 1967, V. KhVII, pp. 30–41.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
R. Trebs oil field is characterized by deep oil pay zones (3677-4144 m), multilayer complex structure and high temperature of about 93°C at the bottom. During development it is observed a significant reservoir pressure drop. Thus, the values of initial pressure differences between layers reached 5 MPa. Such factors along with high fracture carbonate reservoir leads to a large volume of killing fluid loss and the risk of gas shows during repairing the wells. Considering all these facts we chose the well killing technologies and pilot testing of them to reduce non-productive volumes of killing fluid and ensure reservoir protection fr om negative impact of aqueous solutions for specific geological and physical conditions of R. Trebs oil fields. It was justified the necessity of using blocking compounds on the basis of a temperature-stable invert emulsions and guar-based polymer systems. Based on research results we made the rating of blocking compounds wh ere together with their blocking properties we considered the possibility of forced destruction of installed pack, easy transportation, storage and preparation in field conditions, and fire and explosion safety. After ranging the compounds for pilot testing, we selected the technology using gel-forming reagent on guar basis and emulsifier to form invert water-oil emulsions. During the test we could prevent oil and gas shows, and eliminate unproductive consumption of well killing fluid. Data analysis was developed into recommendations for industrial application of the tested reagents for well killing at R. Trebs oil fields.
1. Zaripov S.Z., Shveyntsvet L.I., Merdyashev V.I., Primenenie zhidkostey dlya zadavlivaniya skvazhin pri ikh remonte (Application of fluids for crushing wells during their repair), Obzornaya informatsiya VNIIOENG. Seriya "Neftepromyslovoe delo" (Overview by VNIIOENG. Series "Oilfield business"), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1981.
2. Umetbaev V.G., Merzlyakov V.F., Volochkov N.S., Kapital'nyy remont skvazhin (Workover), Publ. of ANK “Bashneft'”, 2000, 424 p.
3. Mavlyutov M.R., Polkanova A.V., Nigmatullina A.G. et al., Fiziko-khimicheskaya kol'matatsiya istinnymi rastvorami v burenii (Physico-chemical colmatation by molecular solution in drilling), Obzornaya informatsiya VIEMS. Seriya “Tekhnika, tekhnologiya i organizatsiya geologo-razvedochnykh rabot” (Overview by VIEMS. Series " Technique, technology and organization of geological exploration"), Moscow: Publ. of VIEMS, 1990.
4. Orlov G.A., Kendis M.Sh., Glushchenko V.N., Primenenie obratnykh emul'siy v neftedobyche (Application of inverse emulsions in oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 250 p.
5. Ryabokon' S.A., Vol'ters A.A., Surkov V.B., Glushchenko V.N., Zhidkosti glusheniya dlya remonta skvazhin i ikh vliyanie na kollektorskie svoystva plasta (Killing fluids for well repair and their impact on reservoir properties), Obzornaya informatsiya VNIIOENG. Seriya "Neftepromyslovoe delo" (Overview by VNIIOENG. Series "Oilfield business"), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1989, V. 19, 42 p.
6. Ryabokon' S.A., Tekhnologicheskie zhidkosti dlya zakanchivaniya i remonta skvazhin (Well-completion fluid), Krasnodar: Publ. of NPO “Burenie”, 2006, 264 p.7. Tokunov V.I., Kheyfets I.B., Gidrofobno-emul'sionnye burovye rastvory (Hydrophobically-emulsion drilling muds), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 167 p.
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The objective of this work is to create an automatic control system (ACS) which stabilizes operation of pipeline system of reservoir pressure maintenance (RPM) for a large oil field. Injection in regime of miscible displacement is planned to be used as a method of stimulation of reservoir system in considered oil field. In this case water and associated petroleum gas are injected to reservoir through injection wells in the form of water-gas mixture. RPM pipeline system consists of two parallel pipelines which provide water and gas delivery to injection wells. Project total number of injection wells is more than 50. The mixture is formed in special mixing units located at wellheads of injection wells. Fr om control point of view described object is a complex dynamic system. The problem of control system design is complicated by the fact that it is planned injection not of a single-phase liquid, but two-phase water-gas mixture in required ratio. Prior to ACS development, the study of transient processes in RPM pipeline system was performed using mathematical model. Based on analysis of simulation results cascade ACS was formed wh ere water and gas flow rates are regulated and pressure drop on regulation valves is controlled. When testing the developed ACS on a real object, the problem of possible water ingress into gas line was identified at low valve opening and low pressure drop on gas valve. In order to avoid the occurrence of such situations, control algorithm was corrected accordingly. Further approbation showed operability of developed ACS.
1. Vinogradov P.V., Nadezhdin O.V., Abutalipov U.M. et al., Organization of the reservoir pressure maintenance system at Roman Trebs oilfield under the conditions of full implementation of the WAG technology (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 9, pp. 66–69.
2. Strekalov A.V., Matematicheskie modeli gidravlicheskikh sistem dlya upravleniya sistemami podderzhaniya plastovogo davleniya (Mathematical models of hydraulic systems for control of reservoir pressure maintenance systems), Tyumen': Tyumenskiy dom pechati Publ., 2007, 661 p.
3. Nadezhdin O.V., Lutfurakhmanov A.G., Vinogradov P.V. et al., Development of algorithms to control the RPM system under full implementation of the SWAG injection technology at Roman Trebs' oilfield (In Russ.), SPE 176644, 2015.4. Besekerskiy V.A., Popov E.P., Teoriya sistem avtomaticheskogo upravleniya (The theory of automatic control systems), St. Petersburg: Professiya Publ., 2003, 752 p.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
At present, the consequences of accidents and incidents in the operation of vertical steel tanks (RVS) present a serious problem. These tanks require periodic maintenance checks. One of the main problems to be solved during the RVS survey is to determine the exact geometry of the tank parameters and compare them with the normative values. Traditional methods do not always allow with sufficient accuracy to obtain the necessary information. The article describes an integrated approach to solving the problem through the use of three-dimensional laser scanning technology to determine the geometrical characteristics of the reservoirs. Completed work on laser shooting RVS developed and scanning data processing technique made it possible to solve a number of tasks. In this case the resulting point cloud model RVS when applied to the contour of the correct form of the cylinder revealed deviations from the design of geometric shapes facilities regulated by regulations. Works on leveling the outer contour of the bottom of the empty and filled tank, the amount of differential settlement of the outer contour of the bottom was determined by leveling at points corresponding to the vertical joints first belt. Deviations up the walls of the tank from the vertical are determined along the vertical welds in the lower, middle and upper points of each zone. According to the results of examination and materials engineering and geological surveys carried out verification calculations (in design and computing complex SCAD Office), indicating a lack of reinforcement ring foundation. To bring the monolithic reinforced concrete ring foundation RVS in compliance with the requirements of normative documents of work options have been proposed to strengthen it, which ensures efficiency and the launch of the RVS in operation.
1. Russian Federal Law no. 384-FZ “Technical Regulations on the Safety of Buildings and Facilities” of December 30th, 2009, URL: http://cis-legislation.com/document.fwx?rgn=30054.
2. Russian Federal Law no. 190-FZ “Town Planning Code of Russia” of 29.12.2004.
3. GOST 31937-2011. Buildings and constructions. Rules of inspection and monitoring of the technical condition, 2014.
4. Komissarov D.V., Seredovich A.V., Ivanov A.V., Method for determining the geometric characteristics of steel cylindrical tanks using laser scanning (In Russ.), Interekspo Geo-Sibir', 2005, V. 1, no. 1, pp. 221–225.
5. Sal'nikov A.P., Otsenka napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya rezervuarov po rezul'tatam nazemnogo lazernogo skanirovaniya (Estimation of stress-strain state of reservoirs based on the results of ground-based laser scanning): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2016.
6. Vasil'ev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Sal'nikov A.P. et al., About application of the surface laser scanning in oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 4(16), pp. 47–51.
7. Vasil'ev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Sal'nikov A.P. et al., Work performance on 3-d laser scanning of the vertical stock tank with pontoon (VSTP) 20000 (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 1(17), pp. 54–59.
8. Vasil'ev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Sal'nikov A.P., Analysis of the three-dimensional laser scanning application on the objects of JSC “Transneft” (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 2(18), pp. 48–55.
9. Ivanov A.V., Razrabotka metodiki geodezicheskogo kontrolya inzhenernykh ob"ektov na osnovanii dannykh nazemnogo lazernogo skanirovaniya (Development of a method for geodetic control of engineering facilities based on ground-based laser scanning data): thesis of candidate of technical science, Novosibirsk, 2012.
10. Seredovich V.A., Komissarov V.A., Shirokova T.A., Nazemnoe lazernoe skanirovanie (Ground laser scanning), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SGGA, 2009, 261 p.
11. Tishkin V.O., Technique of data assemblage and processing, received in 3D scanning process (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta informatsionnykh tekhnologiy, mekhaniki i optiki, 2011, no. 1(71), pp. 87–92.12. Rukovodstvo po bezopasnosti vertikal'nykh tsilindricheskikh stal'nykh rezervuarov dlya nefti i nefteproduktov (Guide to the safety of vertical cylindrical steel tanks for oil and petroleum products), Moscow: Publ. of NTTs PB, 2013, 121 p.
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|The oil and gas industry|
The article analyzes the features of the resource-innovative development of the oil and gas industry of the Russian Federation in a volatile global energy market.
In the message of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly for 2017 the task is set: to implement the systematic programme for the development of the digital economy. The digitalization of the economy will be one of the main directions of economic growth and will cover all sectors of the economy, including the oil and gas complex of Russia. The article points to the need to promptly develop the legislative initiatives and a "roadmap" for the digital modernization of the Russian oil and gas complex.
The digital oil and gas sector is the cornerstone of the country's digital economy, formed on the new paradigm of the digital modernization of oil and gas production, the growth of capitalization (value of fixed assets) of companies and the industry as a whole. Digital modernization of the Russian oil and gas industry will allow ensuring the energy security of the state; satisfying the market demand for oil, gas and products of their processing; enhancing the creation of innovative technologies of oil and gas production and making a significant contribution to the development of the country's economy.
The characteristic features of the digitalization of objects and the intellectualization of processes in the oil and gas production are revealed. The intensive introduction of information and communication technologies throughout the supply chain of oil and gas production cycle has been considered. The urgency of digital modernization of the Russian oil and gas complex is justified.
1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Martynov V.G., Eremin N.A. et al., Downhole sensor systems (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2016, no. 2, pp. 50–55.
2. Eremin N.A., Zheltov Yu.P., Baishev B.T., WPC-32188 Project of the effective development of the oil field Prirazlomnoje in the conditions of moving ice of Arctic Shelf, Proceedings of the 17th World Petroleum Congress, September 1–5, 2002, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 581-583.
3. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Martynov V.G., Abukova L.A., Eremin N.A., Digitalization and intellectualization of oil and gas fields (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya i IT v neftegazovoy oblasti, 2016, no. 2 (24), pp. 13–19.
4. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Tikhomirov L.I., The present and future of intellectual fields (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2015, no. 12, pp. 44–49.
5. Eremin N.A., Eremin Al.N., Eremin An.N., Upravlenie razrabotkoy intellektual’nykh mestorozhdeniy (Management of the development of intellectual fields), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Oil and Gas State University, 2012, Part 2, 210 p.
6. Eremin Al.N., Eremin N.A., Current state and prospects of development of intelligent wells (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2015, no. 12, pp. 50–53.
7. Garichev S.N., Eremin N.A., Tekhnologiya upravleniya v real’nom vremeni (Real-time management technology), Moscow: Publ. of MPTI, 2015, Part 1, 196 p.
8. Eremin Al.N., Eremin An.N., Eremin N.A., Smart fields and wells, Almaty: Center of Kazakh-British Technical University, 2013, 320 p.
9. Garichev S.N., Eremin N.A., Technology of management in real time, Moscow: Publ. of The Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Part 2, 2013, 167 p.
10. Eremin N.A., Eremin Al.N., Eremin An.N., Opticalization of oil and gas fields (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2016, no. 12, pp. 40-44.
11. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., The innovative potential of the smart oil and gas technologies (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2016, no.1, pp. 4–9.
12. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Oil and gas complex of the Russian Federation - 2030: digital, optical, robotic (In Russ.), Neft’ Rossii, 2017, no. 3, pp. 4–9.
13. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Modern scientific-technical revolution (STR) and the shift of paradigm of hydrocarbon resources development (In Russ.), Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom, 2015, no. 6, pp. 10–16.
14. Eremin N.A., Eremin Al.N., Eremin An.N., EOR/IOR - current state and development trends (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2016, no. 4, pp. 64–69.15. Eremin N.A., Way of success (In Russ.),
Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2017, no. 3 (114), p. 90.
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|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
The article identifies the main groups of innovation factors in accordance with the results of the analysis of innovative development programs from oil and gas industry that ranked in the top ten by the Ministry of Economic Development, based on the results of an independent assessment of the quality of their actualization. By their generalization and juxtaposition with the main concepts of modern strategic analysis, the innovation development navigator has been developed that allows to identify the key factors of innovative development, showing the main interdependencies between them and the connection with the achievement of the financial result of the company. It is shown, that the application of the approach that explains the high profits of oil and gas companies by natural resource rent protected with the subsoil use rights does not provide a systematic understanding of the real factors of efficiency and effectiveness under innovative development. Compiled on the basis of a resource-oriented approach to strategic analysis, the navigator allows, along with key resources, to take into account such important factors of innovative development as production technologies, individual competencies and innovations which implement the new methods of organization and management. Special attention is paid to the consideration of dynamic capabilities and absorption capacity, which are widely represented in the programs of innovative development of this group of companies. In the light of the findings, the problem of protecting the results of innovation on the corporate level is wider than the rights to use natural resources and intellectual property, is discussed. Protection of competitive advantages stemming out of the development of key innovative factors depends both on legal mechanisms and the presence of economic and technological barriers that protect the effect of companies investing in innovative development.
2. Shiffrin R.M, Nosofsky R.M., Seven plus or minus two: a commentary on capacity limitations, Psychological Review, 1994, no. 2, pp. 357–361.
4. Rogova E., Dupont analysis of the efficiency and investment appeal of Russian oil-extracting companies, Proceedings of 8th International Scientific Conference Business and Management, Vilnius, 2014, pp. 165–171.
5. Henderson J., Grushevenko E., Russian oil production outlook to 2020, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2017, Oxford: University of Oxford, URL: https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Russian-Oil-Production-Outlook-to-2020... (data obrashcheniya 05.09.2017).
6. Tis D.Dzh., Pizano G., Shuen E., Dynamic capabilities and strategic management (In Russ.), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Seriya 8. Menedzhment, 2003, V. 4, pp. 133–185.
7. Cohen W, Levintal D., Absorptive capacity – a new perspective on learning and innovation, Administrative Science Quarterly, 1990, V. 35, no. 1, pp. 128–152.
8. Karlik A.E., Platonov V.V., Cross-industry spatially localized innovation networks (In Russ.), Ekonomika regiona = Economy of Region, 2016, no. 4, pp. 1218–1232.
9. Zahra S., George G., Absorptive capacity: A Review, reconceptualization, and extension, Academy of Management Review, 2002, V. 27, no. 2, pp. 185–203.
10. Rumelt, Richard P., Towards a strategic theory of the firm: edited by Lamb R., Competitive Strategic Management, 1984, pp. 556–570.
11. Bergman J.-P., Knutas A., Jantunen A., Tarkiainen A., Luukka P. Karlik A., Platonov V., Strategic interpretation on sustainability issues: Eliciting cognitive maps of boards of directors, Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 2016, no. 1, V. 16, pp. 162–186.
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Significant changes in current economical, political and also geological and technological factors influencing the construction costs of oil and gas companies, force them to look for innovative approaches for cost estimation, especially on the early stages of projects’ development. Decline of oil prices, decrease of ruble exchange rate, international sanctions toward Russia as well as difficult reservoirs characteristics making hydrocarbons production more challenging put a pressure on cost estimation and optimization. Development of cost models for oil and gas construction allows estimating costs with consideration of modeling object technical characteristics and changes in the environment. The paper describes principles, methods and key elements of cost models actively implementing for capital costs evaluation in Russian oil& gas companies. In the article there are examples of data bases used by companies for cost estimation: “smeta” estimate norms, corporate cost data bases on real projects, external data bases. Authors analyze rules for choosing of the proper analogue, taking into account that the main question is choosing analogue with required characteristics as well as proper implementation of the cost data for the new object. In the article authors suggest to use different types of costs models depending on construction objects type, for example, calculation models for linear objects and structured in a certain way analogues or “flexible” model for areal objects. Considering existing cost data bases and methods for costs analysis, even currently you can get detailed and accurate estimation of the costs.
1. Khasanov M.M., Maksimov Yu.V., Skudar O.O., Tretiakov S.V., Pashkevich L.A., Sugaipov D.A., Cost engineering in Gazprom Neft PJSC: current situation and future development (in Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no.12, pp. 30–33.
2. Dubovitskaya E.A., Pashchenko A.D., Chizhikov S.V., Problems and proposed solutions for oil and gas projects cost estimation in Russia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 9, pp. 92–95.
3. Bozieva I.A., Zinnatullin D.F., Aspects of corporate information system development to generate the costs of construction facilities and oil and gas fields infrastructure development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no.2, pp. 114–117.
4. Chizhikov S.V., Dubovitskaya E.A., A new approach to the assessment and management of oil and gas projects cost (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 9, pp. 98–101.5. Atnagulov A.R., Rakhmangulov R.D., Vinogradov P.V., Kireev G.A., Gizbrekht D.Yu., Developing CAPEX database for oil field surface facilities construction at Bashneft PJSOC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no.8, pp. 98–101.
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Rotation speed frequency range between 200 and 450 min-1 is of particular interest when drilling oil and gas wells with PDC bits. In such cases screw down-hole motors are widely applied, but they have functional disadvantage dealing with orbital trajectory of the motor. And such a trajectory results in crossover vibrations of down-hole motor and drilling bit. Vibrations, at the same time, reduce lifetime of the down-hole motor and affect economical aspects of the drilling. That is why it is important to develop the new down-hole motor working without any vibrations of the rotor.
The analysis of academic and technical papers showed absence of the simple and effective solution to rotor and down-hole motor vibrations. For that reason it is viable to expand the research scope and study other down-hole motors designs. Current study based on the concept that every screw surface might be replaced with the set of flat and cylindrical surfaces. Experimental studies confirmed that new hydraulic machines with the unique functions might be developed based on this concept. Screw surfaces were excluded from the design and flat and cylindrical surfaces were used instead.
Study results might be applied for the purpose of deviated and horizontal oil and gas wells drilling. Using simpler and more technological geometrical shape allows some parts of the hydraulic machine to be made of hard and ultra-hard materials, which brings new opportunities for practical application of such hydraulic machines when drilling wells at huge pressure differences.
1. Baldenko D.F., Korotaev Yu.A., The current status and Russian PDM perspectives of development (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2012, no. 3, URL: http://burneft.ru/archive/issues/2012-03/1.
2. Sazonov Iu.A., Mokhov M.A., Demidova A.A., Development of small hydraulic downhole motors for well drilling applications, American Journal of Applied Sciences 2016, 13 (10), pp. 1053.1059, DOI: 10.3844/ajassp.2016.1053.1059, http://thescipub.com/PDF/ajassp.2016.1053.1059.pdf.
3. Pittard G., Leitko C., Mallard R., Directional drilling motors evolve for demanding downhole environments, Upstream Pumping, 2015, May/June, URL: http://www.upstreampumping.com/article/drilling/2015/directional-drilling-motors
4. Ranjbar Kh., Sababi M., Failure assessment of the hard chrome coated rotors in the downhole drilling motors, Engineering Failure Analysis, 2012, V. 20, pp. 147–155, URL: http://rms.scu.ac.ir/Files/Articles/Journals/Abstract/ self%202012.pdf20121911115609.pdf
5. US patent no. 62411494, Non-elastomeric stator and downhole drilling motors incorporating same, Inventors: Pafitis D.G., Koval V.E., URL: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6241494.pdf
6. Derkach N.D., Krutik E.N., Korotaev Yu.A., Gear reduction turbodrills improve drilling results, SPE 49258-MS, 1998.
7. Beaton T., Seale R., Beaird J., Development of a geared turbodrilling system and identifying applications, Paper PETSOC-2004-207.
8. Jones S., Feddema C., Sugiura J., A gear-reduced drilling turbine provides game changing results: An alternative to downhole positive displacement motor, SPE 178851-MS, 2016.
9. US patent no. 7172039, Down-hole vane motor, Inventors: Teale D.W., Marshall G., URL: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7172039.pdf
10. US patent no. 5174737, Fluid compressor with spiral blade, Inventors: Sakata Hirotsugu, ItamiTsugio, Okuda Masayuki, Hirayama Takuya, Oikawa Satoru.
11. US patent no. 6074184, Pump utilizing helical seal, Inventor: Imai Atsushi, URL: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6074184.pdf
12. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Frankov M.A., Development of compact hydraulic positive displacement motor featuring no rotor vibrations in well drilling, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2016, V.9(42), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i42/104220, URL: http://www.indjst.org/index.php/indjst/article/view/104220/74841.
13. Utility patent 165039 RF, Vintovaya mashina (Screw-rotor machine), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Rybanov I.N., Frankov M.A.
14. Judd R., Diamond bearings support mud motor reliability, Upstream Pumping, 2015, July/August, URL: http://www.upstreampumping.com/article/ drilling/2015/diamond-bearings-support-mud-motor-reliability.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
Terrigenous beds of the Bobrikivskian horizon are among the principal production facilities in the Orenburg region. Diverse views on the formation environments of the deposits testify to the complex structure of the study object and emphasize the actuality of the current research.
The paper deals with the structure, composition and formation environments of the Bobrikovskian horizon in the Orenburg region. Complex sedimentological examinations of the core material from the prospect-appraisal and exploratory wells have been made. Formation settings of the Bobrikovskian horizon have been reconstructed, a paleogeographic chart has been developed. Productive strata are peculiar for non-uniform structure, which is mostly controlled by the bed genesis. Aleurite-sandy and clayey rocks were formed either in the marine basin zones with active hydrodynamics of the sedimentation environment (coastal-marine, shallow-water marine facies of the near and the far zones), or in an accumulative alluvial-deltaic plain. At that, the principal sedimentation regulator consisted of the environment itself and the unstable sedimentation processes against the background of the basin general gradual subsidence in the Early Visean. Those fast-acting factors account for the frequent facies conversions of the aleurite-sandy rocks into clayey ones and for the lenticular-discontinuous structure of the strata, considerably complicating exploration and development of the hydrocarbon deposits.
Peculiarities of the area tectonic structure and development, paleo-relief of the bottom and the evolution character of the sedimentation basin have predestined development of a particular type of the Bobrikovskian horizon section within the specified facies-paleogeographic zones in the southeast of the Volga-Ural anteclise. Promising explorations are associated with the sections represented by alternating sandstones, aleurolites and argillites peculiar for higher contents of sandy material (up to 70%) and confined to the deltaic and coastal-marine facies-paleogeographic zones. Those may result in discoveries of hydrocarbon pools in non-structural and combined traps.
1. Aliev M.M., Yarikov G.M., Khachatryan R.O., Kamennougol'nye otlozheniya Volgo-Ural'skoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Carboniferous deposits of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 262 p.
2. Allyuvial'no-del'tovye sistemy paleozoya Nizhnego Povolzh'ya (Alluvial delta systems of the Paleozoic of the Lower Volga region): edited by Babadagly V.A., Saratov: Publ. of Saratov University, 1982, 156 p.
3. Astarkin S.V., Goncharenko O.P., Pimenov M.V., Depositional environment in Bobrikovsky time within the south-east of the Russian plate (In Russ.), Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya nauki o Zemle = Izvestia of Saratov University. New Series. Series: Earth Sciences, 2013, V. 13, no. 1, pp. 57–62.
4. Astarkin S.V., Goncharenko O.P., Pisarenko Yu.A., Morozov V.P., Type sections from the terrigenous Lower Visean oil and gas-bearing complex in the Middle Volga Region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 66–68.
5. Leonov G.V., Pogudin V.N., Erosion structures of the pre-Visean deposit in the Orenburg region (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1989, no. 12, pp. 10–16.
6. Yatskevich S.V., Vorob'ev V.Ya., Nikitin Yu.I., Paleorivers: it's a myth, a "river-mania" or a result of scientific research (In Russ.), Nedra Povolzh'ya i Prikaspiya, 2011, V. 66, pp. 15–40.7. Pisarenko Yu.A., Vorob'ev V.Ya. et al., Results of regional geological and geophysical works on territory of south-eastern part of Russian plate and prospects of their further activity (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 1, pp. 68–77.
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Methodology for applying the volumetric method for estimating the hydrocarbon resources based on pyrolysis data in the Bazhenov formation are considered in the article. The analysis of the powder and the pieces of rock pyrolysis results before and after extraction are presented. Based on the study of more than 8000 samples, a new scheme for processing pyrolysis results of the powder before and after extraction with chloroform is proposed. It is emphasized that it is necessary to estimate the loss of light oil from the core due to its extraction to the surface by measuring the gas porosity. Since in the reservoir conditions neither effective heating of rocks nor its breaking to a powdery state is possible, pyrolysis of pieces of rock is being investigated in the work. The shift of the quantitative yield of hydrocarbons from peak S1 to peak S2 as the size of the samples increases is especially interesting. These studies illustrate in detail the effect of the degree of fragmentation on the results of pyrolysis and make it possible to estimate how much the extraction of hydrocarbons in the reservoir will be worse than in the laboratory. The ratios of the absorbed hydrocarbon compounds and the products of the kerogen cracking in the organic matter of the Bazhenov formation depending on the degree of its catagenetic maturity was also studied. It is recommended that assessments be carried out taking into account the degree of maturity of the organic matter, excluding from consideration areas of unconverted kerogen. The calculation of geological reserves and hydrocarbon resources in reservoirs that are close in properties conventional ones is recommended to be performed by a volumetric method. It is advisable to calculate the recoverable oil reserves using different versions of the statistical method taking into account production decline rate.
1. Gutman I.S., Potemkin G.N., Postnikov A.V. et al., Methodical approaches to the reserves and resources estimation of Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 3, pp. 28–32.
2. Gutman I.S., Potemkin G.N., Balaban I.Yu. et al., Volumetric control for hydrocarbon resources estimations based on geochemical laboratory measurements (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 9, pp. 12–17.
3. Postnikov A.V., Gutman I.S., Postnikova O.V. et al., Different-scale investigations of geological heterogeneity of Bazhenov formation in terms of hydrocarbon potential evaluation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 3, pp. 8–11.
4. Lopatin N.V., Emets T.P., Piroliz v neftegazovoy geokhimii (Pyrolysis in oil and gas geochemistry), Moscow: Publ. of Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of Russian Academu of Sciences, 1987, 143 p.
5. Kozlova E.V., N.P. Fadeeva, Kalmykov G.A. et al., Geochemical technique of organic matter research in deposits enriched in kerogen (the Bazhenov formation, West Siberia) (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 4: Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2015, no. 5, pp. 44–53.
6. Vasil'ev A.L., Pichkur E.B., Mikhutkin A.A. et al., The study of pore space morphology in kerogen from Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 28–31.
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In determining the parameters of heterogeneous core rock, homogeneous samples are usually studied, which makes it impossible to establish reliable relationships of the ‘core – log’ type. The use of parameters of homogeneous samples in the search for dependencies leads to overestimation of the reservoir capacity and to a decrease (in reservoirs with a thin interbedding of sandstones and clays) or to an overestimation (in reservoirs with focal carbonate-anhydrite inclusions) of the oil and gas saturation coefficient. The authors proposed a method for accounting for two-component (sandy-argillaceous reservoir contains puffs, inclusions and lenses of clayey material) and a three-component (the reservoir contains impermeable carbonate-anhydrite inclusions along with thin-layered clay interlayers and inclusions) texture heterogeneity in determining the parameters of terrigenous reservoirs according to the data of standard complex of well logging. The work is based on the results of special computer processing of photographs of a full-length core, routine studies of filtration-capacitive properties and results of geophysical studies of wells. Accumulations are provided for calculating the volume content of the texture components of the reservoir in accordance with the complex of geophysical methods. The convergence between the calculated volume contents of textural components according to the geophysical methods and the cores determined from the photographs is 0.15. The change in the oil-gas-saturation coefficient of the reservoir layer is shown depending on the content of clay (two-component textured heterogeneity) and clay and carbonate-anhydrite inclusions (three-component textured heterogeneity). In reservoir with a three-component textured heterogeneity, the effect of impermeable interlayers and inclusions is differently directed. With increasing content in the layer of the reservoir of clay interlayers, the oil-gas-saturation of the sandy interlayer increases, while with an increase in the share of focal carbonate-anhydrite inclusions, it decreases. The proposed method for taking into account the texture inhomogeneity of terrigenous reservoirs excludes systematic errors in determining the counting parameters of the reservoirs according to the complex of well logging.
1. Efimov V.A., Akmanaev A.R., Akin'shin A.V., Determining the proportion of clay layers from core photographs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 88–90.
2. Akin'shin A.V., A method for determining the area of texture components on photos of core samples of textural inhomogeneous rocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 28–31.
3. Astashkin D.A., Razrabotka petrofizicheskoy modeli neodnorodnykh peschano-alevritovykh porod-kollektorov s tsel’yu povysheniya dostovernosti kolichestvennoy interpretatsii dannykh GIS (na primere nekotorykh mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy i Vostochnoy Sibiri) (Development of petrophysical model of inhomogeneous sand-silt reservoir rocks in order to increase the reliability of the quantitative interpretation of log data (for example, Western and Eastern Siberia oil fields)): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2005.
4. Lopatin A.Yu., Medvedev A.L., Masalkin Yu.V., Valensia R., Log interpretation methodology in polygenetic deposits of the Vikulovskaya suite at the Kamennoye field (thin-layer storm deposits and incised valley fill complex) (In Russ.), SPE 115490, 2008.
5. Akin'shin A.V., Efimov V.A., Development of algorithms of logging data interpretation for volumetric parameters accuracy enhancement (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 87–89.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The paper presents methodology and implementation results for a complex well test survey to evaluate displacement efficiency and relative permeability in-situ. Test procedure includes several “injection-production” cycles with brines of different salinity. Dynamic well data are supplemented by periodical water saturation measurements by pulse neutron logging methods and analyses of produced water composition.
The principles of well test design are discussed. Technical solutions are validated for controllable brine injection in conditions of low well injectivity. A complex interpretation procedure is developed for the set of measured logging, geochemical and dynamic flow data. Numerical multiphase flow simulations and optimal control (adjoint) methods are used for solution of the inverse problem to evaluate reservoir properties and relative permeability.
The test survey was implemented on an oil well in conditions of arctic climate and full autonomy. The obtained experience and results made it possible to evaluate in-situ displacement efficiency and relative permeability dynamics, as well as to tryout and improve the methodology of the well test. Unconventional effects in two-phase reservoir flow processes were revealed.
1. Zakirov E.S., Indrupskiy I.M., Vasil'ev I.V. et al., Complex well test study to evaluate relative permeability functions to oil and water and displacement efficiency in conditions of abnormally low reservoir injectivity. Part 1 (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 9, pp. 56–60.
2. Zakirov E.S., Trekhmernye mnogofaznye zadachi prognozirovaniya, analiza I regulirovaniya razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Three-dimensional multiphase problems of predict, analyze and control of oil and gas field development), Moscow: Graal’ Publ., 2001, 303 p.
3. Zakirov S.N., Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S. et al., In-situ determination of displacement efficiency and oil and water relative permeability curves through integrated well test study at exploration-to-pilot stage of the oilfield development project (In Russ.), SPE 181967 RU, 2016.
4. Amyx J.W., Bass D.M., Whiting R.L., Petroleum reservoir engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1960.
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Determination of optimal bottomhole pressures of wells in a field or in a field area has been the subject of research for many specialists. Earlier works were focused on determination of limited bottomhole pressures, because it was generally accepted that limited bottomhole pressures ensure the most efficient and effective development of reserves. However, a more rigorous solution can be achieved through application of flow simulation and inverse modeling methods. Some approaches to solve this problem are discussed in this paper. To find optimal bottomhole pressure we have created models with different reservoir characteristics and fluid properties. The calculation results were analyzed considering specific reservoir conditions. We have revealed some principles that can be applied to improve performance of real oil and gas fields. The paper discusses the issues related to determination of pressure in fractured-porous reservoirs. It is common knowledge that these reservoirs are characterized by low oil recovery factor and low cumulative oil production. The research results show that the choice of optimal bottomhole pressure in fractured-porous reservoirs is largely dictated by presence or absence of gas-cut fluid flow. In case the bubble point pressure is close to the initial reservoir pressure, optimal bottomhole pressures differ significantly from limited bottomhole pressures and, thus, should be calculated both for production and injection wells, yet, within the range of limited bottomhole pressures. In case the bubble point pressure is lower than the initial reservoir pressure, limited bottomhole pressure is the right choice for production wells. As a side note, the highest cumulative production and NPV in fractured-porous reservoirs can be attained if reserves are produced by natural flow up to the point the reservoir pressure equals the bubble point pressure, so, water flooding to maintain formation energy should not be started until the reservoir is in solution gas drive. The revealed principles can be applied to improve production rates, cumulative production, and NPV of carbonate reservoirs.
1. Muslimov R.Kh., The development of oil field development systems on the pages of the “Neftyanoe khozyaystvo” journal (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 9, pp. 57-63.
2. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Sistemnaya optimizatsiya protsessa dorazrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (System optimization of process of oilfield redevelopment): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2001.
3. Lysenko V.D., Grayfer V.I., Ratsional'naya razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Rational development of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2005, 607 p.
4. Iktisanov V.A., Patterns control the development of oil fields using optimization bottom-hole pressures for the porous collector (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2017, no. 3, pp. 14-18.
5. Zheltov Yu.P., Deformatsiya gornykh porod (Deformation of rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1966, 198 p.
6. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1982.
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The article considers the problem of correct organization of the system of reservoir pressure maintenance by water injection into the reservoir PK1-3 of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye oilfield that has a complex geological structure. According to the results of wells drilling and testing in the oilfield it was determined that what was previously thought about reservoir properties of PK1-3 to be a relatively homogeneous is a set of three cyclites: A(PK1), B (PK2), C (PK3), that have different filtration properties and vertical connectivity and lateral heterogeneity due to different conditions of sedimentation. It was determined that the approach to development and flooding of each cyclite should be different.
Cyclite with the best reservoir properties and with the most reservoir continuity is the underlying cyclite C which has a contact with the underlying waters. It was selected as the primary object for drilling. On the one hand, the good properties of cyclite C and the changed economic macro parameters of the company determined the usage of denser oilfield exploitation system. It led to the change in the distance between wells from 300 meters to 150 meters. On the other hand, it has led to considerable uncertainty for selecting correct flooding system. Firstly, the question appeared of the lateral risk of water breakthrough in conditions of high viscosity difference of the displacement front (the viscosity of the oil - 111 μPa·c, the viscosity of water - 1 μPa·c), and secondly, in conditions of the contact with the underlying waters the question appeared about the geometry of the streamlines of the flooding of the reservoir (lateral displacement or displacement through the aquifer) and the activity of bottom waters, which can change the flooding system decisions.
To remove these uncertainties it was offered the pilot well program of flooding system and detailed proposals for data diagnosis obtained during this program that will help to determine the most correct approach to the flooding system for this type of reservoir.
1. Zunde D.A., Popov I.P., Some methodology applied for construction of sequence-stratigraphic model of Pokur suite deposits (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 54–59.
2. Chan K.S., Water control diagnostic plots, SPE 30775, 1995.
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The article is devoted to the study of the process of oil flow from the matrix to the fractures. The coefficient of intraporous overflow is a measure of the heterogeneity of the system of fractures – matrix pores and the amount of fluid flowing from the matrix into the fractures and from fractures into matrix. This parameter is an important factor that determines the production of oil reserves, and can take different values in a fairly wide range. The coefficient of intraporous overflow depends on a number of factors, such as the size and permeability of blocks, the permeability of fractures. In order to determine the flow coefficient, materials of hydrodynamic well studies processed in accordance with the Warren – Root model were used. Schemes for changing the coefficient of flow over the area of one of the Tournaisian-Famennian deposits in the initial period of its development and after 5 years of its operation are constructed. A joint analysis of the results of calculations and the field material made it possible to establish that the maximum volumes of oil were obtained from the sections of the deposit with the maximum values of the flow coefficients. Coefficient of overflow should be considered the most important indicator characterizing the features of the structure and development of reserves from the deposits with the presence of zones of distribution of the fractured reservoir. It has been established that the decrease in bottomhole pressures entails a significant decrease in the coefficient of overflow, and, as a consequence, worsens the productive characteristics of the well. The possible deterioration of the process of mass exchange between the matrix and fractures must be taken into account when justifying the permissible downhole pressures. To ensure maximum flow volumes from the matrix to the fracture zones, it is necessary to introduce a reservoir pressure maintenance system in the early stages of exploiting deposits that have a natural fracture.
1. Cherepanov S.S., Integrated research of carbonate reservoir racturing by Warren – Root method using seismic facies analysis (evidence from tournaisian-famennian deposit of Ozernoe field) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2015, no. 14, pp. 6–12.
2. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Repina V.A., Study of oil recovery from reservoirs of different void types with use of multidimensional statistical analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, V. 15, no. 19, pp. 145–154.
3. Cherepanov S.S., Ponomareva I.N., Erofeev A.A., Galkin S.V., Determination of fractured rock parameters based on a comprehensive analysis of the data core studies, hydrodynamic and geophysical well tests (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 2, pp. 94–96.
4. Putilov I.S., Razrabotka tekhnologiy kompleksnogo izucheniya geologicheskogo stroeniya i razmeshcheniya mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Development of technologies for a comprehensive study of the geological structure and location of oil and gas fields), Perm’: Publ. of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 2014, 285 p.5. Latysheva M.V., Ustinova Yu.V., Kashevarova V.V., Potekhin D.V., Improvement of hydrodynamic simulation using advanced techniques of hydrodynamic well data processing (exemplified by Ozernoe field) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2015, no. 14, pp. 73–80.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The article is devoted to the development of the main sections of the failures equipment prediction method by the example of the JSC «Transneft» conformity assessment system. The main position of the conducted researches is the admission, that the main argument of the developed forecasting method is the equipment initial operating time, characteristic for a zone of stable breakdown rate. Using this argument allows modeling the change of research objective function, changing its trajectory and as a result determining the number of equipment failures with the least response time of mathematical operations and the greatest accuracy of calculation. In this paper, the development of a mathematical model for determining the prelusory equipment running time is highlighted by a statistical approach based on the use of the Weibull distribution. The Weibull distribution is considered as the base one and is investigated at the extremum points, taking into account the condition for the maximum dynamics of the change in their limited state. The results of the work make it possible to establish a regularity that determines the prelusory equipment running time as a part of the Weibull distribution that has the minimum value of the derivative of the function, which appoints the allocation of equipment failure rates for the case under consideration. The results of research is the analytical dependence, which allow to determine the basic argument of the equipment failures prediction method, based on the following reliability indicators: the sum of the maximum and minimum number of intact equipment, average value of failure rate of equipment and total number of equipment failures.
1. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., Mastobaev B.N. et al., The main statements of optimization methodology of life-cycle parameters of technical equipment (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, V. 26, no. 6, pp. 23-29.
2. Aralov O.V., Bylinkin D.V., Berezhanskiy N.V., Razrabotka metodologicheskogo apparata po opredeleniyu veroyatnosti poyavleniya defekta oborudovaniya pri ego proizvodstve na osnove metoda lineyno-dinamicheskogo programmirovaniya (Development of a methodological apparatus for determining the probability of the appearance of equipment defect during its production on the basis of the method of linear dynamic programming), Collected papers “Truboprovodnyy transport-2016” (Pipeline transport-2016), Proceedings of XI International educational and scientific-practical conference, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2016, pp. 12-14.
3. Lisin Yu.V., Aralov O.V., Mastobaev B.N. et al., Development of a mathematical model for evaluating financial feasibility of the r&d plan for creation of complex technical systems (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2016, no. 3, pp. 17-23.
4. Aralov O.V., Metodika optimizatsii plana opytno-konstruktorskikh rabot po sredstvam, kompleksam svyazi i avtomatizatsii pri programmnom planirovanii (Technique of optimization of the plan of developmental works on means, complexes of communication and automation at program planning): thesis of candidate of technical science, St. Petersburg, 1999.
5. Barzilovich E.Yu., Belyaev Yu.K., Kashtanov V.A., Voprosy matematicheskoy teorii nadezhnosti (Problems of mathematical theory of reliability), Moscow: Radio i svyaz' Publ., 1983, 376 p.
6. Barlow R.E., Proschan F., Mathematical theory of reliability, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1965.
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Gas production from reservoir under waterflood secondary recovery is a topical question in the oil and gas production industry. In this context, selection of additional equipment is critical to ensure effective production. Experience shows that this kind of problematic can be addressed by using ejector systems. The purpose of this research is to determine the main directions in which development of pumping equipment is needed, considering the specific features of using ejector systems in hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbon reserves. The work is aimed at creating new pumping systems using multi-flow ejectors in order to improve the efficiency of oil and gas production.
Jet technology and pumping technology issues are usually handled separately due to an established specialization in the research. To get round this pitfall, it was decided to combine the individual components of the two systems into a single complex, to develop an ejector system for hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbon reserves. When designing the solution, we considered our problem from the angle of three main theories; jet devices, dynamic pumps, and volumetric pumps. In this regard, multi-flow dynamic pumps are particularly promising since their representation in the literature is close to none, even though the technology have been known for a long time. This study demonstrates the possibility of creating a high-speed multistage volume pump while multi-section pumps -separate sections of a dynamic pump paired with sections of a volumetric pump- are also discussed. This configuration is worthy of interest since it enables a reduction in the length and diameter of the assembly, a critical parameter for pumps operating in horizontal wells.
Modern computer programs have significantly simplified and made cheaper conducting experiments, but it is still not yet the time to replace completely physical experiments with numerical ones. In this aspect, the wider use of additive technologies and modern lasers is seen as very promising when it comes to create samples and models.
1. Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Mulenko V.V., Pump system modeling (In Russ.), Neft’, gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 11, pp. 66–68.
2. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Klimenko K.I., Eremin N.A., Mathematical modeling of pump systems (In Russ.), Neft’, gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 8, pp. 62–65.
3. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Klimenko K.I., Demidov A.V., Pump systems modeling for oil production (In Russ.), Neft’, gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 9, pp. 54–56.
4. Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Dimaev T.N., Gryaznova I.V., New technical solutions in the development of pumping systems for multiphase flow lifting (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost’ = GAS Industry of Russia, 2013, no. 7, pp. 54–55.
5. Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Demidova A.A., Biktimirova D.R., Researches of pumping systems for oil production and treatment (In Russ.), Neft’, gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 9, pp. 57–59.
6. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Kakhankin V.A., Jet pump systems for dual completion (In Russ.), Neft’, gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 2, pp. 67–69.
7. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., The research of technical systems for offshore oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 80–82.
8. Sazonov Yu.A., Degovtsov A.V., Kazakova E.S., Klimenko K.I., Multi-flow ejector and a new direction for the development of inkjet technology (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2012, no. 4, pp. 75–77.
9. Sazonov Yu.A., Dimaev T.N., Kazakova E.S., Research of multi-flow ejectors and salvation of problems relating to oil and gas production and pumping (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2012, no. 4, pp. 21–23.
10. Patent no. 2100659 RF. MKI F04 F5/02, Jet pump unit, Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Shmidt A.P., Eliseev V.N., Malov B.A., Yudin I.S.
11. Patent no. 2100660 RF. MKI F04 F5/02, Jet apparatus, Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Zaytsev Yu.V., Eliseev V.N., Malov B.A., Yudin I.S.
12. Utility patent no. 30169. MPK 7 F04 F05/02, Struynyy apparat (Jet apparatus), Inventors: Eliseev V.N., Sazonov Yu.A., Zayakin V.I.
13. Sazonov Yu.A., Osnovy rascheta i konstruirovaniya nasosno-ezhektornykh ustanovok (Basics of calculation and design of pump-ejector systems), Moscow: Neft’ i gaz, 2012, 305 p.
14. Utility patent no. 72736. MPK F04F 5/14, Ezhektor (Ejector), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Zayakin V.I.
15. Utility patent no. 120162, Struynyy nasos (Jet pump), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Kazakova E.S.16. Utility patent no. 132502, Pogruzhnaya nasosnaya ustanovka (Submersible pumping unit), Inventors: Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Dimaev T.N., Tigov P.N.
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The actual task during operation of oil fields with sand manifestations is the protection of the downhole pumping equipment from mechanical impurities. Sand manifestations have a significant impact on the downhole pumping equipment reliability and they lead to failures in the electric submersible pump (ESP) unit due to abrasive wear of parts. Failures of ESP due to mechanical impurities in the produced fluid range from 35 to 50%. At present there are various technological methods for reducing sand production intensity and protecting downhole pumping equipment from mechanical impurities. One of the most common methods of protection against mechanical impurities in downhole pumping equipment is the use of mechanical filters installed both at the bottom of the well and in the composition of downhole pumping equipment. Among the various designs of mechanical filters wireframe filters have the best characteristics. We considered the numerical simulation of a two-phase fluid flow in a wireframe filter of an electric centrifugal pump. The two-phase fluid flow (a mixture of ‘water + sand’) is assumed to be laminar. The distribution of sand particle sizes is given by the Rosin – Rammler formula. Numerical hydrodynamic modeling is performed for two designs of the wireframe and wire filter of the electric centrifugal pump installation: 1) with a standard triangular cross-section of the wire; 2) with an improved cross-sectional profile of the wire in which the sides of the triangular profile are rounded. Three-dimensional geometric models are created in the computer aided design system Compass-3D. As a result of numerical simulation we obtained the two-phase fluid velocity distributions, the trajectory of the sand particles, the diameter of the sand particles distribution (passing through the filter,) and the transit time of the sand particles through the filter. It has been found that the maximum flow rates of a two-phase fluid in a wireframe filter with an improved cross-sectional profile of ESP unit are significantly higher than in a filter with a standard triangular cross-sectional profile of the wire. According to the calculation results we established that the wireframe filter with the improved cross-sectional profile of the wire has a higher value of the hydraulic parameter in comparison with the wireframe filter with the traditional triangular cross-section of the wire. Consequently the improved wireframe has less hydraulic resistance.
1. Legaev Yu.N., Vanyurikhin I.S., Galimov R.R. et al., Downhole pumping equipment effectively solves sand production and lost circulation problems in production wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 7, pp. 56–57.
2. Pyatakhin M.V., Determination of the critical speed of sand production and the mechanism of its retention by gravel filter (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2004, no. 7, pp. 58–60.
3. Arnol'd G., Suvandi E., Filters for sand production preventing in low bottomhole pressure (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2005, no. 4, pp. 5–7.
4. Juergens H.N., Newiger S., Usage of single-contour wire screens required to prevent sand removal out of layer (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2009, no. 9, pp. 40–43.
5. Savochkin A.V., Operation of wells complicated by increased sand removal at the fields of RN-Sakhalinmorneftegaz LLC (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 2, pp. 24–34.
6. Technical means for well repair - well filters of domestic and foreign production (In Russ.), Collected papers “Geologiya, burenie, razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy” (Geology, drilling, development and operation of gas and gas condensate fields), 2009, Special Issue 1, pp. 3–45.
7. Ksay Dzh., Filters with wire winding in SAGD-wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2008, no. 12, pp. 18–24.
8. Mikhaylov A.G. et al., Analysis of well protection procedure application against sand production at the example of OOO RN-Purneftegas (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2010, no. 12, pp. 64–70.
9. Smol'nikov S.V., Topol'nikov A.S., Urazakov K.R., Bakhtizin R.N., Metody zashchity nasosnogo oborudovaniya dlya dobychi nefti ot mekhanicheskikh primesey (Protecting methods for oil extraction pumps from mechanical impurities), Ufa: Neftegazovoe delo Publ., 2010, 41 p.
10. Bakhtizin R.N., Nurgaliev R.Z., Urazakov K.R., Ekspluatatsiya nasosnykh skvazhin, oslozhnennykh mekhanicheskimi primesyami (Operation of pumping wells complicated by mechanical impurities), Ufa: Publ. of UGNTU, 2016, 91 p.
11. Patent no. 2382237 RF, Deep-well electrically driven centrifugal pump unit, Inventors: Kazakov D.P., Urazakov K.R., Topol'nikov A.S., Kudryavtseva A.A.
12. Topol'nikov A.S., Urazakov K.R., Kazakov D.P., The numerical simulation of flow around the submersible pump with filter (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2009, V. 7, no. 2, pp. 88–95.
13. Mashiny i apparaty khimicheskikh proizvodstv: primery i zadachi (Machines and devices of chemical industries: examples and tasks): edited by Sokolov V.N., Leningrad: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1982, 384 p.14. Bashkatov A.D., Progressivnye tekhnologii sooruzheniya skvazhin (Progressive technologies of well construction), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2003, 551 p.
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|Pipeline transport of oil|
Pipeline transport of hydrocarbons is an important object of the energy complex of the country, failures of elements which results in huge losses, pollution, and increase the risk to workers and the public. Of particular relevance is the problem of the safety of shell elements of oil and gas equipment of the northern regions, where due to the specific climatic conditions increase the likelihood of brittle failure of their basic elements. Tighter operating conditions and increased the likelihood of shell elements in the walls of overstressed areas calls for development to establish and improve accounting methods to assess the characteristics of safe operation of oil and gas equipment of the northern regions based on the latest advances in fracture mechanics and safety of complex technical systems.
Based on experimental data, the proposed relationship, which allows to make the construction of the dependencies of critical stress intensity on low temperature operating conditions for structural steels of various oil and gas transport.
Settlement and experimentally determined critical stress intensity sought in the calculation of the resource of safe operation of oil and gas pipelines and shell structures.
1. Kuz'min V.R., Raschet khladostoykosti elementov konstruktsiy (Calculation of the cold resistance of structural elements), Novosibirsk: Nauka. Sibirskoe otdelenie, 1986, 143 p.
2. Larionov V.P., Levin A.I., Bol'shakov A.M., Application of fracture mechanics for evaluation of reliability parameters of pipes and vessels of northern execution (In Russ.), Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostika materialov = Industrial Laboratory, 2001, no. 10, pp. 38–43.
3. Lyglaev A.V., On the nature of catastrophic destruction of large systems (In Russ.), Doklady AN SSSR, 1990, V. 312, no. 3, pp. 555–557.
4. Lyglaev A.V., Khladostoykost' krupnogabaritnykh tonkostennykh metallokonstruktsiy (Cold resistance of large-dimension thin-walled metal structures): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 1993.
5. Mekhanicheskie svoystva konstruktsionnykh materialov pri nizkikh temperaturakh (Mechanical properties of structural materials at low temperatures): edited by Fridlyander I.N., Moscow: Metallurgiya Publ., 1983, 432 p.
6. Solntsev Yu.P., Vikulin A.V., Prochnost' i razrushenie khladostoykikh staley (Strength and destruction of cold-resistant steels), Moscow: Metallurgiya Publ., 1995, 256 p.
7. Vinokurov V.A., Kurkin S.A., Nikolaev G.A., Svarnye konstruktsii. Mekhanika razrusheniya i kriterii rabotosposobnosti (Welded constructions. Mechanics of destruction and performance criteria): edited by Paton B.B., Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1996, 576 p.
8. Saidov G.I., Temperature-velocity dependence of crack resistance of steels of low and medium strength (In Russ.), Zavodskaya laboratoriya, 1987, no. 7, pp. 66–68.
9. Bol'shakov A.M., Khladostoykost' truboprovodov i rezervuarov Severa posle dlitel'noy ekspluatatsii (Cold-resistance of pipelines and reservoirs of the North after long-term operation): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2009.
10. Lisin Yu.V., Neganov D.A., Sergaev A.A., Defining maximal working pressures for main pipelines in extended operation fr om the results of in-line diagnostics (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 6 (26), pp. 30–37.
11. Lisin Yu.V., Ermish S.V., Makhutov N.A., Neganov D.A., Varshitskiy V.M., Impact of stress-strain state of the pipeline on the lim it state of the pipeline (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, V. 7, no. 4, pp. 12–16.
12. Makhutov N.A., Burak M.I., Gadenin M.M. et al., Mekhanika malotsiklovogo razrusheniya (Mechanics of low-cycle failure), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1986, 265 p.
13. Zaynullin R.S., Morozov E.M., Aleksandrov A.A., Kriterii bezopasnogo razrusheniya elementov truboprovodnykh sistem s treshchinami (Criteria for the safe destruction of elements of pipeline systems with cracks), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2005, 316 p.
14. Makhutov N.A., Vorob'ev A.Z., Gadenin M.M. et al., Prochnost' konstruktsiy pri malotsiklovom nagruzhenii (Structural strength at low-cycle loading), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1983, 271 p.
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This article proposes to consider the experience of Tatneft PJSC in the construction of the “Internet of Things”, using the example of creating an automated remote control and management system (ASDKU), which allowed obtaining an effective tool for monitoring and managing development of an oil field on the basis of the already existing infrastructure for reservoir pressure maintenance (RPM). This toolkit has been implemented on Internet services that interact with the infrastructure for the collection, processing and storage of telemetric data coming from "smart" measuring instruments installed in the technological points of the RPM system. The RPM engineering infrastructure is considered as a technical diagnostic system for the oil reservoir under development. The system operates according to the following algorithm. After a prolonged period of stationary waterflooding, pumping units are stopped and disconnected from the pipeline network connecting the common manifold to the injection wells. Then, the reversible ultrasonic flowmeters help analyzing the directions of fluid flows, assisting in the identification of wells with high and low bottomhole pressures and determination of characteristics for equalizing these pressures. The obtained data of the actual working parameters of the oil reservoir interval under development are compared with the development map parameters, according to which the development plan had been drawn up with regards to the rates of liquid production and water injection. Such verification allows reducing the time for identifying planning errors and prompt adjusting of the development parameters of individual areas of oil fields in the crude oil production process.
‘Smart’ measuring devices, sensors and various communicators, a distributed system for collecting, processing, storing telemetric data in conjunction with Internet-services that allow performing the functions of the artificial intelligence and effectively interacting with consumers of the oilfield information through the Internet environment allowed creating an information environment of the ‘Internet of things’, which exerts a great influence over the quality of the oil production management.
1. Khisamov R.S., Gabdullin T.G., Farkhullin R.G., Kontrol' za razrabotkoy neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Control over the development of oil and gas and oil fields), Kazan': Idel-Press Publ., 2009, 406 p.2. Molokovich Yu.M., Markov A.I., Davletshin A.A., Kushtanova G.G., P'ezometriya okrestnosti skvazhin. Teoreticheskie osnovy (Piezometry of the vicinity of wells. Theoretical basis), Kazan': DAS Publ., 203 p.
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In modern conditions of market economy efficiency of enterprises depends on the efficiency and validity of management decisions. The article discusses the use of Information-analytical systems (IAS) for the purpose of decision support in the management and planning of energy objects of the enterprise, and for the purpose of increase of power efficiency of technological processes and enterprises in General. Examples of existing domestic and foreign automated systems that can automate individual controls power consumption. The conclusion about the need to develop software that can automate all the controls power enterprises. To automate the power management of RUSVIETPETRO JV Zarubezhneft JSC initiated R&D aimed at developing IAS «Planning for energy infrastructure». Work on the creation and implementation of IAS carried out in several stages. At the stage of pre-project the requirements to the functionality of IAS were formulated. The structure of the IAS consists of a database and six modules: monitoring module, planning module energy consumption, the simulation module, the module efficiency, the module reports, administration module. Brief characteristic of the main working modules and graphic visualization of the user interface are given. Feature IAS "Planning for energy infrastructure" is a web-interface that allows the user to operate the system remotely via the Internet, including the use of mobile devices running different operating systems. Further development performed R&D aimed at the development of working modules IAS, installation of server hardware and integration of IAS with automated systems RUSVIETPETRO JV.DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-10-127-129
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
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The purpose of the article is to study the properties of terrestrial peat in order to use it in oil spill liquidation from water surface at low temperatures. To define sorption capacity at 20 and 2 °Ñ, the sorption tests of air-dried and thermally treated fuscum and sphagnum peat samples with high decomposition degree were carried out. It has been revealed that peat samples thermally treated in their decomposing gases (up to 250 °Ñ) are characterized by high oil-sorbing capacity, hydrophobic nature and are capable to stay at water surface for a long time. This fact is proved by the buoyancy coefficient compared with that of the untreated peat samples. It is caused by the impact of thermal treatment on peat properties, i.e. alterations in elemental, group and functional composition.
The increase in solute density results in sorbent oil-sorbing capacity increase. The decrease in sorption test temperature has no impact on the water-retaining capacity and buoyancy during the tests.
The thermally-treated peat was successfully used to purify water from residual petroleum hydrocarbons, which was proved by the data of the fluorometric study. The microbilological tests aimed at defining the number of physiological groups of bacteria which destroy petroleum hydrocarbons proved the balanced nature of bacterial processes and ability of ecosystem samples to be utilized at low temperatures. In addition, alteration in peat-sorbent properties due to thermal treatment (as energetic substrate) resulted in the increase in the number of bacteria and capacity to sorb commercial crude oil.
Acknowledgments. The research is carried out at Tomsk Polytechnic University within the framework of Tomsk Polytechnic University Competitiveness Enhancement Program grant.
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