March 2012




Geology and geologo-prospecting works


I.A. Larochkina (Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Tatarstan, RF, Kazan), N.A. Dokuchaeva, E.E. Andreeva (Institute of Ecologic and Mining Problems, Academy of Science of the Republic of Tatarstan, RF, Kazan)
Forecast and prospects of determination of hydrocarbon traps in Riphean-Vendian sediments in the Kama-Belsky aulacogen

Geological and geophysical studies aimed at the complex looking objects in the prediction of the Riphean-Vendian sediments on the west side of the Kama-Belsky aulacogen. the geological prerequisites are determined by tectonic faults for long-term actions, including circular and linear, protrusions in the erosion surface of the crystalline basement rocks, intrusive bodies and paleovolcanic education, fixed in geophysical fields of seismic, gravity, magnetic data and deep drilling.

Key words: anomaly, fault, riphean-vendian adjournment, raising, forecasted petrosearch object.

References

1. Dokuchaev S.A., Dokuchaeva N.A., Andreeva E.E., Otechestvennaya geologiya, 2008, no. 1, pp. 75-78.

2. Dokuchaeva N.A., Aref'ev Yu.M., Andreeva E.E., Georesursy - International Journal of Sciences “Georesources”, 2010, no. 3(35), pp. 7-9.

3. Larochkina I.A., Sukhova V.A., Valeeva I.F., Georesursy - International Journal of Sciences Georesources, 2010, no. 3(35), pp. 10-14.

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S.L. Belousov, E.N. Nukalov, A.N. Naumov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Paleotectonic analysis of Krasnoleninskiy arch

Paleotectonic analysis of the territory of Krasnoleninskiy arch of the West Siberian Plate is executed. The contribution of each selected period of time in the tectonic development of the territory is considered. The main lines of tectonic movements, the relative increase of the basic structures of Krasnoleninskiy arch are revealed. It was come out with a suggestion about tectonic movements relationship with the re-formation of deposits of vikulovskoye sediments.

Keywords: Krasnoleninskiy arch, paleotectonics, vikulovskoye sediments, horizons, layers, deposits.

References

1. Nassonova N.V. Belousov S.L. Zverev K.V., Otchet “Detal'nye paleogeograficheskie postroeniya po plastam VK na Em-Egovskom, Kamennom i Talinskom LU zapada KhMAO” (The report, "Detailed paleogeographic build layers of west KhMAO licence blocks: Em-Egovskiy, Kamenny, and Talinskiy"), Tyumen': OOO TNNTs, 2009.


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V.A. Karpov (Institute of Innovation Technologies and Methods of Subsurface Resources Management LLC, RF, Moscow)
The prospects of discovering new hydrocarbon reservoirs within or near mature fields

The prospects of discovering new hydrocarbon reservoirs within or near mature fields are associated with exploration for traps in near-fault regions separating anticline (controlling the field) and syncline significantly affecting original hydrocarbon deposits. Optimal exploration approach must be reoriented towards mapping of the fault and tectono-physical traps within the near-fault region. To evaluate prospects within any mature field first and foremost one should assess its tectonic position, tectonic history, define the last stage of tectonic activation, reconstruct paleo-structures, and diagnose tectonically active synclines

Key words: Reserves replenishment, anticlines and synclines, fault, tectonic development, redistribution of hydrocarbons.

References

1. Fartukov M.M., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1990, no. 8, pp. 17-19.

2. Chebanenko I.I., Klochko V.P., Tokovenko V.S., Evdoshchuk N.I., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2000 no. 5, pp. 36-39.

3. Karpov V.A., Nedropol'zovanie-XXI vek, 2011, no. 5, pp. 72-75.

4. Muslimov R.Kh., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2007, no. 1, pp. 5-11.

5. Bembel' R.M., Megerya V.M., Bembel' S.R., Geosolitony: funktsional'naya sistema Zemli, kontseptsiya razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Geo-solitons: a functional system of the Earth, the concept of exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits), Tyumen': Vektor Buk Publ, 2003, 344 p.

6. Bagdasarova M.V., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2001, no. 3, pp. 50-56.

7. Zapivalov N.P., Isaev G.D. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2010, no. 341, pp. 226-232.

8. Gzovskiy M.V. Osnovy tektonofiziki (Fundamentals of tectonophysics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 536 p.

9. Gavrilov V.P. Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1998, no. 6, pp. 2-12.

10. Dzhumagulov A.D. Geodinamika i remigratsiya uglevodorodov (Geodynamics and remigration of hydrocarbons), Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya “Geodinamicheskaya obstanovka neftegazoobrazovaniya i neftegazonakopleniya v zemnoy kore” (International Conference "Geodynamic setting of oil and gas formation and accumulation in the earth's crust"), Tashkent, 2002, pp. 154-157.

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V.P. Mitrofanov, M.I. Ermakova (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Justification of residual oil saturation of terrigenous reservoirs of fields of the south of the Perm region

The residual oil saturation of the terrigenous productive deposits of tulskiy, bobrikovskiy, malinovskiy reservoirs of 11 main fields, confined to Kuedino-Chernushinskaya zone of oil and gas accumulation within the southern part of the Bashkir arch of the Perm region is investigated. Generalized residual oil saturation dependences on the gas permeability, open porosity and structural parameter are obtained. It is shown that these dependences allow to estimate the limiting values of the main characteristics of terrigenous oil-saturated reservoirs, such as permeability, porosity, initial oil saturation, within the southern part of the Perm region with rather uniform lithologic-facies conditions of sediments formation.

Key words: residual oil saturation, the initial oil saturation, porosity, dynamic porosity, permeability, displacement efficiency

References

1. Mikhaylov N.N., Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2008, no. 2., pp. 33 – 37.

2. Astakhov A.N., Mel'nikov M.N., Kan A.G., Orekhov V.V., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2010, no. 1, pp. 45-51.

3. Zoloeva G.M., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1984, no. 10, pp. 30-34.

4. Mitrofanov V.P., Zlobin A.A. Ostatochnaya neftenasyshchennost' i osobennosti porovogo prostranstva karbonatnykh porod (The residual oil saturation, and pore space characteristics of carbonate rocks), Perm', 2003, 239 p.

5. Zudakina E.N. Neftenasyshchennost' obraztsov porod, otobrannykh iz vyrabotannykh uchastkov zalezhey mestorozhdeniya Uzen' (Oil saturation of rock samples taken from worked out areas of Uzen oil field), V sb. Sovershenstvovanie metodov promyslovo-geologicheskikh issledovaniy razrabatyvaemykh mestorozhdeniy, Tr. in-ta VNIIneft', 1981, V. 78, pp . 12-19.

6. Mikhaylov N.N. Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabotannykh plastov (The residual oil saturation of worked out layers), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992, 240 p.

7. Berezkin V.M., Gizatullina V.V., Shutikhin V.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 1982, no. 6, pp. 34-37.

8. Mitrofanov V.P., Ermakova M.I., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 1, pp. 29 33.

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R.Z. Mukhametshin (Kazan Federal University), S.A. Punanova (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS)
Non-traditional sources of hydrocarbon raw material: geochemical features and aspects of development

The problems of changing the absolute contents and ratios of trace elements in heavy oils and solid bitumens in the process of their hypergene transformation are considered. The geochemical features of hypergene vanadium-bearing naphthides in the Permian deposits of Tatarstan fields and the geological and tectonic conditions of formation and transformation of their accumulations are studied in detail. It is shown that the technology of borehole mining of viscous oils recovery should take into account the high content of toxic trace elements (V, Ni). For a more complete extraction of trace elements and to reduce the ecological impact on the environment the complex processing of such a hydrocarbon row material as hypergenically converted naphtides is needed.

Key words: naphtides, hypergenesis, trace elements, geochemistry.

References

1. Yakutseni S.P., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2000, no. 1, pp. 56-59.

2. Belonin M.D., Shumeykin S.A., Yakutseni V.P., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2004, no. 6, pp. 39-46.

3. Punanova S.A., Chakhmakhchev V.A. Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya preobrazovaniya mikroelementnogo sostava naftidov pri protsessakh ikh migratsii, katageneza i gipergeneza (Experimental studies of microelement composition of naphthides transformation in the processes of their migration, catagenesis and supergene), Modelirovanie neftegazoobrazovaniya (Simulation of oil and gas formation), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1992, pp. 119-124.

4. Chakhmakhchev V.A., Punanova S.A. Lositskaya I.F., Obzornaya informatsiya ser. Neftegazovaya geologiya i geofizika (Overview. Oil and gas geology and geophysics), 1984, V. 11(70), 56 p.

5. Gol'dberg I.S. Prirodnye bitumy SSSR (Zakonomernosti formirovaniya i razmeshcheniya) (Natural bitumens of the USSR (Regularities formation and placement)), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1981, 195 p.

6. Gribkov V.V. Sbornik «Poputnye komponenty neftey i problemy ikh izvlecheniya» (Sbornik "By-products of petroleum and their extraction problems"), Leningrad: VNIGRI Publ., 1989, pp. 28-39.

7. Punanova S.A., Vinogradova T.L., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 10, pp. 27-30.

8. Permskie bitumy Tatarii (Permian bitumens of Tatarstan): edited by V.I. Troepol'skiy, Kazan': Kazanskiy universitet Publ., 1976, 212 p.

9. Yakutseni S.P. Rasprostranennost' uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, obogashchennogo tyazhelymi elementami-primesyami. Otsenka ekologicheskikh riskov (The prevalence of hydrocarbon-rich heavy elements impurities. Assessment of environmental risks), Sankt-Peterburg: Nedra Publ., 2005, 372 p.

10. Kayukova G.P. et al., Geochemistry of Permian Bitumen from Tatarstan, the 7th UNITAR International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Beijing, China, October 27-30 1998: Proceedings, V. 2, pp. 1567-1578.

11. Lobov V.A., Trudy Geologicheskogo instituta (Kazan'), 1970, V. 30, pp. 257-266.

12. Pavlov P.D., Voytovich E.D., Matrosov V.M., Sbornik Neftenosnost' karbonatnykh kollektorov paleozoya Tatarii (Oil bearing carbonate reservoirs of Paleozoic of Tatarstan), Bugul'ma, 1975, pp. 209-224.

13. Akishev I.M., Trudy instituta TatNIPIneft', 1987, V. 60, pp. 74-77.

14. Gubnitskiy V.M., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1997, no. 2, pp. 14-18.


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A.V. Rastegaev, V.I. Galkin, A.N Anoshkin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Forecast of poorly drained sites within BS102-3 reservoir of Tevlinsko-Russkinskoye field by geological and geochemical indices

A statistical analysis of geological and geochemical indices within the learning sample is carried out. It is stated that the active zones differ from poorly drained sites by a number of indices. a Multi-dimensional geological and mathematical model of active zones forecasting is developed. By the given model data the calculations are executed and forecast map for the BS102-3 reservoir of Tevlinsko-Russkinskoye field is constructed.

Key words: oil, field, geological and geochemical indices, active zones, poorly drained sites, predictive model.

References

1. Skachek K.G., Rastegaev A.V., Mordvintsev M.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 2, pp. 2-4.

2. Ivanov S.A., Skachek K.G., Galkin V.I. et al., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 10, pp. 42-45.

3. Galkin V.I., Rastegaev A.V., Kozlova I.A. et al., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 7, pp. 4-7.

4. Rastegaev A.V., Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A. et al., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 7, pp. 8-11.

5. Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Rasstegaev A.V. et al., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 7, pp. 12-16.

6. Ivanov S.A., Rasstegaev A.V., Galkin V.I., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 7, pp. 54-57.

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N.G. Nurgalieva (Kazan Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Microfacies, petrophysics and sequence-stratigraphic frame of carbonate reservoir rocks of Kizelovskian formation

In present paper the Kizelovskian formation on Southern slope of Tatarian Dome has been studied in terms of carbonate microfacies, petrophysics and sequence-stratigraphy to reveal the influence of facial structure on reservoir properties distribution. It was determined the cyclic composition of microfacial association that is typical for progradating system tract within carbonate ramp.

Key words: carbonate microfacies, Kizelovskian formation, sequence-stratigraphy.

References

1. Dunham R.J. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Classification of carbonate rocks – a symposium, AAPG Mem., 1962, no. 1, pp. 108-121.

2. Choquette P.W., Pray L.C. Geologic nomenclature and classification of porosity in sedimentary carbonates, AAPG Bulletin, 1970, no. 2, pp. 207-250.

3. Lucia F.J. Rock fabric/petrophysical classification of carbonate pore space for reservoir characterization, AAPG Bulletin, 1995, no. 9, p. S. 1275-1300.

4. Nurgalieva N.G., Nuriev A.G. Neftyanoe khozyaystvo - Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 94-98.

5. Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' Orenburgskoy oblasti (Geological structure and petroleum potential of Orenburg region), Orenburg: Orenburgskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo, 1997, 272 p.

6. Lucia F.Jerry, Carbonate reservoir characterization: an integrated approach, Springer Publ., 2007, 348 p.

7. Kerans C., Fitchen W.M. Sequence hierarchy and facies architecture of a carbonate-ramp system: San Andres Formation of Algerita Escarpment and western Guadalupe Mountains, West Texas and New Mexico, The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations, 1995, 235, 85 p.

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E.A. Korolev, V.P. Morozov, A.N. Kolchugin (Institute of Geology and Oil and Gas Technology, Kazan Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Peculiarities of structure and formation of oil reservoirs in carbonate rocks of Tournaisian stage of the Republic of Tatarstan

As a result of comprehensive research of limestone Tournaisian stage, the authors identified two major structural and genetic types of carbonate rocks with different petrophysical properties. The most productive limestone is packstone from Kizelovsky horizon. They have high porosity and permeability. Wackestone of Cherepetsky horizon are low-productivity reservoirs. Analysis of carbonate rocks Tournaisian stage showed that the major geological factors, that determined the anisotropy of petrophysical properties of limestone, are the conditions of sedimentation and fluid dynamics of the sedimentary basin. The results of research voids of limestones can reasonably choose the scheme of exploration oil reservoirs of the Tournaisian stage.

Key words: Tournaisian stage, oil reservoirs, limestone, genesis.

References

1. Kozina E.A., Morozov V.P., Korolev E.A., Pikalev S.N., Neftegazovae delo – Oil and Gas Business, 2005, V.3, pp. 9-16.

2. Muslimov R.Kh., Vasyasin G.I., Shakirov A.N., Chendarev V.V., Geologiya turneyskogo yarusa Tatarstana (Geology of Tournaisian stage of Tatarstan), Kazan': Monitoring Publ., 1999, 186 p.

3. Morozov V.P., Kozina E.A., Karbonatnye porody turneyskogo yarusa nizhnego karbona (Carbonate rocks of the lower carboniferous of Tournaisian stage), Kazan': PF Gart Publ., 2007, 201 p.

4. Afanas'ev Yu.V., Tsivinskaya L.V., Geologiya nefti i gaza- The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1999, no. 5-6, pp. 22-28.

5. Taranenko E.I., Bezborodov R.S., Khakimov M.Yu., Geologiya nefti i gaza- The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2000, no. 2, pp. 56-58.

6. Sidorova N.N., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2007, no.8, pp. 65-69.

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Drilling of chinks


V.I. Lesin (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.V. Lesin (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Theoretical foundation and experimental confirmation for "fractal" formula of non-Newtonian fluid viscosity dependence on shear rate

The new physical model of non Newtonian liquid colloidal solutions is proposed. The “fractal” formula that describes viscosity dependence shear rate was obtained in analytical form on the basis of approach that the mechanical energy of moving liquid is spending on fragments detaching and deforming of colloidal particles aggregates of fractal type. The validity of formula is confirmed by experimental data for petroleum and drilling solution.

Key words:

References

1. Matveenko V.N., Kirsanov E.A., Remizov S.V., Vestnik MGU. Ser. 2. Khimiya - Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin, 2001, V. 42, no. 5, pp. 363-368.

2. Lesin V.I., Lesin S.V., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2004, no. 1, pp. 37-39.

3. Lesin V.I., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2008, no. 1, pp. 43-46.

4. Sonntag R.C., Russel W.B., Structure and breakup of flocs subjected to fluid stresses: I.Shear experiments, J. Colloid. Interface Sci., 1986, V. 113(2), pp. 399-413.

5. Sonntag R.C., Russel W.B. Structure and breaup of flocs subjected to fluid stresses: II.Theory, J. Colloid. Interface Sci., 1986, V. 113(2), pp. 399-413.

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A.A. Melekhin (Saint-Petersburg State Mining University, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.E. Chernyshov, M.S. Turbakov (State National Research Polytechnic University of Perm)
Expanding compositions of cement slurries for lost circulation control under cementing of casing of producing wells

For isolation quality increase of loss circulation zones during casing of oil wells, is offered plugging slurry based on Portland cement and expanding polymeric additive. This composition represents plugging system, which increases in volume up to 10-12 % during pumping into a formation. Meanwhile take place blinding of pore channels and decreasing of permeability of formation, ipso facto ensures leaktightness of whole interval.

Key words:producing well, extraction of oil trouble, lost circulation control, cementing of casing, cement slurry.

References

1. Melekhin A.A., Storchak A.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 2, pp. 50-52.

2. Melekhin A.A., Kornev A.Yu., Kryukov M.A., et al., Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2011, no. 4, pp. 26-30.

3. Gorshkov G.F., Polyakov L.P., Kurochkin B.M., Burenie, 1974, no. 1, pp. 16-20.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


A.A. Khakimov, R.I. Sattarov, A.V. Kachurin (Industrial Chemistry OOO, MIRRIKO Group of Companies), A.V. Akimkin (Bashneft JSOC)
Acid treatment technological advancement

It is noted that standard methods of acid treatments do not allow to extract significant oil reserves of reservoirs under development. One of the ways to improve the efficiency of acid treatments of reservoirs at a late stage of development is the use of complex compounds. Complex additive to the Katol 22A acid is developed and tested by Mirrico Group at the fields of Bashneft JSOC. The effectiveness of treatments in the presence of Katola 22A on average is 80-90 %.

Key words: hydrochloric acid treatment, the intensification of oil production, complex surfactants.

References

1. Amelin I.D., Surguchev M.L., Davydov A.V. Prognoz razrabotki neftyanykh zalezhey na pozdney stadii (Forecast of development of oil deposits in the late stage), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1994, 308 p.

2. Tokunov V.I., Saushin A.Z. Tekhnologcheskie zhidkosti i sostavy dlya povysheniya produktivnosti neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Process fluids and compositions for increasing the productivity of oil and gas wells), Moscow: OOO “Nedra-Biznestsentr” Publ., 2004, 711 p.

3. Roessingh H. Well stimulation the key to discoveries, Canadien Petroleum, 1969, V.10 no. 5, pp. 35-39.

4. Loginov B.G., Malyshev L.G.. Garifullin Sh.S. Rukovodstvo po kislotnym obrabotkam skvazhin (Guidelines for wells acidizing), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1966, P. 22.

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R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk), V.G. Bazarevskaya, T.I. Tarasova, L.A. Gallyamova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
The role of oil recovery factor increasing in reserve base restoration

Increase of oil recoverability in Russian Federation and in Republic of Tatarstan in the recent years is attributed, mainly, to re-estimating and increasing of oil recovery factor, rather than new oil discoveries, because of curtailment of geological exploration due to the expensiveness thereof and the resulting risks reduction. In this situation, more emphasis shall be placed on oil recovery factor, which takes on a key part. However, the role of oil recovery factor for reserves calculation has been underestimated.

Key words: reserves, increment, geologic exploration, re-estimation, oil recovery factor.

References

1. Muslimov R.Kh., Burenie i neft', 2011, no. 2, pp. 27-31.

2. Medvedev D.A. Vystuplenie na zasedanii Komissii po modernizatsii i tekhnologicheskomu razvitiyu ekonomiki Rossii 25 dekabrya 2009 goda (Speech at the meeting of the Commission for Modernization and Technological Development of the Russian economy December 25, 2009), 2009, Available at: http://www.i-russia.ru/sessions/reports/8.html

3. Gosudarstvennyy doklad “O sostoyanii i ispol'zovanii mineral'no-syr'evykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2009 godu” (State Report "On the status and use of mineral resources of the Russian Federation in 2009"), 2010, Available at: http://www.mnr.gov.ru/regulatory/detail.php?ID=118397.

4. Mishchenko I.T., Burenie i neft', 2011, no. 2, pp. 9-10.

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A.V. Timonov, I.V. Sudeyev, A.V. Pestrikov, S.S. Sitdikov (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow), A.N. Nadeev, A.V. Yudin (Schlumberger, RF), A.N. Nikitin (RN-Yuganskneftegaz LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk)
A new methodology of simulation of hydraulic fracturing at the development of Priobskoye field

An unified methodology of the planning and execution of hydraulic fracturing on the basis of new approaches to the setting of geomechanical properties of rocks with the help of correlation dependencies between the readings of methods of a standard set of well survey and laboratory core analysis data is developed and tested. The comparison of results of hydraulic fracturing simulation, based on standard approaches, with the proposed method data is carried out. The consistency and validity of the method of correlation functions, as well as the possibility of its use by contractors for the simulation of hydraulic fracturing are shown. Testing of the method was carried out by results of 60 operations of hydraulic fracturing.

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, correlation functions, a standard set of log data, Young modulus, Poisson ratio.

References

1. Brodovoy V.V. Kompleksirovanie geofizicheskikh metodov (Integration of geophysical methods), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 336 p.

2. Gurari F.G. Stroenie i usloviya obrazovaniya klinoform neokomskikh otlozheniy Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity (istoriya stanovleniya predstavleniy) (The structure and formation conditions of clinoform Neocomian deposits of West Siberian Plate (the historical formation of concepts)), Novosibirsk: SNIIGGiMS Publ., 2003, 141 p.

3. Korshak A.A., Shammazov A.M. Osnovy neftegazovogo dela (Basics of petroleum engineering), Moscow: DizaynPoligrafServis Publ., 2007, 560 p.

4. Basarygin Yu.M., Bulatov A.I., Proselkov Yu.M. Tekhnologiya bureniya neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (The technology for oil and gas wells drilling), Moscow: OOO Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2001. – 679 s.

5. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G. Reservoir stimulation, Houston: Schlumberger Educational Services, 1987, SMP-7018.

6. Nikitin A., Yudin A., Latypov I. et al., Hydraulic fracture geometry investigation for successful optimization of fracture modeling and overall development of Jurassic formation in Western Siberia, SPE 121888-MS presented at SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference & Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2009, 4-6 August.

7. Nikitin A.N., Latypov I.D., Khaydar A.M. et al., Neftegazovae delo Oil and Gas Business, 2011, no. 1, pp. 76-83.

8. Borisov G.A., Latypov I.D., Khaydar A.M. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2009, no. 9, pp. 98-101.

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M.V Mordvintsev (Verkhnechonskneftegaz OJSC, RF, Irkutsk), V.I. Galkin, A.V. Rastegaev, A.N. Anoshkin (State National Research Polytechnic University of Perm, RF, Rerm)
Investigation of the influence of the secondary transformations in the rocks of productive horizons of the Druzhnoye field on the oil production rates

The influence of the secondary transformations in the rocks of BS10, BS11 and YuS1 layers friendly field on production rates of oil is proved at the statistical level. Individual and multi-dimensional models of oil production rates forecast are constructed. The conclusion about the possibility of creating multi-dimensional mathematical models of production rates prediction by a set of indicators, characterizing the secondary transformations in reservoir rocks, is drawn.

Keywords: oil, field, oil production rate, the probability, forecast.

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S.B. Denisov, I.V. Evdokimov (VNIIneft OAO, RF Moscow), V.S. Rudaya, A.G. Sherashova (OilGeoCenter LLC, RF, Moscow)
Water Control Diagnostic Plots Application to estimate causes of high water cut wells

The experience of application of diagnostic plots to assess the causes of premature water cut of wells at fields of Russia is considered. The yield data, water-oil ratio values, the production logging results were used for analysis. The assessment of correspondence of results of assess the water cut causes by diagnostic plots with production logging data are executed on the large volume of material.

Key words: water cut, water/oil ratio, production logging, water control diagnostic plots.

References

1. Bailey B., Krabtree M., Tyrie J., et al., Water control oilfield review, Spring 2000, V. 12, Issue 1, pp. 30-51.

2. Merkulova L.I., Ginzburg A.A. Graficheskie metody analiza pri dobyche nefti (Graphical methods of analysis for crude oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 125 p.

3. Chan K.S. Water control diagnostic plots, SPE 30775.

4. Lo K.K., et al., A study of the post-breakthrouth characteristics of waterfloods, SPE 20064.

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A.Ya. Sorkin, V.E. Stupochenko, V.A. Kan (KORNTEKH NTC OOO, RF, Moscow), S.A. Zhdanov (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
The effectiveness of the use of flow deviation technology in injection wells

The necessity of the use of flow deviation technologies for injected water moving control in heterogeneous reservoirs, being at the late stage of development, is substantiated. Information and expert assessment is executed and rating indices of the use of flow deviation technologies at injection wells stock in the main oil companies of the industry are given. About 35 thousand treatments of injection wells are carried out with use of these technologies in the past few years in the industry, that provided additional oil production more than 53 million tons. It is shown that there are significant reserves for increasing the volume of the introduction of such technologies in some oil companies.

Key words: flooding, flow deviation technology, efficiency, rating

References

1. Sorkin A.Ya., Zhdanov S.A., Kan V.A. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2004, no. 4, pp. 64-66.

2. Shamgunov R., Neftegazovaya vertikal' - Oil&Gas Vertical, 2007, no. 14, pp. 102-104.

3. Khisamov R.S., Fayzullin I.N., Ibatullin R.R. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo - Oil Industry, 2010, no. 7, pp. 32-35.

4. Shelepov V.V., Mat. III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo simpoziuma “Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov” (Proc. 3rd Int. Sc. Symp. Theory and practice of applying the methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: OAO «VNIIneft'» Publ., 2011, V.1, pp. 3.

5. Afanas'ev I.S., Sergeychev A.V., Timonov A.V., Mat. III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo simpoziuma Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Proc. 3rd Int. Sc. Symp. Theory and practice of applying the methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: OAO VNIIneft' Publ., 2011, V.1, pp. 7-14.

6. Mulyak V.V., Chertenkov M.V., Veremko N.A. Mat. III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo simpoziuma Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Proc. 3rd Int. Sc. Symp. Theory and practice of applying the methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: OAO VNIIneft' Publ., 2011, V.1, pp. 27-28.

7. Savel'ev V.A. Mat. III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo simpoziuma Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Proc. 3rd Int. Sc. Symp. Theory and practice of applying the methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: OAO VNIIneft' Publ., 2011, V.1, pp. 29-33.

8. Shul'ev Yu.V., Vinokhodov M.A., Kryanev D.Yu. et al., Mat. III Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo simpoziuma Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Proc. 3rd Int. Sc. Symp. Theory and practice of applying the methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: OAO VNIIneft' Publ., 2011, V.1, pp. 58-63.

9. Luk'yanov Yu.V., Shuvalov A.V., Suleymanov A.A.et al. Mat. II Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo simpoziuma Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Proc. 2nd Int. Sc. Symp. Theory and practice of applying the methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: OAO VNIIneft' Publ., 2009, V.1, pp.77-82.

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V.I. Galkin (State National Research Polytechnic University of Perm, RF, Perm), G.P. Khizhnyak (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
On the influence of lithology on the water-oil displacement efficiency

The technique, which allows to estimate the displacement efficiency by a complex parameter, including the absolute permeability and the fraction of stagnant zones of the pore space of reservoir rocks, without direct physical modeling of oil displacement process, is suggested.

Keywords: displacement efficiency, permeability, stagnant zones, terrigenous and carbonate rocks.

References

1. Yurkiv N.I., Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy nefteizvlecheniya (Physico-chemical bases of oil recovery), Moscow: OAO “VNIIOENG” Publ., 2005, 336 p.

2. A.s. USSR (Author's certificate) no. 706750, kl G01N15/08, Tul'bovich B.I., Khizhnyak G.P., Sposob opredeleniya parametrov tupikovykh zon porovogo prostranstva porod-kollektorov (The method of determining the parameters of dead-end zones of the pore space of reservoir rocks).

3. Galkin V.I., Rastegaev A.V., Galkin S.V., Veroyatnostno-statisticheskaya otsenka neftegazonosnosti lokal'nykh struktur (Probabilistic-statistical evaluation of oil and gas potential of local structures), Ekaterinburg: UroRAN Publ., 2001, 277 p.

4. Galkin V.I., Galkin S.V., Anoshkin A.N., Akimov I.A., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2007, no. 10, pp. 51–53.

5. Putilov I.S., Galkin V.I., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2007, no. 9, pp. 112114.

6. Galkin V.I., Galkin S.V., Voevodkin V.L., Permyakov V.G., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2011, no. 2, pp. 8688.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery


R.M. Rakhmanov, F.Z. Ismagilov, G.N. Farkhutdinov, A.I. Khisamutdinov (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk), M.Kh. Musabirov, E.M. Abusalimov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Development of ksk-tatneft improved acidizing compositions

Tatneft OAO has developed new improved acidizing compositions referred to as KSK. The paper presents data on composition and physicochemical characteristics thereof, as well as different application scenarios, geotechnical conditions of application, and results of pilot tests. Analysis of commercial application of KSK compositions in Tatneft assets will be discussed in subsequent publications.

Key words: acidizing compositions, well stimulation, reaction rate, acid deviation.

References

1. Glushchenko V.N., Telin A.G., Silin M.A. Tendentsii fiziko-khimicheskoy modifikatsii kislotnykh sostavov (Trends of physical and chemical modification of acidic compounds), Moscow: OAO “VNIIOENG” Publ., 2007, 154 p.

2. Gusakov V.N., Telin A.G., Pasynkov A.G., et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2007, no. 11, pp. 57-61.

3. Tokunov V.I., Saushin A.Z. Tekhnologicheskie zhidkosti i sostavy dlya povysheniya produktivnosti neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Process liquids and compositions for increasing the productivity of oil and gas wells), Moscow: OOO Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2004, 711 p.

4. Frolov A.I., Ismagilov F.Z., Musabirov M.Kh. et al., Tekhnologiya kislotnoy stimulyatsii karbonatnykh i terrigennykh plastov-kollektorov na osnove kislotnykh kompozitsiy «KSK» s reguliruemoy kinetikoy reaktsii: vremennaya instruktsiya (The technology of acid stimulation of carbonate and terrigenous reservoirs based on acid compositions "KSK" with controlled kinetics of the reaction: interim instruction), Al'met'evsk: OAO Tatneft' Publ., 2006, 26 p.

5. RD 153-39.0-611-08 Instruktsiya po tekhnologii kislotnoy stimulyatsii plastov-kollektorov s primeneniem kislotnykh kompozitsiy KSK (Instruction about the acid stimulation of reservoirs with acid compositions "KSK"): by Musabirov M.Kh., Rakhmanov R.M., Ismagilov F.Z. et al., Al'met'evsk: OAO Tatneft' Publ., 2008, 23 p.

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A.V. Raspopov, S.A. Kondratyev, D.V. Novokreshchennykh (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
The influence of geological and physical conditions on the efficiency of radial canals drilling into the borehole zone of reservoir

The results of application of the radial drilling technology in the fields of the Perm region are considered. The analysis of the dependence of the technology effectiveness on the geological and physical conditions is given. Conditions for maximizing technological performance of the radial drilling are shown.

Key words: radial drilling, radial canals, carbonate reservoir, the increase in oil production, the intervals (levels) of drilling-in by radial canals

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Designing of arrangement of deposits


G.M. Dolgikh, S.N. Okunev, S.N. Strizhkov (Research and Production Association Fundamentstroyarkos OOO, RF, Tyumen)
Thermostabilization of oil and gas well heads soils with use of vertical naturally acting systems

A number of factors, affecting the operation as systems of temperature stabilization of the bases soils and output wells, are revealed in the process of designing and construction the systems of thermostabilization of the soils of bases of oil well heads of the South Khylchuyuskoye field, development of Vankorskaya group of fields, as well as of designing, installation and operation of gas well heads of Bovanenkovskoye oil and gas-condensate field. Subject to revealed factors and obtained experience of designing the constant modernization of systems of temperature stabilization of the output well heads is carried out.

Key words: vertical naturally acting systems, construction, bases soils thermostabilization systems, oil and gas wellheads.

References

1. Rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu prochnosti merzlykh gruntov s morskim tipom zasoleniya (Guidelines for determining the strength of frozen soils with a type of marine salinity), Moscow: FGUP PNIIIS Gosstroya Rossii Publ., 2001.

2. Rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu osnovaniy i fundamentov na vechnomerzlykh gruntakh (Guidelines for designing bases and foundations on permafrost soils), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1980. – 303 p.

3. Spravochnik po stroitel'stvu na vechnomerzlykh gruntakh (Guide for construction on permafrost soils), Leningrad: Stroyizdat Publ., 1977, 551 p.

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The oil-field equipment


R.B. Fattakhov, S.A. Sobolev, V.P. Tronov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Optimization of intermittent operation of booster pumping station connected to a common line

The paper analyzes operation of two booster pumping stations connected to a common line. To visualize operation, computer model was constructed. To optimize operation of pumping units, the authors suggest time matching, rather than concurrent operation of booster pumping stations, and added pumping rate control with a frequency-controlled drive to decrease pipeline pressure, as well as power consumption.

Key words: booster pumping station, modeling of pumping unit operation, time matching, frequency-controlled drive.

References

1. Tronov V.P. Sistemy neftegazosbora i gidrodinamika osnovnykh tekhnologicheskikh protsessov (Oil and gas gathering system and hydrodynamics of the basic technological processes), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2002, 511 p.

2. Patent RF 2109033. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Fattakhov R.B., Akhmetzyanov R.R., Zhil'tsov A.A., Arsent'ev A.A., Sobolev S.A., Pergushev L.P., Sistema transportirovaniya produktsii skvazhin neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (The transporting system of oil field wells production).

3. Pergushev L.P., Fattakhov R.B., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sobolev S.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2005, no. 5, pp. 134-137.

4. Patent RF 2367821, Pergushev L.P., Fattakhov R.B., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sobolev S.A., Sposob regulirovaniya rezhima raboty dvukh dozhimnykh nasosnykh stantsiy, osushchestvlyayushchikh periodicheskuyu otkachku zhidkosti v odin i tot zhe truboprovod (Method of control modes of the two booster pump stations, performing periodic pumping of fluid in the same pipeline).

5. Patent RF 2382192. Fattakhov R.B., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Pergushev L.P., Sobolev S.A., Akhmetzyanov R.R., Zhil'tsov A.A., Sistema transportirovaniya nefti na podgotovku s neskol'kikh ob"ektov (The system of oil transportation from several objects for treatment).

6. Akhiyartdinov E.M., Kabirova M.M., Neftegazovae delo Oil and Gas Business, 2011, no. 2, pp. 95-104.

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G.M. Sorokin, V.N. Malyshev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Criteria for steels strength characteristics determining in various conditions of outwearing

The article deals with basic questions regarding to the prospects of development of high-strength and wear-resistant steels. In the paper is observed that already considerable time in the production of steels is used a big range of steels differing in a little from each other on strength characteristics. Developed by the authors the generalized evaluation criterion of wear resistance for steels' ranking without their testing for outwearing, can serve as a reliable guide to the choice of high-strength steels for different operating conditions.

Key words: wear resistance, metallurgy, criterion of wear, mechanical characteristics of steels.

References

1. Fridman Ya.B. Mekhanicheskie svoystva metallov (Mechanical properties of metals), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1974, V. 1, 422 p.; V. 2, 368 p.

2. Sorokin G.M., Malyshev V.N., Trenie i iznos - Friction and Wear, 2005, V. 26, no. 6, pp. 598-607.

3. Vinogradov V.N., Sorokin G.M. Mekhanicheskoe iznashivanie staley i splavov (Mechanical wear of steels and alloys), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1996, 364 p.

4. Sorokin G.M. Tribologiya staley i splavov (Tribology of steels and alloys), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 315 p.

5. Vinogradov V.N., Sorokin G.M. Abrazivnoe iznashivanie buril'nogo instrumenta (Abrasive wear of drilling tools), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, 205 p.

6. Marochnik staley i splavov (Grade list of steels and alloys): edited by V.G. Sorokin, Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1989, 638 p.

7. Sorokin G.M., Kurakin I.B. Sistemnyy analiz i kompleksnye kriterii prochnosti staley (System analysis and comprehensive criteria for the strength of steel), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2011, 100 p.

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Rational use of oil gas


A.V. Grishagin, T.I. Kologreeva (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara), V.A. Shashel (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow)
The use of multiphase pumping stations and centrifugal pump units to ensure a high degree of the petroleum gas application

Experience in design and operation of multiphase pumping stations at the oil fields of Samaraneftegaz OAO is stated. The conditions of use of the classical centrifugal pump units at transport of the produced output instead of multiphase pumping stations to achieve a high (95-98 %) degree of utilization of petroleum gas are considered.

Key words: petroleum gas, multiphase pumping stations, centrifugal pumps.


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Transport and oil preparation


R.M. Garifullin, R.Z. Sakhabutdinov, A.N. Shatalov, N.V. Antonova, A.Z. Mingazova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Improvement of method for determination of chlorides concentration in oil

Methods of aqueous extracts’ preparation for titration have been analyzed to improve accuracy and eliminate negative effects of hydrogen sulfide chemical scavengers used as reagents for determination of chlorides in oil by Method A in accordance with GOST 21534-76. The results of the study have been considered in working out an upgraded version of GOST 21534-76.

Key words: oil, hydrogen sulfide, scavenger, chloride salts, hydrogen peroxide.

References

1. Shatalov A.N., Garifullin R.M., Nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya “Optimizatsiya protsessov ochistki nefti ot serovodoroda v usloviyakh neftyanykh promyslov” (Scientific-practical conference "Optimization of cleaning oil from the hydrogen sulfide in oil field"), Bulgaria, 2006.

2. Baymukhametov M.K., Murinov K.Yu., Yaropolova E.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2008, no. 5, pp. 76-77.

3. Patent RF 2109033, Shakirov F.G., Mazgarov A.M., Vil'danov A.F., Khrushcheva I.K., Sposob ochistki nefti i gazokondensata ot serovodoroda (The purification process of crude oil and condensate from hydrogen sulfide).

4. Lur'e Yu.Yu., Rybnikova A.I. Khimicheskiy analiz proizvodstvennykh stochnykh vod (Chemical analysis of industrial wastewater), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1974, 336 p.

5. Lur'e Yu.Yu. Analiticheskaya khimiya promyshlennykh stochnykh vod (Chemical analysis of industrial wastewater), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1984, 448 p.

6. Frumina N.S., Lisenko N.F., Chernova M.A. Khlor. Analiticheskaya khimiya elementov (Chlorine. Analytical chemistry of elements), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1983, 200 p.

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I.Yu. Pyshmintsev, I.V. Kostitsyna, D.A. Manannikov, V.P. Parshukov, A.I. Birukov (The Russian Research Institute for the Tube&Pipe Industries, RF, Chelyabinsk), V.V. Zavyalov (Nizhnevartovsknipineft OAO, RF, Nizhnevartovsk)
Investigation of corrosion behavior of carbon and low-alloyed steels in Samotlorskoye oilfield environments

The results of corrosion resistance of pipes made using carbon and low-alloyed steels in Samotlorskoye oilfield have been presented. Influence of oil&gas flow regime, pipeline processing technology, presence of nonmetallic inclusions, chromium content of 0.5% mass. on the corrosion behavior of pipeline steels have been conducted.

Key words: oil and gas pipelines; Samotlorskoye oilfield; local corrosion.

References

1. Zav'yalov V.V., Kol'tsov V.A., Nam O.S., Sitnikov V.P., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2010, no. 3, pp. 121-124.

2. Zav'yalov V.V. Problemy ekspluatatsionnoy nadezhnosti truboprovodov na pozdney stadii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy (The problems of operational reliability of pipelines in the late stages of field development), Moscow: OAO “VNIIOENG” Publ., 2005, 332 p.

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Pipeline transport of oil


I.O. Zolotov S.A. Strelnikova (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, RF, Moscow), A.S. Losenkov (Energoavtomatika Ltd., RF, Moskow)
The peculiarity of the running mode of oil-pipeline

The experimental results of oil-pipeline running are presented. The deviations of the experimental results from the quasi-steady model calculations are considered. It’s shown that the head loss in the initial moments of the flow corresponding to the time interval from start of flow to the developed turbulent flow is less than according to the quasi-steady theory.

Key words: hydraulic resistance, unstady flow, pipe-line running, simulation.

References

1. Charnyy I.A. Neustanovivsheesya dvizhenie real'noy zhidkosti v trubakh (Unsteady motion of a real fluid in pipes), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, pp. 186 - 191.

2. Lur'e M.V. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie protsessov truboprovodnogo transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Mathematical modeling of pipeline transportation of oil, petrochemicals and gas), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2003, 335 p.

3. Shiryaev A.M., Valiev M.I., Kamagaev S.A., Truboprovodnyy transport nefti, 2010, no. 11, pp. 62-63.

4. Lapteva T.I., Mansurov M.N., Neftegazovae delo – Oil and Gas Business, 2006 URL: http://www.ogbus.ru/authors/Lapteva/Lapteva_1.pdf

5. Markov S.B., Izvestiya AN SSSR. Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza, 1973, no. 2, pp. 65 -74.

6. Kraev V.M., Yanyshev D.S., Vestnik MAI, 2009, V.16, no. 5.

7. Pothof I., A turbulent approach to unsteady friction, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2008, V. 46, no. 5, pp. 679-690.

8. Koppel' T.A., Liyv U.R., Izvestiya AN SSSR. Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza, 1977, no. 6, pp. 79-85.

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Sh.I. Rakhmatullin, N.P. Zakharov (Center of Pipeline Transport Hydraulics of the Republic of Bashkortostan Academy of Sciences, RF, Ufa), A.N. Korkishko (LUKOIL - Western Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym), V.G. Karamyshev (Institute of Power Resource Transport SUE, RF, Ufa)
On estimation of the emergency slits discharge coefficient by the experimental spill data

An algorithm for evaluation of the discharge coefficient of the fluid at outflow from the slits, formed at the pipeline breaking, is suggested on basis of the analysis of experimental data. It is noted that in laminar flow the discharge coefficient of model opening at experimental data processing should be calculated by taking into account the linear dependence of the velocity and flow rate on pressure drop. The estimation of the fluid flow regime in the model orifice must precede to calculation of the fluid flow rate coefficient according to the experimental spill data.

Key words:fluid discharge, flow coefficient, hydraulic resistance, flow rate, pressure drop, laminar and turbulent mode.

References

1. Al'tshul' A.D. Gidravlika i aerodinamika (Hydraulics and aerodynamics), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1975, 327 p.

2. Khokhlov V.A. Gidravlicheskie usiliteli moshchnosti (Hydraulic power amplifiers), Moscow: Akademiya nauk Publ., 1963, 104 p.

3. Lerke L.E., Boldov N.G., Sviridov V.P., Sidorenko V.P., V sb. Aktual'nye voprosy truboprovodnogo transporta nefti, Trudy in-ta VNIISPTneft', 1986, pp. 73 – 77.

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