June 2013




Geology and geologo-prospecting works


D.K. Nourgaliev, I.Yu. Chernova, N.G. Nurgalieva, D.I. Khassanov, .. Kostina, A.V. Fattahov, P.S. Krylov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Spatial variability of oil properties within oil fields of the Republic of Tatarstan

Keywords: oil density, oil viscosity, modern geodynamics, neotectonics. The purpose of this research is to establish the relation between variability of physical and chemical properties of oil and geodynamic activity of the oil fields of the Republic of Tatarstan on the basis of generalization, systematization and analysis of information on physical properties of oil collected during the period from 1956 to 2004. It has been experimentally established that oil extracted from reservoirs located within zones with low geodynamic activity differs a lot by its mean density from the oil related to geodynamically active areas. The results of the study show the significant role of processes of destruction and re-formation of oil deposits of the Tatar Arc and surrounding areas during the last neotectonic phase.

References

1. Neftegazonosnost' Respubliki Tatarstan. Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh

mestorozhdeniy (Oil and gas potential of the Republic of Tatarstan. Geology

and development of oil fields): edited by Muslimov R.Kh., Part 1, Kazan': Fen

Publ., 2007.

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8th international conference Novye idei v geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza.

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and geochemistry of oil and gas. Petroleum systems of sedimentary basins),

Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2005, pp. 202-204.

4. Nourgaliev D.K., Muslimov R.Kh., Sidorova N.N., Plotnikova I.N. Variation of ibutane/

n-butane ratio in oils of the Romashkino oil field for the period of

1982–2000: Probable influence of the global seismicity on the fluid migration,

Geochemical Exploration, 2006, V. 89, pp. 293296.

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and geochemistry of oil and gas. Petroleum systems of sedimentary basins),

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neftegazonosnykh basseynov (Geodynamics of the oil and gas basins),

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neftegazonosnykh basseynov (Geodynamics of the oil and gas basins),

V. I, Moscow, 2004, pp. 72-77.

8. Kayukova G.P., Minnegalieva A.M., Romanov G.V., Sharipova N.S., Nosova

F.F., Luk'yanova R.G., Zheglova T.P., Nechitaylo G.S,. Proceedings of 2nd international

conference Geodinamika neftegazonosnykh basseynov (Geodynamics

of the oil and gas basins), V. I, Moscow, 2004, pp. 61-62.

9. Filosofov V.P., Osnovy morfometricheskogo metoda poiskov tektonicheskikh

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232 p.

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Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye nauki - Proceedings of Kazan

University. Natural Sciences Series, 2011, V. 153, no. 3, pp. 1-15.

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15. Nurgaliev D.K., Chernova I.Yu., Nugmanov I.I., Georesursy - Georesources,

2011, no. 6(42), pp. 2 -5.




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.Yu. Chernova, D.K. Nourgaliev, N.G. Nurgalieva, I.I. Nugmanov, O.S. Chernova , R.I. Kadyrov(Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Reconstruction of history of the Tatar Arch in the Neogene-Quaternary time by means of the morphometric analysis

Key words: neotectonics, morphometry, geographic information system, the Republic of Tatarstan.
The history of neotectonic development of the Tatar Arch is reconstructed according to the morphometric analysis data. High degree of neotectonic activity of the Southern Dome of the Tatar Arch is shown. Connections between the Tatar Arch morphostructure and its deep structure are traced. The research shows that the majority of local structures (of the second and third order) within the arch are recent formations aged by not more than 106 years old.

References

1. Filosofov V.P., Osnovy morfometricheskogo metoda poiskov tektonicheskikh

struktur (Fundamentals of morphometric methods to search for the

tectonic structures), Saratov: Publ. of SSU, 1975, 232 p.

2. Lastochkin A.N., Neotektonicheskie dvizheniya i razmeshchenie zalezhey

nefti i gaza (Neotectonic movements and placement of oil and gas deposits),

Leningrad; Nedra publ., 1974, 68 p.

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of morphometry), V. 2., Saratov, 1967, pp. 208-211.

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issledovaniyakh (Morphometric methods in geological research),

Saratov: Publ. of SSU, 1963, pp. 82-90.

5. Popova L.F., Filosofov V.P., Collected works Voprosy morfometrii (Issues of

morphometry), V. 2., Saratov, 1967, pp. 219-228.

6. Chernova I.Yu., Nugmanov I.I., Dautov A.N., Geoinformatika/Geoinformatica,

2010, no. 4, pp. 9-23.

7. Grohmann S.N., Riccomini S., Alvesa A.M., SRTM-based morphotectonic

analysis of the Poc-os de Caldas Alkaline Massif, southeastern Brazil, Computers

& Geosciences, 2007, no. 33, pp. 10–19.

8. Mumipour M., Nejad H.T., Tectonics Geomorphology Setting of Khayiz Anticline

Derived from GIS Processing, Zagros Mountains, Iran, Asian Journal of

Earth Sciences, 2011, no. 4(3), pp. 171-182, ISSN 1819-1886 I DOl:

10.3923/ajes.2011.171.182

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pp. 214.

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V. 2., Saratov, 1967, pp. 75-87.

12. Chernova I.Yu., Nugmanov I.I., Dautov A.N., Krylov P.S. Izvestiya Samarskogo

nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2010, V. 12(33), no. 1(4),

pp. 1170-1176.

13. Chernova I.Yu., Nugmanov I.I., Luneva O.V., Dautov AN., Uchenye zapiski

Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya: estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 3,

pp. 1-15.

14. Khain I.E., Obshchaya geotektonika (General Geotectonics), Moscow:

Nedra Publ., 1973, 512 p.




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E.A. Korolev, I.A. Khuzin, A.A. Galeev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), L.V. Leonova (Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural Branch of RAS, RF, Ekaterinburg)
Features of epigenetic dolomite transformations in the Syukeyevskoye bitumen field

Key words: bituminous dolomites, epigenetic transformation, authigenic minerals.
Syukeyevskoye bitumen field is one of perspective for development of open pit mining in western part of the Republic of Tatarstan. Basically two predominant stages in the process of epigenetic rock transformations were discriminated on the basis of field and laboratory data. The first stage associates with the fluids penetration in biomicritic dolomites and the hydrocarbon accumulation. The second stage associates with hydrocarbon oxidation. One can resume that leaching processes dominate at the stage of hydrocarbons penetration within dolomite rocks, and metasomatic processes dominate at hydrocarbon oxidation stage. These features can be used as key for understanding rock formation history in other similar cases.

References

1. Stepanov V.P., Pavlova L.P., Abdullin N.G., Geologiya nefti i gaza - Oil and

Gas Geology, 1990, no. 4, pp. 14-17.

2. Troepol'skiy V.I., Gordeev E.V., Collected papers “Geologiya i razrabotka

neftebituminoznykh mestorozhdeniy” (Geology and development of oil and

tar deposits), Kazan': Publ. of Kazan State University, 1990, 155 p.

3. Miropol'skiy L.M., Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya: estestvennye

nauki, 1936, V. 3-4, no. 5-6, p. 95.





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E.V. Utemov, D.K. Nurgaliev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Application of native" wavelet transform of gravity data for investigation of structure the sedimentary cover and crystalline basement

Key words: gravimetry, inverse problem, wavelet transform.
In this study authors have considered the basic theory and some real-world results of applying the technology of processing gravimetric data based on continuous and discrete wavelet transform with special "native" basic function. The most important result of this study is the technique for determining location and magnitude of the sources of the gravitational field in its wavelet domain for the two and three-dimensional cases. Synthetic examples demonstrate that this problem can be successfully solved for a large number of sources even with significant noise present in the gravimetric data.

References

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Bouguer gravity and topography: application to the elastic thickness

anisotropy in the Canadian Shield, Geophysical Journal International, 2007,

V. 168, pp. 287–298.

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continuous wavelet transform: Two-dimensional ridgelet analysis, Journal of

Geophysical Research, 2006, V. 111, B071104, doi:10.1029/2005JB004078.

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by domain decomposition methods: an example over Japan, Geophysical

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continuous wavelet transform: Complex wavelets and application to aeromagnetic

profiles in French Guiana, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2000,

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7. Sailhac P., Gibert D., Boukerbout H., The theory of the continuous wavelet

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Prospecting, 2009, V. 57, pp. 517525.

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A.G. Kharisov, E.V. Utemov, N.A. Matveeva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
About one cause of abnormal variations of gravity

Keywords: lunar & solar tides, gravimetric monitoring, wavelet transform.
The article presents the results of measurements of tidal variations in the building of the Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technology of Kazan Federal University from September 2012 - March 2013, demonstrating the presence of a new type of sources of variations of the gravitational field that need to be considered when conducting high-precision field monitoring for the purposes of oil and gas geology, as well as providing results of the calculation of the parameter K, and showing its change over time.

References

1. Dehant V., Defraigne P., Wahr J.M., Tides for a convective Earth, J. Geophys.

Res., 1999, V. 104, no. Bl, pp. 1035-1058.

2. Molodenskiy S. M., Izmenenie okruzhayushchey sredy i klimata: prirodnye i

svyazannye s nimi tekhnogennye katastrofy (The change of environment and

climate: natural and related technological disaster), Part 1 “Seysmicheskie

protsessy i katastrofy” (Seismic processes and catastrophes), Moscow: Publ.

of IPE RAS, 2008, pp. 262-282.

3. Latychev K., Mitrovica J.X., Ishiib M. et al., Body tides on a 3-D elastic earth:

Toward a tidal tomography, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 2009, V. 277, no. 1-2,

pp. 86-90.

4. Lubkov M.V., Geofizicheskiy zhurnal, 2011, V. 33, no. 2, pp. 129-134

5. Molodenskiy S.M., Fizika Zemli – Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2009, no.

10, pp. 3-8.

6. Molodenskiy S. M., Izmenenie okruzhayushchey sredy i klimata: prirodnye i

svyazannye s nimi tekhnogennye katastrofy (The change of environment and

climate: natural and related technological disaster), Part 1 Seysmicheskie

protsessy i katastrofy (Seismic processes and catastrophes), Moscow: Publ.

of IPE RAS, 2008, pp.255-261.

7. Utemov E.V., Nurgaliev D.K., Kharisov A.G., Matveeva N.A., Uchenye zapiski

Kazanskogo universiteta. Ser. Estestvennye nauki - Proceedings of Kazan

University. Natural Sciences Series, 2012, V. 154, no. 4, pp. 29-36.

8. Kharisov A.G., Utemov E.V., Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Ser.

Estestvennye nauki - Proceedings of Kazan University. Natural Sciences Series,

2012, V. 154, no. 4, pp. 37-44.

9. Longman I.M., Formulas for computing the tidal acceleration due to the

Moon and the Sun, J. Geoph. Res., 1959, no. 64, pp. 2351-2355.

10. Malovichko A.K., Kostitsyn V.I., Gravirazvedka: Uchebnik dlya vuzov (Gravimetric:

A Textbook for high schools), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992.


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G.S. Khamidullina, D.K. Nourgaliev, D.I. Khasanov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The method of the electromagnetic sounding data processing for searching of hydrocarbon accumulation

Key words: the near-field transient electromagnetic sounding, the principle component analyses, the weight of factors, hydrocarbon reservoir.
This article describes the using of the principle component analyses for interpretation the data of near-field transient electromagnetic sounding. On the basis of electromagnetic data sounding geoelectric field model was considered, but also data processing with using the principle component analyses was made. The maps of component allocation, which were interpreted to select the field area, basing on factors’ (component) weight analysis, became the results of data processing. Considered interpretation ways and received results allow appreciating the near-field transient electromagnetic sounding method as many-sided and informative method. The received values of apparent conductivity, transformed in factors, reflect the structure of geological environment. Using the principle component analyses for interpretation the data of near-field transient electromagnetic sounding allows making express analysis on types of geoelectric section and finding the hidden characteristics of geoelectric section.

References

1. Uberla K., Faktorenanalyse, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1977.

2. Karimov K.M., Valeev S.G., Eronina E.V., Butkus E.M., Georesursy – Georesources,

2005, no. 2(17), pp. 41-45.

3. Kukuruza V.D., Smol'nikov B.M., Geoelektricheskie issledovaniya pri

poiskakh zalezhey nefti i gaza (Geoelectric studies in the search for oil and

gas), Kiev: Naukova Dumka Publ., 1984, 140 p.

4. Sidorov V.A., Tikshaev V.V., Elektrorazvedka zondirovaniyami stanovleniem

polya v blizhney zone (Electrical exploration by soundings field formation

in the near field), Saratov, 1969, 58 p.

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Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 359 p.

6. Khamidullina G.S., Nurgaliev D.K., Khasanov D.I., Georesursy Georesources,

2012, no. 4(46), pp. 26-31.

7. Kiselev E.S., Larionov E.I., Safonov A.S., Elektricheskie svoystva neftegazonosnykh

razrezov. Poiskovye priznaki zalezhey uglevodorodov v metodakh

vysokorazreshayushchey elektrorazvedki (Electrical properties of petroleum

cuts. Search features of hydrocarbon deposits in the methods of

high-resolution electrical), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007,167 p.

8. Khamidullina G.S., Khasanov D.I., Brednikov K.I., Georesursy Georesources,

2011, no. 6(42), pp. 26-30.

9. Khamidullina G.S., Nurgaliev D.K., Khasanov D.I., Uchenye zapiski

Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye nauki, 2012, V. 154, no. 4, pp.

18-28.

10. Geologiya Tatarstana: Stratigrafiya i tektonika (Geology of Tatarstan:

Stratigraphy and tectonics), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2003, 402 p.

11. Tektonicheskoe i neftegeologicheskoe rayonirovanie territorii

Tatarstana (Tectonic and oil zoning of Tatarstan): edited by Khisamov R.S.,

Kazan': Fen Publ., 2006, 327 p.

12. Neftegazonosnost' Respubliki Tatarstan. Geologiya i razrabotka

neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oil and gas potential of the Republic of

Tatarstan. Geology and development of oil fields): edited by Muslimov

R.Kh., Part 2, Kazan': Fen Publ., 2007, 534 p.

13. Khamidullina G.S., Nurgaliev D.K., Khasanov D.I., Brednikov K.I.,

Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta, Seriya Estestvennye nauki, 2010,

V. 152, no. 4, pp. 9-22.

14. Khisamov R.S., Gubaydullin A.A., Bazarevskaya V.G., Yudintsev E.A., Geologiya

karbonatnykh slozhnopostroennykh kollektorov devona i karbona

Tatarstana (Geology of the carbonate complex reservoirs of the Devonian

and Carboniferous of Tatarstan): edited by Khisamov R.S., Kazan': Fen

Publ., 2010, 283 p.


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E.A. Korolev, A.A. Eskin, V.P. Morozov, A.N. Kolchugin, I.N. Plotnikova, N.V. Pronin, F.F. Nosova (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The relationships between petroleum composition and viscosity of oil and petrophysical properties of oil reservoirs

Key words: oil, porosity, permeability, petroleum composition, thermal analysis.
The objects of research were carbonate oil reservoirs of lower and middle Carboniferous on the south-east of the Republic of Tatarstan. They have a complex structure caused by not only heterogeneity of lithology, also changing reservoir properties and oil viscosity. The paper attempts to establish relationships between reservoir properties of rocks and oil compositions. In research used results of thermal analysis, dates of porosity and permeability, petroleum composition and oil saturation. Composition of oil and oil viscosity depends on the porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks. This is due to the destruction of oil deposits as result of partial waterflood oil reservoir. This is the most typical for reservoir rocks, which have high porosity and permeability. The patterns should be used for choosing methods enhanced oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs.

References

1. Korolev E.A., Morozov V.P., Kol'chugin A.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry,

2012, no. 3, pp. 42-45.

2. Muslimov R.Kh., Neftegazonosnost' Respubliki Tatarstan (Oil and gas potential

of the Republic of Tatarstan), Part 2. Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh

mestorozhdeniy (Geology and development of oil fields), Kazan': Fen Publ.,

2007, 524 p.

3. Yusupova T.N., Ganeev Yu.M., Tukhvatullina A.Z. et al., Neftekhimiya - Petroleum

Chemistry, 2012, V. 52, no. 4, pp. 243-248.

4. Morozov V.P., Vasyasin G.I., Krinari G.A. et al., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2009,

no. 6, pp. 11-16.


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E.M. Khramchenkov, M.G. Khramchenkov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
About rheological relations for filtrating porous medium with porous skeleton of variable mass

Key words: rheology, deformations, effective stress, pressure, porous media
Oil depletion on some of the Russian deposits necessitates to formulate models which take into account the variation of deflected mode caused by chemical interactions between components of an underground fluid and the material of the porous skeleton to perform effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Those models are also essential in problems of hydrogeology, such as filtration of solutions in clay layers, suffosion processes and karst processes. Usually, chemical interactions cause variation of the mass of the porous matrix. That is why it is important to perform an additional research on the influence of this variation on rheological relations, which are required to obtain closure model of deformations of a filtrating porous medium.

References

1. Khramchenkov E.M., Khramchenkov M.G., Collected papers “Matematicheskoe

modelirovanie fizicheskikh protsessov” (Mathematical modeling

of physical processes), 2009, V. 1, pp. 63 – 77.

2. Galiullina N.E., Khramchenkov M.G., Khramchenkov E.M. et al., Collected

papers Matematicheskoe modelirovanie fizicheskikh protsessov (Mathematical

modeling of physical processes), 2011, V. 3, pp. 45 51.

3. Khramchenkov E.M., Khramchenkov M.G., Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal.

Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2011, V. 84, no. 5,

pp. 954 960.

4. Khramchenkov E.M., Khramchenkov M.G., Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal.

Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2012, V. 85, no. 3,

pp. 617 622.

5. Sedov L.I., Mekhanika sploshnoy sredy (Continuum Mechanics),Moscow:

Nauka Publ., 1973, Part 1, 536 p.

6. Tsytovich N.A., Mekhanika gruntov (kratkiy kurs) (Soil Mechanics (short

course)), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1983, 288 p.

7. Nikolaevskiy V.N., Mekhanika poristykh i treshchinovatykh sred (Mechanics

of porous and fractured media), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 232 p.

8. Verruijt A., The theory of consolidation, In: Fundamentals of transport phenomena

in porous media, Part 2: Deformation of porous media. Martinas Nijhoff

Publishers, 1984, pp. 351 368.

9. Greenberg J.A., Mitchell J.K., Witherspoon P.A., Coupled salt and water

flows in a groundwater basin, J. Geophys. Res., 1973, no. 78, pp. 6341 6353.


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D.I. Khasanov, D.M. Gilmanova, B.M. Nasyrtdinov, N.G. Nurgalieva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The finding of hydrocarbons migration zones by differential termomagnetic analysis of near surface rocks

Key words: differential thermomagnetic analysis, hydrocarbons, epigenetic changes of iron compounds.
This article describes the opportunities of differential thermomagnetic analysis of epigenetic variations of iron compounds under the hydrocarbon effects’ study. The object of research is the rock of subsoil layer on the territory of northern site of Saraylinskoye oil-field. Ninety-three samples were examined. Zoning of the territorys part of research under the types of differential thermomagnetic analysiss curved lines was made. Territorys outline, for which is typical the presence of pyrite and siderite in the samples, spatially control the oil deposits in the Tula terrigenous rocks of the Lower Carboniferous and Timanskian terrigenous rocks of the Upper Devonian.

References

1. Garrels R.M., Christ Charles L., Solutions, minerals, and equilibria, Freeman,

Cooper, 450p.

2. Nurgalieva N.G., Khasanov D.I., Thermomagnetic markers in studies of the

reservoir rocks, Oil and Gas Business Journal, 2008, URL: http: // www.

ogbus.ru/eng/authors/Nurgalieva/Nurgalieva 3.pdf, 12 p.

3. Khasanov D.I., Utemov E.V., Nugmanov I.I., Nasyrtdinov B.M., Georesursy –

Georesources, 2011, no. 6(42), pp. 16-18.

4. Khasanov D.I., Ibragimov Sh.Z., Nugmanov I.I., Khamidullina G.S., Uchenye

zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta, Ser. Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 3,

pp. 262-268.

5. Machel H., Burton E., Chemical and microbial processes causing anomalous

magnetization in environments affected by hydrocarbon seepage,

Geophysics, 1991, no. 56, pp. 598605.

6. Burov B.V., Yasonov P.G., Vvedenie v differentsial'nyy termomagnitnyy analiz

gornykh porod (Introduction to differential thermal magnetic analysis of

rocks), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 60 p.

7. Burov B.V., Nurgaliev D.K., Yasonov P.G., Paleomagnitnyy analiz (Paleomagnetic

analysis), Kazan': Publ. Of KSU, 1986, 167 p.


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E.M. Alakshin, A.V. Klochkov, V.V. Kuzmin, D.K. Nurgaliev, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Application of cryogenic technologies for NMR logging tool

Key words: nuclear magnetic resonance NMR logging tool, cryogenic technologies, cryocapacitor
The development of heavy oil and bitumen deposits is becoming an actual problem in last years. In this paper the authors propose to use cryogenic technologies for improving the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance logging tool. Particularly, it is proposed to use a magnetic system made of a high temperature superconductor. The low temperature of the magnetic system is provided by the thermal contact with cryocapacitor, which is made of a material with a high specific heat at low temperatures. Experimental data are presented.

References

1. Dzhafarov I.S., Syngaevskiy P.E., Khafizov S.F., Primenenie metoda

yadernogo magnitnogo rezonansa dlya kharakteristiki sostava i raspredeleniya

plastovykh flyuidov (The application of nuclear magnetic resonance

to characterize the composition and distribution of reservoir fluids), Moscow:

Khimiya Publ., 2002, 439 p.

2. Coates G.R., Xiao L., Prammer M.G., NMR Logging. Principles and Applications,

Gulf Professional Publishing, 2001, 365 p.

3. Patent no. 7733086 USA, Systems and methods for deep-looking NMR logging,

Inventor: Manfred G. Prammer, 2009.

4. Patent no. 2378670 PF, Nuclear magnetic logging for surveying slim hole

well, Inventors: Murzakaev V.M., Tarakanov V.K., Sotnikov A.N., Dubrovskiy V.S..

5. Patent no. 4312192 USA, Borehole logging tool cryostat, Inventors: Zarudiansky

Alain et al.

6. Patent no. 4340405 USA, Apparatus and method for maintaining low temperatures

about an object at a remote location, Inventors: Steyert William A. Jr.

7. Malkov M.P., Danilov I.B., Zel'dovich A.G., Fradkov A.B., Spravochnik po

fiziko-tekhnicheskim osnovam glubokogo okhlazhdeniya (Handbook of physical

and technical fundamentals of deep cooling), Moscow: Gosenergoizdat

Publ., 1963, 210 p.

8. Ventura G., Risegari L., The art of cryogenics: low-temperature experimental

techniques, Elsevier Ltd., 2008, 378 p.


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A.S. Aleksandrov, R.R. Gazizulin, M.Yu. Zakharov, A.V. Klochkov, D.K. Nurgaliev, T.R. Safin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Electromagnetic shield characteristics investigation for the calibration the NMR logging tool

Key words: magnetic shielding room, Faraday cage.
The problem of electromagnetic shielding is relevant due to increasing number of electronic devices that interact with each other. It is known that shield, which is made of high conductivity materials, is widely used for controlling electromagnetic noise. Due to development of NMR logging tool two shielding Faraday cages have been made. The aim of the work was determination the frequency transmittance dependence of shielding in range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. Transmitting and receiving devices were developed for an experiment. As a result, constructed shields are suitable for tuning and calibration NMR logging tools.

References

1. Birg J., Newnes engineering science pocket book, Taylor & Francis, 2001,

560 p.

2. Ott H.W., Noise reduction techniques in electronic systems, Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,

1988, 363 p.

3. Bork J., Hahlbohm H., Klein R., Schnabel A., The 8-layered magnetically

shielded room of the PTB: Design and construction, Proceedings of the 12th

International Conference on Biomagnetism, 2000, pp. 970-973.

4. Meissner W., Ochsenfeld R., Ein neuer Effekt bei Eintritt der Supraleitfhigkeit,

Naturwissenschaften, 1933, V. 21, pp. 787.

5. Cohen D., Schlapfer U., Ahlfors S., Hmlinen M., Halgren E., New six-layer

magnetically-shielded room for MEG, Proceedings of the 13th International

Conference on Biomagnetism, 2002.

6. Shapiro D.N., Elektromagnitnoe ekranirovanie (Electromagnetic shielding),

Dolgoprudnyy: Intellekt, 2010, 79 p.


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M.A.Volodin, M.R. Gafurov, G.V. Mamin, S.B. Orlinskii (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan) V.M. Murzakaev (TNG-Group LLC, RF, Bugulma), T.N. Yusupova (Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, RF, Kazan)
Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of asphaltenes complexes in heavy oils and bitumen

Key words: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), asphaltenes, vanadyl
The present paper is focused on the application of some of the multifrequency (9.5 and 94 GHz) continuous wave and pulsed EPR techniques to study the dynamics and structure of asphaltenes and vanadyl complexes from the crude oils and bitumen at near room temperature. The features of the observation of EPR in these systems at high frequencies are pointed out. Longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of asphaltenes and vanadyl complexes are measured. Usage of the data obtained for DNP of protons of crude oils and bitumen is discussed.

References

1. Il'yasov A.V., Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel - Chemistry and Technology

of Fuels and Oils, 1962, V. 59, pp. 63-67.

2. Chang H.-L., Wong G.K., Lin J.R., Yen T., Electron spin resonance study of bituminous

substances and asphaltenes, Asphaltenes and Asphalts, Part 2. Developments

in Petroleum Science, 40B, NY.: Elsevier, 2000, Ch. 9, pp. 229-280.

3. Abdel-Raouf M., Crude oil emulsions – composition stability and characterization,

Croatia: InTechOpen, 2012, 230 p.

4. Bogomolova A.I., Sovremennye metody issledovaniya neftey (Modern

methods of study oils), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 432 p.

5. Tojima M., Suhara S., Imamura M., Furuta A., Effect of heavy asphaltene on

stability of residual oil, Catalysis Today, 1998, V. 43, pp. 347-351.

6. Pool C.P., Jr., Electron Spin Resonance. Comprehensive treatise on experimental

techniques, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, London, Sydney 1967.

7. Salikhov K.M., Semenov A.G., Tsvetkov Yu.D., Elektronnoe spinovoe ekho i

ego primenenie (Electron spin echo and its application), Novosibirsk: Nauka

Publ., 1976, 342 p.

8. Stoll S., Schweiger A., EasySpin, a comprehensive software package for

spectral simulation and analysis in EPR, J. Magn. Reson., 2006, V. 178,

pp. 4255.

9. Klauder J.R., Anderson P.W., Spectral diffusion decay in spin resonance experiments,

Phys. Rev.,1963, V. 125, no. 3, pp. 912-932.

10. Mamin G.V., Sitdikov D.T., Volodin M.A. et al., High-frequency EPR study of

the oil asphaltenes, Magnetic Resonance in Solids, Electronic journal, 2013,

V. 15, pp. 13105.

11. Gafurov M., Denysenkov V., Prandolini M.J., Prisner T., Temperature dependence

of the proton overhauser DNP enhancements on aqueous solutions of

Fremy‘s salt measured in a magnetic field of 9.2 T, Applied Magnetic Resonance,

2012, V. 43, no. 1-2, pp. 119-128.

12. Gafurov M.R., TEMPOL as a polarizing agent for dynamic nuclear polarization

of aqueous solutions, Magnetic Resonance in Solids, Electronic journal,

2013, V. 15, pp. 13103.

13. Baranov P.G., Orlinskii S.B., de Mello Donega C., Schmidt J., High-frequency

EPR and ENDOR Spectroscopy on Semiconductor Quantum Dots, Applied

Magnetic Resonance, 2010, V. 39, no. 1, pp. 151-183.

14. Mullins C., The modified Yen model, Energy Fuels, 2010, V. 24,

pp. 21792207.


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A.V. Stepanov, D.K. Nurgaliev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Some results of studying of daily variations of dynamic parameters on oilfields by means of vibroseismic monitoring

Key words: oilfield, lunar-solar tide, vibroseismic monitoring, dynamic analysis, temporal heterogeneity.
This article is devoted to a new actual direction in geophysics - an active seismic monitoring on an oilfield. Research have been executed by means of vibroseismic survey 3D on the oilfield on four circular patterns during a period of maximal lunar-solar tide. As a result of researches daily variations dynamic parameters which are correlated on some sites of an oilfield with the rated chart of tidal gravitational forces are registered. The degree of this correlation depends on tensor sensibility of geological environment. Temporary heterogeneity was revealed on the territory of the oilfield. The received results can be used in oilfield prospecting and their division into districts.

References

1. Gamburtsev A.G., Seysmicheskiy monitoring litosfery (Seismic monitoring of

the lithosphere), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1992, 200 p.

2. Sadovskiy M.A., Bolkhovitinov L.G., Pisarenko V.F., Deformirovanie geologicheskoy

sredy i seysmicheskiy protsess (The deformation of the subsurface

and seismic process), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 100 p.

3. Kim N.I., Nikolaev A.V., Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, 1978, V. 239, no. 3, pp.

562-564.

4. Gamburtseva N.G., Lyuke E.I., Oreshin S.I. et al., Doklady Akademii nauk

SSSR, 1982, V. 266, no. 6, pp. 1349-1353.

5. Melchior P., Earth Tides, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1983.

6. Akhiyarov V.Kh, Petrosyan L.G., Shimelevich Yu.S., Collected papers “Voprosy

nelineynoy geofiziki” (Problems of nonlinear geophysics), Moscow:

Publ. of VNIIYaGG, 1981, pp. 109-112.

7. Bungum Kh., Khaortenberg E., Rizbo T., Collected papers Issledovanie

Zemli nevzryvnymi seysmicheskimi istochnikami (The study of the Earth using

non-explosive seismic sources), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1981, pp. 248-251.

8. Yushin V.I., Velinskiy V.V., Geza N.I., Savina V.S., Geologiya i geofizika – Russian

Geology and Geophysics, 1999, V. 40, no. 3, pp. 395-408.

9. Alekseev A.S., Geza N.I., Glinskiy B.M. et al., Aktivnaya seysmologiya s

moshchnymi vibratsionnymi istochnikami (Active seismology with powerful vibration

sources), Novosibirsk: Publ. of IVMiMG SO RAN, 2004, 387 p.

10. Longman I.M., Formulas for computing the tidal acceleration due to the

Moon and the Sun, J. Geophys. Res., 1959, V. 64, no. 12, pp. 2351-2355.


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V.E. Kosarev, Yu.S. Maslennikova, A.D. Akchurin, K.M. Yusupov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), V.N. Gorbachev, M.L. Mikheev (TNG-Group LLC, RF, Bugulma)
Open-hole well completion analysis using borehole acoustic scanner and an optical borehole televiewer

Key words: Acoustic scanner, Optical borehole televiewer
This paper presents a method for an open-hole well completion analysis using a Borehole Acoustic Scanner and a Borehole Video Imager. Acoustic ultrasonic scanning has been used for lithological well profile analysis, cavernous and fractured-cavernous zones identification in a testing well. The video imager provides important information about the well geological structure and fractured zones. It is shown that the combined interpretation of the borehole acoustic scanner data and video imager data provides complete geological information about the testing well. Corresponding approach could be useful for developing acoustic scanning template database.

Reference

1. Novokhatskiy M.I., Karotazhnik, 2007, V. 162, no. 9, pp. 117–121.

2. Terekhov O.V., Karotazhnik, 2007, V. 161, no. 8, pp. 5659

3. Terekhov O.V., Karotazhnik, 2008, V. 172, no. 7, pp. 6570.9

4. Kozyar V.F., Belokon' D.V., Kozyar N.V., Smirnov N.A., Karotazhnik, 1999, V. 63,

pp. 81-83.

5. Suleymanov M.A., Karotazhnik, 1998, V. 47, pp. 67-73.

6. Akchurin A.D., Yusupov K.M., Berezovskiy E.V., Gorbachev V.N., Avtomatizatsiya,

telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2012, no. 4,

pp. 35-40.

7. A.D. Akchurin, K.M. Yusupov, O.N. Sherstyukov, V.N. Gorbachev, Georesursy

Georesources, 2011, no. 6(42), pp. 1-6.


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G.A. Krinari (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), Yu. Sh. Rakhmatullina (Institute of Ecology and Subsurface Resources Management Problems, Academy of Science of the Republic of Tatarstan, RF, Kazan)
Changes in mineral skeleton of oil reservoir in course of water flooding

Key words: oil bearing rocks, micas, mixed layer illite-smectite.
To optimize oil production technologies it must be taking into account the extent and causes of secondary changes in mineral skeleton of rocks as a result of technological or natural water flooding. It is shown that in the course of technological water flooding of the area occupied by water and oil do not have clear boundaries, and the decay of particles secondary micas on individual nanoblocks with large shared surface and high surface charge begins in predominantly of saturated oil reservoir area. The filtration of water and oil in natural porous medium arise percolation effects, that is confirmed experimentally. The results obtained should be considered to optimize oil production technologies, increase production and reduce the water cut.

References

1. Muslimov R.Kh., Sovremennye metody upravleniya razrabotkoy neftyanykh

mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem zavodneniya (Modern methods of managing

the development of oil fields using the water flooding), Kazan': Publ. of

KSU, 2003, 596 p.

2. Drits V.A., Kossovskaya A.G., Glinistye mineraly: slyudy, khlority (Clay minerals:

mica, chlorite), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1991, 175 p.

3. Sakhibgareev R.S., Vtorichnye izmeneniya kollektorov v protsesse

formirovaniya i razrusheniya neftyanykh zalezhey (Secondary changes of collectors

in the formation and destruction of oil deposits), Leningrad: Nedra

Publ., 1989, 260 p.

4. Krinari G.A., Giniyatullin K.G., Shinkarev A.A., Zapiski Vserossiyskogo mineralogicheskogo

obshchestva - Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society,

2005, V. CXXXIV, no. 1, pp. 17-32.

5. Shaydullin I.A., Krinari G.A., Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya

Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 3, pp. 3-11.

6. Krinari G.A., Khramchenkov M.G., Doklady Akademii nauk, 2011, V. 436,

no. 5, pp. 1-7.

7. Krinari G.A., Khramchenkov M.G, Mukhametshin R.Z., Gidrogeologiya,

geoekologiya, inzhenernaya geologiya - Environmental Geoscience, 2001,

no. 4, pp. 15-22.

8. Drits V.A., Tchoubar C., X-ray diffraction by disordered lamellar structures,

Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990, 371 p.

9. Sakharov B.A., Lindgreen H., Salyn A.L., Drits V.A., Determination of Illite-

Smectite structures using multispecimen x-ray diffraction profile fitting, Clays

& Clay Minerals, 1999, V. 47, no. 5, pp. 555-566.

10. Drits V.A., Sakharov B.A., Rentgenostrukturnyy analiz smeshanosloynykh

mineralov (X-ray structure analysis of mixed-minerals), Moscow: Nauka Publ.,

1976, 256 p.

11. Solotchina E.P., Strukturnyy tipomorfizm glinistykh mineralov osadochnykh

razrezov i kor vyvetrivaniya (Structural typomorphism of clay minerals in sedimentary

sections and weathering crusts), Novosibirsk: Geo Publ., 2009, 234 p.

12. Rakhmatulina Yu.Sh., Krinari G.A., Georesursy - Georesources, 2012, no.

2(44), pp. 35-39.

13. Giniyatullin K.G., Shinkarev A.A. Jr., Shinkarev A.A. et al., Pochvovedenie -

Eurasian Soil Science, 2012, no. 11, pp. 1211-1225.

14. Krinari G.A., Khramchenkov M.G., Doklady Akademii nauk, 2008, V. 423,

no. 4, pp. 524-529.

15. Hunt A., Ewing R., Percolation theory for flow in porous media, Lection

Notes Physics 771, Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, 320 .


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R.V. Archipov, V.E. Kosarev, D.K. Nurgaliev, V.D. Skirda (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), S.S. Morjakova (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), V.M. Murzakaev (TNG-Group LLC, RF, Bugulma)
Features of coupling between rheological properties of oil and natural bitumen and the self-diffusion data obtained by NMR method

Key words: oil, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), viscosity, rheology, self-diffusion
This paper describes the features of translational characteristics of oil molecules by using nuclear magnetic resonance method with pulsed magnetic field gradient (gradient NMR). It is shown that the rheological properties of heavy oil samples (viscosity) do not completely correlate with the measurement of self-diffusion coefficient. It is caused by distribution of oil samples according to their molecular composition and molecular weight as well as their complex supramolecular organization. It is noted that the best agreement with the viscosity characteristics is achieved via the introduction of a new average coefficient, which is a weighted sum of the inverse of the partial self-diffusion coefficients.

References

1. Bartenev G.M., Zelenev Yu.V., Kurs fiziki polimerov (The course of polymer

physics) edited by Frenkel' S.Ya., Leningrad: Khimiya Publ., 1976, 288 p.

2. Kargin V.A., Slonimskiy G.L., Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, 1949, V. XXIII, no.

3, pp. 563–571.

3. Abragam A., The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, Clarendon Press, Oxford,

1961.

4. Kimmich R., NMR: Tomography, Diffusometry, Relaxometry, Berlin, Heidelberg,

New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997, 524 p.

5. Maklakov A.I., Skirda V.D., Fatkullin N.F., Encyclopedia of fluid mechanics,

polymer flow engineering, Self-diffusion in Polymer System: edited by

Cheremisinoff N.P., 1991, V. 9, pp. 702.

6. Maklakov A.I., Skirda V.D., Fatkullin N.F., Samodiffuziya v rastvorakh i rasplavakh

polimerov (Self-diffusion in polymer solutions and melts), Kazan': Publ.

of KSU, 1987, 224 p.

7. Khokhlov A.R., Statisticheskaya fizika makromolekul (Statistical physics of

macromolecules), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1985, 194 p.

8. Skirda, V.D., The features of PFG NMR technique and some methodical aspects

of its application, NATO science series II. Mathematics, Physics and

Chemistry, Netherlands: Springer, 2002, V. 76, pp. 245 254.

9. Fleischer G., Skirda V.D., Werner A., NMR-investigation for restricted self-diffusion

of oil in rape seeds, Eur. Biphys. J., 1990, V. 19, pp. 1-6.

10. Skirda V.D., Sundukov V.I., Maklakov A.I. et al., On the generalized concentration

and molecular mass dependences of macromolecular self-diffusion

in polymer solutions, Polymer, 1988, V. 29, pp. 12941300.

11. Aslanyan I.Yu., Skirda V.D., Zaripov A.M., The self-diffusion of macromolecules

in binary blends of poly(ethylene glicol), Polym. Adv. Technol., 1999, V.

10, pp. 157163.

12. Hurlimann M.D., Latour L.L., Sotak C.H., Diffusion measurements in sandstone

core: NMR determination of surface-to-volume ratio and surface relaxivity,

Magn. Reson. Im., 1994, V. 12, no. 2, pp. 325 327.

13. Stallmach F., Galvosas P., Spin Echo NMR diffusion studies, Annual Reports

on NMR Spectroscopy, 2007, V. 61, pp. 51 - 131.


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R.V. Archipov, V.D. Skirda (Kazan (Volga Region) federal university, RF, Kazan)
The nuclear magnetic resonance method in researches of structure of porous space in the conditions of a filtration

Key words: porous media, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), filtration, flow, self-diffusion.
On the basis of experimental results obtained in Example sandstones at different fluid flow rates by PFG NMR it is shown in principle the possibility of registering and determining the relative proportion of dead or stagnant zones. The possibility to study molecular exchange between molecules diffusing into the stagnant zones, and the molecules involved in the flow.

References

1. Abragam A., The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, Clarendon Press, Oxford,

1961..

2. Kimmich R., NMR: Tomography, Diffusometry, Relaxometry, Berlin, Heidelberg,

New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997, 524 p.

3. Maklakov A.I., Skirda V.D., Fatkullin N.F., Encyclopedia of fluid mechanics,

polymer flow engineering, Self-diffusion in Polymer System: edited by

Cheremisinoff N.P., 1991, V. 9, p. 702.

4. Skirda, V.D., The features of PFG NMR technique and some methodical aspects

of its application, NATO science series II. Mathematics, Physics and

Chemistry, Netherlands: Springer, 2002, V. 76, pp. 245 – 254.

5. Song Y.-Q., Using internal magnetic fields to obtain the pore size distributions

of porous media, Concepts in Magnetic Resonance, 2003, V. 18A, no. 2,

p. 97.

6. Song Y.-Q., Determinig pore sizes using an internal magnetic field, J. Magn.

Reson., 2000, V. 143, pp. 397-401.

7. Kortunov P.V., Skirda V.D., Kolloidnyy zhurnal - Colloid Journal, 2005, V. 67, pp.

633-640.

8. Hurlimann M.D., Helmer K.G., Latour L.L., Sotak C.H., Restricted diffusion in

sedimentary rocks. Determination of surface-area-to-volume ratio and surface

relaxivity, J. Magn. Res., 1994, V. 111(A), p. 169.


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V.D. Skirda, A.A. Ivanov, V.E. Kosarev, D.K. Nurgaliev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), S.S. Safonov, I.V. Nicolin (Schlumberger, RF, Moscow)
The study of methane hydrate growth kinetics by NMR method

Key words: methane hydrate, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), kinetics, diffusion, relaxation.
The nuclear magnetic resonance method conducted researches of long-term kinetics of growth of methane of hydrate on limit of the section gas - liquid (water). The amount of the formed methane of hydrate was registered according to the analysis of a signal of recession of a free induction. To methane to hydrate that part of a signal which was characterized by small time of a cross relaxation belonged. The analysis of kinetic curves of growth of thickness of a film of methane of hydrate on limit of the section gas-liquid showed that they aren't described within the assumption of normal diffusion of molecules of methane through a film of methane of hydrate. The detailed analysis of dependence of a share of a signal of methane of hydrate from time allows to suggest about abnormal diffusive process.

References

1. Solov'ev B.A., Rossiyskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal – Russian Journal of General

Chemistry, 2003, V. XLVII, no. 3, pp. 59-69.

2. Kleinberg R.L., Flaum C., Straley C., Griffin D.D., Seafloor NMR assay of

methane hydrate in sediments and rock, Journal of geophysical research,

2003, V. 108, pp. 1-13.

3. Lin W., Chen G.-J., Sun C.-Y., Guo X.-Q. et al., Effect of surfactant on the formation

and dissociation kinetic behavior of methane hydrate, Chemical Engineering

Science, 2004, V. 59, pp. 4449-4455.

4. Powles J.G., Mansfield P., Double-pulse nuclear-resonance transients in

solids, Phys. Letters, 1962, V 2, pp. 58-60.

5. Kimmich R., NMR: Tomography, Diffusometry, Relaxometry, Berlin, Heidelberg,

New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997, 524 p.

6. Chapoy A., Mohammadi H.A., Dominique R., Bahman T., Gas solubility

measurement and modeling for methanewater and methaneethanenbutane

water systems at low temperature conditions, Fluid Phase Equilibria

220, 2004, V. 220, pp. 113121.

7. Makogon Yu.F., Khol'sti Dzh. S., Rossiyskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal Russian Journal

of General Chemistry, 2003, V. XLVII, no. 3, pp. 43-48.

8. Skirda, V.D., The features of PFG NMR technique and some methodical aspects

of its application, NATO science series II. Mathematics, Physics and

Chemistry, Netherlands: Springer, 2002, V. 76, pp. 245 254.

9. Kortunov P.V., Skirda V.D., Kolloidnyy zhurnal - Colloid Journal, 2005, V. 67, pp.

633-640.

10. Karger J., Ruthven M., Diffusion in Zeolites, New York: Wiley, 1992.


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O.N. Sherstyukov, E.Yu. Ryabchenko, E.V. Danilov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Implementation of Zigbee technology for organization of a wireless network for collecting data from the sensors of geologic-technological investigation

Key words: wireless telemetry system, sensor, data collecting.
It is an actual problem to organize a wireless network for collecting data from the sensors of geologic-technological investigation which allows relatively free to distribute the sensors in space. A telemetry system based on wireless transmission modules of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. It is used for solving of tasks related to collecting, storing and transmitting of geologic-technological and geophysical data. We showed the structure of the telemetry system. There is a detail consideration of the module of interfacing with sensors (MIS) in this paper. Also we calculated the effective data rate for the wireless telemetry network and power consumption of the MIS.

References

1. Alyy A., Sovremennaya elektronika, 2006, no. 9, pp. 36-40.

2. IEEE Standard 802.15.4, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.,

2006, 323 p.

3. Besprovodnye seti ZigBee i IEEE 802.15.4 (Wireless networks ZigBee and IEEE

802.15.4), URL: http://book.itep.ru/4/41/zigbee.htm.

4. C8051F060/1/2/3/4/5/6/7, Mixed signal ISP Flash MCU Family, URL:

http://www.silabs.com/Support%20Documents/TechnicalDocs/C8051F06x.

pdf

5. ETRX35x-LRS ZigBee modules. Product manual, URL:

http://telegesis.com/downloads/general/TG-ETRX35x-LRS-PM-015-105.pdf.

6. ETRX2 and ETRX3 series ZigBee modules AT-Command dictionary, URL:

http://telegesis.com/downloads/general/TG-ETRXn-R308-Commands.pdf.

7. Sherstyukov O.N., Ryabchenko E.Yu., Ivanov A.A., Danilov E.V., Georesursy -

Georesources, 2011, no. 6(42), pp. 5-8.

8. Sherstyukov O.N., Ryabchenko E.Yu., Ivanov A.A. et al., Georesursy – Georesources,

2012, no. 3(45), pp. 67-69.


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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


V.M. Teploukhov, A.V. Nakonechniy, A.V. Teploukhov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Separation of a low-resistance facies and its impact on the geological model of the Yu11 layer of Shinginskoye field

Key words: reservoir, electrical resistivity, oil-water contact, the structure of the pore space, open porosity, gas permeability, boundary settings, well survey.
The problem of separation of productive intervals of reduced electrical resistance in the sediments of Yu11 layer of Shinginskoye fields in the Tomsk region, related to the specific facies conditions, is considered. The identification of such sediments significantly changes the geological model of the productive reservoir, expanding its prospects.

References

1. Semenov V.V., Pitkevich V.T., Mel'nik I.A. et al., Geofizika, 2006, no. 2, pp. 42-47.

2. Mel'nik I.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2008, no. 4, pp. 34-36.

3. Teploukhov A.V., Moskalenko N.Yu., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry,

2010, no. 12, pp. 50-53.


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A.R. Garaev (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
Depositional model of the northern regions of the Neocomian complex of West Siberian megabasin

Key words: sequence, sedimentation, bituminous clay, sequence stratigraphy, West Siberia.
Geological setting of late Oxfordian to Hauterivian sediments of northern regions of West Siberia is considered. Basic depositional models for different stages of the cyclothem formation in the West Siberian basin are shown.
Key words: sequence, sedimentation, bituminous clay, sequence stratigraphy, West Siberia.

References

1. Grishgorn L.Sh., Kabalyk V.G., Sosedkov V.S., Byulleten' moskovskogo

obshchestva ispytateley prirody. Otdel geologicheskiy, 1987, V. 62,

no. 6, pp. 56-63

2. Derbikov I.V., Tektonika fundamenta i chekhla Zapadno-Sibirskoy

epigertsinskoy platformy i ikh vzaimosvyaz' (Tectonics of the base and

cover of the West Siberian Epihercynian platform and their interaction):

Thesis of Doctor of geological-mineralogical sciences, Tomsk,

1958.

3. Rostovtsev N.N., Zapadno-Sibirskaya plita. Tektonika neftenosnykh

oblastey (West Siberian plate. Tectonics of the oil-bearing areas),

Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1968, V. II, pp. 299-340.

4. Rostovtsev N.N., Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology,

1970, no. 4, pp. 4-9.

5. Fotiadi E.E., Karataev G.I., Moiseenko F.S., Geologiya i geofizika

Russian Geology and Geophysics, 1965, no. 10, pp. 12-22.

6. Garaev A.R., Gornye vedomosti, 2012, no. 6, pp. 10-18.

7. Garaev A.R., Gornye vedomosti, 2011, no. 8, pp. 24-32.


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Working out and operation of oil deposits


D.V. Tolstolytkin, I.A. Rzaev, O.V. Lanina (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Explanation of under-gas-cap zone dispersed water flood system formation of horizons AV1-5 Samotlorskoye oil field using reservoir simulation model

Key words: current gas cap saturation, under-gas-cap zone development strategy, simulation results evaluation, barrier water flooding.
Reservoir simulation Samotlorskoye field results are used for explanation of following under-gas-cap zone development strategy of Samotlor oil field with help of barrier water flooding reorganization and dispersed water flood system formation.

References

1. Medvedev N.Ya., Fursov A.Ya., Geotekhnologii v razrabotke

gazoneftyanykh zalezhey (Geotechnology in the development of gas

and oil deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1995.

2. Arzhilovskiy A.V., Bikbulatova T.G., Kostyuchenko S.V., Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2010, no. 11, pp. 46-50.

3. Cheremisin N.A., Rzaev I.A., Borovkov E.V. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo

Oil Industry, 2012, no. 10, pp. 49-53.

4. Dopolnenie k utochnennomu proektu razrabotki Samotlorskogo

mestorozhdeniya (Addition to the updated project to develop the

Samotlor field), Tyumen': Publ. of OOO “TNNTs”, 2012.


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L.S. Brilliant, Yu.A. Plitkina, F.. Shemelov, D.M. Fokina (TING CJSC, RF, Tyumen)
The investigation of correlations of factors affect development of oil accumulation areas of Talinskaya area Sherkalinskaya suite of Krasnoleninskoye oil field.

Key words: correlation, coefficient of correlation, regression, factor, COE, compensation, gas content
The present work is concerned with analyze of factors affect development of oil accumulation of Talinskaya area Sherkalinskaya suite of Krasnoleninskoye oil field. Investigations have shown that low oil recovery of oil accumulation of Talinskaya area Sherkalinskaya suite of Krasnoleninskoye oil field caused by excessive waterflooding, overcompensation fluid withdrawal, collaboration reservoirs in wells. This subjective factors related to the actual events that took place during the development of the oil field. Natural factors such as distribution "super-reservoir" in the plantar intervals of reservoir, height value of gas content and saturation pressure is the second groups of factors.

References

1. Dzyuba V.I., Pelevin M.L., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10,

pp. 70-73

2. Tekhnologicheskaya skhema razrabotki Krasnoleninskogo neftegazokondensatnogo

mestorozhdeniya v predelakh Talinskogo litsenzionnogo uchastka

(Development Plan for Krasnoleninskoye oil and gas condensate field

within the Talinskaya license area), Publ. of TNK-Nyagan', 2007.

3. Brilliant L.S., Skrylev S.A., Arzhilovskiy A.V. et al., In collected papers “Optimizatsiya

tekhnologiy razrabotki” (Optimization of field development technologies):

edited by Brilliant L.S., Ekaterinburg: Sredne-Ural'skoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo

Publ., 2003, pp. 4-36.


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A.N. Cheremisin, S.V. Kostuchenko (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), K.V. Toropetskiy (Novosibirsk State University, RF, Novosibirsk), A.E. Ryazancev (SibGoePribor LLC, RF, Novosibirsk), E.E. Lukyanov Scientific Production Enterprise of Geophysical Equipment Looch, RF, Novosibirsk), N.G. Zagoruyko (Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk)
Algorithms of multi-phase flow-metering results processing applied to information support of smart oil-field

Key words: smart-well, Smart-field, oilfield data, measurement accuracy, information analysis, numerical modeling, multi-phase flow-metering.
Smart-oilfield problems of data acquiring and processing are considering in this article. One of the main problems of feedback creation for oil and gas production control is problem of field data accuracy. One of the possible ways to data accuracy estimation based onto information analysis of data flow incoming from measurer is shown. We considered all keys factor influencing onto field data accuracy. The methods and algorithms allow both improving the accuracy and decreasing uncertainties in oilfield data. It can be helped to make different geological and technological solutions and also can increase knowledge of oilfield as hydrodynamics object.

References

1. Baykov I.R., Smorodov E.A., Akhmadullin K.R., Metody analiza nadezhnosti

i effektivnosti sistem dobychi i transporta uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Methods

for analyzing the reliability and efficiency of hydrocarbons production and

transportation systems), Moscow: OOO “Nedra-Biznestsentr” Publ., 2003,

275 p.

2. Zdolnik S., Pashali A., Markelov D., Volkov M., Real Time Optimisation Approach

for 15,000 ESP Wells, SPE 112238, 2008.

3. Shneiderman B., Tree visualization with Tree-maps: A 2D space-filling approach,

ACM Transaction on graphics, 1992, V. 11, no. 1, pp. 92-99.

4. Zagoruyko N.G., Prikladnye metody analiza dannykh i znaniy (Applied

methods of data analysis and knowledge), Novosibirsk: Publ. of Institute of

mathematics SB RAS, 1999, 270 p.

5. Zagoruiko N.G., Borisova I.A., Dyubanov V.V., Kutnenko O.A., Methods of

Recognition Based on the Function of Rival Similarity, Mathematical theory of

pattern recognition.

6. Ryazantsev A.E., Algoritm zapolneniya probelov v empiricheskikh tablitsakh

FRiS-ZET i ego primenenie dlya resheniya zadachi analiza dannykh neftegazovykh

mestorozhdeniy (Algorithm for filling gaps in empirical tables FRiS-ZET

and its application to solving the problem of data analysis of oil and gas

fields), Proceedings of ISSC, 2012.

7. Ryazantsev A.E., Intellektual'naya ekspertnaya sistema analiza

promyslovykh dannykh i optimizatsii dobychi nefti i gaza (Intelligent expert

system for analysis of field data and optimization of oil and gas production),

International Scientific and Practical Conference Intellektual'noe

mestorozhdenie: mirovaya praktika i sovremennye tekhnologii (Intelligent

field: international experience and modern technology), 2012, May 10-11.

8. URL: http://math.nsc.ru/~wwwzag/


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G.T. Bulgakova (Ufa State Aviation University, RF, Ufa), R.Ya. Kharisov, A.R. Sharifullin (RN-UfaNIPIneft, RF, Ufa), A.V. Pestrikov (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow)
Optimizing the acidizing operations of horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs

Key words: horizontal well, carbonate reservoirs, interval acid treatment, mathematical model
The objective of the paper is to develop a mathematical model of acid treatment of horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs to control the distribution flows of acid solutions and chemical diverters. The model presented in the paper has been constructed for an openhole well. Treatment is performed by pumping treatment fluids under pressure through coiled tubing (CT). The model assumes a radially symmetric initial profile of permeability. The mathematical model predicts the location of the injected fluids by tracking the advance of the fronts. Mathematical simulation enables one to solve the problem of determining the optimal positioning of the CT end to uniformly cover the whole treatment interval. In the course of a computational experiment the parameters are studied which influence the improvement of permeability and porosity of the borehole environment. Also determined are their optimal values to ensure maximal efficiency of acid treatments of horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs.

References

1. Butler R.M., Horizontal wells for the recovery of oil, gas and bitumen,

Petroleum Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining,

Metallurgy and Petroleum, 1994, 228 p.

2. Suchkov B.M., Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny (Horizontal wells),

Moscow – Izhevsk, RKhD Publ., 2006, 422 p.

3. Economides, M.J., Naceu, K.B., Klem, R.C., Matrix stimulation

method for horizontal wells, JPT, July 1991, pp. 854-860.

4. Liu Hai, Coston C., Yassin M., Uddin Sh., Al-Dhafeeri F., A novel

stimulation technique for horizontal openhole wells in carbonate

reservoirs—a case study in Kuwait, SPE 105127, 2010.

5. Al-Dhufairi M., Al-Ghamdi S., Noya V., Al-Aradi Kh., Al-Sarakbi

S., Al-Dossary A., Krueger E., Moore B., Merging tapered in

Coiled Tubing (CT) and well tractor technologies to effectively stimulate extended

reach open hole horizontal wells, SPE 130642, 2011.

6. Patent no. 2082880 RF, Method of acid treatment of oil formation, Inventors:

Orlov G.A.; Muslimov R.Kh.; Yusupov I.G.; Musabirov M.Kh., 1997.

7. Kharisov R.Ya. , Bulgakova G.T. , Sharifullin A.R., Makatrov A.K., Telin A.G.,

Pestrikov A.V., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh

mestorozhdeniy, 2010, no. 7, pp. 4450.

8. Sorbie K.S., Scaled miscible floods in layered beadpacks investigating viscous

crossflow, SPE 20520, 1990.

9. Frick T.R., Economides M.J., Horizontal well damage characterization and

removal, SPE Production and Facilities, February 1993.

10. Bulgakova G.T., Kharisov R.Ya., Sharifullin A.R., Pestrikov A.V., Nauchnotekhnicheskiy

vestnik OAO “Rosneft'”, 2010, no. 2, pp. 1620.

11. Bulgakova G.T., Kharisov R.Ya., Sharifullin A.R., Pestrikov A.V., Territoriya

NEFTEGAZ, 2010, no. 11, pp. 1822.

12. Idel'chik I.E., Spravochnik po gidravlicheskim soprotivleniyam (Handbook

on hydraulic resistance), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1992, 672 .

13. Patankar S.V., Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publ.

Co., 1980.


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Petroleum industry abroad


V.L. Terentyev, A.G. Kolyagin, O.L. Karshakova, S.S. Gusev (STC OILTEAM, RF, Sochi), K.M. Fedorov (Academy of Oil and Gas Engineering, RF, Sochi)
Diagnostics and optimization of multilayer wells exploitation on the example of Sudanese G field development

Key words: multi reservoir field, well production cross flow, methods of well cross flow diagnostics, calculation of well bore flows and algorithm of production optimization.
Economic reasons often dictate the application of unit wells net system for development of different reservoirs of an oil field. In this case solution of economic objectives is accompanied by development problems of non-uniform reservoirs depression and water breakthrough through high permeable streaks. Analysis and simulation of multi reservoir field G (Sudan) development, conducted by “OILTEAM” company in the framework of Field Development Project (FDP), reveals the through a well production cross flow as one of the main problems. The experience of well flow optimization by possible techniques is presented in the paper. Different method of well cross flow diagnostics, techniques and technologies of cross flow control and optimization algorithm of cross flow management are considered.

References

1. Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu i ekspluatatsii neftyanykh

mestorozhdeniy. Dobycha nefti (Reference Manual for the design and operation

of oil fields. Oil production): edited by Gimatudinov Sh.K., Moscow:

Nedra Publ., 1983, 455 p.

2. Grayfer V.I., Lysenko V.D., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2000,

no. 2, pp.

3. Kuz'minskiy S.S., Tarko Ya.B., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1977, no. 9, pp. 7-9.

4. Afanas'ev V.A., Volkov L.F., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 1994, no. 3,

pp. 50-51.


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The oil-field equipment


D.N. Lebedev, M.P. Peshcherenko, S.N. Peshcherenko, E.V. Poshvin (Novomet-Perm, CJSC, RF, Perm)
Features recalculation efficiency of energy-efficient pumps at different frequencies of rotation of a shaft

Key words: ESP, submersible pump, energy efficiency, efficiency factor, rotation frequency.
Complex approach to increasing of energy efficiency of submersible rig for oil production allows decreasing of electric energy spending by 30-50p%. New equipment has high reliability and increases operating run-life, especially at low-yield stock.

References

1. Stepanov L.I., Tsentrobezhnye i osevye nasosy (Centrifugal and axial flow

pumps), Moscow: Izdatel'stvo mashinostroitel'noy literatury Publ., 1960, 462 p.

2. Lomakin A.A., Tsentrobezhnye i osevye nasosy (Centrifugal and axial flow

pumps), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1966, 365 p.

3. Sivukhin D.V., Obshchiy kurs fiziki (General course of physics), Part 1.

Mekhanika (Mechanics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 520 p.

4. Akhnazarova S.L., Metody optimizatsii eksperimenta v khimicheskoy

tekhnologii (Methods of experiment optimization in chemical technology),

Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1985, 327 p.


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Rational use of oil gas


N.V. Varlamov, I.Z. Fakhretdinov, M.Yu. Tarasov, S.S. Ivanov (Giprotyumenneftegaz OAO, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen)
Summary of Giprotyumenneftegaz OAO experience in petroleum gas application

Key words: petroleum gas, the rational use of hydrocarbons, the system of petroleum gas gathering, treating and transportation.
It is noted that in accordance with the current requirements Giprotyumenneftegaz OAO provides for technical and technological solutions, aimed at the rational use of the petroleum gas, at the design of oil fields construction. Systems of oil gathering, treating and transportation, projected currently by institute, provide for the 100 % possibility of its use.

References

1. Protocol no. 4006 14:06:07 from meetings of CCR Rosnedra oil sections “Ispol’zovanie

poputnogo neftyanogo gaza – shagi ot analiza problemy do realizatsii

proektov” (The use of associated gas - steps from problem analysis to

implementation), Moscow: Publ. of The Government of the Russian Federation,

2007.

2. Andreeva N.N., Problemy proektirovaniya, razrabotki i ekspluatatsii melkikh

neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Problems of of design, development and operation

of small oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of OAO VNIIOENG, 2003, 196 p.

3. Frayshteter V.P., Shcherbinin I.A., Proceedings of Scientific and Practical

Conference Ratsionalnoe ispolzovanie poputnogo neftyanogo gaza

(The rational use of associated gas), Salekhard: Publ. of Administration of the

Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District, 2008, pp. 134-142.

4. Shcherbinin I.A., Tarasov M.Yu. Proceedings of Scientific and Practical Conference

Ratsionalnoe ispolzovanie poputnogo neftyanogo gaza (The rational

use of associated gas), Salekhard: Publ. of Administration of the Yamal-

Nenets Autonomous District, 2008, pp. 143-146.

5. Shurupov S.V., Gazokhimiya, 2008, no. 1, pp. 42 44.

6. Baykov N.M., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2007, no. 6, pp. 105-107.

7. Stepanova G.S., Gazovye i vodogazovye metody vozdeystviya na

neftyanye plasty (Gas and water-gas methods of influence on the oil reservoir),

Moscow: Gazoyl press, 2006, 200 p.

8. Rachevskiy B.S., Szhizhennye uglevodorodnye gazy (Liquefied petroleum

gas), Moscow: Neft i gaz Publ., 2009, 640 p.

9. Barmin I.V., Kunis I.D., Szhizhennyy prirodnyy gaz vchera, segodnya i zavtra

(Liquefied natural gas: yesterday, today and tomorrow): edited by Arkharov

A.M., Moscow: Publ. of MSTU named Bauman, 2009, 256 p.

10. Kozlov S.V., All-Russian scientific-practical conference on the 75th anniversary

of the honored worker of science of the Russian Federation, Professor

Eduard Antonovich Bondarev, Yakutsk: Akhsaan Publ., 2011, pp. 114-116.

11. Lapidus A.L., Golubeva I.A., Zhagfarov F.G., Gazokhimiya: Uchebnoe

posobie (Gas Chemistry: Textbook), Moscow: TsentrLitNefteGaz Publ., 2008,

450 p.

12. Dolinskiy S.E., Gazokhimiya, 2009, no. 4(8), pp. 14-18.


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Transport and oil preparation


S.A. Sobolev, R.B. Fattakhov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Almetyevsk)
Coordination of booster pump stations operating modes

Key words: booster pump station, coordination of pumping units operations, computer-aided simulation.
The article discusses a method used to coordinated operations of several booster pump stations delivering oil to a single common pipeline. The method ensures a series operation of booster pump stations in the course of time, prevents simultaneous operation of several pumping units in order to reduce pipeline internal pressure and power consumption.

References

1. Pergushev L.P., Fattakhov R.B., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sobolev S.A., Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2005, no. 5, pp. 134-137.

2. Fattakhov R.B., Sobolev S.A., Tronov V.P., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry,

2012, no. 3, pp. 83-86.


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Power supply


I.A. Kostarev, M.L. Sapunkov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Research into influence of compensating reactor current non-sine waving on functioning stability of protection against ground fault in oil-processing enterprise 6-10 kV networks

Key words: capacity currents, compensated network, ground fault, protection, selectivity.
The authors presented the results of research and assessment of influence of ultraharmonics in the ground fault neutralizer current of on functioning stability of protection against ground faultare based on control pulsating power. It is set, that an ultraharmonics will render positive influence on selectivity of new protection. This fact is instrumental in the increase of reliability of the power supply of oil-processing enterprises.

References

1. Shuin V.A., Gusenkov A.V., Zashity ot zamykaniy na zemlyu v elektricheskikh

setyakh 6-10 kV (Protection against ground faults in electrical networks

6-10 kV), Moscow: Publ. of NTF «Energoprogress», 2001, 104 p.

2. Vaynshteyn R.A., Zashchita ot zamykaniy na zemlyu generatorov i setey

srednego napryazheniya na osnove ispol'zovaniya nizkochastotnykh

sostavlyayushchikh tokov nulevoy posledovatel'nosti (Ground fault protection

of generators and power systems based on the use of low-frequency

components of the zero sequence currents): thesis of Doctor of Technical Sciences,

Tomsk, 2011, 283 p.

3. Sapunkov M.L., Khudyakov A.A., Proceedings of 3rd All-Russian Scientific and

Technical Conference “Energetika. Innovatsionnye napravleniya v energetike”

(Energy. Innovative Trends in Energy), Perm': Publ. of PNRPV, 2010, pp. 47-53.

4. Kostarev I.A., Sapunkov M.L., Khudyakov A.A., Gornoe oborudovanie i elektromekhanika,

2012, no. 11, pp. 8-14.

5. Sapunkov M.L., Khudyakov A.A., Barskiy G.A., Elektrotekhnika – Russian

Electrical Engineering, 2010, no. 12, pp. 47-53.

6. Kudryashov D.S., Povyshenie effektivnosti raboty kompensirovannykh neytraley

elektricheskikh setey srednego napryazheniya kak retseptorov (Improving

the efficiency of compensated neutral of electrical medium voltage

networks like receptors): thesis of Candidate of Technical Sciences, Novosibirsk,

2011, 142 p.


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Ecological and industrial safety


A.N. Muryzhnikov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), A.A. Muryzhnikov (Rock Flow Dynamics LLC, RF, Moscow)
The use of ZigBee wireless communication channel for security and alarm systems of oil production facilities

Key words: ZigBee standard, router, leak sensor, GSM communicator.
Article reviews specialty of building security and emergency alarm using ZigBee standard units, based on principles of self-organization and self-routing. Water leak function realization reviewed. Descripted hardware and software complex, which realization allows significantly decrease costs on cable production, construction, installation and commissioning. Perspective of creation of oilfield objects parameters monitoring system reviewed.

References

1. Muryzhnikov A.N., Khamadiev R.M., Muryzhnikov A.A., Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya

i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2007, no. 4, pp. 60-65.

2. Denisenko V., STA: Sovremennye tekhnologii avtomatizatsii – CTA (Contemporary

Technologies in Automation), 2009, no. 2, pp. 90-101.

3. Muryzhnikov A.N., Safonov V.N., Khatmullin N.F., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo

Oil Industry, 2003, no. 10, pp. 50-51.

4. RD 25.953-90, Sistemy avtomaticheskie pozharotusheniya, pozharnoy,

okhrannoy i okhranno-pozharnoy signalizatsii. Oboznacheniya uslovnye graficheskie

elementov svyazi (Automatic sprinkler system, fire, security and fire

alarm systems. Graphical symbols of coupling elements), Moscow: Publ. of

Minelektrotekhprom, 1990, pp. 12-14.

5. Baskakov S.O., Oganov V., Elektronnye komponenty, 2006, no. 8, pp. 65-69.


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Yu.V. Isachenko (Aganneftegazgeologia MPK OJSC, RF, Nizhnevartovsk)
Using belt scimmers for collecting oil from wastewater and industrial circulating liquids

Key words: industrial skimmers, oil skimmer, wastewater treatment, belt skimmer.
Current situation in industrial wastewater treatment is considered. The article presents belt skimmers applications for collecting oil from wastewater, and industrial circulating liquids, as well as coolants. Types, properties and advantages of oil skimmers are described.

References

1. Government Decree of 10.04.2013 no. 317 “Ob utverzhdenii

Polozheniya o plane snizheniya sbrosov zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv,

inykh veshchestv i mikroorganizmov v poverkhnostnye vodnye

ob"ekty, podzemnye vodnye ob"ekty i na vodosbornye ploshchadi”

(On Approval of the Regulations on reducing discharges of pollutants

and other substances and micro-organisms in the surface water, underground

water bodies and watersheds).

2. Federal Law no. 416-FZ of 07.12.2011. O vodosnabzhenii i vodootvedenii

(On the Water Supply and Sanitation) with additions from

01.01.2013.

3. Stakhov E.A., Ochistka neftesoderzhashchikh stochnykh vod predpriyatiy

khraneniya i transporta nefteproduktov (Cleaning oily waste

water of enterprise storage and transportation of petroleum products),

Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1983.

4. About oil skimming, URL: http://www.oilskimming.com/


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