|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The article provides information on the results of geological prospecting within the Elnikovskaya area of the Elnikovskoye field in the southeast of the Udmurt Republic. Over the past 2 years, three deposits have been discovered in this area in the section of the Radaevian horizon of the terrigenous sequence of the Visean stage, associated with the stratigraphic type of traps adjacent to the unconformity. Non-anticlinal traps are confined to the wedging out of sandstone layers on the slopes of erosive carbonate remnants of the Tournaisian age. On the example of the territory of the Arlan carbonate paleoplateau, a possible mechanism for the formation of erosion partial barriers as a result of the activity of the paleo-river system and erosion-karst processes is shown. The destruction of carbonate deposits of the Tournaisian-Upper Famennian age in this area can reach 100 meters or more. An assumption is made about the probable role of erosion incisions as channels for the lateral migration of hydrocarbons from the zones of development of oil source rocks within the basins of the Kama-Kinel system to the limits of the marginal parts of the paleo-shelf. The characteristics and main parameters of new deposits are given. It is noted that according to morphological features, their ring and visor types are distinguished. The local nature of development and the small size of deposits in the plan also determine the small resource volume of such traps. However, as the statistics of discoveries of recent years in the Volga-Ural region show, in terms of reserves, these objects are of commercial interest. Within the area the presence of an existing well stock allows additional study of identified and search for new similar deposits by drilling sidetracks, often they can be additional when drilling overlying ones.
1. Mukhametshin R.Z., Erozionnye vrezy i ikh neftenosnost’ (Erosive incisions and their oil content), Kazan’: Publ. of Kazan University, 2016, 88 p.
2. Mukhametshin R.Z., Napalkov V.N., Rol’ vypusknikov Kazanskogo universiteta v poznanii prirody nizhnekamennougol’nykh erozionnykh vrezov (The role of Kazan University graduates in understanding the nature of the Lower Carboniferous erosion incisions), Proceedings of international scientific and practical conference “Kazanskaya geologicheskaya shkola i ee rol’ v razvitii geologicheskoy nauki v Rossii” (Kazan geological school and its role in the development of geological science in Russia), Kazan, 2009, pp. 588-591.
3. Smirnov V.G., Visean and Verean erosion incisions are promising objects for the search for oil and gas deposits (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1994, no. 7, pp. 21-29.
4. Larochkina I.A., Kontseptsiya sistemnogo geologicheskogo analiza pri poiskakh i razvedke mestorozhdeniy nefti na territorii Tatarstana (Concept of systematic geological analysis in prospecting and exploration of oil deposits in Tatarstan), Kazan’: FEN Publ., 2013, 232 p.
5. Shpilevaya I.K., Trofimova E.V., Furman V.F., Istomin A.G., Some structural features of the Visean incisions in Udmurtia (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2001, no. 6, pp. 40–43.
6. Vaksman S.I., Blaginykh L.L., Otsenka roli kanalov vtorichnoy migratsii uglevodorodov v vizeyskoy terrigennoy tolshche yugo-vostoka Permskoy oblasti (platformennaya chast’) (Evaluation of the channels role of secondary hydrocarbon migration in Visean terrigenous strata of southeast of Perm region (platform side)), Perm’: Publ. of PermNIPIneft’, 2004, 32 p.
7. Provorov V.M., Features of the geological structure of the Upper Devonian-Tournaisian paleoshelf and oil-bearing capacity of the Western Kama region (In Russ.), Neft’ i Kapital, 2003, no. 5(12), pp. 9-13.
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Development of complex reservoirs characterized by poroelastic properties heterogeneity is a special challenge of Rosneft Oil Company. Currently, the company uses a wide range of laboratory methods for studying the deformation and strength properties of rocks. The results of these researches contribute to increasing the efficiency of scientific support for oil and gas fields the development. Many operations for determining the mechanical properties of rocks, such as defining strength limits in various conditions, became a routine. The most general and informative in practice is a comprehensive method of rock strength certificates, which provides the necessary minimum of data on the strength and deformation properties of rocks suitable for further geomechanical and hydrodynamic simulations. However, determination of one of the most important parameters used both in simulating and initial data calculating for geomechanical laboratory investigations (the poroelasticity (Biot) coefficient) requires series of long-term separate experiments. In order to obtain the necessary data it is necessary to determine the deformation characteristics of the core material in various load distribution conditions, which is associated with the complication of the hardware part of the experiment.
The Rosneft Oil Company pays great attention to the scientific and methodological support of digital modeling, as well as reducing associated costs. The article presents the method for calculating the Biot coefficient developed by Rosneft. The initial data for the calculation are the results of determining the strength properties of the core, for example, as part of the construction of rock strength passports. This allows you to significantly reduce the cost of laboratory research.
1. Coussy O., Poromechanics, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004, 298 r.
2. Fjaer E., Holt R.M., Horsrud P. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics, Elsevier B.V., 2008, 491 r.
3. Zhou X., Vachaparampil A., Ghassemi A., A combined method to measure Biot’s coefficient for rock, Proceedings of 49th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, USA, 23-26 June 2015, Paper no. ARMA-2015-584.
4. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A., Rogozin A.A., Justification of the combined technology for enhanced oil recovery in case of Maikop sediments (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 9, pp. 114 – 116, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-9-114-116
5. Rogozin A.A., Leonov Ya.A., Sukhova O.G., Evaluation of the effectiveness of the formation bottom-hole zone treatment during laboratory simulation of radial filtration (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2022, no. 1, pp. 20–23, DOI: 10.33285/0207-2351-2022-1(637)-20-23
6. Dronova I.A., Posysoev A.A., Rogozin A.A., Identification of potentially effective intervals of the Artinskian horizon for designing horizontal wells drilling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 2, pp. 57–61, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-2-57-617. Franquet J.A., Abass H.H., Experimental evaluation of Biot’s poroelastic parameter. Three different methods, Rock Mechanics for Industry: edited by Kranz A., Smeallie S., Rotterdam: Balkema, 1999.
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The aim of the study is to illustrate the correspondence of the extremes of the unified polymodal distribution of the relative boron content to different sedimentation conditions associated with paleosalinity and the dynamic properties of water. The article presents conditions of formation of discrete, polymodal distribution of intensities of transformation processes of open geographic systems, on the basis of which the states of boron accumulation processes are determined. Discreteness of forms of distribution of intensity of the process is caused by its resolved states, and invariance of forms - by the law of harmonious influence connected with the ‘golden proportion’. It is empirically confirmed that the extremes of the unified multimodal statistical distribution of boron content relative to clay content correspond to different sedimentation conditions associated not only with the paleosalinity of water, but also with its active or passive dynamics. On the example of the lithological and facies analysis of sand beds of hydrocarbon deposits, the possibility of identifying zones with different water dynamics under the condition of known or constant paleosalinity in the studied area is illustrated. It was found that the relative boron content and patterns of its distribution in sediments and facies complexes formed in the coastal-marine band, taking into account paleosalinity, are determined by the hydrodynamic regime of the sedimentation environment: the increase of water activity contributes to the accumulation of boron in the system, the decrease of activity - reduction of its concentration. In turn, when interpreting the results of overlaying the lateral distribution of the relative boron content on the facies map, it is necessary to consider the direction of movement of saline waters, in comparison with which the boron content determines the quality of changes towards a decrease or increase in the dynamic activity of water.
1. Valiev Yu.Ya., Geokhimiya bora v yurskikh otlozheniyakh Gissarskogo khrebta (Geochemistry of boron in the Jurassic deposits of the Hissar Range), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1977, 150 p.
2. Stolbova N.F., Boron in oil and gas bearing deposits set within Western Siberia (In Russ.), Izvestiya TPU, 2001, V. 304, no. 1, pp. 217–225.
3. Lukashev V.K., Derbinskiy V.A., Prikladnoe i eksperimental'noe issledovanie geokhimii bora kak indikatora paleosolenosti (Applied and experimental study of boron geochemistry as an indicator of paleosalinity), In: Eksperimental'noe issledovanie form i protsessov gipergennoy migratsii elementov (Experimental study of forms and processes of hypergene migration of elements), Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika Publ., 1977, pp. 78–82.
4. Mel'nik I.A., Depositional conditions of the upper part of the lower cretaceous deposits in the southeast of the Western Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya i mineral'no-syr'evye resursy Sibiri, 2015, no. 2, pp. 3–10.
5. Knyazeva E.N., Kurdyumov S.P., Osnovaniya sinergetiki. Sinergeticheskoe mirovidenie (Fundamentals of synergy. Synergetic worldview), Moscow: KomKniga Publ., 2005, 240 p.
6. Prigogine I., Stengers I., Order out of chaos. Man's new dialogue with nature, Heinemann, London, 1984.
7. Mel'nik I.A., Intensity determination of secondary geochemical processes based on statistical interpretation of GIS data (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2012, no. 11, pp. 35–40.
8. Mel'nik I.A., The ratio of time parameters of geochemical process of imposed epigenesis and "golden section” (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2015, no. 5, pp. 30–39.
9. Mel'nik I.A., A universal cause in the formation of discrete states of statistical distributions of intensities of various nature (In Russ.), Zhurnal Formiruyushchikhsya Napravleniy Nauki, 2016, V. 4, no. 12, 13, pp. 20–26, URL: http://www.unconv-science.org/pdf/IJUS-v12-2016.pdf
10. Mel'nik I.A., Opredelenie intensivnosti geokhimicheskikh protsessov po materialam geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Estimates of the intensity of geochemical processes using well logging data), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 2016, 146 p.
11. Troshchenko V.V., Model of accumulation of primary material of fossil coals and coal-bearing formations: Modern view (In Russ.), Vestnik Adygeyskogo GU. Seria 4, 2011, no. 2, pp. 74–87.
12. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel – litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies - lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.
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The drilling of large oil and gas fields in Eastern Siberia is complicated by the presence of formations in the section that are prone to collapse, scree, loss of drilling mud; characterized in the process of opening by a decrease (for various reasons) of natural porosity and permeability; with low thermobaric parameters (temperature is about 14 °Ñ, reservoir pressure gradient is 0.8-0.95). This makes it necessary to carefully substantiate, develop and use special fluids for drilling in the intervals of occurrence of such formations. Drilling fluids should meet the following requirements: the density is not exceed 1100 kg/m3; rheological characteristics (viscosity, static and dynamic shear stresses) comply with reservoir thermobaric conditions; the dispersed phase of the solution penetrating into the reservoir pore space is physically and chemically inert with respect to the rock-forming minerals and eventually decomposes and can be removed from the reservoir; the drilling mud is not interact with the material composition of the rock cement (is not cause its swelling and destruction), etc. As part of the design of oil-based drilling mud composition a number of experimental studies were carried out. Optimal components concentrations of the hydrocarbon-based solution were selected for the conditions of the Khamakinsky horizon in Eastern Siberia. According to the results of comparative experiments, it can be assumed that the proposed formulations are effective, promising and provides high return permeability. When drilling wells at the Vostochno-Alinskoye field in the interval of the horizontal section (under the shank) at the first stage of pilot-industrial implementation diesel fuel-based mud were chosen because of their increased environmental friendliness in comparison with oil-based and highly mineralized solution. After successful field tests the drilling technology with bottomhole pressure control (equilibrium and depression) were recommended for terrigenous reservoir drilling.
1. Apenyshev D.S., Karlov A.M., Parfir'ev V.A. et al., Results of morphotectonic analysis of Talakanskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 2, pp. 12–19.
2. Parfir'ev V.A., Paleev S.A., Vaganov Yu.V., Parfir'ev V.A., Paleev S.A., Vaganov Yu.V., The analysis of oil wells construction in abnormal conditions in Eastern Siberia oil-fields (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2018, no. 1, pp. 97–100, DOI: 10.31660/0445-0108-2016-6-97-100
3. Vaganov Yu.V., Yagafarov A.K., Kleshchenko I.I. et al., Geological aspects of producing reserves from complex gas deposits, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2017, V. 12, no. 24, pp. 16077-16082
4. Parfir'ev V.A., Paleev S.A., Zakirov N.N, Vaganov Yu.V., Multisalt biopolymer mud for well construction at fields with terrigenous reservoir in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2018, no. 1, pp. 63–68, DOI:10.31660/0445-0108-2018-1-63-68
5. Vaganov Yu.V., Spirina O.V., Anashkina A.E. et al., Increase in permeability of the terrigenous reservoir after exposure to polymer-based drilling mud, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2018, V. 13, no. 2, pp. 879–884
6. Parfir'ev V.A., Vaganov Yu.V., Zakirov N.N., Paleev S.A., Application of hydrocarbon-base mud during the initial opening and drilling of the productive horizon of field in the Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 12, pp. 112-114, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-112-114
7. Parfir'ev V.A., Vaganov Yu.V., Zakirov N.N., Invert-emulsion drilling fluids for exposing Hamakin horizon of the Vostochno-Alinskoye oil and gas condensate field (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov Neft' i gaz, 2020, no. 3, pp. 44–53, DOI: 10.31660/0445-0108-2020-3-44-538. Parfir'ev V.A., Substantiation of the technology for opening the Khamakin horizon of the Vostochno-Alinskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 7, pp. 88–91, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-7-88-91
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The article describes an experience and technologies of heterogeneous Ryabchik formation AV11-2 development. Nine zones specified by the character of layers composing reservoir, depositional environment and involvement of areas into development. Permeability of zones modifies from 0,005 to
0,081 μm2. Main volume (over 90%) of remaining oil in place concentrated in medium and low-permeable zones (permeability coefficient is 0,005–0,007 μm2). For the purpose of development efficiency improvement, multistage hydraulic fracturing and drilling of horizontal wells up to 2000 m realized. Performance of hydrofrac is complicated by the presence of underlying high-productive water-saturated ÀÂ13 formation. Hydrofracturing AV11-2 rises probability of fractures penetration into ÀÂ13 formation. Reduction of fracture height realizes by low-volume hydrofracturing with non-crosslinked gel. This technology allows to cut fracture height in 30-60% in comparison with hydrofrac on crosslinked gel at similar proppant loading. Small-volume hydraulic fracturing on non-cross-linked gel is used to reduce the fracture height. Advanced technology of drilling in the reservoir with multilateral wells was tested in areas with contact reserves. In the zone of highly productive reservoirs, tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery are successfully applied. Water-cut in production wells in these zones is 96-98%. To rise formation productivity sludge-forming, gel-forming and fiber-dispersed compositions are pumped into injection holes.
1. Barakin V.A., Kravchenko A.A., Aleksandrov V.M., Geologo-tekhnologicheskoe modelirovanie ob"ekta AV1(1-2) “Ryabchik” Samotlorskogo mestorozhdeniya pri proektirovanii ego razrabotki (Geological and technological modeling of the object AV1 (1-2) of the Samotlor field in the design of its development), Collected papers “Optimizatsiya tekhnologiy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy” (Optimization of oil field development technologies), Ekaterinburg, 2003.
2. Smirnov D.S., Savchenko I.V., Dreyman V.A., Likhoded I.A., Pisarev D.Yu., Evolution of design solutions for development the edge zone of layer AV11-2 of the Samotlorskoe field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 7, pp. 5-12, DOI: 10.30713/0207-2351-2019-7(607)-5-12
3. Vyazovaya M.A., Shpurov I.V., Korovina N.K. et al., Tekhniko-ekonomicheskoe obosnovanie perspektiv razrabotki ob"ekta AV11-2 “ryabchik” gorizontal'nymi i naklonnonapravlennymi skvazhinami na primere NP7,8,10 SNGDU ¹1 Samotlorskogo mestorozhdeniya (Feasibility study of the prospects for the development of the AV11-2 facility with horizontal and directional wells on the example of NP7,8,10 SNGDU No. 1 of the Samotlor field), Collected papers “Optimizatsiya tekhnologiy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy” (Optimization of oil field development technologies): edited by Brilliant L.S., Ekaterinburg: Sredne-Ural'skoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 2003, pp. 110-118.
4. Shkitin A.A., Mityakin I.B., Arkhipova E.L. et al., Algorithm of separation of production and injection data by sequences, taking into account field geophysical data and hydraulic fracturing (by the example of AV1(3)-AV2-3 object of the Samotlor field) (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2022, no. 3, pp. 34–38, DOI: 10.24412/2076-6785-2022-3-34-38
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The article discusses the approbation of an approach based decline analysis to evaluating reservoir pressure in case of low-permeability formation. The formation permeability is less than 2·10-3 μì2. The widespread introduction of the telemetry systems in mechanized oil producing wells and interpretation of the dynamic operation data allow to determinate of reservoir parameters without long-time shut-in. Decline analysis results are used to determinate of the reservoir pressure through synthetic pressure build up curve modeling in the corporate software for well testing RN-VEGA. The examples of the comparison traditional well tests and decline analysis are presented. The approach to reservoir pressure evaluation includes dynamic operation data collection, reservoir parameters determination and modeling of the synthetic pressure build up curve. Comparison of reservoir pressure evaluations through decline analysis and using 3D hydrodynamic model allowed defining the approach application limits. Comparison with traditional well test data also was made. Decline analysis results can be used for factor analysis to reveal main reasons of the wells production levels non-confirmation. The examples of factor analysis are given when as main reasons of the wells production levels non-confirmation authors considered reservoir pressure, bottom hole pressure, productivity index at non-steady/pseudosteady flow of filtration and water flow production.
1. Davletbaev A.Ya., Makhota N.A., Nuriev A.Kh. et al., Design and analysis of injection tests during hydraulic fracturing in low-permeability reservoirs using RN-GRID software package (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 77–83, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2018-10-77-83
2. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.Ya., Abdullin R.I. et al., Welltesting for a linear development system in low permeability formation (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2021, V. 19, no. 3, pp. 49–58, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2021-3-49-58
3. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., The longterm monitoring of resevoir data as significant direction of contemporary welltest analysis development (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2012, no. 9, pp. 4–8.
4. Tulenkov S.V., Shirokov A.S., Grandov D.V. et al., Analysis of production data of horizontal oil wells for determination of reservoir flow parameters (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2019, no. 4(20), pp. 140–156, DOI 10.25689/NP.2019.4.140-15
5. Iktisanov V.A., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Evaluation of effectiveness of EOR and bottomhole treatment technologies using rate transient analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 5, pp. 72-76, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-72-7.
6. Zernin A.A., Makarov K.A., Tyul'kova A.I., Features of production geophysical and hydrodynamic research of horizontal multilateral wells in the fields Rosneft Oil Company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 7, pp. 94–98, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-7-94-98
7. Urazov R.R., Davletbaev A.Ya., Sinitskiy A.I. et al., Rate transient analysis of fractured horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 10, pp. 62–67 , DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-10-62-67
8. Savel'ev O.Yu., Borodkin A.A., Naugol'nov M.V. et al., Modernized approach to provide block and factor analysis of oil field development system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 74–77.
9. Naugol'nov M.V., Rastegaeva E.V., Zul'karniev R.Z., Asmandiyarov R.N., Factor analysis of the success of well interventions as a tool for improving the quality of geological and simulation models (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 1 (11), pp. 34–38, DOI: 10.24887/2587-7399-2019-1-34-38
10. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.Ya., Khabibullin I.L., Modeling of the reservoir pressure difference between injection and production wells in low permeable reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 21, no. 3, pp. 537–544.
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In Russia Federation, including Urals-Volga region, significant volumes of original oil in place are located in water-oil zones. Geological structure analysis of major platform-type oil fields has shown that the area of initial water-oil zones covers from 31 to 80.3 % of the total oil-bearing area. Based on the analysis and comprehensive experience it is determined that water-oil zones reserves recovery is 1.5-2 times slower comparing to purely oil areas. Water-oil zone tend to have faster water breakthrough into the producing wells. Oil-water ratio is 2-3 times higher than in the pure oil areas.
The article describes the results of modelling the operation modes well in water-oil contact zones of high-viscous oil fields. Particularly, considered the field with the specific operation, i.e. limited capability of oil-loading unit resulting in constraints to daily water production related to the necessity of transporting and disposing the associated water. The integrated model calculations has shown that shutting down watered wells in the water-oil contact zone (having water-cut below maximal) is not effective for reducing water production. These wells produce significant volume of oil and, therefore, recommended for conversion to another operation mode, which applies a bottomhole pump with the possibility to adjust fluid production rate in wide ranges. The reduction of existing water-cut is observed on these wells. It is established, that reducing the water production from the water-oil contact zone stimulates water inflow into the purely oil area and increases the reservoir pressure, which is favourable for local wells operation, especially when there is no reservoir pressure maintenance system. The reduction of operation costs for the transport and disposal of the associated water compensates economic losses related to the adjustment of well operation and corresponding decrease of oil recovery. Therefore, the options with constraining and adjusting the producing wells operation are economically comparable to the option, which reflects the field’s potential.
1. Baishev B.T., Manaeva L.B., O tipizatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy po kharakteru vodo-neftyanykh zon plastov (On the typification of oil fields by the nature of water-oil zones of reservoirs), Proceedings of VNIIneft, 1968, V. 54, pp. 147–155.
2. Abyzbaev I.I., Syrtlanov A.Sh., Viktorov P.F. et al., Razrabotka zalezhey s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami nefti Bashkortostana (Development of deposits with hard-to-recover oil reserves of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Kitap Publ., 1994, 180 p.
3. Abyzbaev I.I., Levi B.I., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki vodoneftyanykh zon mestorozhdeniy Bashkirii (Increasing the efficiency of the development of oil-water zones of Bashkiria fields), Ufa, Bashkir book publishing house, 1978, 72 p.
4. Muslimov R.Kh., Sovremennye metody upravleniya razrabotkoy neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem zavodneniya (Modern methods of development of oil fields with the use the waterflooding), Kazan: Publ. of Kazan University, 2003, 596 p.
5. Zakirov S.N., Brusilovskiy A.I., Zakirov E.S. et al., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologiy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Improving technologies for the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Graal' Publ., 2000, 642 p.
6. Zakirov S.N., Zakirov E.S., Zakirov I.S. et al., Novye printsipy i tekhnologii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (New principles and technologies for the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Publ. of VINITI, 2004, 520 p.
7. Vladimirov I.V., Taziev M.M., Chukashev V.N., Optimization of the water-oil zone flooding system of oil deposits (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2005, no. 1, pp. 30–38.
8. Vladimirov I.V., Taziev M.M., Chukashev V.N. et al., Determination of optimal perforation intervals for production wells operating oil-water contact zones of oil deposits (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2005, no. 2, pp. 40–47.
9. Lozin E.V., Effektivnost' dorazrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The effectiveness of further development of oil fields), Ufa: Bashknigoizdat Publ., 1987, 152 p.
10. Vladimirov I.V., Khisamutdinov N.I., Taziev M.M., Problemy razrabotki vodoneftyanykh i chastichno zavodnennykh zon neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Problems of development of oil-water and partially flooded zones of oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2007, 360 p.
11. Veliev M.M., Ivanov A.N., Akhmadeev A.G. et al., Calculation challenges of oil gathering and transportation systems of the high viscous oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 10, pp. 108-111, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-10-108-111
12. Ivanov A.N., Veliev M.M., Veliev E.M. et al., Specifics of high-viscosity oil fields development under the low reservoir pressure conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 8, pp. 50–52, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-8-50-52
13. Ivanov A.N., Veliev M.M., Veliev E.M. et al., Integrated modelling for analysing the efficiency of petroleum fields development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 2, pp. 88-91, DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-6-88-91
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The results of field tests of the water control technology based on the gel-forming reagent AC-CSE-1313 grade A at injection wells 1X and 2X of the Lower Miocene deposits of the White Tiger field are considered. The gel-forming system includes the reagent AC-CSE-1313 grade A and an acid composition, which, when interacting, form a visco-plastic gel screen under reservoir conditions (with a viscosity of up to 1200 mPa·s). To adapt the technology to the reservoir conditions of the field, testing of working compositions was performed, which confirmed the compliance of the technology with the declared characteristics – the formation of a resistant, durable gel stable under reservoir conditions for at least 4 months, characterized by a selective effect – redistribution of filtration flows from a high-permeable to a low–permeable core sample, and also allowed to select the optimal ratio of the AC-CSE-1313-A and acid composition for well treatment. Work on the AS-CSE-1313 grade A technology at wells 1X and 2X of the White Tiger field was carried out in May 2021. The volume of reagent injection into each well was 72 and 95 m3 at a concentration of AC-CSE-1313-A and acid 6&6% and 5&5%, respectively. Changes in the performance of wells after treatment – an increase in injection pressure, a decrease of injection rate – indicate the formation of a gel screen in the downhole zone, contributing to the redistribution of filtration flows in the reservoir. The total additional oil production at the two sites on 01.11.2021 amounted to 4067 tons. The results obtained indicate the prospects of the AC-CSE-1313 water control technology for the conditions of the Lower Miocene deposit of the White Tiger field. It is planned to continue work on this technology, while considering the use of a modified single–component form of the reagent – AC-CSE-1313 grade B (SPA-Well), without the use of liquid hydrochloric acid.
1. Fakhretdinov R.N., Pavlishin R.L., Yakimenko G.Kh. et al., Successful practical experience and application potential of AC-CSE-1313 flow-diverting procedure with various options in working solution volume at the fields with late stage of their development (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2020, no. 2, pp. 39-45.
2. Patent no. 2592932 RU, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., Selimov D.F.
3. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Selimov D.F. et al., Laboratory and field tests of AC-CSE-1313-A reagent as the basis of water control technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 6, pp. 68–71, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-68-71
4. Patent RU 2723797 C1, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Selimov D.F., Tastemirov S.A., Yakimenko G.Kh., Pasanaev E.A.
5. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Yakimenko G.Kh. et al., Increase in oil production by application pseudoplastic hydrophobic polymer system SPA-Well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 11, pp. 120–123, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-11-120-123
6. Fatkullin A.A., Fakhretdinov R.N., SPA-Well EOR technology – Hydrophobic polymer gel (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2022, no. 2, pp. 60-66.
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|FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT|
The bearing capacity of a pile foundation designed in the conditions of the spread of permafrost soils directly depends on the temperature of the foundation soils that make up the engineering-geological section. When the temperature regime of the soils of the bases, determined at the stage of engineering surveys, is not ensured during the operation of a building measures are developed for temperature stabilization of the soils. As a rule the installation of seasonally operating cooling devices is envisaged. The main criterion for the normal operation of seasonally operating cooling devices is the provision of free airflow of the condenser part with atmospheric air. One of the factors that negatively affect the ventilation mode is partial or full snow cover of the capacitor part. Because of remoteness and length of individual oil and gas production facilities, degree of snow cover cannot be controlled and serviced with the required frequency. Manufacturers in the operating rules of their devices prescribe the need to provide airflow and free access to the condenser of seasonally operating cooling devices. Specialists in do not take into account the decrease in the efficiency of seasonally operating cooling devices when compiling calculation models. As a result technical solutions for pile foundations in a certain period of operation may not perceive the design load.
Considering the harsh operating conditions of oil and gas production facilities in the area of permafrost soils and after analyzing a large array of field observations of snow cover, the authors came to the conclusion that in most cases the requirement of the inadmissibility of snow cover of the capacitor part of the products is not observed for objective reasons. Based on the problems identified above, the authors of the article proposed a technique that allows improving the quality and accuracy of predictive heat engineering calculations. The technique is based on the selection of the heat transfer coefficient of seasonally operating cooling devices, taking into account the uneven snow cover of the condenser part. According to the results of the study, it is proposed to take into account the decrease in the efficiency of seasonally operating cooling devices due to partial or complete snow cover and to control the snow cover of the condenser part of seasonally operating cooling devices with a frequency that allows you to correctly take into account the thickness of the snow cover in the simulation process.
1. Gabidullin R.N., Mustafin T.R., The effect of mechanical damage to the condenser fins of soil thermal stabilizers on the efficiency of their work (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2019, no. 12, pp. 64-74.
2. Strizhkov S.N., On the issue of the quality of operation of seasonally operating cooling devices (In Russ.), Zhurnal Geoinfo, 2017, URL: https://geoinfo.ru/product/strizhkov-sergej-nikolaevich/k-voprosu-o-kachestve-raboty-sezonno-dejstvu....
3. Rukovodstvo pol’zovatelya FROST 3D (FROST 3D user manual), URL: https://frost3d.ru/vypolnenie-prognoznyh-raschetov-temperaturnogo-rezhima-merzlyh-gruntov/
4. Rukovodstvo pol’zovatelya “Borey 3D” (Borey 3D user manual), URL: https://www.boreas3d.ru/boreas3d%20user%20manual.pdf
5. Pazderin D.S., Dinamika teplovogo sostoyaniya mnogoletnemerzlykh gruntov v osnovanii zaglublennogo truboprovoda s primeneniem okhlazhdayushchikh ustroystv (termostabilizatorov) (Dynamics of the thermal state of permafrost soils at the base of a buried pipeline using cooling devices (thermal stabilizers)): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen, 2017.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
Squeeze jobs on Pokur suite at the fields of RN-Purneftegas is complicated by fluid loss in water-gas bearing and depleted formations. Thus, technological efficiency of remedial cementing with application of basic technology based on cement and oil-cement slurries does not exceed 27%. In this connection, the selection of alternative plugging materials specially designed to control losses was carried out. Special attention is paid to the following conditions and peculiarities of the materials application: applicability at loss rate of 18 m3/h and more; possibility of pumping through perforation holes or production casing leakage; possibility of preparation with standard equipment at oilwell service and workover crews; positive experience of application in Rosneft Oil Company; possibility of supplementing with cement slurry. On the basis of the analysis of field experience of application of technologies and reagents for losses control available for service companies rendering services of workover operations at the Russian market, three potentially effective technologies were selected: two based on the compositions forming a filtration crust on the rock surface and one forming a screen in the formation on the basis of a reinforced polymer composition. During laboratory testing of the selected technologies, the physical-chemical and technological properties of the materials were determined. Particular attention was paid to assessment of colmatage ability of compositions and risks during pumping through perforation holes and through defects in the production casing. Thus, in the course of this work field experience of fluid loss control is studied, the choice of appropriate promising technologies for the complex of laboratory testing is justified. According to the results of laboratory testing it is established that all the studied compositions have the potential to combat losses in the highly permeable (about 1 μm2) pore reservoir.
1. Shaidullin V.A., Presnyakov A.Yu., Kostyuchenko S.A., Burmistrov A.S. Opyt primeneniya remontno-izolyatsionnykh rabot s primeneniem neftetsementnykh rastvorov na mestorozhdeniyakh OOO «RN-Purneftegaz» [Experience of Application of Repair-Insulation Works with Oil-Cement Solutions in the Fields of RN-Purneftegaz LLC] // Nauchno-tekhnicheskii vestnik OAO «NK «Rosneft’» – Rosneft Scientific and Technical Bulletin, 2013, No. 2 (31), pp. 48-50. (in Russ.).
2. Smagin A.S., Novitskii K.Yu., Tabashnikov A.R., Agzamov F.A. Povyshenie effektivnosti likvidatsii zon katastroficheskikh pogloshchenii pri stroitel’stve skvazhin [Improving the Efficiency of Elimination of Catastrophic Absorption Zones During Well Construction]. Burenie i neft’. – Drilling and Oil, 2020, No. 6, pp. 38-41. (in Russ.).
3. Ryazanov Ya. A. Entsiklopediya po burovym rastvoram. [Encyclopedia of Drilling Fluids]. Orenburg, Chronicle Publ., 2005. 664 p. (in Russ.).
4. Iskanderov D.E. Opyt primeneniya gipsotsementnykh tamponazhnykh smesei dlya likvidatsii pogloshchenii v skvazhinakh [Experience of Using Gypsum-Cement Plugging Mixtures for Liquidation of Absorptions in Wells]. Bulatovskie chteniya – Bulatov Readings, 2020, pp. 228-233. (in Russ.).
5. Kamenskikh S.V. Pogloshchenie burovykh i tamponazhnykh rastvorov pri burenii skvazhin [Absorption of Drilling and Plugging Fluids During Drilling Wells]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov po materialam VII Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Aktual’nye voprosy nauchnykh issledovanii» [Collection of Scientific Papers on the Materials of the VII International Scientific-Practical Conference «Current Issues of Scientific Research»]. Ivanovo, 2016, pp. 88-90. (in Russ.).
6. Murzin A.M. Sovremennye sposoby i tekhnicheskie sredstva dlya bor’by s pogloshcheniyami [Modern Methods and Technical Means to Combat Absorption]. Materialy Vserossiiskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem «Sovremennye problemy gidrogeologii, inzhenernoi geologii i gidroekologii Evrazii» [Proceedings of the All-Russian Conference with International Participation «Modern Problems of Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology and Hydroecology of Eurasia»]. Tomsk: TPU Publishing House, 2015, pp. 622-627. (in Russ.).
7. Ishbaev G.G., Dilmiev M.R., Khristenko A.V., Mileyko A.A. Teorii podbora fraktsionnogo sostava kol’matanta [Theories of Selection of Colmatant Fractional Composition]. Burenie i neft’. – Drilling and Oil, 2011, No. 6, pp. 16-18. (in Russ.).
8. Yakupov I.Yu. Perspektivnye sostavy dlya bor’by s pogloshcheniem tekhnologicheskikh zhidkostei pri tekushchem i kapital’nom remonte skvazhin [Prospective Compositions for Combating Absorption of Process Fluids in the Current and Overhaul of Wells]. Inzhenernaya praktika. – Engineering Practice, 2019, No. 6, pp. 14-18. (in Russ.).
9. Nozdrya V.I., Mazykin S.V., Martynov B.A. Opyt i resheniya dlya likvidatsii oslozhnenii pri burenii i remonte neftegazovykh skvazhin [Experience and Solutions for the Elimination of Complications During Drilling and Workover of Oil and Gas Wells]. Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii. – Neft. Gas. Innovations, 2014, No. 9(188), pp. 61-65. (in Russ.).
10. Gorbunova A.A., Gabdrafikov R.V., Yanuzakov U.N. Sistemnyi podkhod k likvidatsii katastroficheskikh pogloshchenii pri burenii skvazhin na mestorozhdeniyakh, raspolozhennykh na territorii Respubliki Bashkortostan [Systemic Approach to the Elimination of Catastrophic Absorptions in Drilling Wells in the Fields Located in the Republic of Bashkortostan]. Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii. – Neft. Gas. Innovations, 2021, No. 2(243), pp. 56-58. (in Russ.).
11. Shaidullin V.A., Nigmatullin T.E., Magzumov N.R., Abrashov V.N., Skorobogach M.A., Bondarev S.V., Mantorov A.N. Obzor perspektivnykh tekhnologii vodoizolyatsii v gazovykh skvazhinakh [Obzor Perspektivnykh Tekhnologii Vodoizolyatsii v Gazovykh Skvazhinakh] // Neftegazovoe delo – Petroleum Engineering, 2021, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 51-60. (in Russ.), DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2021-1-51-60
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|OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING|
There are various approaches to the choice of the method of artificial oil production, including methods using the analysis of the statistical distribution of events based on digital information of production processes. However, the analysis of information on failures in the operation of downhole pumping equipment indicates that the tasks of choosing an economically feasible method of artificial oil production of low-yield fund remain unresolved in full. This article presents a new approach to the analysis and selection of a method of artificial oil production, the algorithm of which integrates the calculation of individual criteria (operating time to failure, feed ratio, net discounted income, efficiency of ranges, significance of parameters) into a single methodology - the method of optimal ranges adapted for use as a digital tool. The proposed criteria make it possible to compare different operating modes of individual wells, well stock and areas of equipment application. Classification of ranges of operating parameters according to efficiency criteria, with visualization of the results and technical and economic comparison allows you to analyze the scope of application of mechanized mining methods based on field data. The method is illustrated by the example of a low-flow well stock (up to 30 m3/day) of two production companies with constant and periodic modes of operation of downhole rod pump installations. Analysis of the impact of operational parameters on the efficiency criterion of ranges showed that in the group of failures with operating time below the average values for the fund, the average operating time to failure is significantly less than the average operating time for the range. So, for the depth of descent of the sucker-rod pump units in inefficient ranges, the average operating time for a group of failures, with an operating time lower than the operating time for the fund, is less than the operating time in the parameter range by 115 days.
1. Medvedev A.V., Povyshenie bezopasnosti i nadezhnosti ekspluatatsii oborudovaniya neftedobychi (Improving the safety and reliability of oil production equipment): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ufa, 2009.
2. Slepchenko S.D., Otsenka nadezhnosti UETsN i ikh otdel'nykh uzlov po rezul'tatam promyslovoy ekspluatatsii (Evaluation of the ESP reliability and their individual nodes according to the exploitation results of oil fields): thesis of candidate of technical science, Perm', 2011.
3. Mel'nichenko V.E., Otsenka vliyaniya osnovnykh tekhnologicheskikh kharakteristik dobyvayushchikh skvazhin na resurs pogruzhnykh elektrotsentrobezhnykh nasosov (Assessment of the impact of the main technological characteristics of producing wells on the resource of submersible electric centrifugal pumps): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2017.
4. Kuchumov R.Ya., Uzbekov R.B., Optimizatsiya glubinnonasosnoy neftedobychi v usloviyakh Bashkirii (Optimization of bottomhole pumping in the conditions of Bashkiria), Ufa: Bashkirskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo Publ., 1986, 160 p.
5. Volkov M.G., Khalfin R.S., Topol'nikov A.S. et al., Approaches to justification of selection of the application field for new artificial lift method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 3, pp. 96–100, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-96-100.
6. Timashev E.O., Khalfin R.S., Volkov M.G., Statistical analysis of the failure times and feed rates of downhole pumping equipment in operating parameter ranges (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 46-49, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-2-46-49
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The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of wear-resistant protective coating of sliders in valves designed for operation at facilities of the Transneft system's companies. We have considered slide valve failures that occurred due to violated integrity of the slider coating; we have examined the results of scientific research conducted in the field of wear-resistant protective coatings. Criteria are presented for assessing the quality of wear-resistant protective coatings of valve sliders and identified the factors affecting protective coatings and influencing coating failures. We have generalized the results of work aimed at improving the quality of wear-resistant protective coatings of valve sliders and we have stated the requirements for such coatings, as well as the methods of control, inspection, and testing in order to confirm the quality of coatings. As part of work to improve the quality of wear-resistant protective coatings of valve sliders, we have studied and tested ion-plasma spraying with titanium nitride (Ti-TiN);ion-plasma spraying with chromium carbide (Cr – CrC); chemical nickel coating (Ni + CrC); electroplated chrome coating (Cr); flame spraying with tungsten carbide (WC). Following our work, we have summarized, generalized, and analyzed the results of comparative tests of protective properties, which have shown that all types of coatings meet the requirements for protective properties of Transneft. The work was carried out in order to improve the method of producing a wear-resistant coating for sliders and to enhance the coating quality indicators, including on non-working surfaces of sliders, the requirements for which had not been previously regulated in the serial manufacture of sliders for slide valves.
1. Voronov V.I., Flegentov I.A., Zadubrovskaya O.A., Zhevelev O.Yu., Research of metal of shut-off valve and pumping equipment parts after long-term operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 75–79. DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-1-75-79
2. Kazantsev M.N., Flegentov I.A., Zhevelev O.Yu., Kvasnyak V.B., Zhukov M.V., Measures for improving the protective qualities of wear-resistant metal coatings in shut-off valves slide gates (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 78–83.
3. Voronov V.I., Flegentov I.A., Petelin A.N., Compact expanding gate valve (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, no. 1, pp. 112–119.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The article presents results of the research on the dissolution of synthetic microporous zeolites KA-U in solutions of acetic and citric acids. The efficiency of zeolite dissolution in 3-10 wt.% acetic acid is 92-95%. For a system containing 20 wt.% citric acid, the percentage of dissolution of zeolites was 98%. The need for active mixing and an insignificant effect of temperature on the process of zeolite dissolution has been established. In winter, in particular, at temperatures below -10 °C, it is proposed to use water-methanol solutions to dissolve zeolites. The optimal composition was chosen based on 10 wt.% citric acid and 50 vol.% water-alcohol solution of methanol, the solubility of the zeolite was 45%. The selected composition has a low freezing point (below -400 °C). To avoid corrosion of aluminum equipment, corrosion studies were carried out, and the corrosive activity of organic acid solutions on aluminum samples was determined. In these systems, the aluminum corrosion rate is insignificant and amounts to 0.11 mm/year. Pilot tests were carried out at the UPPPNG-3.6 unit for the dissolution of zeolite deposits with solutions of organic acids in the cavity of the E-400 heat exchanger in winter and summer periods. Taking into account the cold season, a reagent based on 10 wt.% citric acid and 50 vol.% water-alcohol solution was chosen. The technological efficiency of the cleaning process was 51%. In summer, the heat exchanger chamber was treated with citric acid solutions and satisfactory results were obtained. The proposed compositions of citric acid were tested on AC-620 and AC-480 air coolers of the UPPPNG-3.6 unit for cleaning calcium carbonate deposits. It has been found that the use of 17-36.5 wt.% aqueous solutions of citric acid completely removes calcium carbonate from the outer surface of the heat exchanger.
1. Zhdanov S.P., Khvoshchev S.S., Samulevich N.N., Sinteticheskie tseolity: Kristallizatsiya, strukturno-khimicheskoe modifitsirovanie i adsorbtsionnye svoystva (Synthetic zeolites: Crystallization, structural chemical modification and adsorption properties), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1981, 264 p.
3. Yang F. et al., Acidizing sandstone reservoirs using HF and organic acids, SPE–157250-MS, 2012, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/157250-MS
4. Jiuyu Li, Renkou Xu, Diwakar Tiwari, Guoliang Ji, Mechanism of aluminium release from variable charge soils induced by low–molecular–weight organic acids: Kinetic study, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2006, V. 70, Issue 11, rr. 2755-2764, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.03.017
5. Xingxiang Wang, Qingman Li, Huafeng Hu et al., Dissolution of kaolinite induced by citric, oxalic, and malic acids, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2005, V. 290, pp. 481–488, DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2005.04.066
6. Blake R.E., Walter L.M., Effects of organic acids on the dissolution of orthoclase at 80°C and pH 6, Chemical Geology, 1996, V. 132, pp. 91–102.
7. Franklin S.P., Hajash A.Jr., Dewers T.A., Tieh Th.T., The role of carboxylic acids in albite and quartz dissolution: An experimental study under diagenetic conditions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Asta, 1994, V. 58, no. 20, pp. 4259–4279, DOI:10.1016/0016-7037(94)90332-8
8. Braun G., Boles J.L., Characterization and removal of amorphous aluminosilicate scales, SPE-24068–MS, 1992, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/24068-MS
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The study of the stress-strain state (SSS) of aboveground sections of pipelines is an important condition for determining its strength. In turn, compliance with the strength conditions established for a given design scheme for laying a pipeline, reflecting the actual conditions of its operation, is one of the main requirements for ensuring reliability during the operation of main pipelines. In order to increase the safety of operation and the resource of the pipeline, it is necessary to ensure a minimum stress in the pipe walls at assumed loads. The existing regulatory and technical documentation and scientific literature source has not fully resolve the calculation of the SSS parameters of above-ground zigzag sections of pipelines. The existing methods for calculating above-ground zigzag sections of pipelines do not take into account such factors as the frictional force of the elevated pipework and the value of the radius of curvature of the bent branch at the top of the snake, which significantly affect the SSS of the pipeline during its operation.
The purpose of the research is to improve the existing methods for calculating the SSS of an above-ground zigzag-laid section of a pipeline, with allowance for unaccounted for design and operational parameters. The article discusses an improved method for calculating the parameters of the SSS of the aboveground zigzag pipeline section taking into account the frictional force of the elevated pipework and the radius of the bent branch at the apex of the angle of rotation. The reliability of the proposed calculation method is confirmed by computer simulation on START-PROF 4.85 R1 and ANSYS Mechanical R19.0 software systems. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the influence of design and operational parameters on the SSS of the above-ground zigzag section of the pipeline is given.
1. Shamilov Kh.Sh., Karimov R.M., Gumerov A.K. et al., Optimization of design solutions for main pipeline projects in conditions of island and intermittent permafrost (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2021, V. 11, no. 2, pp. 136–144, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2021-11-2-136-144
2. Kargapolov V.D., Analysis of the reliability of the methods of laying oil pipelines in the Magadan region (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2011, no. 4, pp. 103–109.
3. Kharionovskiy V.V., Reliability of main gas pipelines: Formation, development and modern situation (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2019, no. 1(779), pp. 56–68.
4. Kantemirov I.F., Bykov L.I., Besheryan Z.A., Sokolova V.V., Evaluation of above-ground pipeline stress-strain state at different friction coefficients (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = The problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2020, no. 2(124), pp. 80–90, DOI: 10.17122/ntj-oil-2020-2-80-90
5. Bykov L.I., Kantemirov I.F., Besheryan Z.A., Study of stress strain state of overhead pipelines with compensative sections of various forms (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = The problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2019, no. 6(122), pp. 115–125, DOI: 10.17122/ntj-oil-2019-6-115-125
6. Masalimov R.B., Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie i ustoychivost' krivykh vstavok nadzemnykh i podzemnykh uchastkov truboprovoda (Stress-strain state and stability of curved inserts of aboveground and underground sections of the pipeline): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2016.
7. Gimazetdinov I.R., Shadrin V.S., Gumerov A.K., Some features of stressed state of a pipeline with Z-shaped compensators (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = The problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2014, no. 2(96), pp. 113–118, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17122/ntj-oil-2014-2-113-118
8. Azmetov Kh. A., Pavlova Z.Kh., Longitudinal force in underground pipelines under the longitudinal and transverse bending during operation (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = The problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2014, no. 1(95), pp. 30–35, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17122/ntj-oil-2014-1-30-36
9. SP 33.13330.2012. Raschet na prochnost' stal'nykh truboprovodov (Stress calculation of steel pipelines), 2013, URL: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200092599
10. SP 36.13330.2012. Magistral'nye truboprovody (Trunk pipelines), 2013, URL: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200103173
11. STO Gazprom 2-2.1-318-2009. Instruktsiya po proektirovaniyu truboprovodov s kompensatsiey prodol'nykh deformatsiy (Instructions for designing pipelines with compensation of longitudinal deformations), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIGAZ, 2009, 28 p.
12. Petrov I.P., Spiridonov V.V., Nadzemnaya prokladka truboprovodov (Above ground piping), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1973, 472 p.
13. Vasil'ev G.G., Orekhov V.V., Lezhnev M.A., Sooruzhenie i remont magistral'nykh truboprovodov (Construction and repair of main pipelines), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2004, 118 p.
14. Aynbinder A.B., Kamershteyn A.G., Raschet magistral'nykh truboprovodov na prochnost' i ustoychivost' (Calculation of trunk pipelines for strength and stability), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 340 p.
15. Certificate of state registration of the computer program No. 2021665164 “Raschet napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya zigzagoobrazno ulozhennogo nadzemnogo truboprovoda s uchetom sil treniya na oporakh” (Calculation of the stress-strain state of a zigzag laid overhead pipeline, taking into account the friction forces on the supports), Authors: Akchermushev V.V., Kozhaeva K.V., Azmetov Kh.A.
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During the operation of main pipelines, many defects occur in the body of the pipeline and on its surface. The main and universal method of repair is cutting out the defective section and welding a new defect-free one in its place. This type of repair is used by the service departments of companies most often. At the same time, the cutting process is complicated by a possible sharp displacement of the ends of the pipeline located on both sides of the cut point, which is dangerous for personnel, and can be damage to the cutting equipment and destruction off the pipe metal at the end of the cutting process. The sharp displacement of the pipeline ends occurs due to bending stresses in its wall, which are formed during the construction of the pipeline at the stage of the implementation of the design elastic bending radii, as well as in the process of operation during soil movements and changes in the environmental conditions in which the pipeline is laid. To weld a new section, it is necessary to center the ends of the pipeline until they reach the alignment position, for which heavy, difficult-to-transport pipelayers are used, which significantly increases the operating costs for repair work.
The article presents a design of devices for fixation the position of the ends of the pipeline in the process of cutting it, as well as their centering before welding a new section. An algorithm is also proposed for calculating the forces applied to the hydraulic cylinders of the developed devices to ensure the centering of the ends of the pipeline, based on its position directly in the repair trench. The proposed design of the devices and the calculation algorithm make it possible to increase the safety of the repair, and the technological and economic efficiency of the process, which is confirmed by calculations and computer simulation of the stress-strain state of the pipeline in the process of centering its ends.
1. Askarov R.M., Gumerov A.K., Karimov R.M., Shamilov Kh.Sh., Influence of bending radius on longitudinal stresses in long operation pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, no. 3, pp. 234–242, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2020-10-3-234-242
2. Shammazov I.A., Sidorkin D.I., Dzhemilev E.R., Research of the dependence of the pipeline ends displacement value when cutting out its defective section on the elastic stresses in the pipe body, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2022, V. 998, Issue 2, pp. 022077, DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/988/2/022077.
3. Tumanov M.V., Gendler S.G., Kabanov E.I. et al., Personal risk index as a promising management tool for human factor in labor protection (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal), 2022, no. 6-1, pp. 230-247, DOI:10.25018/0236_1493_2022_61_0_230.
4. Patent RU 2312267 C1, Device for locking pipeline, Inventors: Kirin E.M., Krasnov M.N., Ezhov A.V.
5. Patent RU 2217650 C2, Pipe alignment device, Inventors: Khoperskiy G.G., Prokof'ev V.V.
6. Patent RU 2645837 C1, Centering device, Inventors: Nosov A.G., Leskov A.K., Galimov I.S.
7. Utility patent RU 148090 U1, Oporno-tsentriruyushchee ustroystvo kontsevogo uchastka magistral'nogo nefte- ili gazoprovoda (Support-centering device for the end section of the main oil or gas pipeline), Inventors: Matveev Yu.G., Konnov Yu.D., Sidorkin D.I.
8. Patent RU 2763096 C1, Device for fixing and centering the ends of the pipeline when cutting out its defective section, Inventors: Sidorkin D.I., Shammazov I.A., Dzhemilev E.R.
9. Aynbinder A.B., Kamershteyn A.G., Raschet magistral'nykh truboprovodov na prochnost' i ustoychivost' (Calculation of trunk pipelines for strength and stability), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 344 p.
10. Gumerov A.K., Mastobaev B.N., Karimov R.M., Stress state and strength of structural elements from dissimilar materials (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2020, no. 1, pp. 39–41, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24411/0131-4270-2020-10108
11. Gumerov A.K., Karimov R.M., Askarov R.M., Shamilov Kh.Sh., Determination and prediction of the stress-strain state of pipeline, taking into account soil changes during operation (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, no. 4, pp. 372–378, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2020-10-4-372-378
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Experience in the operation of pipelines in Siberia has shown the effectiveness of the use of free above ground pipelining on peat and moss-vegetation cover of permafrost soils as a natural base. Free laying is created at the expense of compensatory sections, it can be laid in an embankment of peat (ballasting is excluded), or on the surface in thermal insulation (a private solution for ground laying in an embankment, the amount of earthwork is minimized). At the moment, there is no regulatory framework in Russia for the design, construction and operation of free-laying surface pipelines in the area of frozen ground. The strength interaction of such pipelines with peat soil has been studied; there are methods for calculating the stress-strain state of a pipeline at the transition through the boundary between different soils, and methods for calculating settlement. However, when designing pipelines on frozen soils, it is necessary to take into account all the factors that affect the temperature regime of soils, as well as forecast changes in permafrost and soil conditions due to the construction development of the territory.
The method of above ground pipelining by self-immersion from the surface into frozen massif according the thermal effect of a pipeline on frozen soil is proposed. This method makes it possible to stabilize the position of the axis of the pipeline, to prevent progressive thawing of the soil, and to protect against pinching of the pipeline during freezing and heaving of the soil. A stable state is achieved as a result of the gradual and fading self-immersion of the pipeline to the bearing base. The results of experiments are graphically illustrated, which showed a pronounced redistribution of heat flows along the perimeter of the pipeline during the change of winter and summer regimes, which indicates the effectiveness of the regulation of heat exchange between the pipeline and permafrost. The thermal regimes of each month differed significantly from each other. Therefore, unlike conventional pipelines, which are calculated for the "worst" case, the calculation of pipelines in permafrost should be carried out taking into account the zero annual heat turnover by months of the year, which will limit the thawing halos under the pipeline and improve its performance.
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9. Garris N.A., Kutlyeva Z.R., Baeva G.N., Algorithm for the process of thawing-freezing soil regulating around the ground pipeline in permafrost (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2018, V. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–55, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2018-6-46-55
10. Kutlyeva Z.R., Garris N.A., Glukhov O.A., Calculation of regulated heat exchange of ground pipeline in bunch in self-dipping mode with folded surface (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2019, V. 17, no. 5, pp. 62–71, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2019-5-62-71
11. Sokolov S.M., Teoreticheskie osnovy novykh metodov sooruzheniya neftepromyslovykh truboprovodov v usloviyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Theoretical foundations of new methods for the construction of oilfield pipelines in Western Siberia): thesis of doctor of technical science, Tyumen, 2009.
12. Sokolov S.M., Permafrost soils as a field pipelines base (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10, pp. 126–127.
13. Glukhova Z.R., Garris N.A., Experimental substantiation of the principle of construction and operation of the ground pipeline self-loading on permafrost (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 94–104, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2019-5-62-71
14. Glukhova Z.R., Garris N.A., Experimental substantiation of designing and operation of the afloat ground pipeline in permafrost areas (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, V. 18, no. 1, pp. 92-101, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2020-1-92-101
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The authors propose an algorithm for choosing the cost-optimal method for increasing the throughput of oil pipeline sections. The algorithm is based on the condition of achieving the required increase in throughput at the minimum reduced cost of implementing the method, including both one-time capital investments and changes in operating costs that depend on from the volume of oil pumped. Considering that the main goal is to increase the productivity of oil pipelines above the maximum operating conditions for pipelines without limiting sections with reduced bearing capacity, the scope of the developed method lies in the area of developed turbulent modes. The adopted assumption significantly simplifies the complexity and variability of calculations, due to which the dependence of the change in flow rate on the pumping parameters and the configuration of the linear part - pressure, diameters and lengths of loops and inserts, as well as dosages of agents to reduce hydraulic resistance can be obtained in an explicit form. The latter can be translated into costs – direct and indirect, capital and operating. As a first approximation, indirect costs associated with the increase in the cost of maintaining and repairing sites are not taken into account. The optimization algorithm is based on the criterion of minimum costs, capital for the reconstruction of the linear part, and operating costs, associated with changes in unit costs for pumping a unit volume of oil, costs associated with energy consumption and the cost of hydraulic resistance reduction agents. The optimal method for increasing throughput corresponds to the minimum payback period or the expected forecasted profit for the billing period.
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8. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Development of a methodology for multi-dimensional optimization of energy consumption of the trunk oil pipeline system due to the formation of cargo flows of specially formed mixtures of oil from various fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 6, pp. 98–103, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-98-103
9. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Nodal rheological task of oil mixing for optimal distribution of flows in branched pipeline network (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, no 5, pp. 532–539.
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The paper considers a method to reduce pressures at the time of cold run in non-isothermal hot main oil pipeline stopped for the repairing. The method is based on forming booster batches to displace and replace waxy oil. A review of the regulatory and technical base for the calculation of thermal-hydraulic parameters of pumping, the study of the viscosity-temperature properties of the flow and the rheological parameters of high-viscosity oils, including in the non-stationary cold run mode, has been carried out. An analysis of the operating experience and results of studies of oil blends pumped through domestic hot oil pipelines is presented. Peculiarities of the influence of the composition on the rheological properties of pumped blends are highlighted. A set of laboratory and numerical studies of the rheological parameters of the flow of mixtures of high-viscosity heavy and solidifying waxy oils in non-stationary start-up modes depending on the ratio of oils has been carried out. To calculate the value of the static shear stress and the effective viscosity of the mixture used to prepare the booster batch with the best starting characteristics, an equation was obtained in the form of a polynomial of the fourth degree with nine coefficients. In order to improve the accuracy of modeling, taking into account the physicality of the flow process and to reduce the complexity of calculations and the volume of tests associated with them, a previously developed universal model of an asymptotic form was proposed, using which a high convergence of calculated and experimental values was obtained. On the example of the blend of heavy oil of Yaregskoye field and waxy oil Kharyaginskoye field, the practical possibility and expediency of using booster batches for the period of scheduled shutdowns and cold start-up of non-isothermal sections of the hot main oil pipeline Usa – Ukhta – Yaroslavl are confirmed. The ratio of oils in the booster batch found with the help of the proposed method will make it possible to significantly reduce the static shear stress and loads at cold run.
1. Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Change of technology of swapping of oil on the oil pipeline "Uzen-Atyrau-Samara" with development of petrotransport system of the western Kazakhstan (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2010, no. 2, pp. 9–14.
2. Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Rheologikal features of the West Kazakhstan oil blend (In Russ.), Transport i khranenine nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo sur’ya, 2011, no. 2, pp. 3–7.
3. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Dmitriev M.E., Baykova M.I., Experimental studies of the operational properties of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits formed in main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 4, pp. 398–406, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2018-8-4-398-406
4. Karimov R.M., Zaplatin A.V., Tashbulatov R.R., The use of twisted heat exchangers from coils of small bend radius for heating and heat treatment of oil (In Russ.), Delovoy zhurnal Neftegaz.ru, 2018, no. 12, pp. 45–49.
5. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Mastobaev B.N., Modeling the thermal-hydraulic effect of wax layer (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, V. 9, no. 2, pp. 158–162, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2019-9-2-158-162
6. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Mastobaev B.N., Study of the causes for wax deposition under the operating conditions of main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, no. 6, pp. 610–619, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2020-10-6-610-619
7. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Mastobaev B.N., The study of the kinetics of the process of oil wax deposition in main pipeline operating conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 11, pp. 124–127, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-124-127
8. Karimov R.M., Sunagatullin R.Z., Tashbulatov R.R., Dmitriev M.E., Study of wax deposition reasons in non-isothermal main pipelines for hot pumping of high-viscosity waxy oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 1, pp. 87–91, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-1-87-91
9. Tugunov P.I., Novoselov V.F., Korshak A.A. et al., Tipovye raschety pri proektirovanii i ekspluatatsiy neftebaz i nefteprovodov (Typical calculations in the design and operation of tank farms and oil pipelines), Ufa: Dizain-PoligrafServis Publ., 2002, 658 p.
10. Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Joint transportation of high-viscosity and highly solidifying oils from Western Kazakhstan via the Uzen-Atyrau-Samara oil pipeline (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2012, no. 1, pp. 3–6.
11. Karimov R.M., Mastobayev B.N., Features of pipeline transport of multi-component systems (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2012, no. 1, pp. 60–63.
12. Revel'-Muroz P.A., Bakhtizin R.N., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Joint usage of thermal and chemical stimulation technique for transportation of high viscosity and congealing oils (In Russ.), Socar Proceedings (Nauchnye trudy), 2017, no. 2, pp. 49-55, DOI: 10.5510/OGP20170200314
13. Revel'-Muroz P.A., Bakhtizin R.N., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Joint transportation of heavy and wax oil blended (In Russ.), Socar Proceedings, 2018, no. 2, pp. 65-70, DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180200352
14. Revel'-Muroz P.A., Bakhtizin R.N., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., About the effectiveness of hydrocarbon diluents for pipeline transportation of high viscosity heavy and waxy oil (In Russ.), SOCAR Proceedings, 2021, Special Issue 1, pp. 148-155, DOI: 10.5510/OGP2021SI100521
15. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Approximation of the rheological curve in the low-temperature zones of the anomalous flow of non-Newtonian oils using the asymptotic model (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport: teoriya i praktika, 2017, no. 4, pp. 19–22.
16. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Asymptotic model for describing the rheological curve of the non-Newtonian flow of oil mixtures (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2017, no. 5, pp. 14–23.
17. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Valeev A.R., Analysis of changing viscosity-temperature dependence in binary mixture of oils (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2018, no. 2, pp. 5–9, DOI: 10.24411/0131-4270-2018-1020118. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Modeling rheological properties of thixotropic oils at direct measurements on a rotary viscometer for evaluating the start-up modes of the trunk oil pipeline (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 4, pp. 80–84, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-4-80-84
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The article is devoted to a new task of pumping optimization for two oils with different viscosities by formation of two parties. These parties are two mixtures from the initial oils in different proportions, which are pumped sequentially through one technological section of the main oil pipeline. Mentioned, that it is necessary to calculate change in the pumping flow rate when the viscosity of the pumped product changes. With a set of assumptions, it was proved that in practice the solution of the problem comes down to only two options: pumping oils in a single mixture or butching of the original oils without mixing with each other. There is shown åhe influence of the steepness of the change in the viscosity of a binary mixture from the mixing ratio on the result of solving the problem. The closer the viscosity of the mixture is to linear additivity, the more energy efficient it is to pump oil sequentially. A parameter is proposed for choosing one or another option, the calculation of which requires laboratory measurements of the viscosities and densities of the original oils and the viscosity of the mixture in a ratio of 1:1. Restrictions are formulated in the form of conditions for admissible mixing for the need to fulfill the planned task for pumping oils within a fixed time. Taking into account the identified limitations in the case of choosing batching, the problem is reduced to the option of pumping less viscous oil in its pure form without admixing (batch No. 1), but with partial removal of part of the oil mass from it for mixing with more viscous oil and forming batch No. 2. As a result, a methodology has been developed for determining the optimal mix for pumping two oils with different viscosities through one technological section of the main oil pipeline.
1. Prognoz nauchno-tekhnologicheskogo razvitiya otrasley toplivno-energeticheskogo kompleksa Rossii na period do 2035 goda (Forecast of scientific and technological development of the branches of the fuel and energy complex of Russia for the period up to 2035), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, 2016.
2. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Development of a methodology for multi-dimensional optimization of energy consumption of the trunk oil pipeline system due to the formation of cargo flows of specially formed mixtures of oil from various fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 6, pp. 98–103, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-98-103
3. Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Mastobaev B.N., Increasing energy-efficiency of pipeline transportation by the way of optimal flows distribution and compounding of rheologically complicated kinds of oils (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 3, pp. 13–18.
4. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Nodal rheological task of oil mixing for optimal distribution of flows in branched pipeline network (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, no 5, pp. 532–539.
5. Lyapin A.Yu., Bakanov A.V., Astakhov A.V., Assessment of the impact of increased intake of Yarega oil on the quality of freight traffics in the system of main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2022, V. 12, no. 1, pp. 87–93, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2022-12-1-87-93
6. Kutukov S.E., Bazhaykin S.G., Gol'yanov A.I., Improving the efficiency of batching by optimization of the oil mixture composition (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 1, pp. 88–91, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-1-88-91
7. Lur'e M.V., Mastobaev B.N., Revel'-Muroz P.A., Soshchenko A.E., Proektirovanie ekspluatatsiya nefteprovodov (Design and operation of oil pipelines), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2019, 432 p.
8. Tugunov P.I., Novoselov V.F., Korshak A.A. et al., Tipovye raschety pri proektirovanii i ekspluatatsiy neftebaz i nefteprovodov (Typical calculations in the design and operation of tank farms and oil pipelines), Ufa: Dizain-PoligrafServis Publ., 2002, 658 p.
9. Korshak A.A., Nechval' A.M., Proektirovanie i ekspluatatsiya gazonefteprovodov (Design and operation of gas and oil pipelines), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2008, 488 p.
10. Certificate of registration of the computer program. Energosberegayushchaya metodika perekachki neftey razlichnykh mestorozhdeniy po razvetvlennoy sisteme magistral'nykh nefteprovodov (Energy-saving technique for pumping oils from various fields through an extensive system of main oil pipelines), Authors: Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M.
11. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Valeev A.R., Analysis of changing viscosity-temperature dependence in binary mixture of oils (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2018, no. 2, pp. 5–9, DOI: 10.24411/0131-4270-2018-10201
12. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Sravnitel'nyy analiz tochnosti primenyaemykh modeley vyazkostno-temperaturnykh zavisimostey pri reshenii zadach truboprovodnogo transporta (Comparative analysis of the accuracy of the applied models of viscosity-temperature dependences in solving problems of pipeline transport), Collected papers “Truboprovodnyy transport – 2017” (Pipeline transport - 2017), Proceedings of XII International educational-scientific-practical conference, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2017, pp. 189–191.
13. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Prognozirovanie reologicheskikh svoystv smesey pri sovmestnom truboprovodnom transporte neftey (Prediction of rheological properties of mixtures in the joint pipeline transport of oils), Collected papers “Truboprovodnyy transport uglevodorodov” (Pipeline transport of hydrocarbons), Proceedings of All-Russian scientific and practical conference, Omsk: Publ. of OmSTU, 2017, pp. 88–91.
14. Tashbulatov R.R., Prognozirovanie vyazkostno-temperaturnykh kharakteristik techeniya smesey pri sovmestnoy transportirovke razlichnykh neftey v sisteme magistral'nykh nefteprovodov (Prediction of the viscous-temperature characteristics of the flow of mixtures during the joint transportation of various oils in the system of main oil pipelines): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2019.
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The article is devoted to the issues of cleaning oil pipelines and tanks from wax wall deposits and bottom sediment to solve the problems of operation, as well as to transfer them to pumping oil products. To solve these problems, it is proposed to use the chemical washing method, which makes it possible to implement a closed unmanned technology without opening of inner surface. The new technology proposed is based on practical experience in flushing process pipelines at an oil pumping station and sections of the linear part of main oil pipelines using hydrocarbon solvents. The analysis showed the shortcomings of the technology used, associated with high costs, due to excessively consumed volumes of wax solvents, which significantly affects the profitability of washing. At the same time, the results of analytical quality control of cleaning and samples of spent cleaning solutions, using the example of the considered practical experience, showed the possibility of using water as a ballast for filling and pressing pipelines and tanks to be cleaned to significantly reduce the cost of washing by reducing the consumption of expensive hydrocarbon solvents. The paper presents the results of studies of the effectiveness of model cleaning solutions based on water-hydrocarbon emulsions tested on wax samples from pipe wall segments and tanks bottom sediments. The advantages of water-hydrocarbon emulsions for solving the problem of transferring oil pipelines and pumping stations to light oil products are briefly substantiated. The practical experience of applying chemical washing technology using hydrocarbon solvents is analyzed. During laboratory tests, the high residual washing ability of water-hydrocarbon emulsions was confirmed in comparison with the initial solvents. To remove inorganic or undissolved sediment particles, the minimum flow rates necessary for their removal from the pipeline are determined. To improve the efficiency of washing tanks, ultrasonic treatment is proposed - both for the preparation of water-hydrocarbon washing emulsions, including invert type, and to enhance the dispersing effect due to cavitation.
1. Lisin Yu.V., Mastobaev B.N., Shammazov A.M., Movsum-zade E.M., Khimicheskie reagenty v truboprovodnom transporte nefti i nefteproduktov (The chemicals in the pipeline transport of oil and oil products), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2012, 360 p.
2. Chentsov A.N., Timofeev F.V., Mukhametshin R.R., Zamalaev S.N., Experience of experimental and practical arrangements regarding preparation of the linear part of oil pipeline for transportation of diesel fuel of ecological class 5 according to the technical regulation of transportation facility 013/2011 (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 3, pp. 32–38.
3. Revel'-Muroz P.A., Polyakov A.A., Fridlyand Ya.M., Switch to the transportation of diesel oil of the oil pipeline and equipment, applied on the facilities of JSC "Transneft" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 2, pp. 16–20.
4. Dizenko E.I., Issledovanie protsessa perevoda nefteprovodov na perekachku svetlykh nefteproduktov (Study of the process of transferring oil pipelines to pumping light oil products): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1971.
5. Dizenko E.I., Novoselov V.F., Tugunov P.I., Estimation of the optimal need for solvent for flushing process pipelines (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1973, no. 9, p. 7.
6. Dizenko E.I., Novoselov V.F., Tugunov P.I., Determination of the critical fluid flow rate for the removal of mechanical deposits from the pipeline (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 1970, no. 12, pp. 8–10.
7. RD 34.21.525. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po ochistke mazutnykh rezervuarov ot donnykh otlozheniy (MU 34-70-165-87) (Guidelines for cleaning oil tanks from bottom sediments).
8. RD 153-39TN-012-96. Instruktsii po pozharovzryvobezopasnoy tekhnologii ochistki neftyanykh rezervuarov (Instructions for fire and explosion-proof technology for cleaning oil tanks).
9. TTK “Tekhnologiya zachistki (ochistki vnutrennikh poverkhnostey) rezervuarov ot ostatkov nefteproduktov” (TTC “Technology for cleaning (cleaning internal surfaces) of tanks from oil residues”)
10. Tekhnologiya ochistki tekhnologicheskikh apparatov i rezervuarov ot shlama i asfal'tosmoloparafinistykh otlozheniy na ustanovke podgotovki nefti pri neftenalivnom terminale i uchet produktov shlamoudaleniya (Technology for cleaning technological apparatuses and tanks from sludge and asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits at an oil treatment unit at an oil loading terminal and accounting for sludge removal products), Orenburg: Publ. of OrenburgNIPIneft', 2005.
11. Bezymyannikov T.I., Makarenko O.A., Analysis of the regulatory and technical-technological solutions for oil tanks cleaning from bottom sediments (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2022, no. 1-2, pp. 5–11, DOI: 10.24412/0131-4270-2022-1-2-5-11
12. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Mastobaev B.N., Study of the causes for wax deposition under the operating conditions of main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, no. 6, pp. 610–619, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2020-10-6-610-619
13. Denisov E.F., Karimov R.M., Makarenko O.A., K voprosu o primenenii khimicheskikh reagentov dlya ochistki ot asfal'tosmoloparafinovykh otlozheniy (On the issue of the use of chemical reagents for cleaning from asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits), Proceedings of International scientific and technical conference dedicated to the memory of Academician A.Kh. Mirzajanzade, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2016, 314 p.
14. Bezymyannikov T.I., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Recovery throughput of technological pipelines and useful volume of tanks for a long time operated pump stations, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020, V. 459, Ch. 2, DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/459/3/032024
15. Bezymyannikov T.I., Karimov R.M., Optimizatsiya protsessov ochistki nefteprovodov ot otlozheniy nefti uglevodorodnymi razbavitelyami (Optimization of processes for cleaning oil pipelines from oil deposits by hydrocarbon diluents), Proceedings of 71st Scientific and Technical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists of USPTU, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2020, pp. 439–440.
16. Bezymyannikov T.I., Makarenko O.A., Karimov R.M., Ob effektivnosti uglevodorodnykh rastvoriteley dlya udaleniya ASPO v nefteprovodakh i rezervuarakh (On the effectiveness of hydrocarbon solvents for the removal of paraffin deposits in oil pipelines and tanks), Neftegazovyy terminal. V. 22, Proceedings of international scientific and technical conference “Aktual'nye problemy transporta i khraneniya uglevodorodnykh resursov pri osvoenii Arktiki i Mirovogo okeana” (Actual problems of transport and storage of hydrocarbon resources in the development of the Arctic and the World Ocean), 2-3 December 2021, Tyumen: Publ. of TIU, 2021, pp. 39–34.
17. Bezymyannikov T.I., Pavlov M.V., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Modeling of application of ultrasound for cleaning from asphalt-smolistic and paraffin deposits on the objects of transport and storage of oil (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2018, no. 3, pp. 22–26, DOI: 10.24411/0131-4270-2018-10301
18. Fazlyev M.N., Dem'yanov A.Yu., Timirgaliev M.Yu. et al., Development of innovative energy-saving technology for cleaning tanks by dispersing deposits (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2021, V. 11, no. 5, pp. 484–491, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2021-11-5-484-491
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The article is devoted to the issues of cleaning tanks from bottom sediment. To improve the efficiency of cleaning, a new technology has been proposed based on the combined use of various types of reagents and washing solutions in combination with low-cost methods of physical and mechanical action. To assess the mutual influence and compatibility of reagents of various types, a set of laboratory studies was carried out, including the testing of demulsifiers, water-soluble and oil-soluble surfactants together with hydrocarbon solvents. For the selection and testing of chemicals, the composition and properties of bottom sediment samples and their initial commercial oils, taken from the same storage facilities, were also studied. The results of the performed analysis of oils and their deposits showed significant differences in the composition and consistency of wax, depending to a greater extent on the places and conditions of operation of the reservoirs, and not on the composition of the original oils. In order to develop a universal technology for chemical washing, regardless of the water content and consistency of bottom sediments, at the initial stage of research, an assessment was made of the effectiveness of demulsifiers used in field gathering systems, which showed their low efficiency even when heated. Acceptable results of separation of emulsified water particles were achieved only after centrifugation and only for some samples of wax even without their treatment with reagents. Subsequent studies performed on the effectiveness of hydrocarbon solvents also showed a decrease in detergency and reactivity on sediment samples pre-treated with dispersants. A similar negative effect was shown by tests of oil-soluble surfactants, which, on the one hand, cleaned the walls of vessels from wax particles, and, on the other hand, reduced its reactivity with respect to hydrocarbon solvents. The best results, both in terms of general detergent ability of paraffin wax and in compatibility with hydrocarbon solvents, were shown by cleaning solutions based on water-soluble surfactants, which are more affordable both from an economic point of view and from the complexity of application. Based on the results of the research, the optimal sequence for the use of various types of reagents was determined in combination with low-cost methods of physical and chemical effects available at the stations, and eliminating the risks of incompatibility of the jointly used chemicals that complicate the washing process.
1. OR-75.180.00-KTN-175-17. Magistral'nyy truboprovodnyy transport nefti i nefteproduktov. Ochistka lineynoy chasti magistral'nykh nefteprovodov dlya transportirovki svetlykh nefteproduktov. Poryadok vypolneniya rabot (Main pipeline transport of oil and oil products. Cleaning of the linear part of the main oil pipelines for the transportation of light oil products. Work order).
2. OR-75.180.00-KTN-176-17. Magistral'nyy truboprovodnyy transport nefti i nefteproduktov. Ochistka tekhnologicheskikh truboprovodov dlya transportirovki svetlykh nefteproduktov (Main pipeline transport of oil and oil products. Cleaning of technological pipelines for transportation of light oil products)
3. RD 34.21.525. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po ochistke mazutnykh rezervuarov ot donnykh otlozheniy (MU 34-70-165-87) (Guidelines for cleaning oil tanks from bottom sediments)
4. Bezymyannikov T.I., Makarenko O.A., Analysis of the regulatory and technical-technological solutions for oil tanks cleaning from bottom sediments (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2022, no. 1-2, pp. 5–11, DOI: 10.24412/0131-4270-2022-1-2-5-11
5. RD 153-39TN-012-96. Instruktsii po pozharovzryvobezopasnoy tekhnologii ochistki neftyanykh rezervuarov (Instructions for fire and explosion-proof technology for cleaning oil tanks)
6. Instruktsiya po zachistke rezervuarov ot ostatkov nefteproduktov OAO “NK “Rosneft'” (Instructions for cleaning tanks from oil residues of Rosneft Oil Company OJSC), 2004
7. TTK “Tekhnologiya zachistki (ochistki vnutrennikh poverkhnostey) rezervuarov ot ostatkov nefteproduktov” (TTC “Technology for cleaning (cleaning internal surfaces) of tanks from oil residues”).
8. Tekhnologiya ochistki tekhnologicheskikh apparatov i rezervuarov ot shlama i asfal'tosmoloparafinistykh otlozheniy na ustanovke podgotovki nefti pri neftenalivnom terminale i uchet produktov shlamoudaleniya (Technology for cleaning technological apparatuses and tanks from sludge and asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits at an oil treatment unit at an oil loading terminal and accounting for sludge removal products), Orenburg: Publ. of OrenburgNIPIneft', 2005.
9. Lisin Yu.V., Mastobaev B.N., Shammazov A.M., Movsum-zade E.M., Khimicheskie reagenty v truboprovodnom transporte nefti i nefteproduktov (The chemicals in the pipeline transport of oil and oil products), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2012, 360 p.
10. Tipovaya instruktsiya po podgotovke nefteprovoda dlya transportirovki svetlykh nefteproduktov (Typical instructions for the preparation of an oil pipeline for the transportation of light oil products), Moscow: Publ. of AK Transneft', 2014.
11. Denisov E.F., Karimov R.M., Makarenko O.A., K voprosu o primenenii khimicheskikh reagentov dlya ochistki ot asfal'tosmoloparafinovykh otlozheniy (On the issue of the use of chemical reagents for cleaning from asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits), Proceedings of International scientific and technical conference dedicated to the memory of Academician A.Kh. Mirzajanzade, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2016, 314 p.
12. Bezymyannikov T.I., Makarenko O.A., Karimov R.M., Ob effektivnosti uglevodorodnykh rastvoriteley dlya udaleniya ASPO v nefteprovodakh i rezervuarakh (On the effectiveness of hydrocarbon solvents for the removal of paraffin deposits in oil pipelines and tanks), Neftegazovyy terminal. V. 22, Proceedings of international scientific and technical conference “Aktual'nye problemy transporta i khraneniya uglevodorodnykh resursov pri osvoenii Arktiki i Mirovogo okeana” (Actual problems of transport and storage of hydrocarbon resources in the development of the Arctic and the World Ocean), 2-3 December 2021, Tyumen: Publ. of TIU, 2021, pp. 39–34.
13. Bezymyannikov T.I., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Recovery throughput of technological pipelines and useful volume of tanks for a long time operated pump stations, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020, V. 459, Ch. 2, DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/459/3/032024
14. Bezymyannikov T.I., Karimov R.M., Optimizatsiya protsessov ochistki nefteprovodov ot otlozheniy nefti uglevodorodnymi razbavitelyami (Optimization of processes for cleaning oil pipelines from oil deposits by hydrocarbon diluents), Proceedings of 71st Scientific and Technical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists of USPTU, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2020, pp. 439–440.
15. Bezymyannikov T.I., Pavlov M.V., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Modeling of application of ultrasound for cleaning from asphalt-smolistic and paraffin deposits on the objects of transport and storage of oil (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2018, no. 3, pp. 22–26, DOI: 10.24411/0131-4270-2018-10301
16. Fazlyev M.N., Dem'yanov A.Yu., Timirgaliev M.Yu. et al., Development of innovative energy-saving technology for cleaning tanks by dispersing deposits (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2021, V. 11, no. 5, pp. 484–491, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2021-11-5-484-491
17. Bezymyannikov T.I., Valeev A.V., Karimov R.M., Farvazova N.A., Experimental study of sorbent for oil and oil products spill response operations (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov, 2019, no. 1, pp. 24–27, DOI: 10.24411/0131-4270-2019-10105
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The main equipment for storing oil and petroleum products are metal tanks, among which the most commonly used are vertical steel tanks with a fixed roof. Existing methods for tanks and tank farms fire safety assurance are not able to completely prevent the occurrence of accidents. The high speed of flame propagation and the high temperature created by the explosion of combustible mixtures in the structure lead to a sharp increase in pressure inside, the destruction of equipment elements and building structures and the shutdown of production. Explosion safety is one of the fundamental criteria of industrial safety in all industries, in particular oil and gas. The aim of the work is to increase the reliability of tank farms operation by improving the roof of the tank. The statistics of fires occurrence is considered, the necessity of using easy-to-throw frame roof structures for vertical steel tanks of large capacity is substantiated to ensure operational reliability and safety of emergency tank structures and nearby structures in the event of an explosion. Calculations of The required safe depressurization area is calculated for 20,000 m3 vertical steel tank with, the stored product is oil at a temperature of 50 °C. It is noted that described calculation method should not be applied to systems that are prone to volumetric self-ignition and detonation. Calculations of the safe area of depressurization for tanks of the type RVS-5000, RVS-10000, RVS-20000, RVS-30000, RVS-40000, RVS-50000 have been carried out. The results show that the required area of the depressurization opening increases more slowly than the volume of the tank. Depending on how full the tank is of a certain volume, it is possible to use one or another modification of the technology of partial separation of the roof to protect against an explosion.
1. Bolod"yan I.A., Shebeko Yu.N., Karpov V.L. et al., Rukovodstvo po otsenke pozharnogo riska dlya promyshlennykh predpriyatiy (Fire risk assessment guide for industrial establishments), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIPO, 2006, 93 p.
2. Orlov G.G., Legkosbrasyvaemye konstruktsii dlya vzryvozashchity promyshlennykh zdaniy (Easily drop structures for explosion protection of industrial buildings), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1987, 187 p.
3. Oleynik A.A., Metod otsenki konstruktivno-tekhnologicheskoy vzryvo-pozharobezopasnosti rezervuarov dlya nefteproduktov (Method for assessing the structural and technological explosion and fire safety of tanks for petroleum products): thesis of candidate of technical science, St. Petersburg, 1998.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
Due to high reactivity and toxicity, hydrogen sulfide is an undesirable component of oil associated gas, it reduces economic value of associated gas and shortens the service life of technological equipment. In this paper we consider the main results of integrated geological, geochemical and hydrodynamical studies for determination of the causes of the origin and mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide formation in the composition of oil associated of the oil field on the territory of the Orenburg region. The research is focused on creating a quantitative model for predicting the generation of hydrogen sulfide depending on the technological parameters of the field development. The first stage of our research was determination of the hydrogen sulfide genesis n the oil associated gases and formation water by the isotopic analysis of sulfur. The component composition of formation water and gases was also studied. The isotopic composition of hydrogen sulfide in the oil associated gas corresponds to the range of bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). The isotopic composition of water-dissolved sulfides is also typical of BSR processes. According to the reservoir temperatures, sulfur isotopic composition, the presence of reservoir waters with water-dissolved sulfates and organic components, hydrogen sulfide in the oil associated gas can be classified as biogenic, formed as a result of bacterial reduction of sulfates in reservoir waters. This process can take place directly in the reservoir area in the formation waters of the field. This process can take place in the formation waters directly in the reservoir area. The next stage of research is the isolation and study of the mechanism of the vital activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria to determine the boundary conditions for the existence of bacteria, the dependence of the change in the reduced hydrogen sulfide on the parameters of the field development for numerical modeling and predicting the dynamics of hydrogen sulfide formation.
1. Appelo C.A.J., Postma D., Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution, London : A.A. Balkema Publishers, 2005, 649 p.
2. Talibova A., Murav'ev M., Faynberg V. et al., Modern mass spectrometry: determination of elements and their isotopes (In Russ.), Analitika, 2014, no. 5, pp. 58-64.
3. Cai C. et al., Thermochemical sulphate reduction and the generation of hydrogen sulphide and thiols (mercaptans) in Triassic carbonate reservoirs from the Sichuan Basin, China, Chemical Geology, 2003, V. 202, no. 1–2, pp. 39–57, DOI: 10.1016/S0009-2541(03)00209-2
4. Machel H.G., Bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction in diagenetic settings–old and new insights, Sedimentary geology, 2001, V. 140, no. 1–2, pp. 143–175, DOI:10.1016/S0037-0738(00)00176-7
5. Pankina R.G., Mekhtieva V.L., Origin of H2S and CO2 in hydrocarbon accumulations (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1981, no. 12, p. 44.
6. Hoefs J., Stable isotope geochemistry, Springer, 2015, 389 p., DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-19716-6
7. Machel H.G., Krouse H.R., Sassen R., Products and distinguishing criteria of bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction, Applied geochemistry, 1995, V. 10, no. 4, pp. 373–389, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-2927(95)00008-8
8. Dakhnova M.V., Geokhimiya sery v svyazi s problemoy neftegazonosnosti (Geochemistry of sulfur in connection with the problem of oil and gas potential): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 1999.
9. Vinogradov V.I., Rol' osadochnogo tsikla v geokhimii izotopov sery (The role of the sedimentary cycle in the geochemistry of sulfur isotopes), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1980, 192 p.
10. Aharon P., Fu B., Microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionations at oil and gas seeps in deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2000, V. 64, no. 2, pp. 233–246, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00292-6
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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