August 2022

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V.G. Martynov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.V. Bessel (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; NewTech Services LLC, RF, Moscow), A.S. Lopatin (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), R.D. Mingaleeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Global energy consumption forecasting for the medium and long term perspective

Keywords: energy resources, energy consumption, world economy, forecasting, modeling, fossil fuel, renewable energy sources

The development of the global economy is determined by the sustainable energy supply. An analysis of the economics of the G20 countries, whose cumulative share in the global economy is ~73%, shows that the vast majority of the world's leading economics at the current stage of technological development provide economic growth due to increased energy consumption. The steady growth of global energy consumption of recent decades, associated with the growth of the global economy, changes of technological structures and increase of the level of energy comfort, requires the implementation of all known fuel and energy sources, such as fossil fuel, which currently accounts for more than 84% of global energy consumption, nuclear and hydropower, to the balance of energy consumption and the constant search and implementation of innovative, highly energy effective and environmentally friendly energy sources to the energy balance. The energy infrastructure created over the past one and half century in the world is mainly focused on thermal energy, which is based on the principle of converting water into steam. However, given the fact that the development and modernization of the infrastructure for the production, distribution and consumption of new types of energy will require significant financial and time expenditures, the problem of energy consumption forecasting for the medium and long term perspective is not only a theoretical but also a practical task. The results of the construction of various scenarios for the global energy development with different forecasts of the world's population changes have shown good convergence with the results of forecasts of the world's leading energy companies and analytical agencies. The main thing is that according to all forecasts, we will have an increase in global energy consumption in the coming decades, which can be achieved only by using all currently known energy and fuel sources, including organic and promising highly efficient and environmentally friendly energy sources.


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2. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S. et al., Current trends in global energy sector development with the use of hybrid technologies in energy supply systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 3, pp. 3135, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-31-35

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18. Telegina E.A., Energy transition and post-covid world (In Russ.), Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2021, V. 65, no. 6, pp. 7985, DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-6-79-85

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20. PBessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S. et al., Energy efficiency and reliability increase for remote and autonomous objects energy supply of Russian oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 9, pp. 144147, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-9-144-147.

21. Martynov V.G., Bessel'
V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., On the issue of sustainable development of
the global energy (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2022, no. 1(167), pp.
2029, DOI: 10.46920/2409-5516-2022-1167-20-29
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-30-34

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T.N. Ivanova (Tchaikovsky Brahch of Perm National Research Polytechnic University)
Taxonometry as a key success factor of oil producer strategy

Keywords: strategy, taxonometry, management, oil producing enterprise

Improving oil producing enterprise management processes through strategic management is regarded. New structure of strategic management of an oil enterprise is proposed. It is introduced a foreign economic activity strategy, environmental and safety strategies, energy efficiency and energy saving strategies in real time. The proposed real-time strategic management structure is focused on continuous improvement, in accordance with the current requirements of sustainable development. For the first time real-time strategic taxonometry has been created, which allows to instantly respond to changes in the external and internal environment, quickly make technical, technological or organizational decisions when managing equipment, well stock, , as well as during drilling and operation of wells. Regardless of which strategy an operation or action belongs to, it is possible to quicly respond to changes in the external and internal environment. For example, by monitoring and measuring processes or main characteristics of production operations in real time at any depth of the well, it is possible to determine energy performance in relation to the implementation of energy policy and the achievement of energy goals, or to automate the process of making technological decisions for the operation of mechanized well stock. The message about the results of digital technologies is sent to top managers, who can take operational control of technical, technological or organizational measures during drilling and well operation. In 2022, 560 technical, technological and organizational measures were carried out in all fields of Udmurtneft PJSC, the annual production amounted to 60% of the total oil production in the Udmurt Republic.


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8. URL:
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-36-39

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E.A. Izmalkova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), S.F. Khafizov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), K.O. Iskaziev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
On the issue of the conditions for the formation of the Irtysh sub-basin in the southern part of the West Siberian mega-basin

Keywords: Paleozoic deposits, the Pavlodar Priirtyshye, hydrocarbon potential, the Priirtysh petroleum bearing region, Seletinskaya island arc

The existing ideas about limiting the potential of the Priirtysh petroleum bearing region only to the most submerged parts of the basin - troughs with the Devonian-Carboniferous filling complex are not complete and do not take into account / do not assume the existence of an underlying forearc basin of the Early Paleozoic, which is capable of generating hydrocarbons in the study area. The fundamental element of this area is the Seletinskaya island arc of the Early Cambrian inception. The developed concept for the development of the region implies a two-story structure of the Priirtysh Caledonides. The first stage is associated with the formation of a fore-arc basin in the Late Cambrian in the front of the Seletinskaya island arc, with a complex of filling with siliceous-terrigenous facies of Ordovician and Silurian age. The basin was characterized by conditions of hemipelagic sedimentation.

With the development of the northern part (in modern coordinates) of the Zharma-Saur island arc, the second stage of the development of the basin on the Caledonian base is associated, namely, the fore-arc basin that developed in the front of the Seletinskaya island arc is replaced by a back-arc basin, which was laid in the rear of the Zharma-Saur arc Devonian age. It is assumed that the oceanic crust of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean subsided under the continental crust of the Caledonides, which had already formed by that time.

In general, back-arc basins have a greater potential than fore-arc ones, but in this case, the main generation potential is associated with the most mature deep-immersed lower Paleozoic potential source rocks, since the main problem of this petroleum bearing region is due to relatively shallow depths and, as a result, an obstacle to the start of generation processes less submerged strata enriched in organic matter. To study the territory, deep drilling and seismic surveys are required, the multiplicity of which should be chosen taking into account the illumination of the structure of the Lower Paleozoic part.


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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-40-45

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S.L. Nikiforov (Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the RAS, RF, Moscow), N.O. Sorokhtin (Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the RAS, RF, Moscow), R.A. Ananiev (Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the RAS, RF, Moscow), A.G. Roslyakov (Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the RAS, RF, Moscow), A.I. Fridenberg (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.A. Kolubakin (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Moroz (Geological Institute of the RAS, RF, Moscow), E.A. Sukhikh (Geological Institute of the RAS, RF, Moscow)
Seabed relief and shallow sedimentary structure of the western part of the Kara Sea in the oil and gas fields area

Keywords: Kara Sea, seabed relief, geomorphological mapping, paleogeography, submarine landforms

The Russian Arctic Shelf is a zone of priority national interests, because significant hydrocarbon reserves are concentrated in this region. At present, there is a gradual change in the natural environment, which necessitates the study of spatio-temporal patterns of the systemic development of the geological environment. The paper presents the results of scientific processing of field data obtained in the western part of the Kara Sea. The bottom relief of the Kara Sea was formed due to the continuous, historically determined development of anthropogenic and natural (exogenous and endogenous) processes. In the Late Quaternary, the relief changed as a result of alternations of glacial and interglacial natural settings and accompanying fluctuations in the level of the World Ocean, which led to the formation of morphogenetic complexes of glacial, glacial-marine, marine, and subaerial origin on the structures of the pre-Quaternary basement. Based on the results of the work carried out using materials from field studies, a geomorphological map-scheme of the western part of the Kara Sea was constructed. A map legend has been developed and structural and morphological forms of relief, including large lineaments, have been identified. The zones of ablation and accumulation of the glacial shelf were determined, the boundaries of the last Late Pleistocene glaciation were identified, and the main paleochannels of the rivers were mapped. Modern changes in natural conditions on the Arctic shelf are associated, to a large extent, with a reduction in the area of ice cover. In this regard, the issues of substantiating the most probable scenarios for the development of the coastal zone and the shelf of the region are of particular importance in order to minimize the expected natural risks. The results obtained as part of these studies will help minimize the risks in the implementation of hydrocarbon exploration and production projects in the licensed areas of Rosneft Oil Company in the Kara Sea by providing reliable initial information on engineering and geological conditions in the areas being developed.


1. Nikiforov S.L., Anan'ev R.A., Dmitrevskiy N.N. et al., Geological and geophysical studies on cruise 41 of the R/V akademik Nikolaj Strakhov in Arctic seas in 2019 (In Russ.), Okeanologiya = Oceanology, 2020, V. 60, no. 2, pp. 334336, DOI: 10.31857/S0030157420010177

2. Dmitrevskiy N.N., Anan'ev R.A., Meluzov A.A. et al., Geological-acoustic studies in the Laptev Sea during the voyage of the Vladimir Buinitskii (In Russ.), Okeanologiya = Oceanology, 2014, V. 54, no. 1, pp. 128132, DOI: 10.7868/S003015741401002X

3. Seabed morphology of the Russian Arctic shelf: edited by Nikiforov S., Series Oceanography and Ocean Engineering, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010.

4. Sorokhtin N.O., Nikiforov S.L., Koshel' S.M., Kozlov N.E., Geodynamic evolution and morphostructural analysis of the western sector of the Russian Arctic shelf (In Russ.), Vestnik MGTU, 2016, V. 19, no. 11, pp. 123137, DOI: 10.21443/1560-9278-2016-1/1-123-137

5. Sorokhtin N.O., Kozlov
N.E., Glaznev V.N., Chikirev I.V., Potential oil and gas bearing of the western
part of the Russian Arctic shelf and predictive criteria for the search for
hydrocarbon raw materials in the coastal zone of the Kola Peninsula (In Russ.),
Vestnik MGTU, 2010, V. 13, no. 41, pp. 736750.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-46-50

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Yu.I. Nikitin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.A. Tkachev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), R.R. Nafikov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), M.G. Boyarshinova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.P. Lopatin (Orenburgneft JSC, RF, Buzuluk), S.M. Grigorenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
To the question of unexplored hydrocarbons potential estimation in old oil producing areas of the Orenburg region

Keywords: declining oil production, 2D/3D seismic, well drilling efficiency, new exploration direction, Upper-Devonian reefs, South-Tatar Arch

Oil production in the Orenburg region is declining. It is required to define new perspective exploration directions for oil reserves supplying to support stable level of oil production. In the 70-80s. exploratory drilling within the boundaries of the old oil-producing region - the South Tatar arch (STA) was reoriented from the terrigenous Devonian (D2-D3f1) to the Upper Devonian (D3f3-fm) reefs with oil deposits in the Upper Famenian Tournaisian carbonate complex.

However, well drilling did not confirm the majority of supposed prospects because of an ambiguity of 2D seismic data.

In recent years, the prospecting of oil fields controlled by Upper Devonian reefs has been a highly effective area of exploration, developed by subsidiaries of PJSC NK Rosneft. Reefs development was favored by Orenburgnefts purposeful acquisition of licensed areas and 3D seismic survey on a mostly perspective areas, which were recommended by the Tyumen Oil Research Center LLC. To substantiate perspective areas the Tyumen Oil Research Center LLC applied their method for reefs prospecting by series of Upper Devonian paleogeographic maps construction. As a result several groups of the Upper Devonian isolated reefs have been revealed in the south and in the north of the Orenburg region.

In the south, over conjunction zone between the Rubezhin Trough and the Orenburg Swell high-output oil deposits were discovered in the Upper Frasnian reefs and put into development. In the north, within the South-Tatar Arch, the Upper Frasnian Lower Famenian reefs control abovereef oil deposits in the Famenian, Tourneisifn and Lower Visean reservoirs. Based on the mass analysis of 2D seismic patterns performed at the Tyumen Oil Research Center LLC on profiles acquired in the South Tatar arch in 1978-2008, about 100 anomalies were additionally identified, similar to Upper Devonian isolated reef images. Perspective areas were recommended for licensing and 3D seismic surveys.


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9.Vilesov A.P., A model of
the carbonate thickness sedimentation of the Famennian stage of
Bobrovsko-Pokrovsky swell (Volgo-Ural oil and gas province) (In Russ.)
Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2017,
no. 6, pp. 4-12.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-51-55

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D.B. Rdivilov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), O.M. Grechneva (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.R. Makhmutov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), N.Yu. Natchuk (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.O. Monakhova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Petrophysical method of estimating Achimov reservoir fluid types with variable salinity of formation waters

Keywords: achimov reservoirs, water-gas zone, elision waters, electric saturation model, flow model, probability of reservoir fluid types

The key objective of the study is to develop a method for probabilistic estimate of the fluid types in the Achimov reservoirs within the East Urengoy license block where the presence of water-gas zones is common.

Currently, the scientific community is considering various hypotheses for the formation of flooded zones in anticlinal Achimov reservoirs. Our study describes the development of the concept associated with the intrusion of fresh elision waters squeezed out of clay seals into the initially gas-bearing reservoir during the neotectonic movements in the Paleogene time and compression of clay cap horizons of the sedimentary cover. The concept of elision waters intrusion implies the desalination of the source formation water which leads to uncertainties in assessing the fluid types and the need to complicate petrophysical models. A complex petrophysical model has been developed for the conditions of variable salinity of formation waters, implying the integration of electrical and flow models. At the same time, the electric model is a modification of the Archi-Dakhnov model adjusted to variable water salinity. The flow model gives an understanding of the critical saturations depending on the reservoir properties. Within the reasonable limit of salinity variability and calculated critical saturations, an algorithm for estimating the fluid types with the probabilities of gas, gas and water, and water has been developed. In total, these probabilities make up a unity (100%). The results of the probabilistic assessment of the fluid type were verified against the field data received from open-hole DSTs and logging-based inflow composition data. The model implementation across the entire well stock allowed to update the contour of the water-gas zone and analyze the distribution of elision waters within the reservoir.


1. Pleshanov N.N., Peskova D.N., Zaboeva A.A. et al., Complex analysis of factors that influenced on water saturation forecast of Achimov formation at Gazpromneft licence blocks (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 3(17), pp. 1625, DOI:

2. Mukhidinov Sh.V., Belyakov E.O., Determination of mobile water in reservoirs of Achimov thickness (In Russ.), Proneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 4(18), pp. 3439, DOI:

3. Grechneva O.M., The hypothesis of gravitational water development in Achimov formations (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2021, no. 3(813), pp. 3237.

4. Rodivilov D.B., Grechneva O.M., Natchuk N.Yu., Rusanov A.S.,Petrophysical basis for modeling expelled water in gas saturated reservoirs of the Achimov sequence (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2021, no. 6(85), pp. 4145, DOI:

5. McPhee C., Reed J., Zubizarreta I., Core analysis: A best practice guide, Elsevier, 2015, 852 p.

6. Tiab D., Donaldson E C.,
Petrophysics: theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid
transport, Elsevier Inc., 2004, 926 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-56-59

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F.. Agzamov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), M.F. Ahmetov (Giprovostokneft LLC, RF, Samara), I.N. Karimov (Cement technologies LLC, RF, Sterlitamak)
Influence of cementing conditions and operation of steam injection wells on the choice of composition and properties of plugging materials

Keywords: steam injection wells, cement, thermal corrosion, cement slurry properties, cement stone properties

The article provides an analysis of cement stone in conditions of steam injecting wells of high-viscosity oil and bitumen fields. The development of high-viscosity oil and bitumen field is one of the methods for maintain the required level of hydrocarbon production in conditions of falling production at traditional fields. Implementation of thermal enhanced oil recovery methods places additional demands on plugging materials properties, since traditional cements are non-effective at the temperatures above 100 C because of strength loss of and increased permeability in the result of thermal corrosion processes. In high-temperature wells the initial hardening of the solution be gins at low temperatures (5-20 C), this always leads to the formation of hardening products with a high ratio of CaO/SiO2. After heating agent injection these products begin to re-crystallize into thermodynamically more stable phases. At the same time, before more stable phases appearance, the initially formed curing products can go through several intermediate stages, inevitably worsening the physical and mechanical properties of the stone. Taking into account the conditions of hardening and operation of cement stone, it is proposed to combine Portland cement and silica-containing additives in the design of the composition of plugging material to ensure the required ratio of CaO/SiO2 in the binder, as well as to carry out its mechanization to increase the activity of the silica component. To minimize re-crystallization processes during the hardening of cement, it is proposed to take into account the kinetics of phase formation of hardening products. The requirements for the composition of plugging material and the properties of the resulting solutions to ensure the normal cementation process with good results are substantiated.


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10. Agzamov F.A., Konesev G.V., Khafizov A.R., Application of disintigratory technology for the modification of materials used in the construction of wells. Part II (In Russ.), Nanotekhnologii v stroitel'stve, 2017, V. 9, no. 3, pp. 96108, DOI:

11. Bekbaev A.A., Agzamov F.A., Dispersed reinforcement as a factor of increasing the quality of the lightweight cements (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2018, no. 8, pp. 3842, DOI:

12. Patent RU 2 530 805 C1, Plugging material, Inventors: Karimov I.N., Agzamov F.A., Myazhitov R.S.

13. Agzamov F.A., Karimov
I.N., Myazhitov R.S., Theoretical foundations and practice of obtaining
oil-well materials for fastening steam injection wells (In Russ.), Territory of
oil and gas, No 9, 2016, . 12-15.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-60-64

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R.N. Fakhretdinov (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Fatkullin (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Pasanayev (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), I.R. Volgin (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), D.F. Orazmetov (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow)
New prospects in the development of chemical technologies for regulating the coverage of reservoirs by flooding

Keywords: regulation of reservoir coverage by flooding, water control technologies (WCT) for injection and production wells, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), gel-forming compositions based on reagents AC-CSE-1313 grade A, , , hydrophobic polymer-gel SPA-Well, oil-washing reagent PAV-NZ, import substitution in EOR technologies

Within the framework of import substitution, domestic reagents have been developed for use in technologies for regulating the coverage of reservoirs by flooding in a wide range of geological conditions, in order to reduce the cost of oil production and reduce the volume of extracted associated water, as well as to reduce dependence on import purchases of individual components used in chemical compositions.

The gel-forming composition based on the reagent AC-CSE1313 grade is hydrophilic and is intended for use in WCT for production wells as a selective gel-forming composition for preferential blocking of water-saturated reservoir intervals and in WCT for injection wells mainly in low-permeability reservoirs, instead of the two-component composition "AC-CSE-1313 grade A + HCl" industrially used for these purposes.

The gel-forming composition based on the reagent AC-CSE-1313 mark B (hydrophobic polymer-gel SPA-Well) is intended for WCT for injection wells, repair and insulation works. The reagent has a dual effect aimed at increasing the coverage coefficient (leveling the water advance front) and increasing the displacement coefficient (due to hydrophobization of low-permeable intervals). The use of the reagent in WCT for injection wells makes it possible to obtain additional oil production on average for different objects 650-1300 t/well with a maximum value of more than 2500 t/well, the reduction of associated water production is 700-2300 t/well at a maximum value of more than 8000 t/well.

Developed for use in oil-washing technologies, the nonionic reagent PAVNZ is characterized by a low freezing point - no higher than minus 45C, allows to reduce the interfacial tension to 0.001 mN/m, does not form stable oil-water emulsions.


1. Patent no. 2592932 RU, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., Selimov D.F.

2. Fakhretdinov R.N., Pavlishin R.L., Yakimenko G.Kh. et al., Successful practical experience and application potential of AC-CSE-1313 flow-diverting procedure with various options in working solution volume at the fields with late stage of their development (In Russ.), Neft. Gaz. Novatsii, 2020, no. 2, pp. 39-45.

3. Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., Pavlishin R.L. et al., Multidimensional industrial replication of the selective WSO method is a determining factor in increasing the profitability of produced oil (In Russ.), Neft. Gaz. Novatsii, 2020, no. 7, pp. 50-54.

4. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Khavkin A.Ya., Intensification of oil production with a decrease in the volume of the liquid being lifted (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 12, pp. 107-109, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-12-107-109

5. Patent RU 2723797 C1, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Selimov D.F., Tastemirov S.A., Yakimenko G.Kh., Pasanaev E.A.

6. Svidetelstvo na tovarnyy znak (znak obsluzhivaniya) no. 880966 SPA-Well (Trademark certificate (service mark) No. 880966 SPA-Well)

7. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Selimov D.F. et al., Laboratory and field tests of AC-CSE-1313-B reagent as the basis of water control technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 6, pp. 6871, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-68-71.

8. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Yakimenko G.Kh. et al., Application of pseudoplastic hydrophobic polymer system SPA-Well for enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 11, pp. 120123, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-11-120-123

9. Fatkullin A.A., Fakhretdinov R.N., SPA-Well EOR technology Hydrophobic polymer-gel (In Russ.), Neft. Gaz. Novatsii, 2022, no. 2, pp. 60-66.

10. Fakhretdinov R.N.,
Yakimenko G.Kh., New paradigm in chemical EOR methods - New mechanisms (In
Russ.), Neft. Gaz. Novatsii, 2021, no. 9, pp. 5660.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-65-69

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.. Ovchinnikov (OOO Gazpromneft-Industrial Innovations, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.V. Podlesnova (OOO Gazpromneft-Industrial Innovations, RF, Saint-Petersburg), O.S. Vedernikov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.V. Kleymenov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), F.E. Safarov (Ufa Scientific and Technical Center LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RF, UFA), N.A. Sergeeva (Ufa Scientific and Technical Center LLC, RF, Ufa), A.G. Telin (Ufa Scientific and Technical Center LLC, RF, Ufa)
Residual oil recovery using surfactant composition

Keywords: composition of surfactants, residual oil recovery, petroleum sulfonates, water-oil displacement efficiency

A significant residual oil reserves in Western Siberia are associated with the Neocomian deposits of the BS group. Their development is complicated by the sharply continental climate and rather high reservoir temperatures (about 90 ), limiting the use of many non-thermostable reagents. The fields, as a rule, are equipped with a developed reservoir pressure maintenance system, located in places with a fairly developed infrastructure, with the presence of roads and pipelines, which makes such residual reserves promising. For additional washing of residual oil after flooding, a surfactant composition was developed. It includes a mixture of anionic and nonionic surfactants, the precursors of which are large-capacity products of basic organic and petrochemical synthesis available on the Russian market. These include: non-ionic surfactants (Neonol or nonylphenyl ether of polyethylene glycol) and surfactants represented by petroleum sulfonates (alpha-olefinsulfonate; sulfonated aromatic extract of selective oil purification; a mixture of sulfonated monoalkyl- and dialkylphenols, as well as alkyltoluene). The washing action of the surfactant composition described in the article is achieved due to the synergistic action of the mixture of surfactants and nonionic surfactants. As a result of the mixed micelles formation, the solubilization efficiency of both hydrocarbon and polar heteroatomic oil components increases; this allows increasing the oil recovery factor by reducing the residual oil content in the reservoir. The multi-component composition is injected into the wells of the reservoir pressure maintenance system and provides a significant increase in the efficiency of oil displacement, in relation to the basic waterflood. The rims of the surfactant and polyacrylamide composition with the addition of diethanolamine are sequentially injected into the well of the reservoir pressure maintenance system. This makes it possible to ensure maximum oil washing when the washing function of the surfactant composition is enhanced by the pushing rim of the polymer by increasing the capillary number, and diethanolamine, as an alkaline agent, desorbs the anionic components of the surfactant composition from the rock surface without causing precipitation of calcium carbonate.


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17. Al-Murayri M.T., Kamal D.S., Al-Qattan A. et al., A practical and economically feasible surfactant EOR strategy: Impact of injection water ions on surfactant utilization, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2021, V. 108479, pp. 114, DOI:10.2118/198002-ms

18. Zhao P. et al., Development of high performance surfactants for difficult oils, SPE-113432-MS, 2008, DOI:10.2118/113432-MS

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20. Van der Heyden F. et al., Injectivity experiences and its surveillance in the West Salym ASP pilot, Presented at the 19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 2017, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201700243

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-70-75

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E.V. Kudin (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), I.V. Kurguskina (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Nguyen The Dzung (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
The main principles of the experimental studies to substantiate the effectiveness of surfactant-polymer flooding for the conditions of White Tiger field

Keywords: surfactant-polymer core flooding, White Tiger field, screening, thermal stability, viscosity, displacement efficiency, laboratory experiments, increasing oil recovery

One of the main method for field development for the last decades is the reservoir flooding technique. Regardless of the efficiency, this method allows recovering only insignificant volume of reserves and, therefore, requires the detailed studying in terms of increasing its efficiency, especially considering the natural depletion of the pay zones. To maintain the achieved rates of Lower Miocene oil production in White Tiger field, it is necessary to consider the possibility of applying various methods of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). One of the promising EOR methods is flooding with surfactants and polymers (SP flooding). This type of flooding refers to one of the most effective EOR methods with the wide applicability range, explaining the growing interest to study its capabilities. SP flooding technology has a high potential for additional recovery of immobile oil (15-30%), which cannot be recovered by the waterflooding method used in the field. The North Dome of White Tiger field has been identified as the most promising in terms of SP flooding application. To create an effective surfactant-polymer composition for the conditions of the studied object, as well as to determine the most effective solutions, systematization and detailed consideration of the main provisions of experimental laboratory studies for application to the conditions of White Tiger field are required.

The analysis of existing methodical approaches to carrying out laboratory research during the implementation of the SP flooding technology was carried out. The article provide the sequence of actions and procedures for creating an effective surfactant-polymer composition with the analysis and development of practical recommendations aimed at improving oil recovery of clastic reservoirs of White Tiger field.


1. IvanovA.N., Balenko P.S., Kudin E.V., Dzyublo A.D., Reservoir characterization refinement using Beluga oilfield as an example (southern shelf of Vietnam) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 4, pp. 2426. - DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-4-24-26

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8. Al-Shakry B., Shiran B.S., Skauge T., Skauge A., Polymer injectivity: Influence of permeability in the flow of EOR polymers in porous media, SPE-195495-MS, 2019, DOI: 10.2118/195495-MS

9. Sheng J.J., Leonhardt B., Azri N., Status of polymer-flooding technology, SPE-174541-PA, 2015, DOI: 10.2118/174541-PA

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-76-80

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E.A. Reitblat (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), E.V. Rogozhina (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.I. Komyagin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), D.N. Glumov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.A. Oparin (Taas-Yuryakh Neftegazodobycha LLC, RF, Irkutsk), A.I. Budyko (Taas-Yuryakh Neftegazodobycha LLC, RF, Irkutsk)
Modeling properties of hydrocarbons in a reservoir with significant vertical differentiation of oil density and viscosity

Many fields demonstrate significant vertical changes in the oil properties. It is a challenge to explain and simulate these changes which occur under the gravitational forces or the effect of thermal diffusion if the reservoir is thin (up to 40 m) and the temperature gradient is close to zero, which is typical of some fields in East Siberia. Here, other processes have a significant impact on the properties of oil: oxidation, biodegradation, the effect of bottom water near the oil-water contact, etc. At the same time, ignoring the differentiation of oil properties in a flow simulation model (setting averaged properties for the entire reservoir) leads to an incorrect assessment of fluid mobility and to inaccurate estimates of hydrocarbon production volumes.

The paper presents an approach to creating a PVT-model for systems with vertical differentiation of oil properties in the context of one of the reservoirs of the Srednebotuobinskoye field. The analysis of field geological information allows the authors to identify a layer of heavy viscous oil near the water oil contact. Previously the samples with high viscosity values had been ignored as non- representative. Matching the common equation of state to the results of some samples which were taken both near the gas oil contact and water oil contact helps to take fluid properties differentiation by depth into account fully saturated oil at the gas oil contact and increasing the oil viscosity in the vicinity of the water oil contact. As a result the compositional dynamic model allows to determine oil properties correctly in a reservoir when estimating hydrocarbon reserves, improve history matching process and provide a more accurate predicted HC production.


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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-82-85

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K.L. Tarasenko (Geologika JSC, RF, Novosibirsk), D.K. Zharasbayeva (Geologika JSC, RF, Novosibirsk), S.V. Parnachev (Geologika JSC, RF, Novosibirsk), A.V. Mikhin (Gazprom Dobycha Tomsk JSC, RF, Tomsk), E.S. Parkhutova (Geologika JSC, RF, Novosibirsk), A.Yu. Kushney (Geologika JSC, RF, Novosibirsk), S.S. Tsvetkov (Geologika JSC, RF, Novosibirsk), V.N. Karas (Geologika JSC, RF, Novosibirsk)
Rock strength properties evaluation by core scratching for hydraulic fracturing modeling on Gazprom Dobycha Tomsk JSC fields

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, fracture toughness, well core, scratching, intrinsic specific energy, rock strength

Critical stress intensity factor (fracture toughness) K1c represents a rocks resistance to the fracture propagation. In some cases during stimulation jobs (low slurry rate, low fluid viscosity, formation strength homogeneity) determines essentially the net fluid pressure as well as fractures rise dynamics and geometry. Laboratory fracture toughness evaluation is usually performed by testing Cracked Chevron Notched Brazilian Disc (CCNBD) core plugs drilled out parallel to the rock bedding. Due to the time- and labour-consuming preparation and testing process, well core inaccessibility or invalidity, during the HF modeling, fracture toughness values are often used "by default" (usually about 1000 kPam1/2) or various correlations between fracture toughness and common well log data are utilized.

The authors made an attempt of fracture toughness evaluation by scratching full-size core of aimed formation while designing hydrofrac jobs for clastic reservoirs of Gazprom Dobycha Tomsk JSC in Tomsk region (West Siberia). The results of core scratching were compared to the classic CCNBD strength tests. As a fast and non-destructive method, core scratching gives satisfying correlation level (R2 = 0,83) comparing to the CCNBD test results. It is essentially higher than fracture toughness rock density (R2 = 0,67) and fracture toughness acoustic P-wave velocity (R2 = 0,58) correlations. Further, the rock plug preparation, testing methods and lab equipment are described.


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Ekspozitsiya neft' gaz, 2018, no. 6 (66), pp. 3035.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-86-89

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R.N. Akhmetov (Ingenix Group LLC, RF, Moscow), I.E. Yunusov (Ingenix Group LLC, RF, Moscow)
Optimization of the construction cost of linear surface objects using digital GIS systems and automated cost models

Keywords: Modeling of infrastructure facilities, automated selection of routes for linear objects, modeling of pipelines, modeling of motor roads, modeling of electric power transmission lines, map-based modeling, GIS systems, cost models of surface infrastructure facilities, automation of cost calculation of facilities, cost map.

Traditionally, linear surface infrastructure facilities of hydrocarbon fields include roads, power transmission lines, as well as infield and external pipelines with various intended uses. Considering that there are next to none easy reserves left in regions with a developed transport infrastructure, finding optimal investment solutions for hydrocarbon transport system facilities and other linear objects already at the conceptual design stage becomes critical.

To enable automated determination of optimal location of linear objects connecting the main on-site facilities of a field, a combination of three main components technical characteristics, cartographic data (GIS) and cost models is required.

The experience and industry expertise accumulated by Ingenix Group has made it possible to develop cost models for infrastructure facilities (including linear) based on the aggregate per unit cost indicators of process units. This in turn allowed to calculate physical volumes for each type of work with a cost breakdown by construction and installation works, equipment and other costs.

The next step was to connect the cartographic data of the territory of the Russian Federation and integrate it with cost models using geoanalysis tools. As a result, more than 30% of the entire set of technical parameters are now determined in an automated mode (directly from the topographic basis).

The final stage in the development of the cost optimization tool for the construction cost of linear surface objects was transformation of characteristics of a map surface soils, obstacles, vegetation, land use type into criteria and weights. The weights were used as the basis to prepare a cost map and to develop a mechanism to determine the optimal route corridor, where the construction cost would be minimal.

Methodological and software solutions for optimizing the construction cost of linear surface objects developed by Ingenix Group have significantly increased the speed and efficiency of cost engineers work at the stage of conceptual design of linear infrastructure facilities for the hydrocarbon field development.


1. Chizhikov S.V., Dubovitskaya E.A., Tkachenko M.A., Costs modeling: Support point in a changing world (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaistvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 6468, DOI:

2. Yunusov I.E., Application of well log data connector for conceptual engineering and value engineering for oil and gas field construction (In Russ.), Neft'.Gaz. Novatsii, 2019, no. 8, pp. 12-14.

3. Rudachenko A.V.,
Chukhareva N.V., Zhilin A.V., Proektirovanie i ekspluatatsiya gazonefteprovodov
(Design and operation of gas and oil pipelines), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2008, 238
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-90-93

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A.P. Laptev (Permoilgeophisics PLC, RF, Perm), A.D. Savich (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), V.I. Kostitsyn (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), A.V. Shumilov (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), O.L. Salnikova (Permoilgeophisics PLC, RF, Perm), D.G. Khalilov(Permoilgeophisics PLC, RF, Perm)
The use of fiber-optic systems in the implementation of complex well completion technologies and long-term operation monitoring

Keywords: optical fiber, well completion technologies, long-term monitoring, resolution, accumulation time, thermal inertia

The article considers the possibilities of fiber-optic thermometry systems for monitoring the operation of wells and downhole equipment, as well as their features of data recording. The potential ability of fiber-optic distributed thermometry sensors to measure the temperature field along the entire wellbore makes it possible to almost instantly register its changes. The experience of complex study of a multilateral horizontal well by fiber-optic thermometry and a geophysical instrument is presented. In the well, the inflow profile was determined and the working sections of the main wellbore and the places of fluid inflow from the second and third sidetracks were identified. Comparison of the results of thermometry recorded by systems of different types showed their good convergence only at the end of the horizontal section, which suggests the o slight inflow from the toe part of the wellbore. At the same time, both systems did not register extreme temperature changes during compression induction, which indicates the random nature of the measurements performed by the fiber optic system. The measurements did not coincide in time with transient processes. Despite the advantages of standard thermometry in terms of measurement accuracy and more reliable metrological support, measurement of temperature anomalies of fast local processes is possible only using fiber-optic distributed thermometry sensors or thermocouples with a significant number of point sensors. Long-term monitoring requires the use of corrosion-protected geophysical cables with fiber optic modules, usually reinforced (polymer-coated), which reduces its thermal conductivity. To improve the measurements accuracy it is necessary to use fiber-optic systems with the highest possible sensitivity, which is determined by thermal inertia and depends mainly on the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the cable layers. It is shown the necessity of consideration of distorting factors influence, the correct choice of data recording parameters, as well as resolution and thermal inertia of the fiber-optic geophysical cable.


1. Klishin I.A., Perspektivnye metody issledovaniya deystvuyushchikh neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Promising methods for studying operating oil and gas wells), Collected papers Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' Zapadno-Sibirskogo megabasseyna (opyt, innovatsii) (Geology and oil and gas potential of the West Siberian megabasin (experience, innovations)), Proceedings of 10th international scientific and technical conference (dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Tyumen Industrial University), Tyumen, 2016, pp. 6670.

2. Lapshina Yu.V., Rybka V.F., The result of the application of distributed fiber-optic technology in thermometry of development wells with ESP (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2013, no. 7(32), pp. 1316.

3. Kostitsyn V.I., Savich A.D., Shumilov A.V. et al., Combination of secondary drilling technologies and long-term formation monitoring (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 9, pp. 108113, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-9-108-113

4. Yakin M.V., Safiullin I.R., Korovin V.M., Adiev I.Ya., Evaluation of individual hydrodynamical properties of formations from the results of a long-time monitoring over well operation by a Sprut well logging set (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2016, no. 12, pp. 80-93.

5. Beresnev V.V., Arbuzov A.A., Vakhitov I.D. et al., Digital downhole pressure and temperature monitoring systems without downhole electronics for gas wells (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2020, 7 (803), pp. 3233.

6. Malkina V.D., Galimov T.I., Vasyutinskaya S.I., Kiselev A.G., Innovative PetroLight complex well monitoring system (In Russ.), Nauchnyy zhurnal Rossiyskogo gazovogo obshchestva, 2015, no. 23, pp. 5964.

7. Polyakov A.V., Prokopenkova T.D., Avtomatizirovannaya optoelektronnaya izmeritel'naya sistema (Automated optoelectronic measuring system), Collected papers Mezhdunarodnyy kongress po informatike: informatsionnye sistemy i tekhnologii (International Congress on Informatics: Information Systems and Technologies), Proceedings of international scientific congress, 2016, pp. 793797.

8. Turbin A.I., Kalas V.O., Vasyutinskaya S.I., System of extended facilities` monitoring Omega: New options provided by fiber-optic sensors (In Russ.), Russkiy inzhener, 2015, no. 4(47), pp. 2731.

9. URL:

10. Buyanov A.V., Monitoring profilya pritoka (priemistosti) v gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh po rezul'tatam raspredelennoy nestatsionarnoy termometrii (Monitoring of the inflow profile (injectivity) in horizontal wells based on the results of distributed non-stationary temperature logging): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2019.

11. Paramonov A.V., Nikol'skaya L.V., Klepinina I.A., Ermolov A.V., Fizika. Optika (Physics. Optics), Part 2. Volnovaya optika (Wave optics), Tula: Publ. of Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University, 2013, 109 p.

12. Smolen J.J., van der Spek A., Distributed temperature sensing - A DTS primer for oil & gas production, Shell International Exploration and Production, Netherlands, Hague, 2003, 97 p.

13. Soto M.A., Bolognini G., Di Pasquale F., Thẻvenaz L., Distributed strain and temperature sensing over 50 km of SMF with 1 m spatial resolution employing BOTDA and optical pulse coding, Proceedings of 20th international conference on optical fiber sensors, 2009, DOI: 10.1117/12.848791

14. Soto M.A., Bolognini G., Di Pasquale F., Thẻvenaz L., Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range, Optics letters, 2010, no. 2, pp. 259261, DOI:10.1364/OL.35.000259

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-94-99

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R.A. Adiev (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), S.V. Belov (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm; Enterprise FXC-PNG LLC, RF, Perm), A.D. Kryuchatov (Kogalymneftegeofizika JSC, RF, Kogalym), N.Yu. Chistyakov (Enterprise FXC-PNG LLC, RF, Perm), Zh.A. Khakimova (LUKOIL-PERM LLC, RF, Perm), A.V. Shumilov (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm)
Improving the data processing technology for new multipole acoustic logging devices

Keywords: multipole and cross-dipole acoustic methods of borehole survey, multiarray sondes, kinematic and dynamic characteristics of waves, compressional, shear and Stoneley waves, resolution, coherence of waveforms

The use of new acoustic logging devices that record data with directional sensors required the development of new software. The article describes the innovative technology of data processing of multipole acoustic logging Parmalog.Acoustic on the example of a new domestic borehole device. The technology provides logging data processing in vertical and inclined boreholes. The construction of either a dipole signal by subtracting signals from two oppositely directed sensors, or a monopole signal by summing the signals is performed at the processing stage in the software. This method of recording and processing data makes it possible to determine the slowness of target waves in each direction and to assess the position of the device in the borehole. New ways to assess the quality of the original signal allow to reach a new level of metrological support, to assess the quality of data before summation or subtraction. New, previously unused, methods for detailed anisotropy analysis help in solving complex problems of estimating the direction and anisotropy value. The dispersion analysis tool can be used to assess radial anisotropy and determine the cause of anisotropy (asymmetry of horizontal stress, intrinsic anisotropy due to shale or fracturing, deformation of the borehole wall). The results of the calculation of the main elastic modules, the Poisson's ratio and the Thomsen parameter can be used in modeling the stress state of rocks. The use of modern mathematical apparatus and data processing methods in the Parmalog.Acoustic software opens up new opportunities for studying the downhole space by acoustic methods.


1. Certificate of registration of the computer program no. 2004610273, Modul'naya sistema obrabotki i interpretatsii dannykh geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Sonata) (Modul'naya sistema obrabotki i interpretatsii dannykh geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Sonata)), Authors: Belov S.V., Zaichkin E.V., Naugol'nykh O.V., Tashkinov I.V., Shumilov A.V.

2. Certificate of registration of the computer program no. 2019661637, Programmnyy kompleks "ParmaLog. Acoustic" (Obrabotka dannykh mul'tipol'nogo akusticheskogo karotazha) (Software package "ParmaLog. Acoustic" (Processing of multipole acoustic logging data)), Authors: Belov S.V., Tashkinov I.V., Shumilov A.V.

3. Haldorsen J.B.U., Johnson D.L., Plona T. et al., Borehole acoustic waves, Oilfield Review, 2006, no. 18, pp. 3443.

4. Saxena V., Krief M., Adam L., Handbook of borehole acoustics and rock physics for reservoir characterization, Elsevier, 2018.

5. Alford R.M., Shear data in the presence of azimuthal anisotropy, Presented at the 56th Annual SEG Meeting, 1986, DOI: 10.1190/1.1893036

6. Kimball S.V., Marzetta T.L., Semblance processing of borehole acoustic array data, Geophysics, 1984, V. 49, no. 3, pp. 274281, DOI: 10.1190/1.1441659

7. Belov S.V., Chistyakov N.Yu., Anisotropy estimation for multipole sonic logs (In Russ.), Neft'.Gaz.Novatsii, 2019, no. 2, pp. 6064.

8. Shumilov A.V., Modul'naya sistema obrabotki informatsii pri geofizicheskikh issledovaniyakh v skvazhinakh: monografiya (Modular information processing system for well logging), Perm: Publ. of Perm State University, 2022, 282 p.

9. Tang X., Chunduru R.K., Simultaneous inversion of formation shear-wave anisotropy parameters from cross-dipole acoustic-array waveform data, Geophysics, 1999, V. 64 (5), DOI: 10.1190/1.1444654

10. Tichelaar B.W.,
Hatchell P.J., Inversion of 4-c borehole flexural waves to determine anisotropy
in a fractured carbonate reservoir, Geophysics, 1997, V. 62(5), DOI:
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-100-105

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N.N. Andreeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.N. Lishchuk (HMS Group Management Company LLC, RF, Moscow), L.N. Nazarova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.E. Novikov (HMS Group Management Company LLC, RF, Moscow), K.N. Rysev (HMS Neftemash JSC Branch in Moscow, RF, Moscow)
The role of field measurements of fluid production in the organization and digitalization of oil and gas production

Keywords: fluid production, oil and gas production, measurement of oil and gas production

Regular and qualitative measurements of oil, gas and water production by direct method, using special production measurements, are the basis for the formation of internal reporting of subsoil users, the material for analysis and decision-making. One of the most important tasks in the development of hydrocarbon deposits is the task of control and management. The quality of management decisions is determined not only by the professionalism of the person making the decision, but also by the quality and volume of the initial information. Field development rules provide for the mandatory determination of the actual production rate, the water cutting and the gas factor of well production. Field measurements are the basis for assessing the cost of hydrocarbon production, energy efficiency for certain periods of time. Qualitative field measurements form monthly operational reports and are included in the reporting system of the CDD. With the oil and gas industry's transition to digital solutions, field measurements become the most impotant element in the formation of a continuous-action three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The creation of a workable, efficient model is largely determined by the availability of reliable information on basic (reference) wells in terms of fundamentally important indicators, the list of which is formed depending on the complexity of the field, development stage and management tasks. Field measuring devices are sources of information not only on wells operational characteristics, but also on the processes occurring in the reservoir, for operational management of development and support of a digital model. The use of basic technological indicators is not limited to the hydrodynamic model. The obtained data on the group metering plant are further used to calculate the collection system; preparation of decisions on the further use of water and gas in the field; data on the amount of water-oil emulsion are used to model the oil preparation process. Solving the problems of production management, including digital field, requires constant work to increase the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of measurements.


1. Eremin N.A., Upravlenie razrabotkoy intellektual'nykh mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Managing the development of smart oil and gas fields), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2011, 200 p.

2. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Oil and gas complex of the Russian Federation - 2030: digital, optical, robotic (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2017, no. 3, pp. 49.

3. Andreeva N.N., Marinenkov D.V., Evolution of disparate digital models into a comprehensive information asset of the project (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = OiL Industry, 2021, no. 8, pp. 6871, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-8-68-71

4. Lishchuk A.N., Accounting of hydrocarbonic raw materials: new view on habitual things. Stage research and development end (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = OiL Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 1012.

5. Lishchuk A.N., HMS Neftemash JSC. Innovative measuring unit for the needs of the Russian oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2014, no. 1718, pp. 108109.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-106-108

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A.Yu. Zhukov (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Requirements of Gazprom Neft for oilfield chemical reagents

Keywords: oilfield chemicals, physical and chemical indicators, lab tests

The article provides an overview of the requirements of the Gazprom Neft Company to chemical reagents for hydrocarbon production processes, and substantiates the boundaries of the scope of application of the requirements. The concept of "oilfield chemicals" is established as used in the processes of production intensification, well killing, well fluid lifting, field gathering and preparation of oil, maintaining reservoir pressure, transportation of commercial oil. Discussed topical issues related to the list and filling of technical and permitting documentation, its compliance with the updated edition of Russian state standard GOST 54567-2011 Oil. Requirements for chemical products ensuring their safe use in the oil industry and technical regulations TR EAEU 045/2017 On the safety of oil prepared for transportation and (or) use. The substantiation of the general requirements for reagents, practical approaches to ensuring their fulfillment during laboratory and field trials and incoming control for the purpose of admission to industrial use is given. The classification of standardized indicators, their division by functional purpose into physicochemical, technological and compatibility is discussed. Approaches to the determination of organic chlorides in chemical reagents, the disadvantages of known and currently used methods are discussed, specific recommendations are given for assessing the effect of reagents on the content of organic chlorides in oil, including during the formation of the latter during the interaction of reagent components and oil. The nuances of the indicators "mass fraction of the active base", "efficiency", issues of physicochemical and technological compatibility with oilfield media - water, oil, killing fluids are discussed. An approach to determining the requirements for new types of reagents is presented, examples of specific indicators and recommendations for their numerical standardization are given.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-109-113

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S.B. Ostroukhov (Institute for Advanced Study of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, RF, Kazan), N.V. Pronin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa, Russia), D.M. Bikmeev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa, Russia), A.V. Malinin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa, Russia)
Features of the composition of high-molecular alkyltoluenes in the oil of Silurian Lower Devonian deposits of the Timan-Pechora region

Keywords: alkyltoluenes, thermodynamic equilibrium, isomerization, petroleum, silurian, Lower Devonian

The paper presents the first results of a detailed study of hydrocarbons of the oil series, characteristic of oil and gas production facilities, which is carried out in the laboratory of reservoir fluids research of RN-BashNIPIneft LLC as part of the development of a new direction: "Geochemical studies of organic matter and oil associated with domanic deposits". Peculiarities of the composition of high-molecular alkyltoluols (AT) with an alkyl chain of regular structure in the oil of the Timan-Pechora region are considered. Earlier studies allowed to conditionally divide paraffins into six types based on the molecular mass distribution. In this paper, one of the selected types, specific to the Lower Devonian - Silurian deposits, is analyzed. An attempt is made to consider general patterns in the composition of this type of oil without reference to a specific well. For detailed studies, one of the aromatic groups was taken, which is high-molecular AT. The patterns in their composition duplicate the patterns of n-paraffins and at the same time carry additional geochemical information. High-molecular AT has become more often used to solve various geochemical problems, of particular interest are compounds with a normal alkyl chain (nAT), the structure and composition of which is associated with both the genetic type of the original organic substance, and a variety of its transformation processes. The high informational value of nAT is due to the presence of three main isomers in them. The content of isomers makes it possible to establish the thermodynamic state (stability) in each isomers group and for oil as a whole. This greatly expands the possibilities for establishing the thermocatalytic transformation of oil along with other methods. At the same time, in oils there is a significant difference in the thermodynamic state between the groups of alkyltoluene isomers of even and odd compositions. Thus, the ratio of isomers in groups of even composition is more thermodynamically transformed with respect to compounds of odd composition. This was facilitated by a longer time period of their stabilization than that of compounds of odd composition. The presence of different time periods indicates different stages of the formation of the composition of AT in oil.


1. Kirukhina T.A., Types of oils of the Timan-Pechora basin (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Seriy 4. Geologiya = Moscow university geology bulletin, 1995, no. 2, pp. 39-49.

2. Bazhenova T.K., Shimanskiy V.K., Vasil'eva V.F. et al., Organicheskaya geokhimiya Timano-Pechorskogo basseyna (Organic geochemistry of the Timan-Pechora Basin), St. Petersburg: Publ. of VNIGRI, 2008, 164 p.

3. Reed J. D., Illich H. A., Horsfield B., Biochemical evolutionary significance of Ordovician oils and their sources, Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1985, pp. 347358, DOI:10.1016/0146-6380(86)90035-5

4. Ostroukhov S.B., Aref'ev O.A., Pustil'nikova S.D. et al., C12−C30 n-alkylbenzenes in crude oils (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 1983, V. 23, no. 1, pp. 20-30.

5. Ostroukhov S.B., Alkiltoluoly sostava S12-S30 v komplekse geokhimicheskikh issledovaniy flyuidov Severnogo Kaspiya (Alkyltoluenes of composition C12-C30 in the complex of geochemical studies of fluids of the Northern Caspian), Collected papers no. 72: Voprosy geologii i obustroystva mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Issues of geology and development of oil and gas fields), Volgograd: Publ. of Branch of OOO LUKOIL-Engineering VolgogradNIPImorneft, 2013, pp. 131142.

6. Ostroukhov S.B., Genesis of higher petroleum alkyltoluenes, Petroleum Chemistry, 2018, V. 58 (1), pp. 812, DOI: 10.1134/S0965544118010115

7. Ostroukhov S.B., Higher petroleum alkyltoluenes: Evaluation of thermodynamic maturity, Petroleum Chemistry, 2015, V. 55, pp. 195201, DOI: 10.1134/S0965544115030093.

8. Rubinstein I., Strausz
0.P., Geochemistry of the thiourea
adduct fraction from an Alberta petroleum, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,
1979, V. 43, pp. 13871392, DOI: 10.1016/0016-7037(79)90129-7
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-114-116

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K.E. Zakrevsky (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.V. Bezrukov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.A. Zakharova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), T.S. Akhmerov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Structural modelling algorithms with faults in RN-GEOSIM software

Keywords: structural modelling, implicit functions, discrete smooth interpolation, faults, RN-GEOSIM software

The article presents a methodology for constructing a tectonic and a structural model with faults in the RN-GEOSIM. The basis of the approach is the interpolation of geometric objects, such as faults and horizons in an implicit form, which implies the interpolation of scalar quantities in a three-dimensional area of interest so that the resulting surfaces are their isosurfaces, or a set of points of equal function value. Each fault is described by its own function, and a family of disjoint geological horizons is described by one common function. Due to the fact that each fault is an isosurface of the zero value of the function specified in the entire modeling domain, it becomes convenient to describe the rules of fault junctions using a system of inequalities. However, this approach makes it necessary to interpolate additional auxiliary quantities to describe the fault area. Additional functions introduce a curved coordinate system on the fault surface, which makes it convenient to orient the fault in relation to the cardinal directions. Interpolation of scalar quantities responsible for faults and horizons is a solution to the optimization problem of minimizing the so-called smoothness functional with constraints set by the initial data. Variation of the optimization problem leads to a biharmonic differential equation with natural boundary conditions at the boundary of the modeling domain, which corresponds to the linear elasticity model.

The article describes ways to set constraints for an optimization problem in a linear form, according to the interpolated data. Due to the quadratic form of the functional and the linearity of the constraints, the optimization problem is reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The presented methodology makes it possible to model inclined faults, geological horizons with thrusts and overlaps.


1. Mallet J.-L., Space-time mathematical framework for sedimentary geology, Mathematical Geology, 2004, V. 36, No. 1, pp. 132, DOI:10.1023/B:MATG.0000016228.75495.7C

2. Laurent G., Caumon G., Jessell M., Royer J.-J., Geo-chronological 3-D space parameterization based on sequential restoration, Proceedings of the 30th Gocad Meeting, June 2010, 14 p., URL:

3. Souche L., Lepage F., Iskenova G., Volume based modeling-automated construction of complex structural models, Proceedings of the 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2013, London, UK, June 2013, 5 p., DOI:10.3997/2214-4609.20130037

4. Bruno L., Mallet J.-L., Discrete smooth interpolation: Constrained discrete fairing for arbitrary meshes, Proceedings of the 19th Gocad Meeting, June 1999, 10 p., URL:

5. Mallet J.-L., Geomodelling, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002, 624 p.

6. Frank T., Tertois A. L., Mallet J.-L.,
3D-reconstruction of complex geological interfaces from irregularly distributed
and noisy point data, Computers & Geosciences, 2007, V. 33, No. 7, pp.
932943, DOI:10.1016/j.cageo.2006.11.014
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-121-125

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V.I. Nikitin (Samara State Technical University, RF, Samara), O.A. Nechaeva (Samara State Technical University, RF, Samara), V.V. Zhivaeva (Samara State Technical University, RF, Samara)
Software for calculating the volume of drilling fluid filtrate penetrating into the reservoir during well completion

Keywords: formation opening, filtration, drilling fluids, mathematical modeling, productive formation

One of the most important parameters of the drilling fluid is the filtration index. Under the action of pressure drop, when drilling with overbalance, the water phase penetrates into the formation. The penetration of the aqueous phase into the oil-saturated reservoir leads to a decrease in its permeability for oil, since the aqueous phase changes the wettability and effective porosity of the rock. At the same time, not the entire volume of the aqueous phase during the reverse filtration of oil is able to release pores, especially small ones. Calculation of the volume of filtrate penetrating into the formation is an urgent task, since with this data it is possible to take a number of measures to reduce filtration, select methods for intensifying production or cleaning the bottomhole formation zone. Also, these data can be useful in calculating the reservoir productivity indicators, taking into account the contamination of the bottomhole formation zone, including the skin factor.

The article presents software for calculating the volume of drilling fluid filtrate that penetrates into the reservoir during the initial opening. The author's calculation method uses analytical approaches and dependences of filtration experiments, derived using correlation and regression analysis. Laboratory data of a standard filter press test are used as input parameters: filtrate viscosity, filtration area, pressure drop, filtration process table. The necessary input parameter is the experimental dependence of the volume of the filtrate on the time of the filtration experiment, on the basis of which the parameters of instantaneous filtration are determined during the formation of the filter cake and the parameters characterizing further filtration through it. The dependence of the accumulated filtrate volume on time, determined using a filter press, is connected to the program as a separate tabular file with one of the standard extensions. The calculation for downhole conditions takes into account: filtrate viscosity at downhole temperature, repression pressure, filtration area, process time.


1. Nikitin V.I., Zhivaeva V.V., O Nechaeva.A., Kamaeva E.A., Influence of capillary pressure on the restoration of the bottom-hole zone permeability at the filtrate-oil interfacial phase, Topical Issues of Rational Use of Natural Resources, 2019, V. 2, pp. 558562, DOI:10.1201/9781003014638-12

2. Zhivaeva V.V., Nechaeva O.A., Kamaeva E.A., Nikitin V.I., Designing of flushing fluid to prevent well-bore stability loss (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2019, no. 8, pp. 3033.

3. Nikitin V.I., Evaluation of drilling mud filtration cake permeability through the analysis of filtration process curve (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2018, no. 10, pp. 4850.

4. Nikitin V.I., Zhivaeva V.V., Dynamics of penetration of filtrate of drilling water-based systems into a formation (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2017, no. 11, pp. 4042.

5. Nikitin V.I., Inzhenernye raschety pri burenii skvazhin na osnovanii pokazaniy fil'tr-pressa (Engineering calculations when drilling wells based on filter press readings), Samara: Publ. of SSTU, 2021, 60 p.

6. ANSI/API 13I/ISO 10416. Recommended practice for laboratory testing of drilling fluids, 2004.

7. Nikitin V.I Nechaeva O.A., Mozgovoi G.S., Analysis of the results of the experiment to determine the saturation of the filtrate of drilling fluid of the core sample, Proceedings of III international scientific practical conference Breakthrough technologies and communications in industry and city (BTCI2020), December 23, 2020, Volgograd, DOI:10.1063/5.0067566

8. Nechaeva O.A., Nikitin V.I., Kamaeva E.A., Increasing the quality of opening the productive formation by introducing a surface-active substance into the recipe of drilling fluid (In Russ.), Neft' Gaz Novatsii, 2021, no. 1, pp. 3436.

9. Certificate of registration of the computer
program no. 202166553, Programma dlya
rascheta ob"ema fil'trata pronikayushchego v plast pri burenii skvazhin
(Program for calculating the volume of filtrate penetrating into the reservoir
during well drilling), Author: Nikitin V.I.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-126-128

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I.Kh. Makhmutov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Almetyevsk), R.Z. Ziyatdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Almetyevsk), R.I. Nasryev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Almetyevsk), S.. Mokeev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Almetyevsk)
Preventer designed for wellhead sealing of directional wells producing ultra-viscous oil in Tatneft PJSC

Keywords: preventer, wellhead equipment, directional well producing ultra-viscous oil, gas, oil, water, and steam kicks

The paper considers the disadvantages of existing blowout prevention equipment and provides the details of newly developed blowout preventer installed at wellheads of horizontal SAGD wells producing ultra-viscous oil. Several major challenges related to installation of existing preventers at wellheads of directional wells have been identified. These include the complexity, time-consuming and labor-intensive installation. Moreover, duration of preventer installation at high reservoir temperatures can be very critical in terms of personnel safety in case of gas, oil, water and steam kicks. In light of the above, appropriate choice and use of special blowout and well-kill equipment are very important factors. To address the above challenges, TatNIPInefts specialists have developed a blowout preventer with reduced overall dimensions and weight. The tool is adjusted to different sizes of backup flanges of wellhead assemblies of ultra-viscous oil wells in Tatneft PJSC. Implementation of the designed preventer improves safety of wellhead operations in directional wells producing ultra-viscous oil during well servicing and workover due to elimination of preventer performance degradation. This is achieved through reliable operation of sealing assembly irrespective of wellhead inclination angle. Apparent advantages of the preventer discussed in the paper include short installation time at inclined wellhead, small dimensions, reliability and versatility. The preventer has been tested at wellheads of seven directional wells producing ultra-viscous oil. The present research was included in the best practices of Tatneft PJSC.


1. Patent RU 2724695 C1, Preventer with replaceable ring and method of its installation on support flange of wellhead fittings, Inventor: Ziyatdinov R.Z.

2. Patent RU 2719884 C1, Preventer for wells
with inclined mouth, Inventors: Nasryev R.I., Ziyatdinov R.Z.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-132-133

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I.V. Buyanov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), O.V. Aralov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.M. Korolenok (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), E.I. Jordanskii (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), N.V. Berezhanskii (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Creation of domestic mechanical displacement meter provers

Keywords: crude quality control system (CQCS), mechanical displacement meter prover (MDMP), calibrated section, acceleration section, flow transducer

At present, different types of flow transducers are used for volumetric flow metering of oil in the crude quality control system (CQCS). Calibration facilities are used as part of CQCS to calibrate and verify metrological characteristics of flow transducers. In recent years, mechanical displacement meter provers (MDMP), predominantly foreign-made, are being used most frequently at the facilities of domestic oil companies. As the analysis of the regulatory and technical framework has shown, the Russian Federation currently lacks uniform technical and metrological requirements for MDMP, as well as experience of in-house production.

The paper presents the results of comprehensive scientific studies aimed at substantiating the lengths of acceleration and calibration sections of MDMPs for the creation of domestic installations. To solve this task, experimental studies were performed at 10 operated MDMP. The experimental results were compared with the results of the calculation of lengths of the MDMP acceleration sections within the frames of six hypotheses. The development of hypotheses was carried out according to the analysis of the results of previously performed scientific studies and theoretical calculations. Based on the obtained data, the shortest length of the acceleration sections of MDMP ensuring metrological characteristics of the MDMP was substantiated with guaranteed stabilization of the ball piston velocity in MDMP to the beginning of the calibrated section; and the minimum lengths of calibrated sections for MDMP of different capacities were calculated as well. The obtained results are applied in mathematical modeling of MDMP in the ANSYS applied software as part of the CFD computational fluid dynamics and Mechanical Enterprise strength calculations packages as part of MDMP production.


1. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Sovremennoe sostoyanie vedeniya uchetnykh operatsiy s neft'yu i nefteproduktami s primeneniem izmeritel'nykh sistem v Rossii (The current state of accounting operations with oil and oil products using measuring systems in Russia), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2019, 246 p.

2. Chernenkov V.P., Ionov V.S., Issledovanie metrologicheskikh kharakteristik raskhodomernykh ustroystv pri pomoshchi poverochnoy ustanovki DVGTU-ESKO (Study of the metrological characteristics of flow meters using the DVGTU-ESKO calibration facility), Proceedings of Vologdinskie chteniya, 2008, no. 70, p. 93.

3. A Tukhvatullin A.R., Korneev R.A., Kolodnikov A.V. et al., Attestatsiya etalonov edinits massovogo i ob"emnogo raskhodov zhidkosti (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2012, no. 18, pp. 245-247.

4. Isaev I.A., Khakimov D.R., Gorchev A.I., Ganiev R.I., Study of the metrological characteristics of an ultrasonic gas meter on reference flow meters (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2012, no. 18, pp. 239-244

5. Kozlov V.K., Nemirov M.S., Lukmanov P.I., Measuring the amount of crude oil with a high water content (In Russ.), Izvestiya VUZov. Problemy energetiki, 2006, no. 910, pp. 94-99.

6. Goryunova S.M., Mukhametkhanova L.M., Petukhova L.V., Nikolaeva N.G., Problems of metrological support of the Russian oil complex (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2011, no. 11, pp. 263-266.

7. Flegentov I.A., Zhevelev O.Yu., Mukhortov A.Yu., Four-way valves for pipe provers (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, , 2017, no. 7(6), pp. 98-103.

8. Kremlevskiy P.P., Raskhodomery i schetchiki kolichestva veshchestv (Flowmeters and substance counters), Part 2, St. Petersburg: Politekhnika Publ., 2002, 412 s.

9. Webster J.G., The measurement, instrumentation and sensors handbook, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 2588 p.

10. Instrument engineers handbook. Process measurement and analysis: edited by Liptak B.G., Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2003, V.1, 1860 p.

11. LaNasa P.J., Upp E.L., Fluid flow measurement. A practical guide to accurate flow measurement, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2014.

12. Baker R.C., Flow measurement handbook: Industrial designs, operating principles, performance, and applications, Cambridge University Press, 2016, 790 p.

13. Timofeev F.V., Kuznetsov A.A.,
Matematicheskaya model' laboratornogo kontrolya kachestva nefti i
nefteproduktov (Mathematical model of laboratory quality control of oil and oil
products), Proceedings of Truboprovodnyy transport 2017 (Pipeline transport
2017), Ufa, 2017, pp. 193195.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-134-138

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A.A. Korshak (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.An. Korshak (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), M.T. Gaisin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Methodology for choosing the optimal mode of operation of adsorbers when capturing oil and petroleum product vapors

Keywords: recovery of oil and petroleum product vapors, adsorption, cycle structure, modes of adsorbers operation, number of stages in the cycle, individual operations duration

The article presents the results of research on improving the efficiency of adsorption vapor recovery units (VRU), the action of which is based on the attachment of hydrocarbon molecules to coal particles located in the adsorbers, and their subsequent targeted selection. During the operation of adsorption VRU, the correct mode of operation of the adsorbers is relevant, which means the structure of the cycle and the duration of individual operations within the stages that make up the cycle. At the same time, an operation is understood as a single procedure in the work cycle of the VRU, a stage is a set of individual operations in the work of the VRU, which is part of the cycle, a cycle is a periodically repeating sequence of stages in the work of the VRU. The possible modes of operation of the adsorbers differ in the number of stages in the cycle and the duration of individual operations within the stages. Based on industrial studies of the work of the adsorption VRU, it was found that it is impractical to increase the duration of the adsorption operation in order to ensure effective purification of gas-air mixture from hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that the duration of this operation should be reduced, since at the same time the degree of purification of the gas-air mixture from hydrocarbons increases. Thus, with a decrease in the duration of the adsorption operation from 20 to 18 min, the hydrocarbon content in the gas-air mixture at the outlet of the VRU decreases from 177.7 to 169.5 g/m3 (or 4.6%), and the average degree of gas-air mixture purification increases by 2.4-3.1% in absolute terms. If the duration of the adsorption operation is reduced to 15 min, then the emission reduction will be 21.3 g/m3 or 12%, and the average degree of gas-air mixture purification from oil vapor during the operation increases by 6.1-8.1%. These results are achieved without additional capital investments, using only organizational measures. If the number of adsorbers is increased from 8 to 12, and the duration of the adsorption operation is reduced to 10 min, then the degree of gas-air mixture purification, depending on the depth of vacuuming, will increase from 6.1 to 15.1% in absolute terms.


1. Sunagatullin R.Z., Korshak A.A., Zyabkin G.V., Current state of vapor recovery when handling oil and oil products (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 5, pp. 111119, DOI:10.28999/2541-9595-2017-7-5-111-119.

2. Kel'tsev N.V., Osnovy adsorbtsionnoy tekhniki (Basics of adsorption technology), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1976, 512 p.

3.Campbell J.M., Maddox R., Gas conditioning and processing, Norman, Okla., 1970

4. Molokanov Yu.K., Protsessy i apparaty neftegazopererabotki (Processes and apparatus for oil and gas processing), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1980, 408 p.

5. Osnovnye protsessy i apparaty khimicheskoy tekhnologii: Posobie po proektirovaniyu (Basic processes and apparatuses of chemical technology: Design manual): edited by Dytnerskiy Yu.I., Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1983, 272 p.

6. Korshak A.A., Vykhodtseva N.A., Gaysin M.T.
et al., Influence of operating factors on the performance of oil vapor recovery
adsorption plants (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta
nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products
Pipeline Transportation, 2019, V.9, no. 5, pp. 568575,
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-140-143

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M.V. Anfimov (Rosneft Oil Company, Moscow), I.S. Sivokon (Rosneft Oil Company, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Application of risk-based approach in safety events investigation

Keywords: risk, barrier, safety, immediate cause, systemic cause, threat, primary cause, root-cause, safety event, investigation

This article presents Rosneft Oil Company approach to improving industrial safety using risk management tools in investigation of health, safety and environmental (HSE) safety events. In companies, i.e., in the business environment, the goal of an on-the-job safety event investigation, as a rule, is to prevent a recurrence of such a safety event in the future by correcting deficiencies in the HSE management system. The results of the investigation should identify processes, practices, procedures that should be corrected or improved, and determine which processes with hazardous conditions need to be optimized or eliminated. The feasibility of employing a risk-based approach (RBA) is driven by a pragmatic objective of ensuring that the results of the investigation are compatible with existing programs, activities, and resources. The proposed RBA to safety events investigation is based on a method of risk assessment and analysis that is currently widely used, and namely: the "Bow Tie Diagram". The RBA assumes that any incident is a realized scenario of the corresponding risk - therefore, risk analysis tools and concepts such as: "Hazard", "Threats", "Top event", "Consequence", "Barrier", "Degradation Factors", "Degradation Control" are used for the purpose of safety events investigation. The pattern of RBA use is described in the investigation procedure.

RBA to safety events investigation has been developed at Rosneft Oil Company since 2020. Application of the approach has improved the quality of investigations and, just as importantly, the effectiveness of corrective and remedial actions. RBA has evolved from an auxiliary tool in safety events investigation process to one of the main methods that: 1) allows to identify root causes of safety events in a logical connection to the hazards of a process, existing threats, and top event of an incident; 2) provides a link between the determined immediate and systemic causes of safety events and the real preventive and reactive barriers; 3) serves as a tool to verify the correctness and completeness of the investigation.


1. Sivokon' I.S., V.A. Kulagin, Anfimov M.V., Target programs formation methodology on prevention of major incidents at production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 2, pp. 102-105, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-2-102-105

2. Anfimov M.V., Markeev V.A., Sivokon' I.S., Tolstorozhikh S.V., Development of risk-oriented control to health and safety system management (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 3, pp. 118-122, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-3-118-122

3. Bow ties risk management: a concept book for process safety: by CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety), NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2018, 224 p.

4. Poryadok rassledovaniya proisshestviy. Polozhenie PAO NK Rosneft' (Procedure for investigating incidents. Regulations of Rosneft Oil Company PJSC.), Moscow: Publ. of Rosneft, 2019, URL:

5. Polozhenie o rassledovanii proisshestviy v gruppe Gazprom (Regulations on the investigation of accidents in the Gazprom Group), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Gazprom, 2015, URL:

6. Regulation RG.04.10, ed. 2. Rassledovanie i predostavlenie informatsii o proisshestviyakh v oblasti okhrany truda i promyshlennoy bezopasnosti (Investigation and provision of information on incidents in the field of labor protection and industrial safety), Irkutsk: Publ. of Irkutsk Oil Company, LLC, 2018, URL:

7. M-16.10-01 version 1.0. Trebovaniya k provedeniyu vnutrennego rassledovaniya (Requirements for conducting an internal investigation), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Gazpromneft'-Snabzhenie, 2015.

8. STO Gazprom 18000.4-008-2019. Analiz korennykh prichin proisshestviy. Poryadok ikh ustanovleniya i razrabotki meropriyatiy po preduprezhdeniyu (Analysis of the root causes of incidents. The procedure for their establishment and development of measures to prevent), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Gazprom, 2019, URL:


10. Zakharov P., Peresypkin S., Kul'tura bezopasnosti truda: chelovecheskiy faktor v rakurse mezhdunarodnykh praktik (Occupational safety culture: the human factor in the perspective of international practices), Moscow: Intellektual'naya Literatura Publ., 128 p.

11. Sivokon' I.S., Proizvodstvennye riski v
neftegazovoy otrasli. Struktura, otsenka i analiz (Production risks in the oil
and gas industry. Structure, evaluation and analysis), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin
University, 2021
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-146-151

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