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February 2018




OIL & GAS INDUSTRY

338.23:622.276
O.V. Zhdaneev (Schlumberger, RF, Tyumen)
Localization as an effective import-replacement approach

Keywords: oil and gas machine building, import-replacement, localization, perforation system

The analysis of import-replacement practices for the oil and gas products manufacturing in Russian Federation is presented in the paper. The challenges to efficiently deploy the import-replacement policy in the country are identified and analyzed. Based on the retrospective analysis of import-replacement in Latin America, South-East Asia, and ongoing programs in China and India it is possible to make a conclusion about the importance of long term planning and focus on export to ensure success in import-replacement. The importance to establish product development capabilities and competency development programs for Russian professionals and deployment of standardization programs is underlined. It should be noted that the market size is a critical success factor for the localization projects. There is an opportunity to consolidate the needs of oil and gas exporters to unite the efforts for the innovative product development and fundamental studies for the oil and gas industry. It has been shown in the paper that localization is an efficient approach for the technology transfer, the creation of high value added workplaces, suppliers development, advanced project management practices and competency development. A few successful examples from Schlumberger perforation systems manufacturing is used to present novel technology adaptation to make innovative products available on the Russian market. The deployed LEAN practices have become the key for the manufacturing processes optimization.

References

1. Ampilov Yu.P., Sanctions and low oil prices: new challenges of oil and gas industry in Russia (In Russ.), Mineral'nye resursy Rossii. Ekonomika i upravlenie, 2017, no. 2, pp. 3850.

2. Stefankov I.O., Razrabotka instrumentariya strategicheskogo razvitiya promyshlennykh predpriyatiy v usloviyakh politiki importozameshcheniya (Sreating of tools for strategic development of industrial enterprises in the context of import substitution policies): thesis of candidat on economic science, Rostov-na-Donu, 2015.

3. Valiullin I.M., Andreeva N.N., Belokhvostova M.S., Governance of import substitution with domestic processes and technology (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 5, pp. 1821.

4. Anisimova E.A., Directions for ensuring the development of industry and import substitution in Russia (In Russ.), NovaInfo, 2005, no. 33-2, URL: http://novainfo.ru/article/3528.

5. URL: https://data.oecd.org/lprdty/gdp-per-hour-worked.htm.

6. URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2017/06/29/700940-minekonomiki-proizvoditelnost-truda.

7. URL: http://www.cdu.ru/catalog/mintop/infograf/022016/.

8. URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/07/business/china-trade-manufacturing-europe.html.

9. Decision of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 719 dated 17 July 2015 Rules and criteria for classifying products as industrial products that have no analogues produced in Russia, URL: http://static.government.ru/media/files/tGtA4PWJh51bG2UGdQGQpbBkd9dSFy0f.pdf

10. Order of the government of the Russian Federation of May 10, 2017 no. 550 About confirmation of production of industrial output in the territory of the Russian Federation and modification of the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of July 17, 2015 No. 719.

11. Protokol zasedaniya Pravitel'stvennoy komissii po importozameshcheniyu (Minutes of the meeting of the Government Commission on Import Substitution) of 16 May 2017, St. Petrsburg, URL: http://government.ru/news/27681/.

12. URL: http://www.nti.one/nti/

13. URL: https://rg.ru/2014/08/05/zameshenie.html

14. Kirillov V.N., Vneshneekonomicheskiy faktor v innovatsionnom razvitii ekonomiki (Foreign economic factor in the innovative development of the economy), thesis of doctor of economic science, Moscow, 2013.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-6-10

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MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW

347.78.03:622.692
V.V. Romanova (Kutafin Moscow State Law University, RF, Moscow)
Main pipeline transportation of oil and oil products: legal regulation tendencies

Keywords: main pipeline transportation of oil (oil products), main pipeline, energy security, energy law

Legal regulation of social relations in main pipeline transportation of oil and oil products is carried out by legislation, which is comprehensive in its legal nature. The activity of main pipeline transportation of oil and oil products refers to the activity of natural monopoly subjects, which accounts for the legal regulation specifics that has to secure an opportunity of non-discriminated access to the services of a natural monopoly subject and accurate pricing.

Many aspects of legal regulation of the reviewed legal relations are controversial due to the absence of a uniform conceptual framework, clearly worded provisions concerning rights and obligations of an owner and operator of a main pipeline system, interaction between participants of the relations under consideration in carrying out the investment activity on main pipeline system development. It is not a mere coincidence that the issues of legal regulation of main pipeline transportation of oil (oil products), legal regime of oil sector objects, pricing issues, peculiarities of legal nature of an agreement on pipeline transportation of oil become a subject of legal research. Further improvement of legal regulation has to correspond to the tasks of ensuring energy security of the Russian Federation from the legal standpoint, balance of interests of natural monopoly subjects and consumers of their services, establishment of a single oil and oil product market in the Eurasian Economic Union. In this respect, it seems expedient to develop a draft of Law re Main Pipeline Transportation of Oil and Oil Products considering proposals of all participants of the reviewed social relations.

References

1. URL: https://rg.ru/2016/12/19/minenergo-mer-i-miniust-nachali-gotovit-zakon-o-truboprovodah.html.

2. Energeticheskoe pravo. Obshchaya chast'. Osobennaya chast' (Energy law. The general part. The special part): edited by Romanova V.V., Moscow: Yurist Publ., 2014, 656 p.

3. Dzhavakhyan A.O., On conception of federal draft law on production, refinery, and transportation of oil stock and petroleum refinery products through main pipe line (In Russ.), Zakonodatel'stvo, 2010, no. 3, pp. 57-60.

4. Romanova V.V., Legal support of effective public administration in the sphere of energy (In Russ.), Pravovoy energeticheskiy forum, 2016, no. 1, pp. 5-12.

5. Romanova V.V., Energeticheskiy pravoporyadok: sovremennoe sostoyanie i zadachi (Energy law and order: current status and tasks), Moscow: Yurist Publ., 2016, 254 p.

6. Gavrilina E.A., Sistema dogovornykh svyazey na rynke nefti i nefteproduktov (The system of contractual relations in the oil and oil products market), Moscow: MGIMO-Universitet Publ., 2016, 244 p.

X. Izotova A.V., Development trends of energy legislation regarding specifics of state regulation of main pipeline transportation tariffs for crude oil and petroleum products (In Russ.), Pravovoy energeticheskiy forum, 2014, no. 3, pp. 31-34.

7. Korepanov K.V., Pravovoe regulirovanie transportirovki nefti i gaza po magistral'nym truboprovodam (Legal regulation of oil and gas transportation through main pipelines); thesis candidate of legal sciences, Moscow, 2016.

8. Salieva R.N., Legislative support of the procedure of accessing main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Pravovoy energeticheskiy forum, 2016, no. 1, pp. 32-37.

9. Shevchenko L.I., Dogovornye otnosheniya v sfere energetiki (Contract relations in the field of energy), Moscow: MGIMO-Universitet Publ., 2015, 218 p.

10. Kutafin D.O., Some features of legal regulation of oil transportation to the United States of America (In Russ.), Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2016, no. 3, pp. 39-43.

11. URL: http://regulation.gov.ru/p/48391

12. URL:  https://rg.ru/2016/12/19/minenergo-mer-i-miniust-nachali-gotovit-zakon-o-truboprovodah.html

13. URL:  http://www.rbc.ru/newspaper/2017/06/19/594154299a79477f57912005
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-12-16

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

550.822.3
S.V. Stepanov(TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen; Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen), D.P. Patrakov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.V. Vasilev (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.B. Shabarov (Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Shatalov (Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen)
Challenges and opportunities of Digital Core analysis

Keywords: digital rock analysis, relative phase permeability, rock core microtomography

The paper analyzes the lessons learned while using the Digital Core technology to obtain data on void space structure and minerals distribution, as well to estimate the flow properties of rocks.

The possibility to reconstruct the void space is considered based on the results of studying several core samples by micro-CT and FIB-SEM methods. The quality of the reconstruction is analyzed by comparing the laboratory and micro-CT porosities. It is demonstrated that the basic software settings to interpret the results of microtomography in the overwhelming majority of cases do not provide an acceptable match between the CT-simulated and laboratory-measured results. Moreover, the difference with laboratory data increases with increasing porosity of samples, regardless of their size.

The paper justifies the efficiency of the computational and experimental approach to build the relative permeability functions through a combination of digital micro-simulation and lab core flow studies. The simulated steady-state two-phase flow of oil and water is considered in the pore capillary channel system using the generalized Bernoullis equation for which the inter-phase interaction function can be described by regression equations obtained from laboratory studies. The relative permeability values calculated by the proposed method are in good agreement with the laboratory data.

The results of studies show that so far this technology is far from perfect, but it has a number of significant advantages as compared with traditional laboratory experiments, therefore it can be considered as promising and practically valuable.

References

1. Shandrygin A.N., Digital core analysis for flow process evaluation is myth or reality? (In Russ.), SPE 171216-RU, 2014.

2. Shiqi Liu, Shuxun Sang, Geoff Wang et al., FIB-SEM and X-ray CT characterization of interconnected pores in high-rank coal formed from regional metamorphism, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2017, V. 148, pp. 2131.

3. Andrew M., Bijeljic B., Blunt M., Pore-scale contact angle measurements at reservoir condition using X-ray microtomography, Advances in Water Resources, 2018, V. 68, pp. 24-31.

4. Blunt M.J., Flow in porous media pore-network models and multiphase flow, Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 2001, no. 6, pp. 198 - 207.

5. White J., Borja R., Fredrich J., Calculating the effective permeability of sandstone with multiscale lattice Boltzmann/finite element simulations, Acta Geotechnica, 2006, no. 1, pp. 195209.

6. Zaretsky Y., Geiger S., Sorbie K., Forster M., Efficient flow and transport simulations in reconstructed 3D pore geometries, Advances in Water Resources, 2010, V. 33, pp. 15081516.

7. Dem'yanov A.Yu., Dinariev O.Yu., Evseev N.V., Osnovy metoda funktsionala plotnosti v gidrodinamike (Fundamentals of the density functional method in hydrodynamics), Moscow: Fizmatlit Publ., 2009, 312 p.

8. Altunin A.E., Sokolov S.V., Stepanov S.V. et al., Calculation method of receiving relative phase permeability based on solution of Bernoulli generalized equations for a system of porous channels (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 8, pp. 4046.

9. Shabarov A.B., Gidrogazodinamika (Fluid dynamics), Tyumen': Publ. of Tyumen State University, 2013, 460 p.

10. Bembel' G.S., Stepanov S.V., Mathematical modeling of slug two-phase flow in the system of capillary canals (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2015, no. 6, pp. 3038.

11. Shabarov A.B., Shatalov A.V., Pressure drops in water-oil mixture flow in porous channels (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie. Neft', gaz, energetika, 2016, V. 2, no. 2, pp. 5072.    

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-18-22

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553.98.061.12/.17
A.I. Mullakaev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.N. Delev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), S.A. Usmanov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), V.A. Sudakov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), R.R. Khasanov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Tectonic causes of uneven cementation zones distribution in the bituminous sandstones productive part of the Sheshminsky horizon of the South Tatar arch

Keywords: bitumen, deposit, sands and sandstones, cementation zones, paleotectonic analysis

The exploitation of bitumen deposits with the using thermal methods as deposits of high-viscosity oils requires a detailed lithological study of the enclosing rocks. The article presents the results of research of bituminous sands and sandstones of the Sheshminsky horizon of the Ufimian tier of the Permian system. Bituminous sandstones are cross-bedded, finely-medium-grained, polymictic, belong to the greywack group. They lie at shallow depths - from the surface to 400 m. Bitumen deposits have a lenticular form and lie in the form of a layer and associated with positive local structures in the Ufimian sediments. The article deals with the issues related to the distribution of cementation zones in sands and sandstones of bituminous deposits, mechanisms for the formation of carbonate cement and the reasons for its heterogeneity in the profile. Taking into account the nature of the cement, degree of cementation and bitumen saturation, we have identified three groups - tar sands, bituminous sandstones and bitumless sandstones. In the occurrence of lithotypes is noted vertical zoning. The horizons of loose bituminous sands tend to the upper sections of the deposit, and strong cemented sandstones predominate in its lower areas. Lithological zoning could arise as a result of cementation of rocks below the zone of water-oil contact. Its causes may be associated with tectonic restructuring during the formation of the bitumen deposit. To clarify the reasons for the irregular lithological heterogeneity of the Sheshminsky horizon, we reconstructed the conditions of sedimentation of the Sheshminsky bitum-containing sandstones. A paleotectonic analysis of the current section at the boundary of the Ufimian and Kazanian deposits was carried out using the method of paleotectonic profiles. The obtained conclusions indicate that the formation of bitumen-containing structures occurred for a long time under the influence of vertical tectonic movements. The displacement of the cementation zones caused the lithological heterogeneity of productive horizons.

References

1. Produktivnye bituminoznye tolshchi permskikh otlozheniy Melekesskoy vpadiny i Tatarskogo svoda (The productive bituminous strata of the Permian deposits of the Melekess Basin and the Tatar Arch): edited by Troepol'skiy V.I., Lebedev N.P., Kazan': Publ. of Kazan University, 1982, 103 p.

2. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po poiskam, otsenke i razvedke mestorozhdeniy tverdykh nerudnykh poleznykh iskopaemykh Respubliki Tatarstan (Methodical guidance on prospecting, evaluation and exploration of deposits of solid non-metallic minerals of the Republic of Tatarstan), Part 1: edited by Khayretdinov F.M., Fayzullin R.M.,  Kazan': Publ. of Kazan University, 1999, 256 z.

3. Uspenskiy B.V., Valeeva I.F., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': Gart Publ., 2008, 349 p.

4. Muslimov R.Kh., Romanov G.V., Kayukova G.P. et al., Kompleksnoe osvoenie tyazhelykh neftey i prirodnykh bitumov permskoy sistemy Respubliki Tatarstan (Integrated development of heavy oil and natural bitumen of Permian system of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan: Fen Publ., 2012, 396 p.

5. Khisamov R.S., Analysis of efficiency of steam-gravity recovery technology for development of heavy oil reserves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 2427.

6. Khasanov R.R., Mullakaev A.I., Dusmanov E.N., The structure of sandstones in productive horizons of the permian bituminous deposits of Tatarstan (Russia) (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye nauki, 2017, V. 159, no. 1, pp. 164173.

7. Nurgalieva N.G., Ikhsanov N.A., Nurgaliev D.K., Dautov A.N., Facial characteristics of the Ufimian bituminous sediments (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 4, pp. 7275.

8. Mullakaev A.I, Khasanov R.R., Galiullin B.M., Mineralogy of sandstones and localization of oil matter in productive horizons of high-viscosity oil in permian deposits of the Volga-Ural region (Russia), Proceedings of 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2017, SGEM2017 Conference Proceedings, 29 June 5 July 2017, V. 17, Issue 11, pp. 353358, DOI:10.5593/sgem2017/11/SO1.045.

9. Sakhibgareev R.S., Vtorichnye izmeneniya kollektorov v protsesse formirovaniya i razrusheniya neftyanykh zalezhey (Secondary changes in reservoirs in the formation and destruction of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 260 p.

10. Neyman V.B., Teoriya i metodika paleotektonicheskogo analiza (Theory and methodology of paleotectonic analysis), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 80 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-23-25

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553.98.001
E.P. Kropotova (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), M.G. Lebedeva (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), T.A. Korovina (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
The structural features of the subsalt carbonate complex in Khoronohskoye license area, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Keywords: pre-salt complex, tectonic deformation of the ramps of detachment, ostantsovy deposits, zones of crushing

Khoronohskoye license area located within regional zones of the southern Siberian platform has a very complex structure of the sedimentary cover. It is a division of auto - and allochthonous parts. In addition to faulting (microgravity, rift stage, faults, etc.) in the thickness of the subsalt carbonate complex with traces of horizontal formation-thrust deformations that lead to a two-fold repetition in the context of some horizons.

Historically, the region of South-Western Yakutia has developed by type of collision passive continental margin. The development took place in four stages, which formed two tectonic complexes. The lower complex (autochthonous) has a block character and it consisted of the rocks of Riphean and Vendian-Cambrian age. The upper complex (allochthon) is a series of tectonic slices, thrust over the platform slope, with an age of the Upper Vendian - Lower Cambrian. The territory with the likes of autochthonous and allochthonous occurrence of the horizon, installed on Khoronohskoye license area. Here in the North-East can be traced long thrust area (thrust), confirmed the drilling data and seismic profiles. The ledge in the relief from Bukskaya suite hindered the promotion of the allochthon in the North-West, which has led to the emergence here of detachment ramp of the allochthon is an abrupt transition of the Vendian salts (Torsalskya bundle) to the level of the Cambrian salts (Ureginskya suite). This has led to the reduction of the thickness Torsalskya salts on the elevations to a complete wedging out, and blown - in depression.

Faults of autochthonous determine the prerequisites for the persistence outlier hydrocarbon deposits. In the sediments of the allochthon hydrocarbon deposits can also be, as evidenced by signs of oil saturation in cores and inflows of hydrocarbons on the test results of some wells. With the forecast promising areas special attention should be paid to the sediments of the allochthon, the prospect of which is associated not only with the processes of thrusting, contributing to the emergence of new structures, fractured zones, fluid migration, but also with the availability of depths for drilling.

References

1. Migurskiy A.V., Large scale lateral displacements of rocks and fluids on the Siberian platform (In Russ.), Geologiya i mineral'no-syr'evye resursy Sibiri, 2010, no. 1, pp. 53-57.

2. Sitnikov V.S., Kushmar I.A., Bazhenova T.K. et al., Geologiya i neftegazonosnyy potentsial yugo-zapada Respubliki Sakha (Yakutiya): realii, perspektivy, prognozy (Geology and oil and gas potential of the southwest of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia): realities, prospects, forecasts), St. Petersburg: Publ. of VNIGRI, 2014, 436 p.

3. Antsiferov A.S. et al., Nepsko-Botuobinskaya antekliza novaya perspektivnaya oblast' dobychi nefti i gaza na Vostoke SSSR (Nepsko-Botuobinskaya anteclise - a new promising area for oil and gas production in the East of the USSR), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1986, 244 p.

4. Larionova T.I., Petroleum prospects of allochton of Nyuya-Dzherba depression (Siberian platform) (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2014, V. 9, no. 1, pp. 19.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-26-29

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552.5:622.276
I.I. Nugmanov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.V. Starovoytov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), E.R. Ziganshin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), V.V. Kazakov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Geomechanical properties of Bashkirian carbonates from Akanskoye deposit subject to lithogenetic type

Keywords: World Stress Map, hydraulic fracturing, microseismic monitoring, well logging, fracture, remote sensing

Article briefly describes results of experimental investigations of geomechanical properties for major lithogenetic types of carbonate rocks, constituting the typical sedimentary sequence for the Bashkirian stage of the middle Carboniferous. Feature of experimental work has been conducting laboratory tests on large-sized samples, close to a full-sized core rock (63 mm diameter, with height to diameter ratio in between 1:1 - 2:1). To account for anisotropy of elastic and strength properties for carbonates, sampling has been carried out in two orthogonal directions: along bedding and cross bedding. In absence of standard documentation to execution of researches for the samples of specified size, methodical sequence of laboratory experiments is offered, for receipt of maximum informativeness on mechanical and formation reservoir properties. Results showed significant difference for bioclast-zoogenic type I and type II limestones by physical and mechanical properties, but also on the character of development of deformation in zones weakness shear fracture plane. Research methods and results include a few cutting-edge technical solutions in the context of "digital core". A result shows the efficacy of computed tomography to determine porosity. Using special algorithms for raw data processing of X-ray tomography allows to classify porous space by dimensions .Volumetric model with texture, carried out as a result of photogrammetry, applicable to highlight the natural fracturing of rocks. Correlation between p-wave propagation measurements in laboratory on core samples and derived from acoustic well logging has been noticed. As a rapid analysis method of the mechanical properties of carbonate rocks, authors recommends to use a Schmidt rebound hammer, as a cheaper and more affordable alternative to continuous profiling with a scratcher.

References

1. Zheltov Yu.V., Kudinov V.I., Malofeev G.E., Razrabotka slozhnopostroennykh mestorozhdeniy vyazkoy nefti v karbonatnykh kollektorakh (Development of complex deposits of viscous oil in carbonate reservoirs), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 1997, 256 p.

2. Mukhametshin R.Z., Kalmykov A.V., Prichiny i sledstvie neodnorodnosti produktivnykh karbonatnykh tolshch pri proektirovanii i razrabotke zalezhey vysokovyazkoy nefti (na primere mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana) (The causes and consequences of heterogeneity of productive carbonate formations in the design and development of heavy oil deposits (by the example of Tatarstan fields)), Proceedings of Conference held at the University of Krasnodar in honour of prof. Dr. Anatoly I. Bulatov, Part 2. Razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Development of oil and gas fields): edited by Savenok O.V., 31 March 2017,  Krasnodar: PH Yug, 2017, pp. 168174.

3. Korolev E.A., Eskin A.A., Morozov V.P. et al., The relationships between petroleum composition and viscosity of oil and petrophysical properties of oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 3233.

4. Khisamov R.S., Bazarevskaya V.G., Tarasova T.I. et al., Determination of fracturing in carbonate deposits in order to sel ect the optimal location of horizontal wells (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2013, no. 4 (54), pp. 5864.

5. Kol'chugin A.N., Morozov V.P., Korolev E.A. et al., Typical sections of Bashkirian carbonate rocks and structure of oil deposits in southeast part of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 8486.

6. Lucia F.J., Carbonate reservoir characterization: An integrated approach, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2007, 333 p.

7. Idiyatullina Z.S., Arzamastsev A.I., Mironova L.M., Increasing the efficiency of oil production fr om low-permeability layered reservoirs at the deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2012, no. 4, pp. 4449.

8. Malykhin V.I., Takhautdinov R.Sh., Yakubov M.R., Perfection of methods and technologies for bottomhole zone treatment and enhanced oil recovery for low-effective fields with high-viscosity oil (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2010, no. 1, pp. 3637.

9. Ibragimov N.G, Salimov O.V, Ibatullin R.R., Geomechanical conditions of successful acid fracturing applications (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 3236.

10. Salimov O.V., Some challenges related to geomechanical modeling at shallow depths (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 99102.

11. Salimov O.V., Determination of geomechanical parameters based on well logging data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 3033.

12. A. Jamshidi et al., The effect of specimen diameter size on uniaxial compressive strength, P-wave velocity and the correlation between them, Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 2016, V. 11, no. 1, pp. 17.

13. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 449 p.

14. Aydin A., Basu A., The Schmidt hammer in rock material characterization, Engineering Geology, 2005, V.81, pp. 114.

15. Grishin P.A., Kovalev K.M., Experimental determination of Visovoye oilfield carbonate formations stress-strain properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 6, pp. 7881.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-30-35

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552.52:622.276
M.V. Shaldybin (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk; Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), V.V. Krupskaya (Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of RAS, RF, Moscow; Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), A.V. Glotov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), O.V. Dorjieva (Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of RAS, RF, Moscow; (Geological Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), I.V. Goncharov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk; Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), V.V. Samoilenko (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), E.S. Deeva (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), Yu.M. Lopushnyak (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), O.V. Bether (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), S.V. Zakusin (Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of RAS, RF, Moscow; Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow)
Petrography and clay mineralogy of anomaly luminescent layers in Bazhenov suite of Western Siberia sedimentary basin

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, luminescence, illite tobelite smectite mixed-layers, pyroclastic, nitrogen

Abnormally luminescing thin layers (ALTL) in sediments of the Bazhenov Formation in limits of the West Siberia petroliferous basin were investigated which were discovered on the territory of Tomsk and Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district. Investigations of mineral composition of this luminescent layers have shown that they composed mainly by clayey phases with some admixtures of terrigenous (quartz, feldspars) and other neogenic minerals, along with thin section research have shown the occurrence of mineral components and textural and structural features peculiar to the tuff rocks. Searching in the more detail manner of the clay fraction in the ALTL by XRD and IR spectroscopy methods has proved this assumption. Main clay minerals of ALTL are kaolinite and illite, which has occurred in the result of secondary alteration of pyroclastic components in the volcanic tuff rocks analogically tonsteins in the coal beds. But under dominant role of the kaolinite phase the illite/tobelite/smectite mixed-layered mineral compounds firstly have discovered in the Bazhenov shales. ALTL are devoid by kerogen and have not the character composition for Bazhenov shales and having the significant amounts of nitrogen in the same time. Assuming that initially these layers had volcanic origin and then have been transformed mainly into clay minerals consequently of katagenetic alteration of pyroclastic and volcanic material in the presence of high amount of kerogen. The illite/tobelite/smectite mixed-layered mineral with high content of nitrogen-containing compounds firstly discovered in Bazhenov Formation can be characterized as the mineral-indicator for black shales rocks.

References

1. Krupskaya V.V., Krylov A.A., Garshev A.V., Sokolov V.N., Clay minerals-indicators of oil and gas potential of the Cretaceous rocks of the Arctic basin (In Russ.), Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki = Natural and technical sciences, 2009, no. 3, pp. 171174.

2. Drits V.A., Lindgreen H., Sakharov B.A. et al., Tobelitization of smectite during oil generation in oil-source shales. Application to North Sea illite-tobelite-smectite-vermiculite, Clays and Clay Minerals, 2002, V. 50, pp. 8298.

3. Higashi S. Tobelite, A new ammonium dioctahedral mica, Mineral, 1982, no. 11, pp. 138146.

4. Shaldybin M.V., Lopushnyak Y.M., Goncharov I.V. et al., The mineralogy of the clayey-silty siliceous rocks in the Bazhenov shale formation (Upper Jurassic) in the west Siberian Basin, Russia: The role of diagenesis and possible implications for their exploitation as an unconventional hydrocarbon reservoir, Applied Clay Science, 2017, V. 136, pp. 7589.

5. Drits V.A., Lindgreen H., Sakharov B.A. et al., Formation and transformation of mixed-layer minerals by Tertiary intrusives in Cretaceous mudstones, West Greenland, Clays and Clay Minerals, 2007, V. 55, pp. 260283.

6. Madejova J., Komadel P., Information available from infrared spectra of the fine fractions of bentonites, In: The Application of vibrational spectroscopy to clay minerals and layered double hydroxides: edited by Kloprogge J.Th., CMS Workshop Lectures, 2005, V. 13, pp. 6598.

7. Juster T.C., Brown P.E., Bailey S.W., NH4-bearing illite in very low grade metamorphic rocks associated with coal, northeastern Pennsylvania, American Mineralogist, 1987, V. 72, pp. 555565.

8. Dai Shifeng, Xie Panpan, Jia Shaohui et al., Enrichment of U-Re-V-Cr-Se and rare Earth elements in the Late Permian coals of the Moxinpo Coalfield, Chongqing, China: Genetic implications from geochemical and mineralogical data, Ore Geology Reviews, 2017, V. 80, pp. 117.

9. Van A.V., Mesozoic-Paleogene volcanism in the West Siberian Lowland (In Russ.), Doklady AN SSR, 1973, V. 210, no. 5, pp. 11561159.

10. Panchenko I.V., Kamzolkin V.A., Latyshev A.V., Sobolev I.D., Tufy i tuffity v bazhenovskom gorizonte (Zapadnaya Sibir') (Tuffs and tuffites in the Bazhenov horizon (Western Siberia)), Collected papers Evolyutsiya osadochnykh protsessov v istorii Zemli (Evolution of sedimentary processes in the history of the Earth), Proceedings of 8th the All-Russian Lithological Conference, Moscow, 27-30 October 2015, Part II, Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2015, pp. 258261.

11. Spears D.A., The origin of tonsteins, an overview, and links with seatearths, fireclays and fragmental clay rocks, International Journal of Coal Geology, 2012, V. 94, pp. 2231.

12. Arbuzov S.I., Mezhibor A.M., Spears D.A. et al., Nature of tonsteins in the Azeisk deposit of the Irkutsk Coal Basin (Siberia, Russia), International Journal of Coal Geology, 2016, V. 153, pp. 99111.

13. Bogorodskaya L.I., Kontorovich A.E., Larichev A.I., Kerogen: metody izucheniya, geokhimicheskaya interpretatsiya (Kerogen: methods of study, geochemical interpretation), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB of RAS, 2005, 254 p.

14. Goncharov I.V., Geokhimiya neftey Zapadnoy Sibiri (Geochemistry of oil in Western Siberia), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 181 p.

15. Jurisch S.A., Heim S., Krooss B.M., Littkea R., Systematics of pyrolytic gas (N2, CH4) liberation from sedimentary rocks: Contribution of organic and inorganic rock constituents, International Journal of Coal Geology, 2012, V. 89, pp. 95107.

16. Zhang Huirong, Bai Jin, Kong Lingxue et al., Behavior of minerals in typical Shanxi coking coal during pyrolysis, Energy Fuels, 2015, V. 29, pp. 6912−6919, DOI: 0.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01191.

17. Qiming Zheng, Qinfu Liu, Songlin Shi, Mineralogy and geochemistry of ammonian illite in intra-seam partings in Permo-Carboniferous coal of the Qinshui Coalfield, North China International, Journal of Coal Geology, 2016, V. 153, pp. 111.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-36-40

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550.832
R.Kh. Masagutov (Bashneft PJSC, RF, Ufa), K.D. Shumatbaev (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.R. Privalova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.K. Gainullina (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Chervyakova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.V. Akhmetzyanov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.E. Kuchurina (Bashneft-Polus LLC, RF, Ufa)
Determining the highly productive filtration channels in complex oil reservoirs using well logging data, a case of R. Trebs oil field

Keywords: Timan-Pechora oil and gas province, Khoreyver Depression, Lower Devonian, Upper Silurian, carbonate deposits, logging data, caverns, fractures, microcracks, reservoir properties, secondary porosity, highly productive zones, reservoirs classification

The productive carbonate sediments of the Lower Devonian and the Upper Silurian deposits of R. Trebs oil field are represented by porous fractured vuggy reservoir rock. According to core analysis and well logging data these sediments have similar reservoir properties such as porosity, permeability, residual water saturation and clay content. In the same time they are characterized by irregular performance parameters as in a whole on the area, as in individual wells. This work studies the application of additional criteria identified by well logging rock to classify reservoirs by their productivity.

Based on synthesis of special core studies results the authors investigated cavern porosity and fracturing of sediments and developed a conceptual model. According to research results productive deposits vary in number, distribution and size of caverns and fractures. Obtained results were considered together with logging data (petrophysical characteristics) and PLT data (working intervals). It is shown that void space is associated with secondary changes. It is justified that Lower Devonian and Upper Silurian deposits differ by number, distribution and size of caverns and fractures. Reservoirs were classified by production capacity and their characteristics. The authors proposed criteria to forecast highly productive layers using  inflow intensity and data integration on open and secondary porosity, and relative clay content coefficients. Basic productive intervals are characterized by higher capacity properties of the matrix and secondary porosity in comparison with other reservoirs.

References

1. Shumatbaev K.D., Kuchurina O.E., Shishlova L.M., Integrated analysis of void space in carbonates by the example of R. Trebs oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 9193.

2. Shumatbaev K.D., Gaynullina E.K., Malysheva A.E. et al., Integrated approach to secondary porosity characterization for complex carbonate reservoirs of R.Trebs oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 108110.

3. Shumatbaev K.D., Gaynullina E.K., Malysheva A.E. et al., Petrophysical framework for interpretation of Lower Devonian and Upper Silurian heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs: a case study from R. Trebs oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 5, pp. 4446.

4. Shumatbaev K., Privalova O., Gainullina E. et al., Dynamic attributes for characterization of complex oil reservoirs, A case study from R. Trebs oil field, SPE 180002-MS, 2016.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-41-43

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552.578.2:536
S.M. Petrov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), D.A. Ibragimova (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.V. Vakhin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), I.M. Zaidullin (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan), G.R. Valieva (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan), Z.R. Zakirova (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan)
Investigating the structure and composition of heavy oil under thermal-catalytic treatment in presence of carbonaceous minerals

Keywords: aquathermolysis, carbonaceous rock, calcite, dolomite, kaolin clay, pyrolusite, heavy oil

At present, great attention is paid to the study of the heavy crude oils and natural bitumens transformation occurring in the conditions of their extraction by steam-thermal methods acting on carbonate reservoir. The steam-assisted gravity drainage is a cost effective method for increasing the production of superviscous oil and providing access to reserves that were previously considered to be unrecoverable. Thermal methods of heavy oil recovery lead to various changes in the physical and chemical properties of the extracted crude oil. The same steam-thermal method can be highly efficient in certain reservoir conditions, while in others, its efficiency is zero or even negative. The knowledge of the peculiarities of the super-viscous oil structure and composition change after the steam-thermal method effect on the petroleum rock becomes necessary to sel ect the most effective steam-thermal technology for specific conditions of the reservoir.

The paper considers the influence of rock-forming minerals on the physical and chemical properties of heavy crude oil under steam-stimulation. Bio-degrade oil was performed in the presence of rock-forming additives among which are calcites, dolomite, kaolin clay and manganese oxide. In the experiments we varied temperature and pressure conditions. It was observed, that the temperature and pressure have a significant influence on the processes. The obtained samples after the steam-thermal stimulation characterizes by the lower structural and Newtonian flow viscosity, by great output of fuel and oil fractions than the heavy oil.

Resins converted into lighter components during the destruction. The steam stimulation destruction of high molecular compounds of oil occurs on the surface of the mineral additives with the large surface area of the catalyst capable of fiction. On the surface, additives partially structure a monomolecular surface layer with a decrease in entropy of the observed molecules. This leads to a shift in the equilibrium towards the unimolecular reaction of thermal decomposition of -C-C- bonds by radical chain mechanism. Thus, there are two competing mechanisms. On the one hand, the temperature increase raises processes of macromolecular compounds cracking, fr om the other hand growing temperature background in the absence of high pressure reduces the probability of adsorption on to the additive surface.

References

1. Kayukova G.P., Petrov S.M., Uspenskiy B.V., Svoystva tyazhelykh neftey i bitumov permskikh otlozheniy Tatarstana v prirodnykh i tekhnogennykh protsessakh (Properties of high-viscosity oil and bitumen of Permian deposits of Tatarstan in natural and technogenic processes), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2015, 343 p.

2. Kayukova G.P., Gubaidullin A.T., Petrov S.M. et al., Changes of asphaltenes structural phase characteristics in the process of conversion of heavy oil in the hydrothermal catalytic system, Energy Fuels, 2016, V. 30, pp. 773783.

3. Petrov S.M., Abdelsalam Ya.I., Vakhin A.V. et al., Study of the rheological properties of heat-treatment products of asphaltic oils in the presence of rock-forming minerals (In Russ.), Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel = Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 2015, no. 1, pp. 7982.

4. Vakhin A.V., Sitnov S.A., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., Aquathermolysis of high-viscosity oil in the presence of an oil-soluble iron-based catalyst (In Russ.), Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel = Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 2017, no. 5, pp. 2428.

5. Petrov S.M., Ibragimova D.A., Safiulina A.G. et al., Geothermal conversion of organic matter in the carbonaceous medium in the presence of homogeneous oxidation catalysts, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2017, V. 159, pp. 497505.

6. Galukhin A.V., Erokhin A.A., Osin Y.N., Nurgaliev D.K., Catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy oil with iron tris (acetylacetonate): Changes of heavy oil composition and in situ formation of magnetic nanoparticles, Energy Fuels, 2015, V. 29, pp. 47684773.

7. Kadiev Kh.M., Khadzhiev S.N., Kadieva M.Kh., Synthesis and use of polyfunctional catalyst nanoparticles for hydroconversion of natural bitumen (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2013, V. 53, no. 5, pp. 337.

8. Tumanyan B.P., Petrukhina N.N., Kayukova G.P. et al., Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation (In Russ.), Uspekhi khimii = Russian Chemical Reviews, 2015, V. 84(11), pp. 11451175.

9. Petrov S.M., Ibragimova D.A., Abdelsalam Ya.I.I. et al., Reforming of extra viscous oil in the presence of mineral additives of carbonate rock (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 8285.

10. Petrov S.M., Ibragimova D.A., Abdelsalam Ya.I.I., Kayukova G.P., Influence of rock-forming and catalytic additives on transformation of highly viscous heavy oil (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2016, V. 56, no. 1, pp. 2429.

11. Sitnov S.A., Feoktistov D.A., Petrovnina M.S. et al., Structural changes of heavy oil in the composition of the sandstone in a catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2016, no. 8(3), pp. 1507415080.

12. Maity S.K., Ancheyta J.; Marroqun G., Catalytic aquathermolysis used for viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils: A review, Energy Fuels, 2010, V. 24, pp. 28092816.

13. Kudryashov S.I., Afanas'ev I.S., Petrashov O.V. et al., Catalytic heavy oil upgrading by steam injection with using of transition metals catalysts (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 3034.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-44-47

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550.832
A.V. Shumilov (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), V.I. Kostitsyn (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm), A.D. Savich (Permneftegeophizika PJSC, RF, Perm), O.L. Salnikova (Permneftegeophizika PJSC, RF, Perm), I.F. Shumsky (Permneftegeophizika PJSC, RF, Perm), D.A. Budnik (LUKOIL-PERM LLC, RF, Perm)
Logging techniques for horizontal wells under drilling and operation

Keywords: horizontal well, geophysical tool, cable communication system, stiff wireline, electrical communication device

Development of innovative logging equipment and techniques for horizontal oil/gas wells is a topical issue. The authors take up herein novel developments which allow achieve the operating objectives successfully without engaging any expensive imported equipment. A cable-based processing facility for drillstem running of tools, a cable communication system Lateral2012 was designed in order to be used in tough logging conditions. Unlike common standalone logging systems which engage only a limited set of logging methods, the facility allows measurements to be performed by means of any logging tools, including electric and sonic imagers, and wireline formation testers. The survey generally takes one trip, logging data quality being monitored and axial forces measured on a real-time basis.

Together with Russian-made, state-of-art subsurface devices, the newly developed innovative logging techniques for producing horizontal wells allow ready identification of oil/water ingress points, search for behind-the-casing flows, isolation of producing intervals, etc.

Logging techniques which involve Lateral -2005 with a logging tool attached to it being run below an electric submersible pump or a sucker-rod pump, or below tubing allow measuring under various fluid recovery conditions, due to pay-interval drawdown adjustment. This also allows to select the best operating conditions, to test wells, and to reduce time required to commission them by overlapping logging jobs and completion jobs.

The paper also shows that, due to the fact that target bottomhole pressure values can be achieved and drawdown controlled if wells are stimulated by pumping or swabbing for a long time survey and interpretation can be carried out using the inversion effect and the Joule-Thomson effect, so that water ingress points can be identified thermometri method.

References

1. Kryuchatov D.N., Khalilov D.G., Savich A.D., Budnik D.A., Improving horizontal well logging technologies (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2016, no. 10 (268), pp. 1629.

2. Gaynitdinov A.R., Sidorova A.A., Horizontal well logging using a bottomhole tractor (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2014, no. 8 (242), pp. 5969.

3. Neganov V.M., Sakhatskiy A.V., Shumilov A.V., Shumskiy I.F., The unique experiment of perm region geophysics & oilers to recover hydrocarbon resources under salt formation (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2014, no. 5, pp. 7681.

4. Savich A.D., Sementsov A.A., Rastegaev A.V. et al., Horizontal well logging with the help of small diameter tubing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1998, no. 6, pp. 4144.

5. Sal'nikova O.L., Flowing fluid profile and composition evaluation in horizontal operation wells (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2015, no. 10 (256), pp. 6579.

6. Chernykh I.A., Savich A.D., Import-substituting technologies for well logging and downhole operations in oil-and-gas wells of Perm territory (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2015, no. (256), pp. 140149.

7. Savich A.D., Shumilov A.V., Technologies for horizontal well studies (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2009, no. 5, pp. 6572.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-48-52

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WELL DRILLING

622.24.026.3
S.G. Ashikhmin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), Yu.A. Kashnikov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), D.V. Shustov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), A.E. Kukhtinskii (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Influence of elastic and strength anisotropy on the stability of inclined borehole

Keywords: rock formation, stress-strain state, anisotropy of elastic and strength properties, inclined borehole

A method for calculating the stress-strain state of an inclined borehole in a layered transversally isotropic rock formation with an arbitrary orientation of the bedding planes is presented. Based on this method, software was developed to calculate the shear failure gradient in anisotropic rocks. The software was tested by comparing the results with numerical finite element calculations.

Examples of stability calculation of inclined and horizontal wells are given. It is shown that the anisotropy of elastic and strength properties significantly affects the stress state and stability of the inclined borehole. The effect of the inclination and azimuth of the well on its stability was studied. It is established that at inclination up to 20-30 the shear failure gradient is determined by the strength of the matrix. When the inclination is increased, the rock strength is determined by the shear bedding layers and a higher mud density is required to ensure the borehole stability. It is also shown that the optimum drilling path in an anisotropic rock formation may be the azimuth of the maximum horizontal stress.

An example of calculating the shear failure gradient in the interval of clay rocks in one of the oil fields in Western Siberia is given. The obtained results confirm that neglecting the anisotropy of the elastic and strength properties of rocks leads to an underestimation of mud density and drilling problems. Laboratory measurements of the mechanical properties of rocks are required for a reliable prediction of the borehole stability.

References

1. Zhang Jianguo, The impact of shale properties on wellbore stability: dissertation of PhD, The University of Texas at Austin, 2005, 260 p.

2. Seehong Ong, Roegiers J.C., Influence of anisotropies in borehole stability, Int. J. Rock Mech. & Min. Sci., 1993, V. 30, no. 7, pp. 10691075.

3. Lal M., Kristiansen T., Deem C. et al., Shale stability: Drilling fluid/shale interaction study and shale strength correlations, Amoco Report, 1999,

no. F96-P-99, pp. 9699.

4. Kovalenko Yu.F., Kharlamov K.N., Usachev E.A., Ustoychivost' stvolov skvazhin, proburennykh na mestorozhdeniyakh Srednego Priob'ya (Stability of well bores drilled in the Middle Ob area), Tyumen' Shadrinsk: Shadrinskiy Dom Pechati Publ., 2011, 175 p.

5. Karev V.I., Kovalenko Yu.F., Ustinov K.B., Modeling deformation and failure of anisotropic rocks nearby a horizontal well (In Russ.), Fiziko-tekhnicheskie problemy razrabotki poleznykh iskopaemykh = Journal of Mining Science, 2017, no. 3, pp. 1221.

6. Gazaniol D., Forsans T., Boisson M.J.F., Piau J-M., Wellbore failure mechanisms in shales: prediction and prevention, SPE 28851, 1994.

7. Lekhnitskiy S.G., Teoriya uprugosti anizotropnogo tela (The theory of elasticity of an anisotropic body), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1977, 416 p.

8. Amadei B., Rock anisotropy and the theory of stress measurements, SpringerVerlag, 1983, 497 p.

9. Wittke W. Rock mechanics, Theory and applications with case histories, SpringerVerlag, 1990, 1093 p.

10. Fjaer E. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics, Elseveir, 2008, 515 p.

11. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge University Press, 2007, 464 p.

12. Sone Hiroki, Mechanical properties of shale gas reservoir rocks and its relation to the in-situ stress variation observed in shale gas reservoirs: dissertation of PhD, Stanford University, 2012.

13. Horsrud R., Estimating mechanical properties of shale from empirical correlations, SPE 56017, 2001.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-54-57

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622.24.38
A.G. Gubaidullin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.I. Moguchev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), V.U. Yamaliev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.V. Lyagov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Calculation of open hole wall elastoviscoplastic displacement in case of compressible rock conditions

Keywords: sticking the drill string, the necking of borehole, compressible elastic rock, elastic-viscoplastic borehole wall displacement, rock creep, prediction and prevention of sticking of the drill string

Currently, there is a tendency of constant increase in the number of sticking in directional and horizontal wells as a result of the open hole narrowing caused by the viscoplastic deformation (creep) of rock. The article deals with the problem of elastic-viscoplastic borehole walls displacements of time in an isotropic compressible rock mountain with a uniform lateral pressure. To solve the problem we applied the methods of the theory of elasticity, creep theory and rock mechanics. As a result, the analytical solution of the problem is derived dependence of the increment of axial stress in the compressible isotropic rock. To perform calculations of elastic-viscoplastic borehole walls displacements of inclined and horizontal boreholes in time we developed a computer program in MS Excel environment. The following initial data is entered for the calculation of the program: the diameter of the well, the inclination angle, rock pressure, mud pressure in this section of the interval, the elastic modulus by the die indentation method, the Poisson's ratio, creep coefficients of Abel kernel.

The developed computer program calculated the elastic-viscoplastic borehole walls displacements (necking of borehole) in the formation of rock salt of the Astrakhan gas-condensate field. Pots elastic-viscoplastic borehole walls displacements of directed well in time (for example, range from inclination angle 300) and elastic-viscoplastic borehole walls displacements dependence on the inclination angle (ceteris paribus) were obtained. In the first 2 h of movement of the upper borehole wall increases linearly in time, which mainly characterizes the elastic deformation of the rock stage. Further displacement of the borehole wall increases nonlinearly, i.e. there is a viscoplastic deformation of the rock. Elastic-viscoplastic displacement of the upper wall of the borehole at module is significantly (more than in 5 times) greater than elastic-viscoplastic displacement of the side wall of the well at a time. So that the cross-section of the wells open hole becomes elliptical. With increasing the inclination angle elastic-viscoplastic displacement of the top wall increases continuously while elastic-viscoplastic displacement on the side wall decreases to zero with increasing the inclination angle 250 and then increasing the inclination angle 250 is increased with a positive value.

The research results can be applied to predict and prevent sticking of the drill string for oil and gas wells drilling.

References

1. Popov A.N., Moguchev A.I., Popov M.A., Deformation of walls of an inclined well and its influence on work and wear of drilling bits (In Russ.), Stroitelstvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2008, no. 3, pp. 613.

2. Popov A.N., Moguchev A.I., Popov M.A., Harmonization of hardness scales of rocks with indicators of their mechanical properties (In Russ.), Stroitelstvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2009, no. 2, pp. 1823.

3. Gubaydullin A.G., Moguchev A.I., Directional hole shifts under tectonic stress (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost = GAS Industry of Russia, 2015, no. 12, pp. 88-91.

4. Moguchev A.I., Gubaydullin A.G., Lobankov V.M., Belyaeva A.S., Effect of rock fracturing on elastoviscoplastic displacement of borehole walls (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 4143.

5. Gubaydullin A.G., Moguchev A.I., Elastoviscoplastic displacement of wellbore walls in deviated and horizontal wellbores (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2016, no. 3, pp. 48-55.

6. Popov A.N., Specification of the calculation of elastic stress components in a vertical well (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft i gaz, 1990, no. 3, pp. 2124.

7. Metodika rascheta uprugogo smeshcheniya stenok skvazhiny posle vskrytiya gornoy porody bureniem (The methodology of calculation of the elastic displacement of the borehole walls after completion), Draftsmen: Popov A.N., Bulyukova F.Z., Moguchev A.I., Krysin N.I., Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2011, 24 p.

8. Rabotnov A.N., Elementy nasledstvennoy mekhaniki deformiruemykh tverdykh tel (Elements of hereditary mechanics of deformed solids in a vertical well), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1978, 384 p.

9. Erzhanov Zh.S., Teoriya polzuchesti gornykh porod i ee prilozheniya (The theory of rock creep and its applications), Alma-Ata: Nauka Publ., 1964, 173 p.

10. Erzhanov, Zh.S., Karimbaev T.D., Metod konechnykh elementov v zadachakh mekhaniki gornykh porod (The finite element method in problems of rock mechanics), Alma-Ata: Nauka Publ., 1975, 241 p.

11. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Mekhanika gornykh porod pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syrya (Rock mechanics in the development of hydrocarbon fields), Moscow: Nedra Biznes-tsentr Publ., 2007, 476 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-58-60

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.1/.4 (571.1)
M.V. Naugolnov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.S. Alekhina (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.Yu. Klimov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.Sh. Iskhakova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.A. Sednev (Salym Petroleum Development N.V., RF, Moscow)
Conceptual reservoir engineering as a tool of field studing on an example of the Achimov deposits of the Salym group of oil fields

Keywords: Achimov deposits, conceptual design, optimal development system, facies modelling

This work considers the approach to the creation of a conceptual geological-simulation model with regard to the facies features of the Achimov deposits. The method of creating a geological 3D model consists in the step-by-step analysis of regional geology data, stratigraphic, seismic-facies, lithologic-facial and petrophysical analysis, and next cluster analysis for binding wells without cores to facies groups based on well logs. Within the framework of simulation modeling, the choice of optimal development systems was made in accordance with the changing parameters of the field for various realizations of the geological model. Different methods of well completion, grid density, operation state of injection wells are considered, and development systems that are best for different facial environments are justified. A sensitivity analysis was performed and showed the sustainability of design solutions to such changing factors as the petrophysical model, the formation fluid model, the success of the fracturing, and allowed to identify the main project risks, as well as assess the magnitude of their impact on technological and economic performance indicators. The suggested methodical approach is especially relevant for Achimov deposits due to the complexity of forecasting, high degree of variability and poor knowledge of these deposits.

References

1. Alekhina M.S., Cherkas E.O., Zhukovskaya E.A. et al., Metodika sozdaniya fatsial'no-orientirovannoy kontseptual'noy modeli achimovskikh otlozheniy Salymskoy gruppy mestorozhdeniy (The method of creating a facies-oriented conceptual model of the Achimov deposits of the Salym group of deposits), Collected papers Sovremennye problemy sedimentologii v neftegazovom inzhiniringe (Modern problems of sedimentology in oil and gas engineering), Proceedings of 3rd All-Russian Scientific and Practical Sedimentology Conference, 1012 April 2017, Tomsk: Publ. of TsPPS ND, 2017, pp. 215222.

2. Shpil'man A.V., Myasnikova G.P., Plavnik G.I., Atlas geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' neokomskogo kompleksa Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga Yugry (Atlas - geology and oil and gas bearing of the Neocomian complex of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District - Yugra), Khanty-Mansiysk: IzdatNaukServis Publ., 2007, 191 p.

3. Syngaevskiy P.E., Khafizov S.F., Shimanskiy V.V., Glubokovodnye konusy vynosa i turbidity. Modeli, tsiklostratigrafiya i primenenie rasshirennogo kompleksa GIS (Deep-water cones and turbidites. Models, cyclostratigraphy and application of an extended complex of well logging), Moscow - Izhevsk: Institute of Computer Research, 2015, 479 p.

4. Belyakov E.O., Frantsuzov S.E., Mukhidinov Sh.V. et al., Probabilistic model of the distribution of rocks pore space fluid saturation as a base of specification of petrophysical models of reservoir properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 4850.

5. Naugol'nov M.V., Teplyakov N.F., Pislegin M.N., Borodkin A.A., Development of probabilistic model for technical and economics evaluation of oil field on depletion (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 5254.

6. Klimov V.Yu., Choice of stable development system - way to improve asset value (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2017, no. 1, pp. 6066.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-62-67

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276.63
Sh.A. Gafarov (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa), A.V. Lysenkov (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa), A.Sh. Gafarov (Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Akimkin (Bashneft PJSC, RF, Ufa)
Experience in use of monocarboxylic acid in oil inflow intensification

Keywords: intensification, monocarboxylic acid, acid neutralization, corrosion, one-stage treatment, two-stage treatment, carbonate reservoir, fluid inflow profile, efficiency, fluid level

In the article experience of use of monocarboxylic acid in oil well treatment are reviewed. Noted range of advantages of monocarboxylic acid compared to usually used hydrochloric acid solutions. Main advantages are: slower rate of interaction with carbonate matrix; lower corrosion rate; better iron and aluminum ions stability features. Monocarboxylic acid can be used as additives to hydrochloric acid solutions at oil well treatments (acetic acid, formic acid etc.).

To optimize cost of treatments we tested out hydrocarbon liquid-phase oxidation products (hereafter referred to as mono-mix) - mixture of monocarboxylic acids and organic solvents. Production of mono-mix is well spread at gasoline plants or in situ at oil fields treating facilities. Mono-mix manufactured from co-produced gas or gas and condensate from gas fields. To define reservoir condition limitation for mono-mix well treatment series of laboratory tests was conducted. It is shown that mono-mix reaction with carbonate is exothermic. Neutralization rate of mono-mix as well as it`s solutions with HCl considerably slower compared to pure HCl. Mono-mix solutions (fresh or spent) bear low coefficient of surface tension at mono-mix oil border. Mono-mix shows quite high stabilizing and bactericidal features. Fresh and spent mono-mix solutions significantly depress the swelling ability of formation clays as well as filtered from drilling mud, destroy and disperse clay structure supporting the takeaway from the reservoir, possessing anti-corrosion features.

Using theoretical and experimental data one-fluid and two-fluids solutions for field testing proposed. 11 oil well exploiting Kashirskian-Podolskian horizon of Arlanskoye oilfield were treated with mono-mix solution. Before pilot test those wells were treated with HCl numerous times as well as with oil-acid emulsion.

Treatment with mono-mix solutions complete in pilot test display much better result compared to previous standard HCl-solution treatments and can be recommended for common use.

References

1. Loginov B.G., Malyshev L.G., Garifullin Sh.S., Rukovodstvo po kislotnym obrabotkam skvazhin (Guide to acid treatment of wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1966, 219 p.

2. Gafarov Sh.A., Zhdanov A.G., Primenenie rastvorov monokarbonovykh kislot dlya intensifikatsii dobychi nefti (The use of solutions of monocarboxylic acids for the intensification of oil production), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 2004, 192 p.

3. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry), Part 4. Kislotnaya obrabotka skvazhin (Acid treatment): edited by Mishchenko I.T., Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2010, 703 p.

4. Blyum R.G., Men'shikov A.I., Vliyanie dobavok nizkomolekulyarnykh organicheskikh kislot na solyanokislotnye obrabotki skvazhiny (The effect of low molecular weight organic acid additives on the hydrochloric acid treatments of the well), Collected papers Sbor, transport i podgotovka nefti (Collection, transportation and oil preparation), Proceedings of All-Union Scientific Conference, Perm', 1967, pp. 148154.

5. Nikitina L.A., Martos V.N.,  Novoe v voprosakh vozdeystviya na prizaboynuyu zonu skvazhin (New in the issues of impact on the bottomhole well zone),  Overview Neftepromyslovoe delo (Oilfield business), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENT, 1971, 69 p.

6. Arushanov M.P., Issledovanie vozmozhnosti primeneniya reagentov, soderzhashchikh nizkomolekulyarnye organicheskie kisloty, dlya povysheniya nefteotdachi karbonatnykh kollektorov (Investigation of the possibility of using reagents containing low-molecular organic acids to enhance the recovery of carbonate reservoirs): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1976.

7. Zagoruyko A.A, Petsukha R.A., Gorabchev B.I., The use of acidic effluent from the production of synthetic fatty acids for EOR (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 1976, no. 6, pp. 3639.

8. Gafarov Sh.A., Use of the product of liquid-phase oxidation of hydrocarbon feedstock for stabilization and suppression of swelling of clays (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2002, V. 1. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-68-71

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622.276.53.054.23:621.67-83
M.G. Volkov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa), P.I. Chermyanin (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Estimation of gauges configuration value for digital oilfield ESP-producing oil wells

Keywords: gauges, downhole telemetry system, smart field, digital oilfield, cost optimization, automation, value of information

Ability to make decisions using validated real time data is known as a base tier of a digital oilfield. The goal of digitalization is enhancing oil production and cost reducing. But for mature onshore fields with thousands of producing wells with low oil rates upgrading the data acquisition system may be economically unreasonable.

This paper describes the methodology of gauge configuration value estimation using the value of information concept. The main idea of the research is that additional information has value only when it drives to new well works or you can make right decision faster.

Authors analyzed statistics of a general well works on the ESP-producing oil wells (including costs and effects) and distinguished the datasets (and gauge configurations) needed to make decisions about well intervention. Results of a gauge configuration value estimation for considered onshore field are shown as a pallet that allow to choose most economically reasonable configuration using oil rate and mean time to failure parameters. Complex of low oil rate and normal MTTF values assign that there are no economic reasons to upgrade actual gauges configuration. Before using these results for investment decision its necessary to analyze fact well works effects, cost and nomenclature of gauges and actual business-processes in company conditions.

References

1. Reddick ., Castro A., Pannett A. et al., BP's field of the future program: Delivering success, SPE 112194, 2008.

2. Tofig A., AL-Dhubaib, Intelligent fields: Industry's Frontier&Opportunities, SPE 141874-MS-P, 2011.

3. Mabian A., Volokitin Y., Beliakova N. et al., Well and reservoir management project at Salym Petroleum Development, SPE 128834-MS-P, 2010.

4. Lilleng T., Sagatun I., Integrated operations methology and value proposition, SPE 128576-MS-P, 2010.

5. Bratvold R.B., Bickel E.J., Lohne H.P., Value of information in the oil and gas industry: Past, present, and future, SPE 110378, 2007.

6. Lohrenz J., Net values of our information, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1988, pp. 499-503.

7. Copeland T., Antikarnov V., Real options: A practitioner's guide, New York: Texere, 2001, 384 p.

8. Coopersmith E.M., Canningham P.C., A practical approach to evaluating the value of information and real option decisions in the upstream petroleum industry, SPE 77582, 2002.

9. Shevchenko S.D., Mironov D.V., Navozov V.A. et al., Samotlor: Real-time production optimization for Russia's largest field, SPE 149615, 2011.

10. Van den Berg F., Mabian A., Knoppe R. et al., Managing fields using intelligent surveillance, production optimization and collaboration, SPE 150079-MS-P, 2012.

11. Mabian E., Intellektual'nye mestorozhdeniya Salyma (Intellectual fields of Salym), Proceedings of  Intellektual'noe mestorozhdenie: ot modelirovaniya k optimizatsii i upravleniyu (Intellectual fields: from modeling to optimization and management), 2012.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-72-75

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622.276
A.N. Drozdov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), D.O. Vykhodtsev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), K.A. Goridko (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), V.S. Verbitsky (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Express method of jet pump characteristics calculation for well operation

Keywords: hydraulic jet pump, summarized characteristics, methods for calculating characteristics of hydraulic jet pump

Nowadays the most actual problems for oil producing from marginal wells are under-stream period increasing and specific energy consumption decreasing to raise fluid to the surface. The hydro jet method of the well operating allows solving the above oil production tasks. Despite of the advantages of the hydro jet method of operation, such as the fluid production with high gas content and mechanical impurities, the ability to drain formations with a low inflow, one of the problems is the lack of a simple engineering technique for calculating the hydraulic jet pumps (HJP) characteristics adapted for downhole conditions.

In this article we present testing industrial HJP results with different values of the basic geometric parameter in a wide range of the active (7.2-13.1 MPa) and the passive (0.2-3.1 MPa) flow pressures simulating downhole conditions. 120 characteristics of the hydraulic jet pump operation were obtained. Based on the results of processing the experimental data, the influence of the above parameters on the HJP characteristics was determined: 1) the smaller the value of the basic geometric parameter provides the higher the pressure developed by the GOS; 2) the passive flow pressure increasing at the intake of the HJP leads to a more significant expansion of the cavity-free operation area than a decreasing of the active flow pressure ahead of the nozzle. There were generalized data of experimental hydraulic jet pump characteristics studies, which were obtained in this range of baric conditions. As a result of the experimental data processing, nomograms of the hydraulic jet pump cavitation operating modes were obtained. Also an engineering methodology for calculating the hydraulic jet pump characteristics, which can be used both for selecting the HJP to the wells and for assessing the current operation was developed.

Based on the regression analysis, we obtained analytical dependencies of the cavitation parameters of the hydraulic jet pump (cavitation injection coefficient and cavitation dimensionless pressure drop) on the maximum dimensionless pressure drop corresponding to the zero injection coefficient. The error of the obtained model with respect to experimental characterization studies was estimated.

References

1. Sokolov E.Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Jet devices), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.

2. Podvidz L.G., Kirillovskiy Yu.L., Raschet struynykh nasosov i ustanovok (Calculation of jet pumps and units), Proceedings of VIGM, 1968, V. 38, pp. 4497.

3. Cunningham R.G., Jet pump theory and performance with fluids of high viscosity, Trans. ASME, 1957, V. 79, pp. 18071820.

4. Drozdov A.N., The technology and technique of oil production by submergible pumps in the complicated conditions, Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2008, 312 p.

5. Patent no. 2238443 RF, Method for oil production and pump-ejector system for its realization, Inventors: Drozdov A.N., Monakhov V.V., Tsykin I.V.

6. Lyamaev B.F., Gidrostruynye nasosy i ustanovki (Hydrojet pumps and units), Leningrad, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1988, 256 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-76-79

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276.53.054.22 : 621.653
R.N. Bakhtizin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), K.R. Urazakov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), S.F. Ismagilov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), R.I. Bakirov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), I.R. Bashirov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Kiselev (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), F.F. Davletshin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Method for calculating the plunger hanger in the cylinder of the sucker-rod pump

Keywords: sucker-rod pump, well workover, adapting the plunger stripping, dynamic head (level), deformation

The article presents a method for calculating plunger hanger to make it fit to cylinder after well workover. In general, the technique is based on the calculation of the effective plunger stripping. An example of calculating the plunger hanger for hypothetical well is given. It can be seen that proposed methodic allows to make possible the operation of the pump without a stroke both during the stabilizing the flow and during the operation at the steady flow. The calculations are based on a quasi-static model of mutual deformations of the rods and production strings, also considering the nature of alteration in deformations with the dynamic level lowering.

A technique for correcting the plunger, stripping which operates with the stroke to the inlet valve or pump casing, by the actual dynamogram is proposed. As a rule, plunger strokes are reflected as a splash shape of loads on the dynamogram at the end of the polished rod travel. This method allows, based upon extreme values of loads on the actual dynamogram, to calculate the value of the minimal distance, by which the depth of the plunger hanger should be altered, in order to exclude kicks.

The obtained results can be applied in design of wellwork, in particular for downhole operations of wells equipped with sucker rod pumps.

Reference

1. Agamalov G.B., Peculiarity of mechanized oil production from deep weels (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2009, no. 2, pp. 6467.

2. Urazakov K.R., Dmitriev V.V., Buranchin A.R.et al.,  Pump pipes deformation influence on rate of production and the interrepair period of wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2009, no. 1, pp. 1519.

3. Landau L.D., Lifshits E.M., Teoreticheskaya fizika (Theoretical physics), T. VII. Teoriya uprugosti (Theory of elasticity), Moscow: Fizmatlit Publ., 2003, 264 p.

4. Mishchenko I.T., Skvazhinnaya dobycha nefti (Oil production), Moscow: Neft i gaz Publ., 2007, 826 p.

5. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Ismagilov S.F. et al., Dynamic model of a rod pump installation for inclined wells, SOCAR Proceedings, 2017, no. 4, pp. 74-82.

6. Urazakov K.R., Bakhtizin R.N., Ismagilov S.F., Topol'nikov A.S., Theoretical dynamometer card calculation taking into account complications in the sucker rod pump operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 9093.

7. Urazakov K.R., Ekspluatatsiya naklonno napravlennykh nasosnykh skvazhin (Operation of directional pumping wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993, 169 p.

8. Urazakov K.R., Bogomol'nyy E.I., Seytpagambetov Zh.S., Gazarov A.G., Nasosnaya dobycha vysokovyazkoy nefti iz naklonnykh i obvodnennykh skvazhin (Pumping of high-viscosity oil from inclined and watered wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2003, 302 p.

9. Belov I.G., Issledovanie raboty glubinnykh nasosov dinamometrirovaniem (Investigation of well pumps work by dynamometry), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1954, 128 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-80-84

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

665.622.43
I.V. Litvinets (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk), N.V. Yudina (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk), Yu.V. Loskutova (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk), I.V. Prozorova (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk)
Effectiveness of additives for inhibition of wax deposition in oil-gas mixtures

Keywords: condensates, oil, n-alkanes, wax deposition, inhibitors, pour point, temperature of crystallization

The process of deposit formation in a sample of highly paraffinic crude oil, two samples of gas condensates and their mixtures is investigated. The amount of deposit in the oil is observed to increase with decreasing ambient temperature and hence it is significantly higher than the mass fraction of paraffins, asphaltenes, and resins due to the occlusion of liquid hydrocarbon in the crystal lattice cells. Using the method of gas-liquid chromatography, the individual compositions of n-alkanes responsible for the formation of deposits in the samples under study are determined. A monomodal distribution of n-alkanes in oil and gas condensate samples is observed. The deposits isolated fr om the crude oil and gas condensates are characterized by a bimodal molecular mass distribution of n-alkanes and an increased content of high molecular hydrocarbons. The efficiency of additives inhibiting the formation of deposits in the oil sample and its mixtures with condensates is investigated. The experimental K-210 additive is found to exhibit better inhibitor and depressor properties in the highly paraffinic crude oil. An addition of 0.05 % wt. of K-210 into the oil sample allowed reducing the deposition rate by 81-85 %. The inhibiting effect of K-210 however decreases in the oil - gas mixtures.

It is shown that the inhibitory effect of the additives based on poly (alkyl) acrylates depends on the composition of paraffin hydrocarbons and resin components of the oil systems under study. The stages of nucleating seed formation and spontaneous crystallization are determined from the cloud point, spontaneous crystallization temperature, and pour point. A possibility of adjusting the structural phase transition in the cases wh ere the temperature decreases during crystallite nucleation and growth is shown. The decrease in the spontaneous crystallization temperature upon introduction of 0.05% wt. of additives into the oil-gas mixture is negligible and is found to be about 35 C, while the pour point of oil with an additive decreased by 1317 C and that of the oil-gas mixtures  by 1820 C.

References

1. Yudina N.V., Loskutova Yu.V., Prozorova I.V. et al.,  Rheological properties and dynamics of the formation of sludge of oil and gas mixtures (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2014, no. 5, pp. 8992.

2. Tugunov P.I., Nestatsionarnye rezhimy perekachki neftey i nefteproduktov (Unsteady conditions of pumping oil and petroleum products), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 222 p.

3. Anufriev R.V., Volkova G.I., Changes of the structural and mechanical parameters of hydrocarbons after high-frequency acoustic action (In Russ.), Khimiya v interesakh ustoychivogo razvitiya = Chemistry for Sustainable Development, 2014, V. 22, no. 3, pp. 307 312.

4. Prozorova I.V., Volkova G.I., Yudina N.V. et al., Influence of a composite additive on rheological and energy characteristics of wax and high-wax oils (In Russ.), Neftepererabotka i neftekhimiya, 2014, no. 3, pp. 3639.

5. Evdokimov I.N., Problemy nesovmestimosti neftey pri ikh smeshenii (Oil incompatibility problems during oil mixing), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian University of Oil and Gas, 2008, 93 p.

6. Yudina N.V., Loskutova Yu.V., Composition and rheological properties of oil deposits of highly paraffinic crude oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 2, pp. 6971.

7. Prozorova I.V., Yudina N.V., Nebogina N.A. et al., Selection of inhibitor and depressor additive for oil of the Verhnechonsky oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 6, pp. 6870.

8. Pol'skaya N.N., Samoylenko A.Yu., Golovanchikov A.B. et al., Influence thermal and desqueezering processings on rheological properties of oil (In Russ.), Izvestiya Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2012, V. 5, no. 1, pp. 114118.

9. Litvinets I.V., Prozorova I.V., Effect of inhibitor additives on the composition of paraffin deposits of gas condensate from the Urengoy field (In Russ.), Khimiya v interesakh ustoychivogo razvitiya = Chemistry for Sustainable Development, 2015, no. 3, pp. 309315.

10. Hammami A., Ratulowski J., Coutinho J.A.P., Cloud points: Can we measure or model them, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2003, V. 21, no. 3, pp. 345358.

11. Srivastava S.P., Saxena A.K., Tandon R.S. et al., Measurement and prediction of solubility of petroleum waxes in organic solvents, Fuel, 1997, V. 76, no. 7, pp. 625630.

12. Paso K., Senra M., Yi Y. et al., Paraffin polydispersity facilitates mechanical gelation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, no. 44, pp. 72427254.

13. Tumanyan B.P., Nauchnye i prikladnye aspekty teorii neftyanykh dispersnykh sistem (Scientific and applied aspects of the theory of oil disperse systems), Moscow: Tekhnika Publ. 2000, 336 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-85-89

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

622.692.4-034.14
Yu.V. Lisin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), N.A. Mahutov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), D.A. Neganov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), E.P. Studenov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), S.V. Skorodumov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Identification of pipe steels of domestic and foreign manufacturing

Keywords: identification, pipe steel, mechanical properties, chemical composition, long-term operation, steel grade

Questions of complex assessment of durability are considered of long-operated systems of transport of oil and oil products. These questions are coordinated to standard justification of conditions and characteristics of durability pipe steel, pipes and pipeline systems. At such justification one and most important aspects of assessment of durability are an identification pipe steel on the whole set of the defining factors of production and operation. A set of technology factors include: the manufacturer (domestic or foreign), parameters of the chemical composition, mechanical properties of steel in an initial state after production of pipes, the working pressure, term of operation of pipes, geometrical parameters of pipes (diameters, thickness of walls), a microstructure and granularity of steel, anisotropy of properties. The complexity of assessment of a role of the specified factors often is connected with lack of initial technological, technical, settlement and design information, especially for the pipelines which are in operation of 30-50 years and more. In this case identification is carried out by results of indirect tests with assessment of calculated parameters of durability. Control inspections of durability are carried out direct laboratory researches of the standard samples which are cut out from pipes, bench tests of fragments of pipes before destruction, by hydraulic tests at each stage of operation. In the conclusion bases of a technique of identification pipe steel, developed by Pipeline Technology Institute are stated.

References

1. Russian Federal Law No.116-FZ of 21.07.1997, On industrial safety of hazardous production facilities, URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/ cons_doc_LAW_15234/

2. Lisin Yu.V., Research of physical and chemical properties of steel for continuously operated pipelines and assessment of safe operational life (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 4, pp. 18-28.

3. Bezopasnost' Rossii. Bezopasnost' truboprovodnogo transporta (Security of Russia. Safety of pipeline transport), Moscow: Znanie, 2002, 752 p.

4. Mazur I.I., Ivantsov O.M., Bezopasnost' truboprovodnykh sistem (Safety of pipeline systems), Moscow: Elima Publ., 2004, 1097 p.

5. Makhutov N.A., Prochnost', resurs, zhivuchest' i bezopasnost' mashin (Strength, life, survivability and safety of machines), Moscow: LIBROKOM Publ., 2008, 576 p.

6. SNiP 2.04.12-86. Steel pipelines strength analysis.

7.  GOST 32388-2013. Processing pipes. Standards and calculation methods for the stress, vibration and seismic effects.

8. ASME B31.G-2009. Manual for determining the remaining strength of corroded pipelines.

9. API 579/ASME FFS-1. Fitness for service.

10. Makhutov N.A., Permyakov V.N., Resurs bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii sosudov i truboprovodov (Resource of safe operation of vessels and pipelines), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2005, 516 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-90-95

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NFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

681.5.09:622.276
I.S. Afanasiev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), E.V. Yudin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Lubnin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), D.V. Turchanovsky (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), E.I. Khatmullina (Ufa SciTechCenter LLC, RF, Ufa)
Introduction a common information space in the field of geology, development and production using the example of Zarubezhneft JSC

Keywords: IT project, information technologies, fields development, oil production, efficiency of geological and technical measures

The article shows the results of development and implementation of an IT-concept for organizing the movement of field information within the framework of a single information space of the Company on the example of Zarubezhneft JSC. Based on the integrated model for IT-systems maturity assessment (in terms of business needs covering degree), a degree of development of Zarubezhnefts IT infrastructure was determined. To ensure the effective development of IT systems, basic principles of IT infrastructure creation have been formed, IT solutions target scheme for the "Geology, Development and Production" block has been developed, key implementation systems have been described and a roadmap has been created.

Implementation of the target IT architecture in the Upstream block even in the short run has given noticeable results in terms of improving the efficiency of the Company's production activities. Efficiency is achieved through the systematization of initial data on geology and production, through the introduction of convenient tools for their analysis, identification of new candidate wells for geological and technical measures, increasing the planning predictive capacity and average start-up production rates as well as through reducing the share of economically unprofitable workover solutions. The achieved success is the result of work on building new IT infrastructure of the Company, and, as a result, increasing the availability of verified field data, implementing tools for analyzing geological and technological information.

The Company continues to introduce new and develop current IT solutions within the process of digitalization of Zarubezhneft Groups enterprises. At present, the Company has a tendency to develop its own engineering modules. Availability of an up-to-date database of verified field data makes it possible to shorten the time of developed modules implementation into production. Development of the modules themselves is carried out in accordance with the current goals of Zarubezhneft JSC and forms competencies in the field under study as well as contributes to creation of Companys competitive advantages.

References

1. Lubnin A.A., Afanasiev I.S., Yudin E.V. et al., System approach to planning the development of multilayer offshore fields (In Russ.), SPE 176690, 2015.

2. Afanasiev I.S., Yudin E.V., Azimov T.A. et al., Technology for the thermal treatment of the productive formations of the Boca de Jaruco field: Challenges, opportunities, prospects (In Russ.), SPE 176699-MS 2017.

3. Lubnin A.A., Yudin E.V., Fazlytdinov R.F. et al., A new approach of gas lift wells production optimization on offshore fields (In Russ.), SPE 181903-MS, 2016.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-96-100

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STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REGULATION

006:622.276
V.Ya. Kershenbaum (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), G.I. Shmal (Union of Oil & Gas Producers of Russia, RF, Moscow), A.S. Panteleev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
The main directions of standardization in the field of subsea production systems

Keywords: subsea production complex, standardization, primary subsystems

The development of the arctic shelf represents a great economic significance for Russia as it holds up to 80% of countrys hydrocarbons reserve. However, the production of hydrocarbons in that area is complicated by a delicate ecosystem and unfavorable climate conditions, specifically low temperatures in winter, strong winds and sea waves, seasonal presence of icebergs and pack ice. In this regard, the best solution for extracting oil and gas is the exploitation of the subsea production systems such as manifolds, flexible drill stem, control systems, underwater pipelines, subsea X-mas tree, transmitting and gas preparation systems.

After the imposition of sanctions against Russia in 2014 there were some import substitution programs activated, and shelves development has become one of the most significant directions, due to the crucial dependence on the exported technology and products in this field. The import substitution program can be implemented only along with preparing standards that contain general requirements for the subsystems of subsea production complex on all stages of its life cycle. Obviously, applying these standards will help to accelerate market entry, decrease CAPEX and OPEX and ensure the equipment compatibility. Above all the standards requirements for the most important subsystems of subsea production complex should be issued, namely the ones for manifold systems, flexible drillstem and control systems.

This article contains the analysis of API, ISO, NORSOK standards, the issues of applying them in Russian Arctic regions; it also gives some recommendations on the ways of Russian standardization development in the field of subsea production complex.

References

1. Akhmetkhanov R.S., Makhutov N.A., Reznikov D.O. et al., Bezopasnost' Rossii. Pravovye, sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i nauchno-tekhnicheskie aspekty. Tematicheskiy blok Bezopasnost' toplivno-energeticheskogo kompleksa. Osnovy bezopasnosti pri osvoenii kontinental'nykh shel'fov (Security of Russia. Legal, socioeconomic and scientific and technical aspects. Thematic block "Safety of fuel and energy complex". Security basis for the continental shelf development), Moscow: Znanie Publ., 2013, 640 p.

2. Volkov V.Zh., Maslova I.N., Petrova E.A., Experience in certification of the underwater mining complex equipment for the development of the Kirinskoye field of the Sakhalin-3 project (In Russ.), Sfera neftegaz, 2011, no. 5, pp. 3437.

3. Kershenbaum V.Ya., NGK arkhipelag importozameshcheniya. Konkurentosposobnost' i upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse (Oil and gas complex an archipelago of import substitution. Competitiveness and quality management in the oil and gas sector), Moscow: Publ. of National Institute of Oil and Gas, 2015, 340 p
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-102-104

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ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

628.512:543.272.7
S.A. Polovkov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Kriulin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
System of continuous monitoring of oil vapor concentration in the air of the working area

Keywords: gas analyzer, oil, petroleum products, gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, vapor concentration, device, personnel protection, threat, life and health, explosiveness, toxicity, explosion, safety, metrology, gas mixtures, explosion protection, continuous monitoring of the hydrocarbon vapors concentration, portable gas analyzers, individual gas analyzers, pipeline
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-105-108

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628.544
I.M. Volkov (Nizhnevartovsk Expert Centre Ltd., RF, Nizhnevartovsk), .S. Ryakhin (Zarubezhneft JCS, RF, Moskow), S.N. Belousov (Neftegaz RC JSC, RF, Nizhnevartovsk), V.V. Aleksandrova (Nizhnevartovsk State University, RF, Nizhnevartovsk), V.B. Ivanov (Nizhnevartovsk State University, RF, Nizhnevartovsk)
Ensuring environmental safety of project solution within a license holders block through the best available technologies

Keywords: the best available technologies, innovative mud pit, enclosure structures, environmental safety, cost effectiveness

Western Siberia is Russias main oil and gas productive area. Industrial plants here have huge adverse environmental impact which is why they are considered to use the best available technologies when developing the project solutions within their license blocks. The Russian environmental laws promote the oil and gas companies to approach the best available technologies. In the process of oil production the companies could use an innovative mud pit for temporary storage of drilling waste. A new technology is oriented to achieve, suppose building a structure for temporary storage of drilling waste which provides advanced environmental safety.

The innovative drilling mud storage technology is designed to build a mud pit with watertight screen on the bottom and walls of it, and to create conditions for further rehabilitation of the mud storage facilities. Resource advantage of the proposed technology is the use of modular enclosure structures which assigns the innovative mud pit to capital construction. Unlike the temporary facilities the capital construction facilities allow collecting and dumping wastes, as well as storage and burying. The technology of using modular enclosure structure based on recycling and low material consumption is unique. It reduces costs for construction of new waste storage facility, as well as acts as a primary element of the environmental safety system when implementing construction of structures and facilities in the license holders blocks. Thanks to this mud pit construction technology atmospheric precipitation ingress does not occur to the stored mud. Instead, it runs down outside the fencing structure and off the field. Ground water cannot penetrate into the pit, so that water soluble hazardous substances cannot be carried out from the pit.

The innovative mud pit technology ensures the increased environmental safety and efficiency in drilling mud handling. The costs for its implementation remunerate operating expenses of the license holder in terms of disposal fee for wastes generated from drilling, that reduces profit tax base. Allowance collected by the license holder for the value of the implemented technologies will be a significant incentive to adopt the new technologies when implementing oil production project solutions in the license block, which is a new generating stage in development of oil and gas production in Western Siberia.

References

1. Usmanov I.Yu., Ovechkina E.S., Yumagulova E.R. et al., The problem of ecological self-recovery in the Middle Ob regions subject to antropogenic oil production impact (In Russ.), Vestnik Nizhnevartovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2015, no. 1, pp. 7986.

2. I.Yu. Usmanov, E.R. Yumagulova, Ivanov V.B. et al., Adaptation of ecosystems in the Middle Ob region exposed to oil production impact: Hierarchy and duration of adaptation processes (In Russ.), Vestnik Nizhnevartovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2016, no. 2, pp. 8794.

3. Usmanov I.Yu., Shcherbakov A.V., Mavletova M.V. et al., The pulsing multidimensional ecological niche of plants: extension of the concept (In Russ.), Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy Akademii nauk, 2016, V. 18, no. 2-2, pp. 525529.

4. Usmanov I.Yu., Yumagulova E.R., Ovechkina E.S. et al., Fractal analysis of morpho-physiological parameters of Oxycoccus polustris Pers in oligotrophic swamps of Western Siberia, Vegetos, 2016, V. 29, no. 1, URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2229-4473.1000101.

5. Aitov I.S., Ivanov V.B., Transformatsiya pochvogruntov na litsenzionnykh uchastkakh neftedobyvayushchikh kompaniy (Transformation of soil in licensed areas of oil companies), Collected papers Regional'naya ekologicheskaya politika v usloviyakh sushchestvuyushchikh prioritetov razvitiya neftegazodobychi (Regional environmental policy in the context of existing priorities for development of oil and gas production), Proceedings of III congress of ecologists of oil regions, Novosibirsk: Profiks Publ., 2013, pp. 158168.

6. Ivanov V.B., Rekul'tivatsiya neftezagryaznennykh zemel': problemy i perspektivy (Recultivation of oil contaminated lands: problems and prospects), Collected papers Ekologo-geograficheskie problemy prirodopol'zovaniya neftegazovykh regionov: teoriya, metody, praktika (Ecological and geographical problems of natural resource management of oil and gas regions: Theory, methods, practice), Proceedings IV International Scientific and Practical Conference, Nizhnevartovsk: Nizhnevartovskiy gosudarstvennyy gumanitarnyy universitet, 2010, pp. 8789.

7. Ivanov V.B., Oberemchenko A.A., Ekologo-khimicheskiy analiz sostoyaniya pochvennykh resursov na territorii litsenzionnogo uchastka (Ecological and chemical analysis of the state of soil resources in the licensed area): edited by Korichko A.V., Proceedings of 18th All-Russian Student Scientific and Practical Conference of Nizhnevartovsk State University, Nizhnevartovsk:  Publ. of Nizhnevartovsk State University, 2016, pp. 10741078.

8. Ivanov V.B., Usmanov I.Yu., Aleksandrova V.V., Quantitative and qualitative criteria for transformation and self-restoration of natural complexes caused by oil pollution (In Russ.), V mire nauchnykh otkrytiy, 2017, V. 9, no. 1-2, pp. 5665.

9. Volkov I.M., Territorial ecological management with post-design analysis of inluence upon the environment (case study of waste drilling barns inventory) (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ekologiya i prirodopol'zovanie, 2011, no. 4, pp. 180-189.

10. Volkov I.M., Ivanov V.B., Innovatsionnye podkhody v proektirovanii ob"ektov razmeshcheniya burovykh otkhodov v svete posleproektnoy otsenki vozdeystviya na okruzhayushchuyu sredu ob"ektov obustroystva mestorozhdeniy Srednego Priob'ya (Innovative approaches in the design of drilling waste disposal sites in terms of post-project evaluation of the environmental impact of the facilities of the fields of the Middle Ob), Collected papers Kul'tura, nauka, obrazovanie: problemy i perspektivy (Culture, science, education: problems and prospects), Proceedings of IV All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference, Nizhnevartovsk: Publ. of Nizhnevartovsk State University, 2016, Part II, pp. 2124.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-109-112

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