S.I. Kudryashov, A.F. Ismagilov, I.G. Khamitov, V.A. Smyslov, K.A. Sedykh, A.A. Kozhemyakin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Optimization of new oil projects search and assessment in Zarubezhneft JSC
Currently oil and gas companies have to increase their assets portfolio in order to maintain stable and intense development. The process of search and valuation of new projects has become a common practice of both VINC (Vertically-Integrated Oil Companies) and smaller participants of the industry.
The article describes the process of search and valuation of new assets in Zarubezhneft JSC. Three main components determine its efficiency: processes, specialists and tools. The concept of direct search for new projects, integrated asset valuation and search for potential opportunities (upsides) is described. The structure of the process, management of human resources at different stages (search, valuation) and tools (methods and software) which are used in tasks solution, are presented.
The concept that is used by the Company is formalized and tested on numerous real projects (assets both at geological exploration stage and at brownfield stage).
The article contains practical examples of effective search and valuation of new projects. In particular, one of the priority regions of the Company is considered – The Middle East, and traditional region of presence – Southeast Asia offshore. The article provides real examples of valuation, as well as optimization of projects by searching for upsides at different levels and sectors. For example, Company's experience in preparing a full-scale project for the development of fields (Master Development Plan, MDP) for the asset in the Middle East is noted. An example of realization of project’s upsides by cluster approach and integrated assessment is described.In conclusion, it should be noted that the concept of search and valuation used in Zarubezhneft JSC allows to effectively run this business process. The Company is constantly improving its methods and approaches due to permanent changes in oil and gas industry. Future prospects for the development of new projects search and valuation process are considered.
1. Garcia-Blanco M.T., Seltzer R.N., Chernacov A., Laria G., Mature-asset expertise,Â SPE 135239-MS, 2010.
2. Chorn L., Bharali N., Murali K., Appraisal and valuation for proven shale playÂ acquisition opportunities, SPE 169829-MS, 2014.
3. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O., Nekhaev S., Karamutdinova D., The OptimalÂ parameters for oil field development (In Russ.), SPE 162089-RU, 2012.
4. Khasanov M.M., Sugaipov D.A., Ushmaev O.S., Development of cost engineeringÂ in Gazprom Neft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 2013, no. 12, pp. 14–16.
5. Downie A.A., Salazar A., Monsalve M. et al., Integrated Asset Model inÂ Camisea, SPE 142936-MS, 2011.
6. Tesaker O., Arnesen D., Zangl G. et al., Breaking the barriers – The IntegratedÂ Asset Model, SPE 112223, 2008.
7. Charles C., Okafor breaking the frontiers for effective flow assurance usingÂ Integrated Asset Models (IAM), SPE 149537, 2011.
8. Talabi O.A., Nitura J.T., Rodriguez N.J. et al., Modelling pipeline and chokeÂ optimization for improved gas field production using an Integrated AssetÂ Model: A case study, SPE 175549, 2015.
9. Ageh E.A., Adegoke A., Uzoh O.J., Using Integrated Production ModelingÂ (IPM) as an optimization tool for field development planning and management,Â SPE 140625, 2010.
10. Kudryashov S.I., Afanas'ev I.S., Dashevskiy A.A. et al., Integrated approachÂ to oil and gas producing enterprise rates planning in Zarubezhneft JSCÂ (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 144–148.
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A.M. Mastepanov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
On the evolution of world energy forecasts made in 2013/2014 and 2016
In the article analyzes the forecasts of the world energy development from the leading analytical centers (the International Energy Agency, the US Energy Information Administration, the OPEC Secretariat, the British Petroleum Group, the Institute of Energy Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation, etc.), made at high oil prices (2013-2014), and after their fall (2016-2017). It is considered how the very fact of the onset of the period of low oil prices was estimated in the forecasts and how the actual price factor was taken into account in various forecasts. It is shown that the factor of the current period of low prices in forecasts is expressed, first of all, in the short and medium term.Analyzed the evolution of world primary energy consumption estimates, during the period of high oil prices, and after they have fallen sharply. It was revealed that in the forecasts made in 2016/2017, during the period of low oil prices, global energy consumption projections on the same date is lower than the projections of 2013-2014, and attempted to explain this. Investigated the differences in the forecasts made at different times, associated with the structure of the world's energy consumption, and concluded that they apparently are not so much concerned with the influence as to the extent to which the climatic and environmental constraints, including expectations of the implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate. In general, the analysis of various forecasts shows that the price factor, despite its importance for the current economic activity, on the results of the long-term development of the world energy sector is significantly weaker than one would expect. The reasons for this are not fully understood and require further study.
1. Mastepanov A.M., The world oil market situation: several estimatesÂ and forecasts (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2016, no. 2,Â pp. 7–20.
2. Mastepanov A.M., About pricing factors the world oil market andÂ the role of shale oil in the process (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =Â Oil Industry, 2016, no. 9, pp. 6–10.
3. Mastepanov A.M., Oil low prices – the new prospects of developmentÂ of the world energy industry (In Russ.), Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniyaÂ neftegazovym kompleksom, 2017, no. 1, pp. 5–6.
4. Mastepanov A.M., The influence of oil prices on the world oil andÂ gas industry development priorities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =Â Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 8–12.
5. Energeticheskiy byulleten', 2013, no. 5, URL: http://ac.gov.ru/files/publication/Â a/508.pdf
9. World Energy Outlook 2016,OECD/IEA, 2016, 684 đ.
12. URL: https://www.eriras.ru/data/7/rus
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A.P. Kondakov, S.R. Bembel, A.I. Tseplyaeva (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
A refinement of the PZ-object geological model based on the geological and geophysical data analysis
Features of geological structure of one of the most perspective oil deposit of Krasnoleninsk arch in Western Siberia, associated with the formation of the basement, are considered. A refinement of the geological model and PZ-object reservoir were carried out on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of seismic prospecting and well testing data and conceptions about the nature of the fracture zones spreading, so an increase of the geological reserve value of the deposit by more than 30% is expected. The main method of such hydrocarbon deposit exploration is 3D seismic prospecting with oilfield and core research.
As the authors recommended, the additional perforation of productive intervals of one of the wells was carried out and the hydraulic fracturing was performed. Recent geophysical and oilfield investigations have shown that the main well stream corresponds to the interval, recommended for additional perforation, which is below than previously executed perforations for all wells. Realized sampling indicated the potential productivity of the lower intervals of the PZ-object. As a result of the work the guidelines for additional perforation of lower intervals of PZ-object in several wells were made.For effective exploration of these objects the information about natural fractures and faults is required. Its basis is a comprehensive analysis of the seismic prospecting andÂ logging data, as well as the results of the usage of advanced methods of its petrophysical interpretation, and finally, the drilling materials.
1. Koshlyak V.A., Granitoidnye kollektory nefti i gaza (Granitoid oil and gas collectors),Â Ufa: Tau Publ., 2005, 256 p.Â
2. Belonovskaya L.G., Fractured rocks and the basics of oil and gas fracturedÂ reservoirs’ search developed in VNIGRI (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya.Â Teoriya i praktika, 2006, no. 1, pp. 1–11.
3. Shuster V.L., The formation of zones of uncompacted rocks in the formationsÂ of the basement and new seismic technology to map (In Russ.), EkspozitsiyaÂ Neft' Gaz, 2015, no. 7(46), pp. 14–16.
4. Pinus O.V., Borisenok D.Yu., Bakhir S.Yu. et al., Using of multiple approach forÂ geological simulation of fractured reservoirs of West Siberian basement (withÂ reference to Maloichskoye field) (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journalÂ Oil and Gas Geology , 2006, no. 6, pp. 38–42.
5. Valyaev B.M., Problema genezisa neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy: teoreticheskieÂ aspekty i prakticheskaya znachimost' (The Â problem of the oil andÂ gas deposits genesis: theoretical aspects and practical significance), In:Â Genezis uglevodorodnykh flyuidov i mestorozhdeniy (Genesis of hydrocarbonÂ fluids and deposits): edited by Dmitrievskiy A.N., Valyaev B.M., Moscow:GEOS Publ., 2006, pp. 14–22.
6. Popkov V.I., Zhil'nye zalezhi uglevodorodov: usloviya formirovaniya i metodikaÂ poiskov i razvedki (Vein deposits of Â hydrocarbons: conditions of formationÂ and methods of prospecting and exploration), In: Genezis uglevodorodnykhÂ flyuidov i mestorozhdeniy (Genesis of hydrocarbon fluids and deposits): edited by Dmitrievskiy A.N., Valyaev B.M., Moscow: GEOS Publ., Â 2006,Â pp. 277–285.
7. Blekhman V., Krenov M., Shmar'yan L., Priezzhev I., Modeling technique forÂ fractured terrigenous reservoirs in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Tekhnologii TEK,URL: http://www.oilcapital.ru/technologies/ 2008/01/091102_118283.shtml.Â
8. Bembel' S.R., Efimov V.A., Petrophysical interpretation of well geophysicalÂ studies and a geological model of an object formed by metamorphic rocksÂ (In Russ.), Collected papers “Petrofizika slozhnykh kollektorov: problemy i perspektivyÂ 2015” (Petrophysics of complex reservoirs: Problems and ProspectsÂ 2015): edited by Enikeev B.N., Moscow: EAGE Geomodel', 2015, pp. 96–116.
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Yu.A. Kashnikov, D.V. Shustov, A.E. Kukhtinskii (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), S.A. Kondratiev (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Geomechanical properties of the terrigenous reservoirs in the oil fields of Western Ural
The program and results of the study of geomechanical properties of the terrigenous reservoirs in the oil fields of West Ural is presented. The study was performed using PIK-UIDK/PL triaxial apparatus (made in Russia) which is used to determine static and dynamic geomechanical parameters and reservoir properties (permeability) in reservoir conditions. More than 150 samples were tested in this study. Correlations between static and dynamic properties were established based on the results of conducted tests. In particular, the dependences of static elastic modulus, uniaxial compressive strength and Biot coefficient on the compressional wave velocity were found. It is noted that there is no correlation between static and dynamic Poisson ratio according to the results of this study and many other Russian and foreign studies. However, the correlation between the static Poisson ratio and the data fr om gamma ray logs was found which shows that Poisson ratio is connected with rock shaliness. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion were determined. The correlation between these parameters and the compressional wave velocity was found. The results of Biot and Skempton coefficients determination are presented. The conclusions about the features of the geomechanical parameters are made. The established dependencies were compared with the log data in the interval wh ere hydraulic fracturing was performed. It is noted that the Biot coefficient values calculated using well log data are on average 0.05 higher than the values determined in laboratory conditions. This is due to not only the difference in acoustic signal frequencies between well logging equipment and PIK-UIDK/PL system but also due to the discrepancy of laboratory experiment conditions and conditions the conditions in the well.
1. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging theÂ gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.
2. Timonov A.V., Sudeev I.V., Pestrikov A.V. et al., A new methodology ofÂ simulation of hydraulic fracturing at the development of Priobskoye fieldÂ (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 3, pp. 58–61.
3. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Kukhtinskiy A.E. et al., Determination ofÂ fracture toughness of oil fields rocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = OilÂ Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 86–89.
4. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityÂ Press, 2007.
5. Fjaer E., Static and dynamic moduli of weak sandstones, Proceedings ofÂ the 37th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), June 7–9, 1999.
6. Fjaer E., Holt R.M., Harsrud P. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanicsÂ Hugaru: Elsevier, 2008, 515 p.
7. Hoek E., Martin C.D., Fracture initiation and propagation in intact rock –Â A review, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,Â 2014, V. 6, pp. 287–300.
8. Dobrynin V.M., Deformatsii i izmeneniya fizicheskikh svoystv kollektorovÂ nefti i gaza (Deformations and changes in the physical properties of oilÂ and gas collectors), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 239 p.
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V.Yu. Kerimov, A.V. Osipov, A.S. Nefedova (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Hydrocarbon systems of the Pre-Ural fore deep and exploration prospects of the oil and gas accumulations
The article shows the results of four studies of petroleum systems in eastern side of the Ural deflection within the Orenburg region: Lower Devonian, Frasnian, Frasnian-Tournaisian, Visean-Bashkir and Lower Permian. The characteristic elements (oil and gas source rocks, reservoir rocks and confining beds) and are described in terms of the formation of each hydrocarbon system. To evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern side of the Ural deflection applied numerical basin modeling technology, resulting in a constructed three-dimensional geological model of the object. Carried out work allowed to make productivity calculations of oil and gas and maternal sequences of each system and create a predictive model of oil and gas potential of the eastern side of the Ural deflection. According to the results of the research it determined that the ratio of the time of formation of oil and gas traps and generation time, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons may be acceptable for all the studied petroleum systems. The regions of most intense hydrocarbon generation: the generation of centers for all studied the petroleum systems are the southern part of Belsky depression and the northern part of the Caspian syncline. The ways of migration and areas of most likely hydrocarbon-accumulation are defined. For each hydrocarbon system ranging of the study area in terms of oil and gas potential is made and promising areas of geological exploration for oil and gas are identified. The most promising areas within the study area are the southern part of the basin and the northern Bielsko-board part of the Caspian syncline, where accumulations of hydrocarbons are forecast in all four petroleum systems. Within the northern part of the main prospects are associated with Lower Devonian, Frasnian, Frasnian-Tournaisian, and Visean-Bashkir petroleum systems. Prospects of Lower Permian hydrocarbon systems are significantly reduced due to the high risk of unfilled traps most of the territory.
1. Anan'ev V.V., Smelkov V.M., Pronin N.V., Prognostic evaluation of resourceÂ base of mendym-domanik formations as main hydrocarbon source of centralÂ areas of Volga-Urals oil and gas province (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gazaÂ = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2007, no. 1, pp. 32-38.
2. Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' Orenburgskoy oblasti (GeologicalÂ structure and oil and gas potential of the Orenburg region), Orenburg:Â Orenburgskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1997, 272 p.
3. Kerimov V.Yu., Osipov A.V., Lavrenova E.A., The hydrocarbon potential ofÂ deep horizons in the south-eastern part of the Volga-Urals oil and gasÂ province (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4,Â pp. 33–35.
4. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S. et al., The shale hydrocarbonsÂ prospects in the low permeability Khadum formation of the Pre-CaucasusÂ (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 50–53.
5. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Senin B.V., Lavrenova E.A., Basin modelingÂ tasks at different stages of geological exploration (In Russ.), NeftyanoeÂ khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 26–29.
6. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Serikova U.S., Hydrocarbon generation-accumulativeÂ system on the territory of Crimea Peninsula and adjacent Azov andÂ Black Seas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oi l Industry, 2015, no. 3,Â pp. 56–60.
7. Kerimov V.Yu., Bondarev A.V., Osipov A.V., Serov S.G., Evolution of petroleumÂ systems in the territory of Baikit anticlise and Kureiskaya syneclise (EasternÂ Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 5, pp. 39–42.
8. Kerimov V.Yu., Osipov A.V., Lavrenova E.A., The hydrocarbon potential ofÂ deep horizons in the south-eastern part of the Volga-Urals oil and gasÂ province (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4,Â pp. 33–35.
9. Kerimov V.Yu, Rachinsky M.Z. et al., Geofluid dynamic concept of hydrocarbonÂ accumulation in natural reservoirs, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016,Â V. 471, no. 1, pp. 1123-1125.Â
10. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Bondarev A.V., Evaluation of the organic carbonÂ content in the low-permeability shale formations (as in the case of theÂ Khadum suite in the Ciscaucasia region), Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2016,Â V. 32, no. 6., pp. 3235–3241.
11. Kerimov V.Yu., Gorbunov A.A., Lavrenova E.A., Osipov A.V., Models of hydrocarbonÂ systems in the Russian Platform–Ural junction zone, Lithology andÂ Mineral Resources, 2015, V. 50, no. 5, pp. 394–406.
12. Kerimov V.Yu., Lapidus A.L., Yandarbiev N.Sh. et al., Phys icochemicalÂ properties of shale strata in the Maikop series of Ciscaucasia, Solid FuelÂ Chemistry, 2017, V. 51, no. 2, pp. 122–130.
13. Kerimov V.Yu., Serikova U.S., Mustaev R.N., Guliev I.S., Deep oil-and-gasÂ content of South Caspian Basin (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 2014, no. 5, pp. 50–54.
14. Kerimov V.Yu., Shilov G.Ya., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S., ThermobaricÂ conditions of hydrocarbons accumulations Â formation in the low-permeabilityÂ oil reservoirs of Khadum suite of the Pre-Caucasus (In Russ.), NeftyanoeÂ khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 8–11.
15. Kerimov V.Y., Osipov A.V., Mustaev R.N., Monakova A.S., Modeling of petroleumÂ systems in regions with complex geological structure, Proceedings ofÂ 16th Science and Applied Research Conference on Oil and Gas GeologicalÂ Exploration and Development, Geomodel 2014.
16. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Fundamental challenges of the locationÂ of oil and gas in the South Caspian Basin, Doklady Earth Sciences,Â 2016, V. 471, no. 1, pp. 1109–1112.
17. Osipov A.V., Monakova A.S., Zakharchenko M.V., Mustaev R.N., AssessmentÂ of caprock fluid-resistive characteristics of Pre-Urals Fore Deep SouthernÂ part, Proceedings of 17th Scientific-Practical Conference on Oil and Gas GeologicalÂ Exploration and Development, Geomodel’ 2015, 2015.
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A.D. Korobov, L.A. Korobova (Saratov National Research State University, RF, Saratov), V.P. Morosov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), D.E. Zagranovskaya, O.A. Zakharova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Authigenic dolomite of Bazhen source successions as indicator of the final stage of hydrocarbon generation
Petrographic observations, substantiated by the X-ray phase examinations, have revealed dissimilar character of the secondary dolomite development within the highly bituminous rocks of the Bazhenov formation. The mineral in question has not been found in any dry holes. In the low- and medium-flow-rate wells (1.60 – 21.60 tons per day), it, alongside with other minerals, is more or less uniformly distributed in the principal bituminous mass, impregnates it, producing a peculiar ‘starry arch’ pattern in thin rock sections. In case of high oil influxes (more than 80 tons per day), the amount of newly formed dolomite rises sharply, its nature and localization character alter. It is important to emphasize, that the dry holes are maximally remote from the faults, and the most productive well has been drilled directly within the tectonic dislocation zone. The rest of the low- and medium-flow-rate wells occur in the intermediate positions relative to the faults.Productivity of the Bazhenov Formation and generation of authigenous dolomite are controlled by the rock heating degree. Increased temperatures (at about 200 ËšŃ) are required for normal dolomite generation. Within the settings of tectonohydrothermal activation of the Western Siberian Plate, hydrocarbon generation in the oil and gas source rocks occurs under the following temperatures: oil – from 60 to 170 ËšŃ, oil + gas condensate – from 150 to 200 ËšŃ). The investigation results show, that the algal authigenous dolomite from the Bazhenov formation has not resulted from diagenesis; it has originated autonomously, due to heating of the highly bituminous, Mg and Ca-comprising rocks. The absence or the presence of algal dolomite in situ indicates whether the highly bituminous source series of the Bazhenov Formation has been subjected to the stage of final hydrocarbons generation or not. The areas with the occurrences of algal authigenous dolomite should be regarded as the areas of intense (final) hydrocarbons generation by the Bazhenov deposits.
1. Yudovich Ya.E., Ketris M.P., Geokhimiya chernykh slantsev (Geochemistry ofÂ black shale), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1988, 272 p.
2. Neruchev S.G., Rogozina E.A., Zelichenko I.A. et al., NeftegazoobrazovanieÂ v otlozheniyakh domanikovogo tipa (Oil and gas formation in the DomanicÂ deposits), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1986, 247 p.
3. Lebedeva G.V., Vtorichnye izmeneniya organomontmorillonitovykh soedineniyÂ v domanikitakh (Secondary changes in organomontmorillonite compoundsÂ in Domanis formation), In: Zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya kollektorovÂ slozhnogo stroeniya i prognoz neftegazonosnosti (Patterns of distributionÂ of a complex structure collectors and forecast of oil and gas potential),Â Leningrad: Nauka Publ. , 1985, pp. 94–99.
4. Balushkina N.S., Kalmykov G.A., Kiryukhina T.A. et al., Regularities of structureÂ of Bazhenov horizon and upper parts of Abalak suite in view of oil productionÂ prospects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology,Â 2013, no. 3, pp. 48–61.
5. Korobov A.D. Korobova L.A., Morozov V.P., Linear zones of secondaryÂ dolomitization of reservoir rocks of Tevlinsko-Russkinskoye field-markers of migrationsÂ paths of oil-bearing fluid (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 2015, no. 9, pp. 52–56.
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E.A. Manuilova, A.G. Kalmykov, G.A. Kalmykov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), N.N. Bogdanovich (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), I.A. Karpov, T.V. Mamyashev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Complex method for core samples investigations to determine the parameters of the natural reservoirs and the main characteristics of high-carbon formations
In recent years, increased attention is focused on the study of high-carbon formations which are very promising for the oil and gas production and replenishment of the resource base of the oil industry. Unfortunately, at present time there is no approved method for the study of core samples, which allows to evaluate the oil potential of such formations, predict behaviors of their structure and distribution of promising sites in the area, and to assess the feasibility of using different mining methods. Based on the experience of high-carbon formations core samples investigation and analysis of the results the complex method for core samples investigations was developed. This method allows primarily to detect natural (dynamic porosity value of gas is higher than 3%) and technically stimulated oil and gas reservoirs, determine their main characteristics. The mehtod is based on research experiments, that are focused on studying the material composition and structure of rocks, includes measurements of reservoir properties by gas-volumetric method, determination of the main pyrolytic parameters before and after organic solvent extraction, and special research methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography, that combined allow to identify and study the structure of the pore space of rocks and fluids contained therein. The article shows the flow rates of the dynamic porosity, justifying the choice of the boundary value of 3%. The role of kerogen porosity in the formation of the natural reservoir is demonstrated, and methods for studying it are presented. It was shown in the article that parameters for estimating oil and gas reserves and resources in the high-carbon deposits can be determined by the obtained characteristics of rocks.
1. Iskritskaya N.I., Makarevich V.N., Shchepochkina A.A., Main trends in theÂ development of hard-to-extract oil reserves of the Russian FederationÂ (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2015,Â no. 4, pp. 62–66.
2. Kontorovich A.E., Kontorovich V.A., Ryzhkova S.V. et al., Jurassic paleogeographyÂ of the West Siberian sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizikaÂ = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2013, V. 54, no. 8, pp. 972–1012.
3. Ukhlova G.D., Larichev A.I., Mel'nikov N.V., Kos I.M., Sedimentation complexesÂ of the Neocomian of the Ob River Region (Western Siberia) (In Russ.),Â Byulleten' moskovskogo obshchestva ispytateley prirody. Otdel geologicheskiy,Â 2004, V. 79, pp. 14–21.
4. Stroenie i neftegazonosnost' bazhenitov Zapadnoy Sibiri (The structure andÂ oil and gas potential of Western Siberia bazhenite): edited by Nesterov I.I.,Â Tyumen': Publ. of ZapSibNIGNI, 1985, 176 p.
5. Kirichek A.V., Prognoz kollektorov treshchinnogo tipa v produktivnykh porodakhÂ Krasnoleninskogo svoda po rasseyannym volnam (Forecast of fracturedÂ reservoirs in the productive rocks of the Krasnoleninsky arch by scatteredÂ waves): thesis od candidate of geological and mineralogical science,Â Tyumen', 2011.
6. Bilibin S.I., Kalmykov G.A., Ganichev D.I., Balushkina N.S., Model of theÂ petroliferous rocks of the Bazhen formation (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2015, no. 3,Â pp. 5–14.
7. Bazhenova O.K. et al., Geologiya i geokhimiya nefti i gaza (Geology andÂ geochemistry of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2012, 432 p.
8. Kalmykov G.A., Stroenie bazhenovskogo neftegazonosnogo kompleksaÂ kak osnova prognoza differentsirovannoy nefteproduktivnosti (The structureÂ of the Bazhenov oil and gas bearing complex as the basis for the forecast ofÂ differentiated oil production): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogicalÂ science, Moscow, 2016.
9. Zelenov A.S., Ivanov Yu.L., A study on magnetic field gradient effect on theÂ results of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements (In Russ.), Karotazhnik,Â 2015, no. 8, pp. 42–52.
10. Kalmykov A.G., Manuilova E.A., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Bazhenov formationÂ phosphate containing interlayers as potential collectors (In Russ.), VestnikÂ Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 4: Geologiya = Moscow University GeologyÂ Bulletin, 2016, no. 5, pp. 60–66.
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E.S. Kazak(Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), N.N. Bogdanovich, A.V. Kazak (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), T.V. Mamiashev, D.K. Kostin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Quantification of residual pore water content and analysis of water extract of the Bazhenov formation samples (Western Siberia)
The paper presents the results of experimental studies to quantify the residual pore water content in the core samples of the Bazhenov formation with natural water saturation taken from two wells at the Youzhnoye and Vyngayakhinskoye fields, West Siberia using the direct laboratory methods of the investigation (Dean Stark and evaporation methods). The chemical and mineralogical rock samples compositions obtained using the X-ray diffraction analysis are shown here. The quantitative results of the microcomponents (Li, Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn Rb, Cs, U, Pb) and rare earth metals (REE) in the pore waters and in the rock samples are found using mass-spectrometric study (ICP-MC) and presented here for the first time. It also contains the measured values of the rocks cation exchange capacity (Pfeffer method) and results of the pore waters composition of Bazhenov formation obtained via composition analysis of the water extracts. It was found that the gravity groundwater content, presumably capillary water, in the studied rock samples is 0.14-2.35 % (wt), the residual pore water content is 0.42-3.65 % (wt). The total content of Na+, K+ and Cl- in the pore waters of the Bazhenov formation are 17.09Ă·79.21Â g/L. Using Pfeffer method it was discovered that the cation exchangers of the studied core samples contain Na+, K+, Ńŕ2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ that concentrations change with the depth in wells. The measured values of the shales cation-exchange capacity are 3.98Ă·19.50 meq/100g of rock and correspond to the clay minerals content in them.
1. Stepanov V.P., Akhapkin M.YU., Tabakov V.P., Osnovnyye itogi i perspektivyÂ razrabotki bazhenovskoy svity Salymskogo mestorozhdeniya (In Russ.), GeofizikaÂ = Current situation and the further prospects of the Bazhenov suite developmentÂ in the Salym Field, 2007, no. 4, pp. 211–218.
2. Cenegy L.M., McAfee C.A., Kalfayan L.J., Field study of the physical andÂ chemical factors affecting downhole scale deposition in the North DakotaÂ Bakken formation, SPE 140977-MS, 2011.
3. Kazak E.S., Kazak A.V., Bogdanovich N.N., Forma i sostav porovoy vodyporod bazhenovskoy svity po rezul’tatam laboratornykh issledovaniy (FormÂ and composition of porous water of the rocks of the Bazhenov suite accordingÂ to the results of laboratory tests), Proceedings of 18th Scientific and PracticalÂ Conference on the Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas FieldsÂ "EAGE-Geomodel’ 2016", 12–15 September 2016, Gelendzhik.
4. Kireyeva T.A., Kazak E.S., Pore water in the West Siberian Bazhenov formationÂ rocks and their transformation after hydrothermal pressure (In Russ.), GeologiyaÂ nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2017, no. 1, pp. 77–89.
5. Zaks S.L., Burmistrova V.F., K voprosu issledovaniya sostava i svoystv svyazannoyÂ vody v neftyanykh kollektorakh (On the issue of studying the compositionÂ and properties of bound water in the oil reservoir), Proccedings of PetroleumÂ Institute. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1956, V. VII, pp. 222–235.
6. Silich V.E., Porovyye vody porod bazhenovskoy svity SalymskogoÂ neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Pore waters of the rocks of the Bazhenov suiteÂ of the Salym oil field), Collected papers "Stroyeniye i neftegazonosnost’Â bazhenitov Zapadnoy Sibiri" (The structure and oil and gas content of theÂ bazhents of Western Siberia), 1985, pp. 87–91.
7. Zlochevskaya R.I., Korolev V.A., Elektropoverkhnostnyye yavleniya v glinistykhÂ porodakh (Electrosurface phenomena in clay rocks), Moscow Publ. ofÂ MSU, 1988, 177 p.
8. Korolev V.A., Associated water in rocks: new facts and problems (In Russ.),Â Sorosovskiy obrazovatel’nyy zhurnal, 1996, no. 9, pp. 79–85.
9. Zatenetskaya N.P., Porovyye vody glinistykh porod i ikh rol’ v formirovaniiÂ podzemnykh vod (Pore waters of clay rocks and their role in the formation ofÂ groundwater), Moscow: Publ of USSR AS, 1963, 142 p.
10. Zatenetskaya N.P., Porovyye vody osadochnykh porod (Pore waters ofÂ sedimentary rocks), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1974, 158 p.
11. Kryukov P.A., Gornyye, pochvennyye i ilovyye rastvory (Mountain, soil andÂ silt solutions), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1971, 219 p.
12. Abramov V.YU., Cryogenic metamorphizaition chemical compozition ofÂ underground water (In Russ.), Razvedka i okhrana nedr, 2014, no. 5, pp. 16–20.
13. Rikhvanov L.P. et al., Mineralogical and geochemical features of theÂ Bazhenov formation, West Siberia, according to nuclear`physics and electron`Â microscopic methods of research (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogoÂ universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University,Â 2015, V. 326, no. 1, pp. 50–63.
14. Pluman I.I., Uranium content of black bituminous argillites of the Upper JurassicÂ of the West Siberian Plate(In Russ.), Geokhimiya, 1971, no. 11, pp. 1362–1368.
15. Ezerskiy D.M. et al., Assessment of water content in rocks of the BazhenovÂ formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoye khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10,Â pp. 38–43.
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M.G. Khramchenkov, E.A. Korolev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Dynamics of fractures growth in oil saturated carbonate beds of the Republic of Tatarstan
Tectonic cracks in oil-bearing carbonate sections of the Bashkirian stage of the Republic of Tatarstan were studied. Regularities in the development of cavities of cracks in dense limestones of fluids have been established. An experimental study of the morphology of cracks was carried out. Fissured channels are characterized by varying degrees of openness, twisting outlines, frequent intersections with each other. Some of them are complicated by blowing up the slit-like cavities of leaching. Cracks along their entire length are made with oxidized hydrocarbons. Above the section, the degree of fracture of carbonate rocks is reduced to 1-2 pieces per running meter. Their apparent extent does not exceed 10 cm. The fact of the change in the character of the distribution of cracks in the carbonate massif was theoretically confirmed, depending on the magnitude of their expansion on the nature of the regime of water flow in these cracks. The moderate nature of the flow, in which the flow regime is laminar, leads to a normal distribution of fractures along the transverse dimension (opening). The change in the nature of the flow and the transition to turbulent regime cause a change in the character of the crack distribution in size - it becomes lognormal. An expression is obtained for the dependence of the filtration flow through a system of cracks with dissolving walls (variable opening) versus time. The obtained dependence is compared with the experimental data known from the literature. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental data was demonstrated. The relationships obtained in the work on the basis of modeling can be used to predict the growth of the absolute permeability of the carbonate rock massif in the course of geological evolution or by using enhanced oil recovery methods that lead to a change in hydro-geochemical equilibrium in the water-rock system.
1. Morozov V.P., Korolev E.A., Kol'chugin A.N., Karbonatnye porody vizeyskogo,Â serpukhovskogo i bashkirskogo yarusov nizhnego i srednego karbonaÂ (Carbonate rocks of the Visean, Serpukhov and Bashkir tiers of the Lower andÂ Middle Carboniferous) Kazan': Gart Publ., 2008, 182 p.
2. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov vÂ poristykh plastakh (The fluid flow in porous formations), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,Â 1984, 208 p.
3. Tolmachev V.V., Royter F., Inzhenernoe karstovedenie (Engineering karstology),Â Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 151 p.
4. Levich V.G., Fiziko-khimicheskaya gidrodinamika (Physical-chemical hydrodynamics),Â Moscow: Publ. of AS of USSR, 1952, 700 p.
5. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam,Â New York: Elsevier, 1982, 732 đ.
6. Hanna B.R., Rajaram H., Influence of aperture variability on dissolutionalÂ growth of fissures in karst formations, Water Res. Research., 1998, V. 34, no. 11,Â pp. 2843–2853.
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M.Ya. Shpirt (Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.A. Punanova (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Oils and combustible shales as a raw for potentially trace elements producing
Using data containing in the literature published in Russian and other countries there are presented trace elements (TE) with medium and increased contents in oils, combustible and black shales along with their medium contents in coals. Enrichment degrees with TE of these caustobiolytes are calculated. It is proposed in the literature to name TE typomorphic, if its concentration in a caustobiolyte is statistically higher than its clark in shales or sediments. With account of possible analytical mistakes TE may be called typomorphic if their medium concentration (on ash basis) are higher than those in shales or sediments in 1,4 times. Calculations of the authors have shown that these caustobiolytes may have the same typomorphic TE, but some TE are typomorphic only for one type of caustobiolytes for example for oils (on their ash basis) – Co, As, Zn, Cs, Ag, Ni, Au, V, Se, Mo, Hg, Cu and (V, Ni, Co, Cu, Ga, probably Cr, Rb) correspondingly. The knowledges of typomorphic elements are the important factor for understanding the geochemistry of oils, combustible or black shales and coals especially on the consistency of TE accumulation in them. Oils have maximal number of typomorphic elements (Co, As, Zn, Cs, Ag, Ni, Au, V, Se, Mo, Hg, Cu).
Degrees of enrichment values for one type of caustobiolytes are differed by many times in different deposits and even in different layers or its sections of one deposit. Caustobiolytes having TE enrichment values in â‰Ą 10 times more than clarks are named metalliferous on corresponding TE. In predominant cases, economically valuable process of TE producing for example from oils has to be realized from by-products of their traditional processing of their organic substances. According to experimental data, TE concentrations in these by-products may be higher or compatible with those in traditional raw used industrially for their producing.The classification system is worked out based on parameters included initial TE concentrations and their distributions while oils, combustible or black shales processing. Using the proposed letter-number or number codes for TE of oils and combustible or black shales one can select method of processing to produce by-products as potentially valuable TE concentrates for their industrial processing on their saleable products.
1. Babaev F.R., Punanova S.A., Geokhimicheskie aspekty mikroelementnogoÂ sostava neftey (Geochemical aspects of oil trace element composition),Â Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2014, 181 p.
2. Khadzhiev S.N., Shpirt M.Ya., Mikroelementy v neftyakh i produktakh ikh pererabotkiÂ (Trace elements in the oils and products of their processing), Moscow:Â Nauka Publ., 2012, 222 p.
3. Shpirt M.Ya., Punanova S.A., Mikroelementy kaustobiolitov. ProblemyÂ genezisa i promyshlennogo ispol'zovaniya (Trace elements in caustobioliths.Â Problems of their genesis and industrial use), Lambert Academic Publishing,Â Saarbruchen, 2012, 368 p.
4. Shpirt M.Ya., Rashevskiy V.V., Mikroelementy goryuchikh iskopaemykh (TraceÂ elements of fossil fuels), Moscow: Kuchkovo pole Publ., 2010, 384 đ.Â
5. Yakutseni S.P., Rasprostranennost' uglevodorodov, obogashchennykhÂ tyazhelymi elementami-primesyami. Otsenka ekologicheskikh riskov (TheÂ prevalence of hydrocarbons enriched with heavy element-impurities. EnvironmentalÂ risk assessment), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2005, 372 p.
6. Ketris M.P., Yudovich Ya.E., Estimations of slarkes for carbonaceous biolithes:Â world averages for trace element contents in black shales and coals, InternationalÂ Journal of Coal Geology, 2009, V. 78(1), pp. 135-148.
7. Mukhametshin R.Z., Punanova S.A., Non-traditional sources of hydrocarbonÂ raw material: geochemical features and aspects of development (In Russ.),Â Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 3, pp. 28–32.
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B.A. Bilashev, K.A. Ikhsanov, G.E. Kalesheva (West Kazakhstan Innovation and Technology Universityá the Republic of Kazakhstan, Uralsk)
The technology of producing of drilling fluids based on various clays
The success of drilling operations largely depends on selected methods of drilling fluids chemical treatment. The use of drilling mud that meets the properties of geological and technical conditions of drilling can lead to increase of the service life of equipment, save costly chemicals, mud and mud weighting material.
Acrylic co-polymers with carboxy groups are known as a polyanionic filtrate reducers. They are characterized by temperature stability, but salt stability depends on cations type. In presence of monovalent cations these co-polymers are stable. If cations are polyvalent acrylic co-polymers will easily loss there qualities.
The article discusses the water-based drilling fluid containing clays of different mineralogical composition and nonionic polymer additive. As a polymeric additive in the solution we used co-polymers of N-methylolacrylamide. The ratio of components was following (weight %): clay – 10, co-polymer of N -methylolacrylamide - 1-4, water - the rest. Co-polymers of N-methylolacrylamide are colorless powder with a molecular weight of from 3.5·104 to 4·106. The content of methylalanine groups is from 100 to 50 molecule %. Polymers are not volatile, non-hazardous, non-flammable, non-toxic, cold-resistant and readily soluble in water.The use of nonionic co-polymers of N –methylolacrylamide and acrylamide as an additive to thin clay water-based drilling fluids are filtrate reducers. They reduce wall building coefficient and stabilize the drilling mud in the presence of salts including polyvalent metal ions
1. Ryabchenko V.P., Upravlenie svoystvom burovykh rastvorov (ManagementÂ of drilling fluid properties), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 323 p.
2. Darley H.C.H., Gray G.R., Composition and properties of drilling and completionÂ fluids, Houston, TX: Gulf Professional Publishing, 1988, 643 p.
3. Bilashev B.A., Problemy proizvodstva khimicheskikh reagentov (Problems ofÂ chemical reagents production), Proceedings of the 58th Scientific conferenceÂ of students, graduate students and young scientists, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU,Â 2007, pp. 207–208.
4. Shvetsov O.K., Alanchev V.A., Zotov E.V., Termopas-34 – a new universalÂ controller of drilling muds filtration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 1997, no. 5, pp. 10–13.
5. Koshelev V.N., Vakhrushev L.P., Belenko E.V., Polymer-disperse synergetic effectsÂ and new drilling fluids system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 2001, no. 4, pp. 22–23.
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A.N. Sitnikov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Optimal multiple-fractured horizontal well pattern for depletion drive reservoirs
The advent of multiple hydraulic fracturing technologies in horizontal wells has significantly increased the profitability of oil and gas fields’ development and is one of the reasons for the continued growth of multiple fracturing technologies in horizontal wells in newly drilled and completed wells. Moreover, ultra-low permeability reservoirs predominantly are developed by depletion drives mechanism using regular horizontal well systems with multiple hydraulic fractures, and hence, the question of multiple hydraulic fracture optimizations becomes crucial. Many research papers are aimed at finding the optimal number of fractures on a horizontally completed well, but less attention is given to the process of well pattern optimal parameters determination.
This research work is aimed at optimization of horizontal well pattern with multiple transverse hydraulic fractures of finite and infinite conductivities. The objective of this paper is to find optimal values of dimensionless parameters, which will yield the most effective development system and production on depletion drive. The efficiency criterion is based on maximizing the dimensionless productivity index (Jd) in pseudo-steady state flow to the well. This well pattern optimization problem was solved on the basis of a previously proposed semi-analytical model, in which the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) was used. The novelty of this work presents dimensionless correlation, convenient for engineering calculations of the optimal parameters for multiple-fractured horizontal well pattern.
Verification of the correctness of the proposed semi-analytical method and the correlation dependences were carried out using a commercial hydrodynamic simulator. The comparison of results of the hydrodynamic simulator and that of the proposed semi-analytical method showed that the relative deviation of the calculated values from the obtained correction dependence didn’t exceed 3 percent.The characteristics of the best development system, determined based on economic optimization were also well described and estimated by the proposed correlations. Evidence to these is presented in the last part of this work.
1. Saputelli L., Lopez C., Chacon A., Soliman M., Design optimization of horizontalÂ wells with multiple hydraulic fractures in the Bakken Shale, SPE 167770-MS, 2014.
2. Meyer B.R., Bazan L.W., Jacot R.H., Lattibeaudiere M.G., Optimization ofÂ multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in horizontal wellbores, SPE 131732-MS,Â 2010.Â
3. Lolon E., Cipolla C., Weijers L. et al., Evaluating horizontal well placementÂ and hydraulic fracture spacing, SPE 124905-MS, Â 2009.Â
4. Supronowicz B.R., Butler R.M., The choice of pattern size and shape for rectangularÂ arrays of horizontal wells, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology,Â 1992, V. 44, June, pp. 39–44.
5. Supronowicz R., Butler R.M., The productivity and optimum pattern shapeÂ for horizontal wellsarranged in staggered rectangular arrays, Journal ofÂ Canadian petroleum technology, 1992, V. 31, no. 6, pp. 41-46.
6. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging theÂ gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.
7. Sabaev V.V., Wolcott D.S., Mach J.M. et al., Vertically fractured well performanceÂ in rectangular drainage area, SPE 101048-RU, 2006.Â
8. Cinco-Ley H., Ramey H. Jr., Samaniego F., Rodriguez F., Behavior of wells withÂ low-conductivity vertical fractures, SPE 16776-MS, 1987.
9. Raghavan R., Chen C.C., Agarwal B., An analysis of horizontal wells interceptedÂ by multiple fractures, HWC-94-39 PETSOC Conference Paper, 1994.
10. Lee Sheng-Tai, Brockenbrough J., A new analitical solution for finite conductivitÂ vertical fractures with real time and Laplace space parameter estimation,Â SPE 12013-MS, 1986.
11. Brown M.L., Ozkan E., Raghavan R.S., Kazemi H., Practical solutions forÂ pressure transient responses of fractured horizontal wells in unconventionalÂ reservoirs, SPE 125043-MS, 2009.
12. Meyer B.R., Jacot R.H., Pseudosteady-state analysis of finite conductivityÂ vertical fractures, SPE 95941-MS, 2005.
13. Sitnikov A.N., Pustovskikh A.A., A Roshchektaev.P., Andzhukaev Ts.V.,Â Amethod to determine optimal switching time to injection mode for field developmentÂ system(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3,Â pp. 84–87.
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I.S. Putilov, N.N. Barkovskij, O.I. Yakimov, T.V. Chabina (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), N.A. Cherepanova (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF,Tyumen)
Integrated approach to laboratory studies of chemical agents for waterflood sweep efficiency control technology
The efficiency of enhanced oil recovery technology implementing in the wells directly depends on the selection of reagents in laboratory conditions for specific geological and physical conditions of the development objects. The authors consider the growth in the volume of innovative technologies and the need to implement the strategic objectives to increase the recovery factor. There is a need for a method to test each type of technology.
This article describes an integrated approach to laboratory study researches chemical reagents (gelling polymer systems, emulsion, sediment-and thermotropic compositions) used as an agent in the works for leveling of injectivity profile of injection wells for the purpose of regulation technology water flood recovery. The order of carrying out research in the "free volume" including the study of physical and chemical properties of the compounds and technological characteristics injected compositions. And methods of making filtration tests on of real kern material taking into account the mode of operation of the test thermobaric formation. These studies include the study of all the necessary parameters that characterize the effectiveness of the reagents.The results obtained during the research on the proposed algorithm can be used in field conditions during the implementation of technology in injection wells studied objects.
1. Barkovskiy N.N., Integrated approach to laboratory studies of polymer systemsÂ used in the water shut-off technologies (In Â Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo,Â 2016, no. 3, pp. 41–46.
2. Cherepanova N.A., Kladova A.V., Assessment of structural-mechanical propertiesÂ of the gel-like systems (In Russ.) Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotkaÂ neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2016, no. 11, pp. 84–87.
3. Mikhaylov N.N., Gurbatova I.P., Scale effect at laboratory determination ofÂ permeability and porosity properties of complex structured carbonate reservoirsÂ (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2011, no. 4, pp. 32–36.
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K.O. Alekseeva, V.A. Baikov, A.V. Kolonskikh (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), V.V. Vodopianov (Ufa State Aviation Technical University, RF, Ufa)
Enhanced oil recovery in carbonate fractured reservoirs by means of the multiple degassing mechanism
The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by a great deal of carbonate reservoirs among the world oil reserves and the low efficiency of existing widespread reservoir engineering as applied to these reservoirs (e.g., flooding). There is therefore a need for creation of new and improvement of existing oil production technologies, taking into account the specificity of these reservoirs and permitting to increase the oil recovery factor.
The paper presents a technology of cyclic water flooding for fractured reservoir to increase the oil recovery factor. This technology is based on the mechanism of multiple oil degassing and consists in the multiple reservoir pressure passing through the bubble point pressure, which permits to enhance the oil recovery factor by means of multiple dissolved gas work.
In previous studies of the efficacy of single or cyclic fractured reservoir stimulation purposely oil-in-place degassing the detailed oil displacement simulation has not been conducted and only qualitative assessments of oil recovery factor, which allow to conclude about the appropriateness of proposed enhanced recovery methods, has been conducted. In this work, the leading method in the study of the problem is the method of hydrodynamic simulation. Using oil-wet fractured reservoir models the existing oil recovery methods, based on the oil degassing mechanism, has been compared. The cyclic recovery drive, proposed in this work, was the most effective in terms of enhanced oil recovery.
The estimation of the cyclic oil displacement parameters, which allow to enhance the oil recovery factor, has been conducted. One of these parameters is the minimum bottom-hole pressure in the displacement cycles. The simulation results showed that an optimal value of the minimum bottom-hole pressure in the displacement cycles, at which oil recovery factor becomes maximum, exist and it depends on the critical water saturation of the reservoir.
An optimized version of the cyclic recovery drive with a variable minimum bottom-hole pressure in the displacement cycles, which allows to get an additional increase of oil recovery factor, is proposed by authors.Article submissions may be useful in designing of technological processes for fractured reservoir production using described technology of cyclic reservoir stimulation based on mechanism of the multiple oil degassing.
1. Sheng J.J., Enhanced oil recovery field case studies, Elsevier, 2013, 712 p.
2. Chernitskiy A.V., Geologicheskoe modelirovanie neftyanykh zalezhey massivnogoÂ tipa v karbonatnykh treshchinovatykh kollektorakh (GeologicalÂ modeling of oil deposits of massive type in carbonate fractured reservoirs),Â Moscow: Publ. of RMNTK “Nefteotdacha”, 2002, 254 p.
3. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam,Â New York: Elsevier, 1982.
4. Donaldson E.C., Alam W., Wettability, Gulf Publishing Company, 2008, 360 p.
5. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachiÂ plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery),Â Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.
6. Krylov A.P. et al., Proektirovanie razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy.Â Printsipy i metody (Designing oil fields development. Principles and methods),Â Moscow: Publ. of Gostoptekhizdat, 1962.
7. Khristianovich S.A., Kovalenko Yu.F., On enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.)Â Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1988, no. 10, pp. 25–28.
8. Pirson S.J., Oil reservoir engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York City, 1958.
9. Stasenkov V.V., Salazhev V.M., Veremko N.A. et al., Estimation of efficiencyÂ of displacement of degassed oil by water (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =Â Oil Industry, 1995, no. 12, pp. 25–28.
10. Vakhitov G.G. et al., Razrabotka mestorozhdeniy pri zaboynom davleniiÂ nizhe davleniya nasyshcheniya (Development of deposits when bottomholeÂ pressure below saturation pressure), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, pp. 205–212.
11. Certificate of authorship no. 947399 SSSR, Method for developing oil andÂ gas deposits, Authors: Klyarovskiy G.V., Parakhin B.G.Â 12. Patent no. 2114986 RF, Method for development of oil deposit, Inventors:Â Salazhev V.M., Lisovskiy N.N., Stasenkov V.V. et al.Â
13. Brilliant L.S., Evdoshchuk P.A., Plitkina Yu.A. et al., Effective brownfield developmentÂ by the means of oil resaturation with evolved gas in situ (In Russ.),Â Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 54–59.
14. Buleyko V.M., Zakonomernosti fazovykh prevrashcheniy uglevodorodnykhÂ smesey v neftegazonosnykh plastakh Â razrabatyvaemykh mestorozhdeniyÂ (po eksperimental'nym dannym) (Regularities of phase transformations of hydrocarbonÂ mixtures in oil and gas bearing formations of the developed depositsÂ (according to experimental data)): thesis of doctor of technical science,Â Moscow, 2005.
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V.V. Mukhametshin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
The need for creation of a unified comprehensive method of geological and field analysis and integration of data on effective influence on the bottom-hole formation zone
We proposed and implemented a method of comprehensive geological-field analysis and integration of data on the effectiveness of various types of impact on the bottom-hole formation zone. The method is based on the use of: reasonable sufficiency of information on the process for solving technology problems of selection, well, conditions and impact parameters; the list of uniform and identical information available to subsoil users; the set of performance criteria that reflect different aspects of the impact process. The method makes it possible to objectively and comprehensively compare the results of different methods of influence on the bottom-hole formation zone. It allows to create the basis for an exposure technology objective selection in a variety of geological and field conditions. Besides one can choose a technology by the performance indicators, which can satisfy the needs of enterprises in a specific situation, taking into account market realities, climatic conditions, geopolitical situation and other both external and internal factors.In terms of oil deposits with hard to recover reserves in Western Siberia, the analysis and generalization of the bottom hole zone for influence results were made using the proposed method. The received results allow managers to make correct decisions to improve the efficiency of the impact both on the analyzed fields, and similar to them for their geological and commercial response
1. Ibragimov N.G., Musabirov M.Kh., Yartiev A.F., Tatneft''s experience in commercializationÂ of import-substituting well stimulation technologies (In Russ.),Â Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 86–89.
2. Mukhametshin V.V., Andreev V.E., Dubinsky G.S. et al., The usage of principlesÂ of system geological-technological forecasting in the justification of impactÂ on the reservoir methods, SOCAR Proceedings, 2016, no. 3, pp. 46–51.
3. Muslimov R.Kh., Sovremennye metody povysheniya nefteizvlecheniya:Â proektirovanie, optimizatsiya i otsenka effektivnosti (Modern methods of enhancedÂ oil recovery: the design, optimization and assessment of efficiency),Â Kazan': Fen Publ., 2005, 688 p.
4. Andreev A.V., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Kotenev Yu.A., Deposit productivityÂ forecast in carbonate reservoirs with hard recoverable reserves, SOCAR Proceedings,Â 2016, no. 3, pp. 40–45.
5. Gomori K.A.R., Karoussl O., Hamouda A.A., Mechanistic study of interactionÂ between water and corbanate rocks for enhancing oil recovery, SPE 99628,Â 2006.
6. Mukhametshin V.V., Estimation of well potential productivity according toÂ field-geological and geophysical data (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo = OilÂ and Gas Business, 2016, V. 14, no. 2, pp. 61–64.
7. Lungwitz B. et al., Diversion and cleanup studies of viscoelastic surfactantbasedÂ self-diverting acid, SPE 86504, 2007.
8. Batalov D.A., Mukhametshin V.V., Andreev V.E.,Comparative analysis of theÂ predictive efficiency of sediment-gel-forming oil recovery improvementÂ technologies in fields of LLC “Lukoil - Western Siberia” (In Russ.), NeftegazovoeÂ delo, 2016, no. V. 14, no. 3, pp. 40–46.
9. Mullagalin I.Z., Strizhnev V.A., Khamitov A.T. et al., Approaches to solving theÂ efficiency enhancement problems while remedial cementing (In Russ.),Â Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2016, no. 12, pp. 31–37.
10. Zeigman Yu.V., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Khafizov A.R., Kharina S.B., ProspectsÂ of application of multi-functional liquids of killing wells in carbonate reservoirs,Â SOCAR Proceedings, 2016, no. 3, pp. 33–39.
11. Zeygman Yu.V., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Khafizov A.R. et al., Peculiarities of selectingÂ well-killng fluids composition for difficult conditions (In Russ.), NeftyanoeÂ khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 66–69.
12. Mukhametshin V.V., Adapting the hydrochloric acid effect on deposits inÂ carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2006, V. 4, no. 1,Â pp. 127–131.
13. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Stepanov G.S., Matematicheskaya teoriyaÂ eksperimenta v dobyche nefti i gaza (The mathematical theory of the experimentÂ in the oil and gas production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 228 p.
14. Zemtsov Yu.V., Perspective methods for processing the bottomhole zoneÂ of production wells in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2016, no. 7,Â pp. 20–26.
15. Yakupov R.F., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Problem of efficiency of low-productivityÂ carbonate reservoir development on example of Turnaisian stage of TuymazinskoyeÂ field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12
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L.A. Khakimov, A.V. Mysnikov, T.M. Bondarenko, E.Yu. Popov, A.N. Cheremisin (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), I.A. Karpov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Validation of computational model of high-pressure air injection for Bazhenov formations by laboratory modelling results
The high-pressure air injection on the oil-source rock of the Bazhenov formation has a great potential. However, before carrying out a pilot project on the field and making decisions on air injection regimes, it is necessary to build a hydrodynamic model in which a principal place will be occupied by a block of chemical reactions.
This study includes computer simulation of the high-pressure air injection process with using a thermal simulator CMG STARS. The numerical model was adjusted using the results of a combustion tube laboratory experiment. On account of the consolidated model of the combustion tube used in the experiment, a complex numerical 3D model with multiple local refinements of the grid was constructed. That significantly increases the calculation time and imposes a significant limitation on the possibility of carrying out a large number of numerical experiments, which are necessary for the construction of the kinetic model of chemical reactions. Therefore, the geometrical and physical model was simplified by decreasing the dimension of the grid and simplifying the boundary conditions used in the experiment. The before mentioned procedure describes the first level of the optimization workflow that was implemented as a part of this work. Thus, a simplified 1D model of the combustion tube was proposed and tested, which roughly describes the heterogeneity of the consolidated experimental model, but is appropriate for carrying out mass calculations.
As a result of the validation of the model, it was mainly possible to match the temperature profiles in different zones of combustion tube and the total volume of extracted products behind the combustion front. Also, the grid convergence test was performed, which is necessary to identify the dependence of the kinetic parameters on the size of the computational cells. As a result of the simulation, chemical reactions describing the combustion process were confirmed.The obtained results are necessary for computer simulation of a full-scale oil recovery process by high-pressure air injection in a pilot project at the field.
1. Belgrave J.D.M. et al., A comprehensive approach to in-situ combustionÂ modeling, SPE 20250-PA, 1993.
2. Kokorev V.I., Basic aspects of controlling of thermogas impact on rocks ofÂ bazhenovsky series as to geological conditions of Sredne-Nazymsky andÂ Galyanovsky fields (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 6, pp. 29–32.
3. Bondarenko T.M. et al., Laboratory modeling of high-pressure air injection inÂ oil fields of Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 2017, no. 3, pp. 34-39.
4. Coats K.H., In-situ combustion model, SPE 8394-PA, 1980, V. 20, pp. 533–554.Â
5. Kristensen M.R., Impact of phase behavior modeling on in-situ combustionÂ process performance, SPE 113947-MS , 2008.
6. Khakimova L. et al., Optimization workflow for modelling of two phase thermalÂ multicomponent filtration, EAGE, 2016.
7. Shchekoldin K.A., Obosnovanie tekhnologicheskikh rezhimov termogazovogoÂ vozdeystviya na zalezhi bazhenovskoy svity (Substantiation of technologicalÂ modes of thermogas effect on deposits of the Bazhenov formation):Â thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2016.
8. Strizhnev K.V., Cherevko M.A., Zhukov V.V. et al., Bazhenov formation reservoirÂ rocks of the Palyanovskaya area (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), NeftyanoeÂ khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 45–47.
9. Chung-Kan Huang, Evaluation of different in-situ recovery strategies by numericalÂ simulation, Proceedings of University of Utah, URL: http://www.cerimines.Â org/documents/R10c-Huang.pdf.Â
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D.D. Bek, A.I. Akhtyamova, A.V. Myasnikov, V.P. Stanin (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), Yu.P. Stefanov (A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), D.V. Alchibaev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Optimization of the high-speed injection for horizontal well hydraulic fracturing in terms of Vingayahinskii section of Bazhen formation
The results of optimization of high-speed pumping during hydraulic fracturing (HF) fr om horizontal wells in formations of the Bazhenov formation are presented. The authors regarded the influence of two of seven major factors characterizing features of stress-strain and filtration properties of these formations – strength characteristics of rocks including influences of a micro-jointing and mineralogical structure; and stratigraphically determined alternation of zones of brittle and ductile failure is considered. Also, the dependence of the solution on the mode of injection and on the initial stress distribution was considered. The elasto-plastic model specified for geomaterials was used. It is initialized by the technique developed on the base of the core tests carried out for one of the wells of the Vyngayakhinskoye field.
Optimization of the modes of injecting was performed on the basis of the concept of the pseudo-stationary condition of pumping realized at the termination of injecting into the well on the fixed volume of a fluid of the hydraulic fracturing and differing from stationary in ignorance of long relaxation dynamic effects of settling of the coordinated stress-strain state in layer and the well. Choosing of criterion function for optimization is not obvious in the conditions of manifestation of plastically caused effects of failure and is discussed in the details.Optimization was preceded by the creation of a tornado charts for determination of the influence of uncertainty of elastic and strength parameters for the main rocks presented in all formations of a cross section
1. Drucker D.C., Prager W., Soil mechanics and plastic analysis for lim it design,Â Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 1952, no. 2, pp. 157–165.
2. Nikolaevskiy V.N., Opredelyayushchie uravneniya plasticheskogo deformirovaniyaÂ sypuchey sredy (In Russ.), Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika,Â 1971, V. 35, no. 6, pp. 1017–1029.
3. Myasnikov A.V., Stefanov Yu.P., Stenin V.P. et al., A possible solution of multistageÂ hydraulic fracturing design tasks Bazhenov formations (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanieÂ XXI vek, 2016. No. 6, pp. 62-68.
4. Stefanov Yu.P., Chertov M.A., Aidagulov G.R., Myasnikov A.V., Dynamics ofÂ inelastic deformation of porous rocks and formation of localized compactionÂ zones studied by numerical modeling, Journal of the Mechanics and PhysicsÂ of Solids, 2011, V. 59, pp. 2323–2340.
5. Stefanov Y.P., Bek D.D., Akhtyamova A.I., Myasnikov A.V., Modelling of hydraulicÂ fractures propagation in the layered elastoplastic media, SPE 182021-MS, 2016.
6. Wilkins M.L., Computer simulation of dynamic phenomena, Berlin – HeidelbergÂ – New York: Springer-Verlag, 1999.
7. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Desroches J., Displacement of yield-stress fluidsÂ in a fracture, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2015, V. 76, pp. 47–63.
8. Patent no. 9120963 US B2, Delayed water-swelling materials and methodsÂ of use, Inventors: Willberg D.M., Nosova K., Bulova M., S James., Sokolov S.Â
9. Kohar J.P., Gofoi S., Radial drilling technique for improving recovery from existing Â Â oil fields, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research,Â 2014, V. 3, pp. 159–161.
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R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), R.R. Huzin, A.Sh. Miyassarov, D.A. Salikhov (Carbon-Oil LLC, RF, Almetyevsk), V.E. Andreev (Institute of Oil & Gas Technologies and New Materials of the Republic of Bashkortostan, RF, Ufa), I.A. Galikeev (SPC Gorizont LLC, RF, Izhevsk)
The experience of heavy oil deposits development using multilateral wells with simultaneous – separate operation with two elevators
The results of drilling and exploitation of heavy oil deposits, complexly built carbonate reservoirs of the bashkirian stage wells of various constructions are seen in the article. Bashkirian stage, in its turn is characterized by high degree of heterogeneity, low capacitor filter properties, weak hydrodynamic link with a formation, together with interwell zones.
It is the first experience in Tatarstan of drilling and development of multilateral wells of complex architecture with two horizontal shafts and selective operation of each trunk using the technology of simultaneous – separate operation with two elevators. Only domestic equipment (together with whipstock) is used during the process of construction, well completion and operation.
Comparative characteristics of well performance are presented in dynamics. Accumulated oil production during the examined period of operation depending on a construction, show the efficiency of using horizontal technologies in comparison with a traditional ways of drilling out. Average results of different constructions well pressure recovery curves interpretations are given. Taking into consideration the rate of fall in actual production rates of drilled inclined and horizontal wells, an increase in the selection rate from initial to current recoverable reserves is revealed.On the basis of actual results of wells operation technical – economic parameters of various constructions wells are calculated. The directions of further work development on the areas of horizontal technology deposits, events for increasing the wells operation efficiency are offered. Exploitation of heavy oil deposit by horizontal wells let to shorten the period of oil-field development at the expense of higher selection rates and improve economic indicators of the project
1. Khabibullin I.T., Galikeev I.A., Proektirovanie profiley skvazhin prostranstvennogoÂ tipa (Design of spatial course of hole), Proceedings of BashkirÂ State Research and Design Institute of Petroleum Industry, 1992, V. 86,Â pp. 75–81.
2. Galikeev I.A., Kustovanie gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (Cluster drilling of horizontalÂ wells), Proceedings of 3rd International Â seminar “Gorizontal'nyeÂ skvazhiny” (Horizontal wells), 29–30 November 2000, Moscow: Publ. of GubkinÂ Oil and Gas State University, 2000, pp. 28–29.
3. Khakimzyanov I.N., Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R. et al., Nauka i praktikaÂ primeneniya razvetvlennykh i mnogozaboynykh skvazhin pri razrabotkeÂ neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The science and practice of using branchedÂ and multi-hole wells in the oil fields development), Kazan', 2011, 300 p.
4. Technical advancement-multilaterals (TAMIL) "New classification system forÂ multilaterals", URL: Â http://www.dea.main.com/~deal/taml/taml.htm».
5. Patent no. 2197593 RF, MPK4 E21V 7/08, Device for multiple drilling-in of producingÂ formations from single parent hole, Inventors: Galikeev I.A.,Â AverinM.G., Abdrakhmanov G.S., Zaynullin A.G., Bayanov V.M., Glukhov S.D.Â
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G.P. Kayukova, D.A. Feoktistov, A.V. Vakhin, (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), I.P. Kosachev, G.V. Romanov, A.N. Mikhailova (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk)
Conversion of heavy oil in carbonic natural environment using catalyst - iron disulfide
The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of hydrothermal and catalytic processes on the direction and depth of changes in the supermolecular components of heavy oil in the carbon environment, with the natural ferrous mineral—iron disulfide as a catalyst. The number of laboratory experiments showed the peculiarities of changes in the group and structural-group composition of heavy oil Ashalchinskoye field (Republic of Tatarstan) and its rheological characteristics of hydrothermal-catalytic processes. The experiments was taken at temperature of 250, 300 and 350 °C in a carbon dioxide environment using pyrite with chemical composition FeS2 as a natural mineral catalyst. It is shown that with increasing temperature up to 350 °C almost twice increased content of newly formed hydrocarbon fractions. It is owing to decrease the content of tar and asphaltenes, causing a decrease in the viscosity of heavy oil in 2-2.5 times in the temperature range 10-60 °C. The main difference heavy oil conversion in the presence of catalyst is activation of the flow of degradation reactions at C-C, C-N, C-O, C-S bounds, and in blocking polymerization reactions leading to the formation of coke-like products.Experiments demonstrated the direction of changes in the composition of heavy oil and its qualitative characteristics in hydrothermal-catalytic processes at temperatures of 250, 300 and 350 °C, using the natural mineral pyrite as a catalyst. In the presence of a catalyst compared to the original oil and the test-case products, the increase in temperature has been accompanied by a more intensive formation of saturated hydrocarbons, with a noticeable decrease in aromatic compounds and asphaltenes. The most profound transformations in the group composition of oil occur at a temperature of 350 °C. This is reflected in a reduction in the viscosity of heavy oil, as well as in changes in its structural and group characteristics, including asphaltenes. The work shows potential for using hydrothermal-catalytic processes for the upgrading of heavy oil composition
1. Khisamov R.S., Vysokoeffektivnye tekhnologii osvoeniya neftyanykhÂ mestorozhdeniy (Highly efficient technology of development of oil field),Â Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 638 p.
2. Isakov D.R., Nurgaliev D.K., Shaposhnikov D.A. et al., Role of phase and kineticsÂ models in simulation modeling of in situ combustion (In Russ.), Khimiya iÂ tekhnologiya topliv i masel = Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils,Â 2015, no. 1(587), pp. 59–62.
3. Petrov S.M., Zakiyeva R.R., Ibrahim Abdelsalam Ya. et al., Upgrading of highviscosityÂ naphtha in the super-critical water environment, International JournalÂ of Applied Engineering Research, 2015, V. 10(24), pp. 44656–44661.
4. Sitnov S.A., Petrovnina M.S., Feoktistov D.A. et al., Intensification of thermalÂ steam methods of production of heavy oil using a catalyst based on cobaltÂ (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp.106–108.
5. Varfolomeev M.A., Nagrimanov R.N., Samatov A.A. et al., Chemical evaluationÂ and kinetics of Siberian, north regions of Russia and Republic ofÂ Tatarstan crude oils, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and EnvironmentalÂ Effects , 2016, V 38 (8), pp. 1031–1038.
6. Tumanyan B.P., Petrukhina N.N., Kayukova G.P. et al., Aquathermolysis ofÂ crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrialÂ implementation (In Russ.), Uspekhi khimii = Russian Chemical Reviews,Â 2015, V. 84(11), pp. 1145–1175.
7. Abdrafikova I.M., Kayukova G.P., Petrov S.M. et al., Conversion of extraheavyÂ Ashal'chinskoe oil in hydrothermal catalytic system (In Russ.),Â Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2015, V. 55, no. 2, pp. 110–118.
8. Tomina N.N., Pimerzin A.A., Moiseev I.K., Sulfide hydrotreating catalysts ofÂ petroleum feedstocks (In Russ.), Rossiyskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal = Russian JournalÂ of General Chemistry, 2008, V. LII, no. 4, pp. 41–52.
9. ASTM D 4124–09, Standard test method for separation of asphalt into fourÂ fractions.Â
10. Trukhina O.S., Sintsov I.A., Experience of carbone dioxide usage for enhancedÂ oil recovery (In Russ.), Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya, 2016,Â no. 3, pp. 205–209.
11. Onishchenko Y.V., Vakhin A.V., Voronina E.V., Nurgaliev D.K., Thermo-catalyticÂ destruction of kerogen in the presence of cobalt oxide nanoparticlesÂ and mineral pyrite, SPE 181915-MS, 2016.
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I.V. Butsaev, N.S. Abramova, O.V. Zlobina (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), S.V. Telyshev, R.M. Tuchvatullin (Slavneft-Krasnoyarskneftegas LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk)
Optimization studies at conceptual design stage by means of criterion evaluation: Kuyumbinskoye oil field case study
In recent years under conditions of turbulent environment there is raised a question of investment efficiency in major oil and gas projects. The early stages of project implementation have a high impact of management decisions on the future value of the project (asset) at low initial costs and are associated with high uncertainty of the input parameters and the lack of tools for decision-making.
Until recently, the only generally accepted method of alternative selection at designing of oil field development was technical and economic assessment, which involves cost comparison of each alternative. Estimation precision at the stage "Selection" is ± 30%. Frequently the difference between alternatives lies within the limits of estimation precision. Consequently, selecting the alternative with potentially the lowest cost, the total value of the project can be significantly reduced. Therefore, there is a need for additional assessment tools, the objectivity of which would be more tangible.
The method of alternative selection of technological systems in oil field development by means of criterion evaluation was implemented in Giprovostokneft when performing conceptual design of Kuyumbinskoye oil field. Using the proposed method helped to optimize the concept of field development, in which the best options for each technological system were adjusted with each other, providing consistent solutions.Described methodology is introduced in Giprovostokneft in feasibility studies, conceptual designs and master plans, but improvement work on it continues. This will take into account not only the impact of each factor on the system, but also their mutual influence. In General, the application of the criterion evaluation method forms new approach to realization of investment opportunities and significantly increases the economic efficiency of investment projects
1. Vykhodtsev A.V., Kaverin A.A., Conceptual design and long-term planningÂ of oil and gas fields development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 2016, no. 4, pp. 42–45.
2. Gizbrekht D., Yatsenko V., Dubovitskaya E., Tkachenko M., Estimating costsÂ for the construction of oil and gas facilities: foreign and Russian experienceÂ (In Russ.), Neft' i kapital, 2014, no. 5, pp. 2–3.
3. Ismagilov R.R., Kudryavtsev I.A., Maksimov Yu.V., Phases of conceptual designÂ for field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,Â 2014, no. 12. – S. 66–70.
4. Sugaipov D.A., Sandler I.L., Development of new oil and gas fields inÂ Gazprom Neft JSC using the major projects management system (In Russ.),Â Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 6–9.
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A.S. Martianov, V.P. Frayshteter (Giprotyumenneftegaz PJSC, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen), V.V. Sushkov (Nizhnevartovsk State University, RF, Nizhnevartovsk)
Design of ride-through solutions for electric submersible pump with adjustable speed drive
Failure of induction motors, providing a complex continuous process, can lead to significant economic and environmental damage. Induction motors during voltage dips and interruptions can go into an unstable mode, which will cause a voltage collapse - destabilization of the electric load. In the study of the dynamic stability of asynchronous electric motors with adjustable frequency drives, we must take into account their special features.
The aim of this paper is to develop technical solutions to create a fault-tolerant power system of the motor load as an example of electric submersible pumps unit.
Ride-through solutions, we suggest, is to upgrade existing control stations (adjustable frequency drives) with systems of modern energy storage devices and their charge system, which can increase the stability of asynchronous motors with adjustable speed drives, including ESP unit, given their features. Other advantage of this ride-through solution is using of existing equipment. The paper describes the flywheel and capacitive (based on supercapacitors), energy storage, showing their possible inclusion in the electricity network of oil fields and ESP, and offer accommodation options in the area of electrical equipment.
1. Novoselov Yu.B., Roslyakov V.P., Sushkov V.V., Methodology for determiningÂ damage from interruption of power supply of submersible oil recovery unitsÂ (In Russ.), Mashiny i neftyanoe oborudovanie, 1981, no. 4, pp. 16–17.
2. Abramovich B.N., Ustinov D.A., Polyakov V.E., Dynamic stability of operatingÂ modes electrocentrifugal pumps installations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvoÂ = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 9, pp. 104–106.
3. Egorov A.V., Melik-Shakhnazarova I.A., Surzhikov A.V., Opyt povysheniyaÂ nadezhnosti elektrosnabzheniya vysokotekhnologichnogo proizvodstva (ExperienceÂ in improving the reliability of power supply for high-tech production),Â Proceeding of Gubkin State Oil and Gas University, ina, 2012, no. 3 (268),Â pp. 130–140.
4. Ershov M.S., Egorov A.V., Trifonov A.A., Ustoychivost' promyshlennykh elektrotekhnicheskikhÂ sistem (Stability of industrial electrical systems), Moscow:Â Nedra Publ., 2010, 319 p.
5. Men'shov B.G., Ershov M.S., Yarizov A.D., Elektrotekhnicheskie ustanovki iÂ kompleksy v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti Â (Electrical installations and complexesÂ in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 487 p.
6. Ghosh A., Jindal A.K., Joshi A., Design of a capacitor-supported dynamicÂ voltage restorer (DVR ) for unbalanced and distorted loads, IEEE Trans. PowerÂ Deliv., 2004, V. 19, no. 1, pp. 405–413.
7. Pena-Alzola R. et al., Review of flywheel based energy storage systems,Â Proceedings of 2011 Int. Conf. Power Eng. Energy Electr. Drives. IEEE, 2011,Â May, pp. 1–6.
8. Su W., Jin T., Wang S., Modeling and simulation of short-term energy storage:Â Flywheel, Energy Eng. (ICAEE), IEEE, 2010, pp. 9–12.
9. Deswal S.S., Dahiya R., Jain D.K., Performance improvement of AdjustableÂ Speed Drives (ASD’s) using supercapacitors during voltage sag, ProceedingsÂ of 2012 IEEE Fifth Power India Conf. IEEE, 2012, pp. 1–6.
10. Odnokopylov G.I., Bragin A.D., Fault-tolerant asynchronous electric driveÂ (In Russ.), Polzunovskiy vestnik, 2013, no. 4-2, pp. 157–162.Â
11. Khramshin T.R. et al., Enhances the stability of electric drives of continuousÂ production in voltage sags (In Russ.), Vestnik YuUrGU, 2014, no. 2(14),Â pp. 80–87.
12. Carnovale D.J. et al., Design, development and testing of a voltage ridethruÂ solution for variable speed drives in oil field applications, Pet. Chem. Ind.Â Â Tech. Conf. IEEE, 2007, pp. 1–7.
13. Jouanne A. Von, Enjeti P., Banerjee B., Assessment of ride-through alternativesÂ for adjustable-speed drives, IEEE Trans., 1999, pp. 1538–1545.Â 14. Braslavskiy I.Ya. et al., Asynchronous variable-frequency electric drive withÂ capacitive energy storage (In Russ.), Elektrotekhnika = Russian Electrical Engineering,Â 2012, no. 9, pp. 30–34.
15. Rutberg F.G., Goncharenko R.B., Kasharskiy E.G., Perspectives of energy savingÂ in electric networks with reduced dynamic stability with the help of flywheelÂ units (In Russ.), Izvestiya Akademii nauk. Energetika, 1999, no. 3, pp. 158–160.
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R.N. Bakhtizin, K.R. Urazakov, B.M. Latypov, B.H. Ishmukhametov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.Yu. Narbutovskikh (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
The influence of regular microrelief forms on fluid leakage through plunger pair of sucker rod pump
The article considers the influence of the regular microrelief on the leakage of fluid pumped through the plunger pair of sucker rod pump. To evaluate the effect of different types of regular microrelief on the amount of fluid leakage through the plunger pair and selecting the optimal type, in which liquid leakage is minimized, the following tasks were set: assessment of the influence of micro-relief plunger assembly by the amount of leakage; determining the optimal geometric parameters of the regular microrelief profile. The main factors influencing the leakage of liquid through the clearance of the plunger pair of the sucker rod pump during its operation are considered. Based on a comparative analysis of different shapes of grooves, a groove with a cross section in the form of a right triangle was examined. A simulation using computational fluid dynamics tools for fluid flow through the gap of the plunger pair with the groove, and the groove was in the form of a right triangle. Practical recommendations on the choice of geometrical parameters of grooves in which there is maximum hydraulic resistance for the flow of fluid in the gap plunger pair of sucker rod pump have been developed. The application of a regular microrelief on the plunger of a sucker rod pump in the form of grooves with a cross-section of a rectangular triangle provides an increase in the pressure drop of the fluid flow in the plunger gap, which allows to reduce the leakage of liquid. Computational simulation of fluid flow in the gap of the plunger pair has established the optimal geometric parameters of the grooves with the cross-section of a right-angled triangle, at which the maximum hydraulic resistance occurs
1. Urazakov K.R., Andreev V.V., Zhulaev V.P., Neftepromyslovoe oborudovanieÂ dlya kustovykh skvazhin (Oilfield equipment for cluster wells), Moscow: NedraÂ Publ., 1999, 268 p.
2. Urazakov K.R., Zdol'nik S.E., Nagumanov M.M. et al., Spravochnik podobyche nefti (Handbook on oil production), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ.,Â 2012, 672 p.
3. Patent no. 2159867 RF, Installation for testing rod and screw oil-well pumps,Â Inventors: Urazakov K.R., Gabdrakhmanov N.Kh., Valeev M.D.,Â AkhtyamovM.M., Galiullin T.S., Kutluyarov Yu.Kh., Makov I.A.Â
4. Patent no. 2193070 RF, Device for plastic working of parts cylindrical surfaces,Â Inventors: Ikonnikov I.I., Shtaygerval'd A.E., Urazakov K.R., Gazarov A.G.
5. Patent no. 2365786 RF, Oil well pump, Inventors: Bakhtizin R.N., UrazakovÂ K.R., Ismagilov F.G., Agamalov G.B., Zhulaev V.P.
6. Ismagilov F.G., Uluchshenie tekhnicheskikh kharakteristik shtangovogo nasosaÂ naneseniem regulyarnogo mikrorel'efa na poverkhnosti plunzhera (ImprovingÂ the technical characteristics of the sucker pump by applying a regularÂ microrelief on the plunger surface): thesis of candidate of technical science,Â Ufa, 2010.
7. Bakhtizin R.N., Ismagilov F.G., Gafurov O.G., The experimental research ofÂ deep-well working barrel element consider with micro relief on pumpÂ plunger surface (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2008, V. 6, no. 2, pp. 33-40.
8. Nikitin G.A., Shchelevye i labirintnye uplotneniya gidroagregatov (SlottedÂ and labyrinth seals of hydraulic units), Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1982, 134 p.Â
9. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Latypov B.M., Ishmukhametov B.Kh., Fluid leakageÂ in a sucker-rod pump with regular micro-relief at surface of the plungerÂ (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, V. 14, no. 4, pp. 33-39.
10. Menter F.R., Kuntz M., Langtry R., Ten years of industrial experience withÂ the SST turbulence model, In: Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer: editedÂ by Hanjalic K., Nagano Y., Tummers M., Danbury: Begell House, Inc., 2003,Â pp. 625 – 632.
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G.I. Dusmetova, A.V. Sharifullin, V.N. Sharifullin, E.V. Kharitonov (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan)
Processing and test of turbulent viscosity reducing additive with nanocomponents
Modern requirements for turbulent viscosity reducing additives involve certain flexibility: a combination of viscous and anti-turbulent properties while maintaining the stability to various types of destruction. Currently in use additives do not fully comply with these requirements.
We developed a composition (additive) consisting of nanoparticles (20-30 nm), low molecular weight polymer and surface-active substance Reapon-4V. The action of adsorption forces of leads to formation of new linear structure of pseudo-polymer with a higher molecular weight than the starting polymer. The higher molecular weight of the polymer is the greater flow resistance decreases. On the other hand the additive having a very high molecular weight is unstable to mechanical degradation. We have developed a composition more resistant to mechanical degradation due to the effect of the periodic destruction and restoration of the structure. Initially, the polymer is adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface, forming a new linear structure of high molecular weight, and thereby a reduction in flow turbulence and as a result, reducing hydrodynamic drag. Passing through the pseudo-polymer pump, breaks down. Then, in a stream of moving fluid again, polymer adsorption occurs again on the surface of nanocomponents and the formation of "macromolecules". The presence of surface-active substance, together with the polymer allows this dispersed system be in the steady aggregation state, without allowing nanocomponents particles to coagulate in the solution. It was established that the synthesized additive with nanocomponents we have, under turbulent flow stream acts as an anti-turbulent and as a viscous. The effect of additives, due to decreased viscosity of the medium, appears greater at temperatures close to 0 °C and in small pumping velocities.
Additive comprising of nanocomponents is effective "viscose" properties at low shear rates, thus reducing the energy consumption at the initial stage of movement of oil (in laminar and transitional mode). The action of nanocomponents in reducing viscosity decreases with increasing turbulence flow.Hydrodynamic efficiency of developed additives with nanocomponents is higher than that of industrial anti-turbulent M-FLOWTREAT additives for a diesel fraction. It can be assumed that on oils (a more viscose medium) this difference will be more
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