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|OIL & GAS COMPANIES|
|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The authors consider several questions of geological exploration efficiency and its geological and ecological risk mitigation on the territory of Siberia and the Arctic shelf under conditions of abnormally high pore (AHPP) and formation (AHFP) pressures. In these cases, especially within the Arctic shelf, holding trouble-free drilling and optimization of t productive horizons opening is impossible without an operational definition of geotagging in sections of wells and the study of patterns of development.
The opportunity to meet with the strata of rocks with abnormally high pore and reservoir pressures is illustrated on the examples of the well logging results of pressures assessment in wells of Messoyakha group of fields in the North of Western Siberia, and wells of Leningradskoye, Rusanovskoye, Kharasaveyskoye fields. The article presents examples of processing materials and evaluation of pressures for specific wells. So in well No. 2 of Sredne-Messoyakhskoye field we identified five zones of AHPP. The maximum gradient of the pore pressures in these zones is 0.15-0,16 MPa/m. In wells of Rusanovskoye and Leningradskoye deposits located on the Arctic shelf of the Kara Sea, we revealed three zones AHPP with maximum gradients of pressures up to 0,155-0.172 MPa/m. The data obtained allowed to recommend the optimal design of wells and density of drilling fluids.
It is shown that the cause of AHPP is lithogenetic factor when compaction of clay rocks occurs at the complicated outflow of pore fluid. The genesis of AHFP in sand and siltstone reservoirs of these deposits may be associated with a combined mechanism of formation of anomalously high geofluid pressures. Here along with lithogenetic factor, there are also processes of vertical migration of fluids from sources of gas in the sedimentary cover. On the basis of the analysis the conclusion is made that it is necessary to create a permanent center for the promotion of well drilling with continuous assessments of geofluid pressures, areas of AHPP and AHFP logging and technological parameters of drilling.
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The productivity of the pre-Jurassic complex of the Severo-Varyeganskoye field was established in 1984 by well No. 1, in which a commercial gas condensate inflow was obtained. And by 1989, 16 exploratory wells were drilled within Severo-Varyeganskoye field, of which commercial hydrocarbons inflows were obtained in 6 wells. The data accumulated to date show, first, the high prospectivity of the object for hydrocarbon development, and second, the extremely complex geological structure of the reservoir.
In previous studies based on new lithological and petrophysical data, the conclusion was made, that the pre-Jurassic reservoirs of the Severo-Varyegan field are mainly associated with the primary sedimentary silicite formation, preserved from erosion within the intra-Paleozoic synclinal folds, probably bounded by faults. The present paper is their continuation. It consistently presents the results of reprocessing and interpretation of newly obtained seismic and geological data. Fore mapping the Paleozoic reservoir, an object-oriented reprocessing of seismic data was carried out. Mainly as a result of the expert approach to suppressing of multiple waves, elements related to the geological structure of the upper part of the pre-Jurassic complex were revealed. To suppress the effects of wave interference, an acoustic inversion of the seismic data was performed. The interpretation of its results revealed that the sufficiently large bodies of the silicite are confidently distinguished.
As a result of the seismic mapping, a system of submeridionaly striked linear silicite’s bodies was identified. It is a geological framework for further exploration and development. It is planned, first, to carry out a synchronous stochastic inversion of seismic data and a quantitative interpretation of its results, and second, to check the geological forecasts by subsequent drilling.
1. Orlov A.A., Antonishin G.I., Ivaniv M.N., New data on the structure and petroleum potential of the Paleozoic deposits of the Middle Ob region (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 1988, no. 4, pp. 3–5.
2. Arkhipov S.V., Borkun F.Ya., Pitkevich V.T. et al., Collectors of pre-Jurassic-Jurassic complex of North Varioganskaya Square (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1989, no. 5, pp. 27–29.
3. Shut'ko S.Yu., Kir'yanova N.I., New data on the contact zone of the platform cover and Paleozoic formations of the North Varioganskoye and Varioganskoye fields (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1989, no. 11, pp. 14–16.
4. Bochkarev V.S., Grishchenko A.I., Leshchenko V.E. et al., Paleozoic deposits – a new direction of exploration for oil and gas in the south-east of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 1996, no. 1, pp. 2–8.
5. Makov A.I., Taldykin V.A., Zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya zalezhey nefti i gaza v fundamente Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity na territorii KhMAO (Regularities in the location of oil and gas deposits in the basement of the West Siberian Plate in KhMAO), Proceedings of scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2003, Part 1, pp. 94–101.
6. Kirda N.P., Paromov I.V., Smirnova V.V. et al., Geologicheskoe razvitie i stroenie doyurskikh kompleksov tsentral'nykh i vostochnykh rayonov KhMAO, perspektivnye napravleniya poiskovo-otsenochnykh rabot na neft' i gaz (Geological development and structure of the pre-Jurassic complexes of the central and eastern regions of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, promising directions of prospecting and appraisal work for oil and gas), Collected papers “Perspektivy neftegazonosnosti paleozoyskikh otlozheniy na territorii Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga” (Oil and gas potential of Paleozoic deposits in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug), Proceedings of Scientific and Practical Conference, 12 February, 2003, pp. 1–18.
7. Zubkov M.Yu., Fedorova T.A., Hydrothermal secondary collectors in black shale (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1989, no. 6, pp. 26–30.
8. Zubkov M.Yu., Gidrotermal'nye selitsity – perspektivnyy neftegazopoiskovyy ob"ekt doyurskogo fundamenta Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity (Hydrothermal Selitsites – a promising oil and gas prospect of the pre-Jurassic basement of the West Siberian Plate), Collected papers “Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' nizhnikh gorizontov chekhla Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity” (Geology and oil and gas content of the lower horizons of the cover of the West Siberian plate), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 1990, pp. 87–101.
9. Fishchenko A.N., Romanchev M.A., Sil'yanov V.V. et al., Kontseptual'naya geologicheskaya model' verkhney chasti doyurskogo kompleksa Severo-Var'eganskogo mestorozhdeniya (Conceptual geological model of the upper part of the pre-Jurassic complex of the Severo-Varyegan deposit), Proceedings TNNC, 2017, no. 3, pp. 220–234.10. Kudamanov A.I.,
Karikh T.M., Lebedev M.V., Challenges of horizontal well drilling technology
implementation on carbonate reservoirs in Zarubezhneft JSC (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 82–85.
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In the Western Siberia oil and gas mega province, the main part of oil and gas reserves and resources is accumulated in Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits of the plate complex. However, the discovery of large oil deposits in the oil fields in the pre-Jurassic series of the western part of Khanty-Mansiisk autonomous district (Yugra) – in Elizarov trough and in the territory of its conjunction with Krasnoleninsky dome - increases the oil potential of the pre-Jurassic series.
High uncertainty of prediction of reservoir properties of individual blocks, different in terms of age and lithological composition (as confirmed by the results of core studies in the laboratories) represents an important factor which makes it difficult to plan exploration activities targeting the horizons of pre-Jurassic series. Reservoir properties prediction is also complicated by significant inconsistency in pre-Jurassic series' coverage by drilling and by petrographic and petrophysical core studies.
The present article examines a method of probabilistic evaluation of reservoir properties of pre-Jurassic deposits on the basis of integration of field geophysical data (magnetic measurements, gravity surveys, electric prospecting, and seismic survey) and examination of lithological and stratigraphic data and core studies results. It is also proposed to use computational and analytical method to evaluate porosity because the information on the reservoir development areas obtained by direct methods is not sufficient.
1. Tektonicheskaya karta tsentral'noy chasti Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity (Tectonic map of the central part of the West Siberian plate): edited by Shpil'man V.I., Zamanovskiy N.I., Podsosova L.L., 1998.
2. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1000000), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 2009, 300 p.
3. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1000000), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 2011, 343 p.
4. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1000000), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 2007, 541 p.
5. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1000000), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 2011, 492 p.
6. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1000000), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 2007, 318 p.
7. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta SSSR i RF, masshtab 1:1000000 (State geological map of the USSR and the Russian Federation, scale 1: 1000000), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 2007, 318 s.
8. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1000000), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 2014, 396 p.
9. Tugareva A.V., Chernova G.A., Yakovleva N.P., Moroz M.L., Geological structure and oil and gas potential of the Pre-Jurassic deposits of the Central part of the West Siberian plate (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2017, no. 5, pp. 58–66.
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Development of hydrocarbon deposits in Arctic offshore areas is associated with high ecological and technological risks because of severe climatic environment. Economic activities in this region should be supplemented by continuous monitoring environmental parameters. According to exploration work, Khatanga license block in the Laptev Sea could be considered to have a high hydrocarbon potential. At the same time, the Khatanga Bay, located in the southwestern part of the Laptev Sea, is characterized by harsh hydrometeorological conditions: low air temperatures in combination with storm winds, frequent fogs and snowstorms, and severe ice conditions. These factors greatly complicate the economic development of the region and require a detailed account of the environmental conditions of the region. An example of advanced scientific development is the Khatanga license area, where in parallel with the exploration works of Rosneft, year-round hydrometeorological and ice surveys are conducted at the temporary field base "Khastyr", organized by the Company in the summer of 2016. In addition, complex marine expeditions were conducted in this region to study hydrometeorological and ice conditions in summer and winter. Local features of the formation of the ice cover are associated with the influx of fresh water and a large number of impurities. In general, sea ice here is characterized by increased strength. Dependencies in the spatial distribution of various types of deformed ice features such as grounded ice (stamukhas) and hummock ridges, have been revealed. The comprehensive meteorological, hydrological and ice research program was carried out at the Khatanga license area during winter period of 2016-2017. The obtained environmental data significantly expanded the modern knowledge of the hydrometeorological and ice conditions of the Khatanga Bay and the adjacent Laptev Sea.
1. Atlas Arktiki (Atlas of the Arctic), Moscow: Publ. of GUNIO, 1985.
2. Opasnye ledovye yavleniya dlya sudokhodstva v Arktike (Dangerous ice phenomena for navigation in the Arctic): edited by Mironov E.U., St. Petersburg: Publ of AANII, 2010, 320 p.
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5. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Smirnov V.N. et al., An experiment of large-scale tests of flexural strength of the ice fields in the Kara and the Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2016, no. 2, pp. 85–89.
6. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Shushlebin A.I. et al., Evaluation of local strength of ice using a borehole jack in the Kara and Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 47 – 51.
7. Ledyanye obrazovaniya Zapadnoy Arktiki (Ice formations of the Western Arctic): edited by Zubakin G.K. St. Petersburg: Publ of AANII, 2006, 240 p.8. Mironov E.U., Porubaev V.S., Statistical model of ice ridge morphometry in the southwestern part of the Kara Sea (In Russ.), Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki, 2011, no. 3 (89), pp. 49–61.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
One of the most effective ways to increase oil production in case of low-permeable reservoirs is the method of hydraulic fracturing. Traditional way to give the required rheological properties to fracturing fluids is polymers application (guar derivatives, cellulose). One of the major drawbacks of such systems is the reduction of permeability due to contamination of the destruction products of polymers. Alternatively, eliminates this drawback can be used non-polymer systems based on viscoelastic surfactants.
The article considers the non-polymer reagent Surfogel D. It can be used in the composition of the fracturing fluid without use of polymers. Some breakers were investigated for each temperature. They can effectively manage the time of destruction gel. Solution of Surfogel D in fresh water provides desirable rheology, which is stable at various temperatures and shear rates. Advantage of this product is immediate recovery of viscosity characteristics after action of shear. Residual conductivity of proppant packaging in the case of Surfogel D use exceeds in the average 2.7 times those measured using the standard process of fracturing fluid on guar basis.
Thus, the conducted laboratory studies have shown the application perspectives of the surfactant Surfogel D in the technology of hydraulic fracturing. The latter was also confirmed by the successful field trials of this reagent in Western Siberia, when performing hydraulic fracturing about 17 tons of proppant were injected.
1. Boyer Ch.M., Glenn S.A., Claypool Br.R. et al., Application of viscoelastic fracturing fluids in Appalachian basin reservoirs, SPE 98068, 2005.2. Smirnova N.A., Phase behaviour and self-assembly patterns of surfactant mixtures in solutions (In Russ.), Uspekhi khimii = Russian Chemical Reviews, 2005, no. 74 (2), pp. 138–154.
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This article focuses on introduction of the acid and proppant fracturing technology at the fields of Udmurtneft OJSC. It is known and justified that the hydraulic fracturing technology is efficient for stimulation of reservoirs. However, not all of the various existing methods of hydraulic fracturing (frac jobs) can be applied in the fields of the Udmurt Republic, as the fields of the region are deemed to be a risky area in terms of breakthrough into aquifers. Both proppant hydrofracturing, and the acid frac jobs are widely used, but there is currently no the proppant and acid hydrofracturing method. However nowadays this proppant and acid hydrofracturing method is an efficient way of reservoir stimulation. Therefore, the introduction of acid and proppant hydrofracturing technology has been reviewed as the solution to stimulate the carbonate formations in the oilfields of Udmurtneft OJSC.
Pilot testing of the technology in directional wells has shown the profitability of the said method of stimulation, despite the fact that the acid and proppant hydrofracturing technology in horizontal wells was tested in the oilfields of the Udmurt Republic for the first time.
The achieved results show that the technology may cover the greater well stock and oilfields. Besides, the successful performance of multi-stage acid and proppant hydrofracturing in two horizontal wells of Eseneiskoe and Mishkinskoe oilfields has expanded the scope of use of acid and proppant hydrofracturing, and has proven its efficiency in the areas deemed risky with regard to breakthrough in water—bearing horizons. The results have shown that consideration of the geological factors, reservoir properties and detailed designing of the operation makes it possible to carry out the acid and proppant hydrofracturing in horizontal wells without breakthrough in aquifers.
1. Pan'kov S.Yu., Mukhutdinov R.A., Khaydar A.M. et al., Advanced technologies for development and oil reserves involvement of low-permeability dolomite reservoirs in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 48–51.
2. Zdol'nik S.E., Nekipelov Yu.V., Gaponov M.A., Folomeev A.E., Introduction of innovative hydrofracturing technologies on carbonate reservoirs of Bashneft PJSOC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 92–95.
3. Baumgarten D., Bobrosky D., Multi-stage acid stimulation improves production values in carbonate formations in Western Canada, SPE 126058, 2009.
4. Franco S.A., Solares J.R., Al-Shammari N.S., Post-stimulation results and analysis of highly successful multi-stage acid fracturing campaign performed in tight gas carbonate formations in Saudi Arabia, SPE 136923, 2009.
5. Jouti J.I., Rafainer G., Ferreira A. et al., Challenging horizontal open hole completion in carbonates: A case history on mechanical isolation and selective stimulation in Campos Basin, Brazil, SPE 69585, 2001.
6. Al-Anazi Hamoud A., Abdulbaqi D.M., Habbtar Ali H., Al-Kanaan Adnan A., Successful implementation of horizontal multi-stage fracturing enhanced gas production in heterogeneous & tight gas-condensate reservoirs: Case studies, SPE 161664, 2012.
7. Quirein J.A., Kessler C., Trela J.M. et al., Microseismic monitoring of a restimulation treatment to a Permian Basin San Andres dolomite horizontal well, SPE 110333, 2007.
8. Al-Anazi Hamoud, Aramco Saudi, Kalinin D. et al., Success criteria for multistage fracturing of tight gas in Saudi Arabia, SPE 149064-MS, 2011.
9. Hill E., Xiaoming J., Yongxiang L. et al., Multistage fracturing in horizontal open hole completions: Case studies for low permeability formations in China, SPE 15095-MS, 2011.
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Registration of fluids (oil, water and gas) in reservoir rocks is one of the tasks, that researchers solve using X-ray computed microtomography (MCT). One can find many works in this area in open literature, but most of them use bulk models or coarse rocks as research objects. Such porous systems with pores and channels size of several tens or even hundreds of micrometers allow micron resolution MCT-shooting, which is sufficient for visualization of wetting and non-wetting phases. Due to the resolution lack, finely porous saturated system study is limited, though they make up a large share of oil and gas reservoirs.
Goal of current labor is to assess opportunities and to create new approaches of MCT usage for residual water determination. There was no task for direct phase visualization because of practical application absence. This decision was contributed by analysis of core samples’ capillary curves - a significant part of filter channels and pores filled with residual water have sub-micron size.
Four methods of residual water estimation were tested: excretion of water absorption spectrum (with radiopaque and without it), analysis of integral intensity absorption spectra, analysis of single-phase flow rates field (completely calculation method). Last two methods are new and they were used for rock study for the first time. Results of residual water estimation by new methods were compared with laboratory measurements. Calculation method of single-phase flow rates field analysis for limited number of core samples allowed to obtain correlations between porosity and residual water, that are close to the actual laboratory trend for entire reservoir.
1. Di Michiel Marco, Merino J.M., Fernandez-Carreiras D. et al., Fast microtomography using high energy synchrotron radiation, Review of Scientific Instruments, 2005, V. 76.
2. Porter M.L., Wildenschild D., Grant G., Gerhard J.I., Measurement and prediction of the relationship between capillary pressure, saturation, and interfacial area in a NAPL‐water‐glass bead system, Water resources research, 2010, V. 46.
3. Petrovic A.M., Siebert J.E., Rieke P.E., Soil bulk-density analysis in 3 dimensions by computed tomographic scanning, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 1982, V. 46 (3), pp. 445–450.
4. Withjack E.M., Computed tomography for rock-property determination and fluid-flow visualization, SPE 16951-PA, 1988.
5. Coles M.E. et al., Pore level imaging of fluid transport using synchrotron
X-ray microtomography, J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 1998, V. 19 (1–2), pp. 55–63,
6. Wildenschild D., J.W. Hopmansc, Vazd C.M.P. et al., Using X-ray computed tomography in hydrology: systems, resolutions, and limitations, Journal of Hydrology, 2002, V. 267, pp. 285–297.
7. Turner M., Three-dimensional imaging of multiphase flow in porous media, Physica A, 2004, V. 339 (1–2), pp. 166–72.
8. Silin D., Tomutsa L., Benson S.M., Padzek T.W., Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase fluid distribution, Transport in Porous Media, 2011, V. 86, no. 2, pp. 495–515.
9. Al-Raoush R., Willson C., A pore-scale investigation of a multiphase porous media system, J. Contam. Hydrol., 2005. V. 77(1–2), pp. 67–89.
10. Matthew A., Branko B., Martin J., Blunt pore-scale contact angle measurements at reservoir conditions using X-ray microtomography, Advances in Water Resources, 2014, V. 68, pp. 24–31.
11. Dodd N., Marathe R., Middleton J. et al., Pore-scale imaging of oil and wettability in native-state, mixed-wet reservoir carbonates, International Petroleum Technology Conference, 19-22 January, Doha, Qatar, 2014.
12. Kumar M. et al., Imaging of pore scale distribution of fluids and wettability, International symposium of the society of core analysts, SCA2008-16, 2008.
13. Mees F., Swennen R., Geet M. Van, Jacobs P., Applications of X-ray computed tomography in the geosciences, The Geological Society, 2003.
14. Yazynina I.V., Shelyago E.V., Abrosimov A.A., Veremko N.A., Grachev N.E., Senin D.S., Novel approach to core sample MCT research for practical petrophysics problems solution (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 19–23.
15. Yazynina I.V., Shelyago E.V., Abrosimov A.A. et al., Testing a new approach to petrophysical trend determination from X-Ray tomography (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 36–40.
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It is known that the production rate of a well located in the center of the drainage zone and operated in a steady state at a bottomhole pressure higher than the saturation pressure can be determined using the Dupuit equation. If the bottomhole pressure of the production well becomes lower than saturation pressure in the zone where formation pressure is lower than saturation pressure a two-phase flow (gas + liquid) is formed. Formation of two-phases flow leads to a decrease in the well productivity. In this case, the Vogel ratio is usually used to determine the inflow performance, requiring at least one well test for the inflow. The combination of the Dupuit formula and the Vogel relation in calculating the well productivity index makes it possible to obtain a composite Vogel indicator curve. Skin-factor reflects any physical or mechanical phenomenon that reduces the fluid inflow into the well. It depends on partially penetrating well, wellbore damage (skin effect), well slant angle, the manifestation of inertial forces dependent on the production rate, etc. Suppose that using the skin-factor approach, one can take into account not only the degree of change in the properties of the wellbore zone, but also other effects that result to a change in well productivity. One of these effects can be the formation of a two-phase flow zone. The paper presents a generalized Dupuit – Vogel relationship for estimating the oil well productivity at any bottomhole pressure with respect to saturation pressure, as well as evaluating performance of actual oil wells.
1. Ikonnikova L.N., Zolotukhin A.B., Evaluation of flowing well bottom hole pressure at bottom hole pressure below buble point pressure (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 2, pp. 61–68.
2. Ikonnikova L.N., Zolotukhin A.B., Prediction of wells flow-rate after acid treatment when bottomhole pressure is lower than saturation pressure (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2013, no. 2, pp. 35–37.
3. Zolotukhin A., Risnes R., Mishchenko I., Performance of oil and gas wells, Stavanger: Stavanger University, 2007, 273 p.
4. Mukherjee H., Basic production engineering and well performance, iPoint LLC, 2011, 184 p.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
Multistage fracturing (MSF) technology becomes one of the main stimulation methods in horizontal wells. Despite the considerable experience, accumulated engineering knowledge and market appearance of a sufficient number of various MSF equipment manufacturers, operators are still rising the following questions while performing this type of well interventions: horizontal well length justification, number of MSF zones, distance between the ports, placement of open hole packers, recovering of frac balls etc. All of the above can be resolved to some extent with the help of traditional geophysics. However, production logging tool (PLT) performance in horizontal wells with MSF in most cases is limited by many complicating technological factors that reduce the possibility of successful surveillance. Most of the questions related to the surveillance of horizontal wells with MSF can be resolved using the technology of chemical markers integrated into a wide range of completion designs. This technology involves the installation of special polymer matrices with embedded intelligent chemical markers, either oil sensitive or water sensitive, into the completion hardware within the each zone of the MSF. When contacted by the target fluid (water or oil), the unique chemical signatures are released in very small concentrations and production from each reservoir compartment transports these unique signatures to the surface. Collection of the produced fluid samples at surface, analysis and interpretation, allows to resolve a wide range of conventional PLT tasks without conducting the PLT, including: the assessment of well clean-up, frac balls efficiency or sliding sleeves performance, quantification of the inflow per each zone monitored, detection of water breakthrough intervals and selection of zones for re-fracturing.
This article presents practical case studies of intelligent inflow indicators applications for monitoring the MSF wells.
1. Karpov V.B., Rymarenko K.V., Ishimov I.A., Golovatskiy Yu.A., Nukhaev M.T., Zhirov A.V., Burenie i zakanchivanie dlinnykh gorizontal'nykh skvazhin s MGRP kak klyuch k rentabel'noy razrabotke TRIZ (Drilling and completion of long horizontal wells with MGRP as the key to the cost-effective development of hard to recover reserves), Proceedings of EAGE Horizontal Wells 2017.
2. Semikin D.A., Nukhaev M.T., Obzor sistem monitoringa raboty protyazhennykh gorizontal'nykh skvazhin pri razrabotke kontaktnykh zapasov (Review of monitoring systems for the operation of extended horizontal wells in contact reserves development), Proceedings of EAGE Horizontal Wells 2017.
3. Williams B., Vilela A., Wireless reservoir surveillance using intelligent tracers, SPE 152660, 2012.
4. Nyhavn F., Dyrli A.D., Permanent tracers embedded in downhole polymers prove their monitoring capabilities in a hot offshore well, SPE 135070, 2010.
5. Mjaaland S., Gudding E., Andresen C.A., Wireless inflow monitoring in a subsea field development: A case study from the Hyme field, offshore Mid-Norway, SPE 170619, 2014.
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One of the main methods of enhancement bitumen and high-viscosity oil recovery is the injection of steam and hot water. The efficiency of thermal methods is determined by the properties of hot fluid at the well bottom hole. But, as usually the hot fluid properties are only known at the wellhead. Much of heat energy is lost during the hot fluid injection especially at deep wells. Therefore, in order to estimate the efficiency of the steam injection, it is necessary to perform thermodynamic welltests to determine hot fluid properties at the wellbore. In these conditions, the development of approach of hot fluid properties estimation becomes highly important. This paper describes the approach of hot fluid properties estimation in any point of well during the steam injection. The approach is based on the conjugation of heat conductivity equation solution for estimation of heat losses and the equation of the vapor-liquid mixture flow in the well. The approach can be also implemented using average heat losses along the wellbore, when they are known from thermodynamic welltests. The proposed procedure can be easily implemented in spreadsheets. Considered algorithms allow us to provide engineering calculations of hot fluid properties in the wellbore without having special knowledge in thermal methods. It is necessary to mention that considered approach allows estimating bottomhole pressure during the steam injection. It helps to sel ect steam injection regimes at the wellhead to avoid fracturing at the bottom hole. An example of using the approach in real project of Zarubezhneft JSC is considered in the article.
1. Revised release on the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the thermodynamic properties of water and steam, Lucerne: International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, 2007, 49 p.
2. Vukalovich M.P., Termodinamicheskie svoystva vody i vodyanogo para (Thermodynamic properties of water and steam), Moscow: Mashgiz Publ., 1955, 92 p.
3. Landau L.D., Lifshits E.M., Teoreticheskaya fizika (Theoretical physics), V. VI. Gidrodinamika (Hydrodynamics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1986, 736 p.
4. Carslaw H., Jaeger J., Conduction of heat in solids, Oxford University Press, USA, 1959, 510 p.
5. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, Vol.17, 1999, 164 p.
6. Afanasiev I.S., Yudin E.V., Azimov T.A. et al., Technology for the thermal treatment of the productive formations of the Boca de Jaruco field: challenges, opportunities, prospects (In Russ.), SPE 176699-RU, 2015.
7. Jiang Q., Yuan J., Russel-Houston J. et al., Evaluation of recovery technologies for the Grosmont carbonate reservoirs, PETSOC-2009-067.
8. Yudin E.V., Petrashov O.V., Osipov A.V., Results of pilot work on extraction of natural bitumens fr om oil-wet fractured carbonate rocks: Boca de Jaruco field case (In Russ.), SPE 187683-RU, 2017.
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The paper discusses an approach to optimize operation of booster pumping stations connected to a common line through their consecutive operation. To ensure consecutive operations of several booster pumping stations, their performance shall be updated. Change of periods and time of pumps’ operation may result in concurrent operation of several booster stations. Failure to coordinate operation of pumps results in significant difference in volumes of the pumped-over fluid, increase of pressure in the pipeline, higher power demand, and growth of unit costs. Considering that communication with the booster pumping station is performed at stated intervals, control and updating of pumps’ performance can be delayed with the resultant concurrent pumps’ operation. To ensure consecutive operation of pumps, possible changes in pumps performance shall be predicted in-between the communication sessions. To do this, updated performance data is needed: fluid level in tanks, how quickly the level changes, and the pumps’ status. Basing on this information, the time of tank filling and the period of pump’s operation are calculated. When the time of tank filling is less than the time of pump operation, this suggests non-coordinated pumps’ operation. In this case, during the next communication session the operation of pumps is updated by changing the fluid level setups.
2. Patent no. 2367821 RF, MPK F 04 D 15/00, Method to control operating conditions of two booster pumping units that intermittently pump fluid into one pipeline, Inventors: Pergushev L.P., Fattakhov R.B., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sobolev S.A.3. Zaydel' A.N.,
Elementarnye otsenki oshibok izmereniy (Elementary estimates of measurement
errors), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1968, 96 p.
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The experience of using a plunger lift at the Eastern area of the Orenburgskoye oil-gas-condensate field is considered, where the main method of exploiting production wells is gas lift. The article describes the construction of gas-lift wells and the required technological parameters of their operating modes, and also briefly describes the properties of the productive reservoir of the field. The influence of the design of the downhole equipment of gas-lift wells and the Christmas tree on the efficiency of the plunger lift technology is shown. The problems that arose during the pilot-field tests of the plunger lift technology were considered. The evolution of the main structural elements of the technology is discussed, the description of the elements that have undergone modernization is given, and the reasons for which changes were made in the design of the elements of the equipment of the plunger lift technology are indicated. The key indicators of the effectiveness of the technology application in the Eastern area of the Orenburgskoye field are determined. The influence of this technology on the main technological parameters of the operation of low-rate gas-lift wells and boreholes operating in the batch mode, such as reduction of the specific flow rate of gas-lift gas, well production, etc. is shown. The influence of the plunger lift technology on the formation of asphalten-resin-paraffin deposits on the internal surface of the pump- compressor pipes during well operation. Advantages of using the plunger lift technology in the operation of low-rate and periodically operating gas-lift wells complicated by asphalten-resin-paraffin deposits are compared with the gas-lift wells operating in a constant process mode.
1. Sarancha A.V., Sarancha I.S., Mitrofanov D.A., Technology of production of low-pressure Cenomanian gas (In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal “Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya”, 2015, V. 1, URL: https://science-education.ru/pdf/2015/1/1102.pdf.
2. Medko V.V., Tekhnologiya udaleniya zhidkosti iz gazovykh skvazhin s liftovymi kolonnami bol'shikh diametrov (The technology of liquid removal from gas wells with large diameters lift columns): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2007.
3. Lea J.F., Lynn R., Selection of artificial lift, ROGTEC Magazine, 2014, no. 10, URL: https://rogtecmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/09_ArtificialLift.pdf4. Recommended practices for design and operation of intermittent and chamber gas-lift wells and systems, API recommended practice 11V10, First edition, 2008, June.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
This article describes the problem of casings leaks in wells of Surgutneftegas related to corrosion processes during the exploitation. It is shown the number of wells with casings leaks that revealed in primary period (less than 10 years) of wells operations increases. The article presents the results of production casing research for estimating corrosion progress direction and depth of its location in wells. The reasons that influences on corrosion location in different kind of wells have been explaining. The different speeds of casings corrosion in wells that are working in the same regime have been noting. The possible factors that are contributing to increasing and decreasing of corrosion speed in well conditions had been considered. The conducted analysis results about degree of influences considered factors to casing leakage formation had been showed. The justification of internal corrosion progressing for production casing and absence of dominant influence of Cenomanian water on casing leakage formation had been stated. The solubility of carbon dioxide in water depending from pressure and temperature values has been considering. It supposed to be that speed of corrosion of production casing will be increase with depth of well, since with increasing of depth the hydrostatic pressure is increase, so quantity of formed carbonic acid is increase too. Results of research of corrosion depositions from internal surface of casings that are confirming of results of researchers who are gave a data about carbon dioxide type of corrosion in wells of Western Siberia have been showing.
Based on conducted work the general factors that are resulting to acceleration of corrosion processes in well have been marked out; the statement about influence of electric submersible pump as a main factor that resulting to production casing leakage have not been confirmed; the influence of aggregate of factors of significantly accelerates the corrosion processes have been marked.
1. Zav’yalov V.V., Problemy ekspluatatsionnoy nadezhnosti truboprovodov na pozdney stadia razrabotki mestorozhdeniy (Pipelines operating reliability problems in the late stages of field development), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2005, 332 p.
2. Mukhametshin V.G., Zav'yalov V.V., Kanzafarov F.Ya. et al., Research of reasons and character of sealing loss of wells’ production strings in Samotlor oil field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 1, pp. 22–27.3. Markin A.N., Nizamov R.E., ÑO2–korroziya neftegazopromyslovogo oborudovaniya (ÑO2-corrosion of oil and gas equipment), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2003, 188 p.
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Climate warming, which has been going on the territory of Russia with the speed of two and a half times as much as global warming, has become the reason of permafrost melting, which takes more than half of the territory of the Russian Federation. According to IPCC’s estimates, the warming which has been since the middle of the 20th century is human induced with probability of 95%. That is why the construction and operation of oil wells may lead to acceleration of permafrost degradation process, which will cause numerous technogenic accidents. In this regard development of thermal protective equipment is a crucial task. The central focus of research and design work is development of passive thermal protective equipment like thermal insulated direction, oil well tubing etc., and also development of active thermal protective equipment – heat stabilizers with the use of coolants, for example, ammonia, Freon R22, but these devices have got some drawbacks. That is why in order to create effective and environmental friendly thermal protective equipment it is necessary to develop new technology, which would be able to control and react swiftly on natural and man-induced impact on permafrost.
In our opinion, downhole thermoelectric device can be used as such technology. It means thermal flow control in the system “well-permafrost” by regulating current rate and voltage in thermoelectric elements with optional use of thermal conductivity of different materials for improving effectiveness of their work. In this article the results of experimental investigation of temperature distribution along the plate surface from the action of thermoelectric element have been included, experimental data with theoretical values of Green functions and the suggested formula have been compared. The conclusion concerning the possibility of designing a downhole thermoelectric device for thermal flow control in the system “well-permafrost” has been drawn.
1. Vtoroy otsenochnyy doklad Rosgidrometa ob izmeneniyakh klimata i ikh posledstviyakh na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Obshchee rezyume (The 2nd assessment report of Roshydromet on climate change and its consequences on the territory of the Russian Federation. General summary), Moscow: Publ. of Rosgidromet, 2014, 60 p.
2. O sostoyanii i ispol'zovanii mineral'no-syr'evykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2013 godu. Gosudarstvennyy doklad (On the state and use of mineral resources in the Russian Federation in 2013. State report), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, 2013, 387 p.
3. Eliseeva O.A., Luk'yanov A.S., On system estimation of economically acceptable resourses of Russian oil and gas provinces taking into account innovation technologies (In Russ.), Georesursy. Geoenergetika. Geopolitika, 2014, no. 1, URL: http://oilgasjournal.ru/vol_9/eliseeva.pdf
4. Molchanov V.P., Akimov V.A., Sokolov Yu.I., Riski chrezvychaynoy situatsii v Arkticheskoy zone Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Risks of an emergency in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation), Moscow: Publ. of FGBU VNII GOChS (FTs), 2011, 300 p.
5. Kontorovich A.E., Epov A.I., Burshteyn L.M. et al., Geology and hydrocarbon resources of the continental shelf in Russian Arctic seas and the prospects of their development (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2010, V. 51, no. 1, pp. 7–17
6. Polozkov A.V., Bliznyukov V.Yu. et al., Investigation of thermal regimes during testing, development of exploratory and production wells in permafrost (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2008, no. 7, pp. 15-21.
7. Bykov I.Yu., Marakasova I.S., Analysis of the factors of the preparative when choosing a thermal protection equipment (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2010, no. 8, pp. 9–13.
8. Bykov I.Yu., Bobyleva T.V., Termozashchita konstruktsiy skvazhin v merzlykh porodakh (Thermal protection of well structures in frozen rocks), Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2007, 131 p.
9. Pavlova P.L., Kolosov M.V., Kondrashov P.M., Zen'kov I.V., The development of a prototype device for thermal stabilization of permafrost (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2014, no. 6, pp. 679–697.
10. Medvedskiy R.I., Stroitel'stvo i ekspluatatsiya skvazhin na neft' i gaz v vechnomerzlykh porodakh (Construction and operation of wells for oil and gas in permafrost), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 230 p.
11. Ioffe A.I., Stil'bans L.S., Iordanishvili E.K., Stavitskaya T.S., Termoelektricheskoe okhlazhdenie (Thermoelectric cooling), Publ. of AS of USSR, 1956, 113 p.
12. Patent no. 2500880 RF, MPK E21B36/00, Device for heat insulation of wells in permanently frozen ground, Inventors: Kolosov V.V., Birikh R.A., Pavlova P.L., Lunev A.S.
13. Isachenko V.P., Osipova V.A., Sukomel A.S., Teploperedacha (Heat transfer), Moscow: Energiya Publ., 1975, 488 p.
14. Aramanovich I.G., Levin V.I., Uravneniya matematicheskoy fiziki (Equations of mathematical physics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1969, 287 p.15. Pavlova P.L., Kondrashov P.M., Zen'kov I.V., Results of temperature change study in a wellhead oil and gas pipe with the use of a thermoelectric cooling device (In Russ.), Vestnik IrGTU, 2016, no. 4, pp. 46–53
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
622.276.8 : 665.622
This article proposed technology of preparation and refining of associated petroleum gas (APG), separated during intermediate and final separation stages on the oil treatment facilities- central production facility (CPF) with obtaining marketable products - liquefied hydrocarbon gases. This technology includes low-temperature condensation and rectification of light liquid hydrocarbons implemented in the block modular complex for preparation and refining of APG, equipment with CPF. In this complex there is no provision for additional gas compression before cooling. Pressure developed by the compressor station projected as a part of CPF is sufficient for the implementation of the process. This block modular complex for preparation and refining gas at the final stages consist of two technological modules: the low-temperature condensation and gas fractionation unit and auxiliary equipment unit. These technological modules consist of technological blocks that are completed with block-modules equipment full factory readiness. In calculations of material-heat balance were used design parameters APG of first, intermediate and final stage common for oil of Middle Ob Region. Analysis of calculations shows, that as a result of additional equipment CPF with system of low-temperature condensation of gas more than 50% of volume of low-pressure gas can be turned into marketable product. Moreover, partially drained stripped gas, returned to the first stage separation gas, slightly reduces the potential content of C3+ in it, in particular for gas composition accepted in the calculations from 323 to 316 g/m3.
The use of this technology will eliminate the problem of recycling of light liquid hydrocarbons formed during the preparation of oil and gas, i.e. exclude burning of valuable hydrocarbon products, and get extra profit through their monetization.
1. Kramskoy A.A., Filippov A.V., Associated gas of the last stages of separation. Compression of low-pressure APG (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal' = Oil & Gas Vertical, 2014, no. 10, pp. 60–64.
2. Tarasov M.Yu., Ivanov S.S., Reducing the loss of light liquid hydrocarbons at the oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 1, pp. 96–99.
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The main attention in the article is concentrated on layout decisions and methods of power supply of underwater pumping complexes with regulated electric drives of multiphase pumps. The main provisions showing the advantages of using underwater pumping complexes in place of traditional technical means of transporting hydrocarbons (gas carriers and tankers) in terms of performance characteristics, transportation management, economic, resource, environmental efficiency and safety are formulated. It is also shown that at present time highly reliable and safe units in other industries are being created on the basis of regulated electric drives and multiphase pumps, and underwater units already have successful experiences of experimental and industrial operation on the offshore pipeline systems of various countries.
Various methods for the traditional arrangement of pumping complexes are considered. It is shown that such aggregates can have a horizontal or vertical arrangement with one or more pumps. The supply and removal of the flow of a multiphase mixture of hydrocarbons can be carried out radially or horizontally, depending on the features of the installation and operation. A method for arranging a pumping complex integrated into a subsea pipeline on the basis of a drive machine with a flowing rotor, controlled by a semiconductor converter, is proposed. Features of the developed layout are pumped using the axial rotor-compressor, mechatronic design of the complex, installation on the bottom without a foundation, modularity. The structure of a frequency converter of a distributed type is proposed, which allows to effectively control the technological process of hydrocarbon transportation and supply electric power to a rotor-compressor of an underwater pumping complex. The use of the developed frequency converter allows solving energy problems and reliability problems of frequency converters of other structures.
The main places of use and perspective areas of application of underwater pumping complexes are considered.
1. Vetter G., Wirth W., Korner H., Pregler S., Multiphase pumping twin-screw pumps – understand and model hydrodynamics and hydroabrasive wear, Proceedings of the 17th international pump users symposium, 2000, pp. 153–169.
2. Hjelmeland M., Olsen A.B., Advances in sabsea wet gas compression technologies, Proceedings of International Petroleum Technology Conference, 2011, pp. 1–9.
3. Fernandez D., MAN Diesel & Turbo Technology Update – Subsea compression, MAN Diesel & Turbo, 2016, 15 p.
4. Vasil'ev B.Yu., Mardashov D.V., Electromechanical systems of subsea pumping complexes for hydrocarbons transportation from the offshore fields of the Arctic seas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 85–89.
5. Vasil'ev B.Yu., Subsea solution for development of the Arctic shelf: World and Russian experience (In Russ.), Offshore Russia, 2016, no. 2, pp. 68–72.
6. Vasil'ev B.Yu., Development of domestic oilfield navy, submarine technical park and offshore projects in modern conditions (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2015, no. 5 (722), pp. 86–91.
7. Zolotukhin A.B. et al., Osnovy razrabotki shel'fovykh neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy i stroitel'stvo morskikh sooruzheniy v Arktike (Fundamentals of the development of offshore oil and gas fields and the construction of offshore structures in the Arctic), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2000, 770 p.
8. Men'shov B.G., Ershov M.S., Yarizov A.D., Elektrotekhnicheskie ustanovki i kompleksy v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Electrical installations and complexes in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 487 p.
9. Kozachenko A.N., Ekspluatatsiya kompressornykh stantsiy magistral'nykh gazoprovodov (Operation of compressor stations of main gas pipelines), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 1999, 463 p.
10. Puzhaylo A.F. et al., Energosnabzhenie i avtomatizatsiya energooborudovaniya kompressornykh stantsiy (Power supply and automation of power equipment of compressor stations): edited by Kryukov O.V., Nizhniy Novgorod, 2011, 455 p.11. Shabanov V.A.,
Osnovy reguliruemogo elektroprivoda osnovnykh mekhanizmov bureniya, dobychi i
transportirovki nefti (The fundamentals of a regulated electric drive of the
main mechanisms of drilling, oil production and transportation), Ufa: Publ. of
USPTU, 2009, 156 p.
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This article is devoted to the study of the stress-strain state and the strength provision of the underground section of the oil pipeline in the karst zone with a design position violation when installing pipe compensators at the ends of the analyzed section and in its underground parts, specially designed to remove longitudinal compressive forces in the pipe wall. In the article the pipe is modeled by a rod system consisting of curved and straight tubular section rods. Stress-strain state calculations of the selected pipeline section in the karst zone were carried out for the following cases: 1) when its ends were jammed with soil; 2) when outlet compensators are installed on the ground surface in the place of the pipeline outlet; 3) when in the underground part of the pipeline compensator-supports (U-shaped) are installed, made up of standard bends with a radius of curvature of 35 meters and straight pipes; 4) in the place where the pipeline exits to the surface of the earth with its underground part compensator are installed. The results of the calculation are presented in the form of diagrams of the main characteristics of the stress-strain state of oil pipeline and in the form of tables where extreme values of these characteristics are given. Calculation revealed that the installation of compensator-supports leads to a decrease not only stress fr om the longitudinal force of the compression pipe in the underground part, wh ere the ground is weakened by the development of karst, but the extreme values of the bending stress and the maximum (fiber) total longitudinal stress. By calculation, the effective work of the oil pipeline with expansion joints in the underground part, compared to those considered in this article other designs in the pipeline. It was found out that in the presence of compensator-supports in its underground part the installation of compensators at the ends of the analyzed site proved to be not only ineffective, but even dangerous.
1. Aynbinder A.B., Kamershteyn A.G., Raschet magistral'nykh truboprovodov na prochnost' i ustoychivost' (Calculation of trunk pipelines for strength and stability), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 340 p.
2. SP 36.13330.2012. Trunk pipeline. Revised edition of SNiP 2.05.06-85*.
3. Shammazov A.M., Zaripov R.M., Chichelov V.A., Korobkov G.E., Raschet i obespechenie prochnosti truboprovodov v slozhnykh inzhenerno-geologicheskikh usloviyakh. Chislennoe modelirovanie napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya i ustoychivosti truboprovodov (Calculation and maintenance of strength of pipelines in complicated geotechnical conditions. Numerical modeling of stress-strain state and stability of pipelines), Part 1, Moscow: Inter Publ., 2005, 706 p.
4. Shammazov A.M., Zaripov R.M., Chichelov V.A., Korobkov G.E., Raschet i obespechenie prochnosti truboprovodov v slozhnykh inzhenerno-geologicheskikh usloviyakh. Chislennoe modelirovanie napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya i ustoychivosti truboprovodov (Calculation and maintenance of strength of pipelines in complicated geotechnical conditions. Numerical modeling of stress-strain state and stability of pipelines), Part 2, Moscow: Inter Publ., 2006, 564 p.5. Korobkov G.E., Zaripov R.M., Shammazov I.A., Chislennoe modelirovanie napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya i ustoychivosti truboprovodov i rezervuarov v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh ekspluatatsii (Numerical modeling of stress-strain state and stability of pipelines and reservoirs in complicated operating conditions), St. Petersburg, Nedra Publ., 2009, 409 p.
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Field underground pipelines corrosion testing and results of the first specimens lot extraction presented and discussed in this paper. The object of the investigation is underground pipeline corrosion regularities. The specimen locations were selected based on Corrosion survey reports and In-line Inspections reports. Specimens were buried close to the wall of pre-selected underground pipelines on the same depths. In every location one group of specimens were connected to the pipelines cathodic protection systems via. test-posts, the rest specimens were exposed to soil corrosion without any protection. The test conditions were controlled by means of field measurements during installation and prior to extraction, occasionally in course of exposition. Corrosion rate was measured by gravimetric method and based on maximum corrosion defect depth of specimen. Obtained results are discussed; preliminary conclusions about influence of control parameters on soil corrosion of pipe grade steels were made. The following conclusions can be made as a result of first sample party excavation. It is shown soil resistivity up to 30 Ohm∙m represents corrosion aggressivity of soils adequately. Corrosion situation in the anticipated most dangerous pipeline sections was estimated; the results demonstrated the normative conditions of corrosion protection system. Regression plots of pipe steel corrosion rate versus cathodic protection parameters and corrosion environment conditions were attempted. The results will be applied in Transneft regulatory documents.
1. Lisin Yu.V., Research of physical and chemical properties of steel for continuously operated pipelines and assessment of safe operational life (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 4(20), pp. 18–28.
2. Mustafin T.S., Neganov D.A., Skuridin N.N. et al., Technical condition and development concept of the corrosion protection system of JSC “Transneft” facilities (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 3(19), pp. 6–11.
3. Zhuk N.P., Kurs teorii korrozii i zashchity metallov (Course in the theory of corrosion and protection of metals), Moscow: Al'yans Publ., 2006, 472 p.
4. Romanoff M., Underground corrosion, NBS Circular 579, 1957.
5. Barlo T.J., Field testing the criteria for cathodic protection of buried pipelines, Washington DC: American Gas Association, 1994.
6. Leeds S.S., Cottis R.A., The influence of cathodically generated surface films on corrosion and the currently accepted criteria for cathodic protection, Corrosion-2009, Paper no. 09548, Houston, TX: NACE, 2009.
7. Sanders L., Fleury E., Fontaine S., Vasseur V., DC stray currents: Evaluation of the relevance of the risk assessment criterion proposed by the European Standard EN 50162, Part 2, European Corrosion Congress "Eurocorr-2017", paper no. 76481, Praha, Czech Republic, 2017.
8. Kop'ev I.Yu., Pushkarev A.M., Goncharov A.V., Popov V.A., Practice of inspection of anti-corrosive protection system of pipeline on railroad crossing (In Russ.), Praktika protivokorrozionnoy zashchity, 2013, no. 1(67), pp. 52–65.
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622.692.4.01 : 532.542.4
Theoretical and experimental investigations of the effect of temperature on the rate of turbulent flow of hydrocarbon fluids with polymer additives are conducted. The relevance of such studies is due to the fact that anti-turbulent additives for oil pumping through pipelines are used now in parts of the world with hot or moderate climate. Hence, the actual problem is the theoretical and experimental justification for the use of such additives in zones with low average yearly temperatures, for example, in the Arctic. It is found out that a decrease in the flow temperature favorably affects the technological effectiveness of anti-turbulent additives increasing the economic feasibility of their use in northern regions.
The foreign-manufactured Baker, Necadd, X-Pand, and Liquid Power and home-manufactured esm-68 drug reducing colloidal additives are tested to compare their efficiencies. A comparative testing of efficiencies is performed using a turborheometer. The highest hydrodynamic efficiency in a wide temperature range is exhibited by the Baker additive, which is not significantly better than the Russian esm-68 additive. The experiments have shown that the optimum concentration of additives providing the maximum drag reduction effect when passing from the region of positive temperatures to that of negative is reduced by roughly half. The results obtained indicate the promising applications of anti-turbulent additives in the Arctic zone.
1. Aliev R.A., Belousov V.D., Nemudrov A.G. et al., Truboprovodnyy transport nefti gaza (Pipeline transport of oil and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 368 p.
2. Galeev V.B., Khramenko V.I., Soshchenko E.M., Matskin L.A., Ekspluatatsiya magistral'nykh nefteproduktoprovodov (Operation of main oil product pipelines), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1973, 360 p.
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The process of core and formation fluid research involves a significant scope of work which requires a definite sequence of operations, use of general and auxiliary equipment, and involvement of specialists and experts of a different qualification level. Therefore, the question arises of improving the efficiency and of keeping the performance and quality control at high level, developing new technologies and approaches to the analysis of cores from complex reservoirs. An automated system that allows prompt operation with a large array of current and historical information should be available.
To achieve this goal, the authors conducted the analysis of current status of research data set controls; developed algorithms of managing laboratories activity based on application of the process-oriented approach and planning methods; formalized the procedure of automated laboratory’s activity control system; develop a mathematical software for implementing engineering documents management system, with account of specifics of work flows that supports the necessary monitoring of research processes. Implementation of the transfer of centralized control and project’s engineering data to the new corporate portal technology provides uniformity in data structuring and systematization by separate laboratories.
The deliverable of the authors’ work will be RN-LAN System which will allow plan the workload of laboratories, specialists, and equipment; promptly evaluate work volumes both in the whole, and for an individual section of the workflow; control the current status of core studies and work results. Integration of the lab equipment software in RN-LAB for automatic downloading of laboratory research will result into the system’s information field after measurements. It will simplify the system of preparing report materials in accordance with requirements of State Standard ISO/IEC 17025 and State Standard R ISO 9001), help to increase the effectiveness and performance of the Laboratory Center work in general and ensure the transparency of all the processes.
1. Sharp J., Microsoft Visual C# Step by Step, URL: https://www.microsoftpressstore.com/store/microsoft-visual-c-sharp-step-by-step-9781509301041
2. Vasil'kov Yu.V., Vasil'kova N.N., Komp'yuternye tekhnologii vychisleniy v matematicheskom modelirovanii (Computer technologies of computation in mathematical modeling), Moscow: Finansy i statistika Publ., 2002, 256 p.
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|STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REGULATION|
The need for the development of the Russian labor market requires the formation of an independent assessment of qualifications, which is an essential element of the national system of professional qualifications, in accordance with the basic international approaches. The independent assessment of qualifications gives employees the opportunity to confirm their qualifications, increase the chances for successful employment and professional growth, and employers - to confirm the competitiveness of the company due to the availability of qualified personnel, reducing the costs of recruiting and training employees. It is the only procedure for confirming the qualification level of applicants for professional standards; it is established by law and must be independent of educational institutions providing training.
Participants of the independent assessment of qualifications system are the National Council under the President of the Russian Federation for Professional Qualifications, the Ministry of Labor of Russia, the National Agency for Professional Qualifications, professional qualification boards, qualification assessment centers, workers and employers.
Evaluation of qualifications takes place in the form of a professional examination in qualification assessment centers, following which results information is entered into the register of information on conducting an independent qualification assessment. At the same time, applicants should know what they will evaluate, but information about how they will be evaluated is not subject to disclosure. The independent assessment of qualifications is based on certain principles, which should ensure the objectivity of evaluation procedures, the absence of discrimination in its conduct and summarizing results, openness, the right of the applicant to the confidentiality of personal data. A lot of work in this direction on the development of evaluation materials, organization and conduct of professional examinations is carried out by the sectoral council on professional qualifications in oil & gas complex. At the same time, within the framework of the emerging system of independent assessment of qualifications, it is necessary to take into account domestic and international experience, including WorldSkills International.
ReferencesMartynov V.G., Eremina I.Yu., Kibovskaya S.V. et al., Professional standards in the system of qualifications of workers of oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 26–29.
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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