November 2016

Economy, management, law

M.N. Uzyakov, A.A.Yantovskiy (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow), M. Yu. Ksenofontov, V.V. Semikashev, A.Yu. Kolpakov (RAS, Institute of Economic Forecasting, RF, Moscow)
Integrated approach to the construction of agreed scenarios of world oil production, consumption and price

Keywords: system of models, scenario forecasting, oil price, world oil market, shale oil
The article describes the evolution of the pricing mechanisms on the world oil market. Modification of the pricing principles at the present stage is associated with the appearance of US shale oil as a factor of world oil supply flexibility increase. This leads to greater impact of the physical oil production-consumption balance on world oil price. We describe conceptually the world energy block in developed Rosneft Oil Company PJSC analysis and modeling system for World and Russian economy and energy sectors description in part of construction of world oil market development scenarios, taking into account the changes of few recent years. Then we demonstrate the practical use of developed system on the example of construction of agreed world oil production, consumption and price scenarios, interrelated with perspective parameters of the world economy and energy sector. The conditions and parameters of relatively high and low world oil prices scenarios are described. The first scenario involves deepening global economic integration, the acceleration of global technological progress, increasing role of carbon-free energy sources in the world energy balance, continuing high GDP and motorization rate growth in developing countries. The second scenario considers the concept of weakening global economic relations, return of capital to developed countries and their reindustrialization. The emphasis of economic growth and technological progress is shifting in favor of the developed countries. Increase of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids fleet, especially in developed countries, may become an important factor in deterring global oil consumption growth in both scenarios. The possible changes in the country structure of world oil supply balance are considered. In the scenario of relatively low oil prices OPEC's share in the global oil market significantly increases.
1. Uzyakov M.N., Ksenofontov M.Yu., Semikashev V.V., Kolpakov A.Yu., System
of models for analysis and forecasting of the global and the Russian economy
and energy sector (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11,
pp. 611.
2. Bushuev V., Isain N., How are natural oil prices? (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2012,
no. 12, pp. 19-23.
3. Zhukov S.V., Kopytin I.A., Maslennikov A.O., Integratsiya neftyanogo i finansovogo
rynkov i sdvigi v tsenoobrazovanii na neft' (The integration of the oil
and financial markets and changes in the oil pricing of), Proceedings of Public
Seminar Ekonomicheskie problemy energeticheskogo kompleksa (seminar
A.S. Nekrasova) (Economic problems of energy complex (Nekrasov A.S.
seminar)), 27 March 2012, Moscow: Publ. of INP RAN, 2012.
4. Konoplyanik A.A., In search of justice (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2011, no. 10,
pp. 3033.
5. Konoplyanik A.A., In search of justice (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2011, no. 11,
pp. 1116.
6. Bashmakov I.A., Oil prices: the limits of growth and the depth of the fall
(In Russ.), Voprosy ekonomiki, 2006, no. 3, pp. 2841.
7. Tsibul'skiy V.F., Energeticheskiy indikator sostoyaniya ekonomiki (Power indicator
of the economy), Proceedings of Public Seminar Ekonomicheskie
problemy energeticheskogo kompleksa (seminar A.S. Nekrasova) (Economic
problems of energy complex (Nekrasov A.S. seminar)), 28 May 2013,
Moscow: Publ. of INP RAN, 2013.
8. Baker Hughes Rig Count, URL: http://phx.corporateir.
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10. Abramov A., Noveyshie tendentsii i perspektivy amerikanskoy slantsevoy industrii
(The latest trends and the prospects for the US oil shale industry), Rystad
Energy Seminar Perspektivy mirovoy neftegazovoy otrasli v usloviyakh nizkikh
tsen (Prospects for the global oil and gas industry in conditions of low prices),
13 April 2016.
11. Business Insider, Here are the breakeven oil prices for America's shale
basins, URL:
12. BGR. Reserves, Resources and Availability of Energy Resources 2015, URL:
13. Chesapeake Energy Corporation announces amendment to revolving
credit facility, URL:

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works

Ya.I. Gordeev (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, A.V. Gaiduk, A.V. Mityukov (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Filichev (Verkhnechonskneftegas PJSC, RF, Irkutsk)
The results of exploration of Rosnefts license areas in the Irkutsk region for 10 years

Keywords: Eastern Siberia, Nepsko-Botuobinskaya anteclise, oil reservoir, Ust-Kut horizon, basement, exploration
The article is dedicated to the history of geological exploration carried out by Rosneft Oil Company in Irkutsk region. The article covers key milestones, main problems encountered in the process of geological exploration as well as achieved results. Currently, the Company owns rights to mineral extraction from 10 license blocks. For over 5 years of exploration activities, the Company has booked hydrocarbons reserves produced from several fields, but within the fields of Irkutsk region no natural flow of hydrocarbons have been observed. All the discoveries were associated with tight reserves. Only in 2011 a drilled well showed natural flow of oil from a fundamentally new type of prospects of Ust-Kut horizon, which had not been previously considered as a highly promising. That was a beginning of a new approach in geological exploration - prospecting for better quality reservoir zones among hydrocarbons accumulations associated with tight reserves (the concept of sweet areas). Presently, all wells drilled in the prospects identified based on the new concept have been successful (natural flow of hydrocarbons after drilling). High-quality 3D seismic acquisition not only confirmed the available discoveries, but also helped to identify new prospects, including Osinsky horizon and clastic sediments. The article describes how, by changing a geological concept and, therefore, a strategy of geological exploration, the company managed to drill wells with naturally flowing oil and gas, made discoveries with traditional HC reserves and raised a share of successful drilling to 75%.
1. Gayduk A.V., Al'mendinger O.A., Formation conditions and criteria for prediction
of areas of improved reservoir properties ancient Vendian-Cambrian
reservoirs (for example, Danilovskiy license area (East Siberia)) (In Russ.),
Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2013, no. 1, pp. 10-13.
2. Gayduk A.V., Kashirina E.G., Red'kin N.A. et al., Regularities of development
of perspective objects in carbonate Vendian-Cambrian sedimentary cover
of the southern Siberian platform (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik
OAO NK Rosneft', 2016, no. 3, pp. 28-31.
3. Gayduk A.V., Fomin A.E., Tverdokhlebov D.N. et al.,Oil and gas prospective
facilities identification in the subsalt carbonate complex of Nepa-Botuoba
anteclise as a result of historical 2D seismic data reprocessing and reinterpretation
(In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2016,
no. 3, pp. 44-48.
4. Gayduk A.V., Mityukov A.V., Filichev A.V. et al., Vyyavlenie perspektivnykh i
vysokoproduktivnykh zalezhey UV v drevnem vend-rannekembriyskom osadochnom
chekhle Nepsko-Botuobinskoy anteklizy na osnovanii interpretatsii
sovremennykh geofizicheskikh dannykh (Identification of perspective and
highly productive hydrocarbon deposits in the ancient Vendian-Early Cambrian
sedimentary cover of the Nepa Botuoba anteclise based on the interpretation
of modern geophysical data), Proceedings of IV International scientific
and practical conference Geobaykal 2016, 22-26 August 2016, Irkutsk.
5. Fomin A.E., Batishcheva A.M., Gayduk A.V., Filichev A.V., Vydelenie perspektivnykh
v neftegazovom otnoshenii ob"ektov v podsolevom karbonatnom
intervale razreza Nepskogo svoda Nepsko-Botuobinskoy anteklizy po
dannym seysmorazvedki 2D i 3D (Selecting the potential gas and oil objects
in the pre-salt carbonate interval of Nepa arch of the Nepa Botuoba anteclise
according to 2D and 3D seismic surveys), Proceedings of IV International
scientific and practical conference Geobaykal 2016, 22-26 August
2016, Irkutsk.
6. Tverdokhlebov D.N., Korobkin V.S., Dan'ko E.A. et al., Konechno-raznostnoe
seysmogeologicheskoe modelirovanie s tsel'yu povysheniya effektivnosti
obrabotki i kachestva interpretatsii seysmicheskikh dannykh (Finite difference
seismic and geological modeling to improve the efficiency of processing
and interpretation of seismic data), Proceedings of IV International scientific
and practical conference Geobaykal 2016, 22-26 August 2016, Irkutsk.
7. Red'kin N.A., Gayduk A.V., Petrov A.N., Ustanovlenie zakonomernostey
rasprostraneniya kollektorov v drevnikh vendskikh terrigennykh otlozheniyakh
Nepsko-Botuobinskoy anteklizy na osnove skvazhinnykh i seysmicheskikh
dannykh (Determination of laws of propagation of collectors in ancient Vendian
terrigenous deposits of the Nepa Botuoba anteclise based on borehole
and seismic data), Proceedings of IV International scientific and practical
conference Geobaykal 2016, 22-26 August 2016, Irkutsk.

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A.V. Malshakov, I.O. Oshnyakov, E.G. Kuznetsov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), O.A. Loznyuk, V.N. Surtaev, R.A. Shaybakov (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow)
Innovative approaches to study heterogeneous anisotropic reservoirs of Turonian deposits for reliable assessment of reservoir properties

Keywords: laboratory investigation of core, logging, heterogeneous anisotropic reservoir, the Turonian age deposits, X-ray tomography, triaxial induction logging

The main explored oil and gas reserves in Western Siberia are associated with chalk and upper Jurassic deposits. Above-Cenomanian stratum is a complex object of study and is referred to hard-to-recover reserves of crude hydrocarbons, which cannot be effectively selected with the application of traditional development methods for geological and technological reasons. 

Despite the fact, that potential of Turonian deposits was proved by well testing on the many fields in the North of Western Siberia and that the given interval is considered as a development target, the reservoir properties of these deposits are not explored enough and its potential is not clear.  Structural and textural features of Turonian reservoir structures can be reasons for that, particularly, extra thin interbedding (bioturbation) of sandstones/ siltstones- shale interlayers, with a thickness of mm factions, so the heterogeneity is observed up to thin section scale.  Such textural feature can be the reason for significant uncertainties when studying the complex reservoir not only by logging methods, but also by laboratory studies of core samples, it determines the application of individual approaches to analyze core and log data to study heterogeneous anisotropic Turonian reservoirs. Much attention is given to reliable determination of the portion of permeable layers and reconstruction of its true properties based on the logging data interpretation. Methods of estimation reservoir properties including heterogeneous reservoir structure were considered.

Imaging of full-size core is presented in this work; it allows building 3D model of x-ray density of full-size core. The processing procedure of 3D x-ray tomography of full-size core is presented; it allows estimating the vertical portion of the permeable component of anisotropic reservoir (NTG). Estimation results of portion of the permeable component of heterogeneous anisotropic reservoir (NTG) are presented on the basis of special logging complex methods, particularly, on the basis of formation micro imager and triaxial induction logging. The triaxial induction logging was also used to estimate electrical resistance anisotropy of studied reservoirs and allowed estimating electrical resistance of permeable variations. Results of evaluation of the reservoir gas saturation coefficient were achieved by the specific interpretation of triaxial IRR and better correlated with well testing results. 

Ignoring the textural heterogeneity of the deposits considering anisotropy of its physical properties can cause undervaluation of the resource potential of Turonian deposits. Whereas, the petrophysical assessments of anisotropic reservoir model improve the reliability of evaluation of hydrocarbons reserves, optimize geological and hydrodynamic modeling, increase prediction validity of gas recovery factor.
1. O.A. Loznyuk, V.N. Surtaev, R.A. Shaybakov et al., Development of gas deposits
in the Turonian low-permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 4651.
2. Loznyuk O.A., Surtaev V.N., Sakhan' A.V. et al., A multistage stimulation operation
to unlock the gas potential of the Turonian siltstone formation in Western
Siberia (In Russ.), SPE 176706, 2015.
3. Bekirova I.P., Agalakov S.E., Rozbaeva G.L., Dubrovina L.A., Perspektivy
neftegazonosnosti nadsenomanskikh otlozheniy na Bolshekhetskom proekte
i prilegayushchikh territoriyakh (Prospects for oil and gas potential of Above-
Cenomanian deposits in the Bolshekhetsky project and surrounding areas),
Proceedings of scientific and practical conference Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo
potentsiala KhMAO (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of
KhMAO): edited by Volkov V.A., Khanty-Mansiysk, 2015, pp. 156164.
4. Kharitonov V.M., Marinov V.A., Ivanov A.V., Fomin V.A., Verkhnemelovye inotseramy
skvazhinnykh razrezov Zapadno-Sibirskoy nizmennosti i nekotorye
voprosy stratigrafii turonskogo yarusa (Upper Cretaceous inoceramus of the
well section of the West Siberian Plain and some questions of the stratigraphy
of the Turonian stage), Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Novaya seriya.
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soveshchaniya po mezozoyskim otlozheniyam Zapadno-Sibirskoy ravniny (Decisions
of the 5th interagency regional stratigraphic meeting on Mesozoic sediments
of the West Siberian Plain), Tyumen: Publ. of ZapSibNIGNI, 1991, 54 p.
6. Zhemchugova V.A., Berbenev M.O., Naumchev Yu.V., New seismic technologies
for better field exploration (Case study of upper cretaceous reservoirs
in West Siberia) (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2015, no. 3,
pp. 8088.
7. Serra O., Andreani M., Thin beds A guide to interpretation of thinly layered
reservoirs, Schumberger, 1991, 82 p.
8. Svikhnushin N., Tukhtaev R., Shmyglya K., Studying thin layer reservoirs. New
technologies (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe obozrenie = Oilfield Review, 2002, Autumn,
pp. 4651.
9. Martynov M.E., Kozlov A.V., Leskin F.Yu., Successful application of special log
interpretation methodology for estimation of petrophysical properties of thinbedded
reservoirs of Vikulovskaya layers of Krasnoleninskoe oilfield (In Russ.),
SPE 166831, 2013.
10. Barber T., Anderson B., Abubaker A. et al., Determining formation resistivity
anisotropy in the presence of invasion, SPE 90526, 2004.
11. Klein J.D. et al., The petrophysics of electrically anisotropic reservoirs, The
Log Analyst, 1997, V. 38, no. 3, pp. 2536.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

K.V. Toropov, .V. Sergeichev (NK Rosneft PJSC, RF, Moscow), R.R. Murtazin (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.A. Nesmashnui (RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk), .V. Mitin, R.K. Gordeev (Weatherford LLC, RF, Moscow)
Experience in microseismic monitoring of multi-stage fracturing by RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC

Keywords: microseismic monitoring, hydraulic fracturing, horizontal wells

In 2016, RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC performed numerous surveys of various types in the areas developed by horizontal wells with multi-stage fracturing (MSF HW) including a series of downhole microseismic monitoring studies. Fracture propagation information obtained from downhole microseismic monitoring is of great interest due to the lack of alternate direct fracturing monitoring methods, and lack of similar studies in Russia. This paper presents the results of three microseismic investigations at Prirazlomnoye and Priobskoye fields. It demonstrates effectiveness and feasibility of commercial application of microseismic monitoring during fracturing aimed at optimization of horizontal drilling, fracturing designs and field development in general. Microseismic monitoring of fracturing operations in horizontal wells of Priobskoye and Prirazlomnoye fields enabled the determination of the actual directions of fracture propagation, achievable fracture sizes and interaction of fractures developing from neighboring frac ports. The first in Russia successful fracturing monitoring in two observation wells simultaneously was performed at Prirazlomnoye field, which enabled to increase the fracture mapping area and determine the significant influence of offset wells on the fracture pattern symmetry. Fracturing monitoring operations at Priobskoye field were record-breaking for Russia: over 1,200 microseismic events were registered and located during 5 fracturing stages. The paper also provides recommendations on the selection of optimum candidate wells, well preparation, and noise reduction for improved seismic data quality.


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W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, 1980.

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Geophysics: Unlocking the Potential, Athens, Greece, 1922 April, 2015.

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A.V. Arzhilovskiy, V.V. Vasilyev, N.N. Ivantsov, K.G. Lapin (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), Toropov K.V. (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow)
Enhanced oil recovery methods applied for under-gas-cap heavy oil rims

Keywords: under-gas-cap rims, high-viscosity oil, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), the technology of field development
Development of thin under-gas-cap rims is associated with high risks of gas breakthrough fr om the gas cap into production wells. This challenge becomes many times heavier in high-viscosity oil rims, wh ere the gas breakthrough might completely stop the oil inflow into the wellbore. A case study of PK1-2 reservoir of Van-Eganskoye Field was used to analyze ways to improve heavy oil recovery from under-gas-cap rims: sectional completion of horizontal wells and installation of inflow control devices, limiting the drawdown, flexible well control, injection into injection wells before the production wells start to operate, infill drilling, as well as gas production from gas caps to prevent gas coning. Simultaneous use of these approaches can represent a comprehensive technology for under-gas-cap rims development. The technology parameters were selected and its performance was assessed using sector flow simulation models in CMG STARS. The model runs were performed for a variety of specific formation zones which differ in oil- and gas-saturated thickness, number of permeable layers, and bedding angles. The results of model runs show that this technology greatly improves the prospects for the successful operation of thin under-gas cap heavy oil rims under high geological heterogeneity. The technology in general or its individual components can be applied either at the design stage or at the optimization stage of development.
1. Ivantsov N.N., Gil'derman A.A., Gordeev A.O., Gaydukov L.A., Prospects of
under-gas-cap heavy oil rim development (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy
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gas drive, SPE 56541, 1999.
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SPE 167414-MS, 2013.
6. Negrescu M., Leitao I. Jr., ICD/AICD for heavy oil technology qualification
at the Peregrino field, OTC-24503-MS, 2013.

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D.V. Savchuk, A.I. Davletshin (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), O.A. Loznyuk, R.A. Shaybakov (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow), A.G. Blekher, A.Yu. Korolev (Kynsko-Chaselskoye Neftegaz LLC, RF, Gubkinsky)
Justification of Turonian reservoir properties on Kharampurskoye field based on the preproduction results well test and simulation data

Keywords: Turonian reservoir, well exploitation, production analysis, well test, pressure interference test, hydrodynamic simulation, hard-to-recover reserves, scatterer

For today, most of major producing fields of Western Siberia are in the production decline phase. Reclamation of Turonian hard-to-recover gas reserves is becoming more relevant, currently it is not in commercial production.

The article is dedicated to justification of Turonian reservoir properties on Kharampurskoye field based on the well preproduction results (production, geophysics and well test data).

Turonian productive deposits are usually characterized by macro and micro heterogeneity, discontinuity of the net pay thickness and shale interlayers due to complicated lithology composition. Turonian reservoir is mainly represented by the clay fraction and fine-grained siltstone. The conditions of bedding and litho-facies characteristics explain the flow issues when bringing the reservoir into development, which makes it difficult to determine true reservoir properties. 

The ultimate physical and optimal values of reservoir properties were proved based on the studying results. The performed work results allowed to estimate production potential and risks of projecting the reservoir development, and also to specify the accepted petrophysical relations, correct the action plan for well testing, it demonstrated the feasibility of an extensive set of geophysics methods and the need for alternative methods for their interpretation.
1. Loznyuk O.A., Surtaev V.N., Shaybakov R.A. et al., Development of gas deposits
in the Turonian low-permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 4651.
2. Loznyuk O.A., Surtaev V.N., Sakhan' A.V. et al., A multistage stimulation operation
to unlock the gas potential of the Turonian siltstone formation in Western
Siberia (In Russ.), SPE 176706, 2015.
3. Bekirova I.P., Agalakov S.E., Rozbaeva G.L., Dubrovina L.A., Perspektivy
neftegazonosnosti nadsenomanskikh otlozheniy na Bol'shekhetskom proekte
i prilegayushchikh territoriyakh (Prospects for oil and gas potential of Above-
Cenomanian deposits in the Bolshekhetsky project and surrounding areas),
Proceedings of scientific and practical conference Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo
potentsiala KhMAO (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of
KhMAO): edited by Volkov V.A., Khanty-Mansiysk, 2015, pp. 156164.
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metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS
(Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric
method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging):
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VNIGNI, 2003, 261 p.
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field development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 221 p.
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for reliable assessment of reservoir properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
= Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 1822.
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geologo-tekhnologicheskikh modeley neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh
mestorozhdeniy (Guidelines for the creation of permanent geological and
technological models of oil and gas deposits), Part 2. Fil'tratsionnye modeli
(Filtration model), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2003, 228 p.
11. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po sozdaniyu gidrodinamicheskikh modeley
(Practical guidance to create hydrodynamic models), Tyumen': Publ. of
TNNC LLC, 2012, 317 p.

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A.V. Aksakov, O.S. Borschuk, I.S. Zheltov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Dedurin, Z. Kaludzher, A.V. Pestrikov, K.V. Toropov (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow)
Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, HF, fracturing design, fracturing simulation, minifrac, mathematical modeling, geomechanics, hydrodynamics, rock deformation, fracture fluid flow, proppant transport, fluid leakage into the formation, numerical methods

Article is devoted to mathematical modeling of the fracturing mechanics and software development for fracturing simulation and decision making support in design and conduct of fracturing treatments. We discuss the basic software elements for modeling hydraulic fracturing, the existing mathematical models of hydraulic fracturing process (KGD, PKN, Radial, Cell-based-Pseudo3D, Lumped-Pseudo3D, Planar3D), history of development, characteristics and limitations. It is noted the practical importance for the fracturing planning tasks and risk minimization to correctly describe the fracture height growth, this pushed the development of Pseudo3D (P3D) and Planar3D (PL3D) models.

We show the general mathematical formulation of hydraulic fracturing process, based on coupled solution of the formation elasticity equations, fluid hydrodynamics and proppant transport. In details discussed the mathematical formulation for Planar3D model and common assumptions that are made. Software interface examples are shown for common methods of fracturing injection tests analysis and hydraulic fracturing design simulation on the example of corporate fracturing simulator. Typical functional requirements for hydraulic fracturing simulators are given. It is noted that the combination in a one fracturing simulator Planar3D and Cell-based-P3D models provides a flexible software solution to specific geological conditions and requirements for the calculation speeds. It has been shown that for certain geological conditions fracturing simulations using Planar3D and Pseudo3D models may vary in term of evaluating hydraulic fracture geometry. The attention made that the task of speed increasing for Planar3D-models is the actual point of application for scientific and engineering community efforts.


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stimulation, 3rd ed., Chichester: Wiley, 2000, 856 .

10. Cleary M.P., Analysis of mechanisms and procedures for producing

favourable shapes of hydraulic fractures, SPE 9260-MS, 1980.

11. Meyer B.R., Design formulae for 2-D and 3-D vertical hydraulic fractures:

model comparison and parametric studies, SPE 15240-MS, 1986.

12. Smith M.B., Klein H.A., Practical applications of coupling fully numerical

2-D transport calculation with a PC-based fracture geometry simulator,

SPE 30505, 1995.

13. Barree R.D., A practical numerical simulator for three-dimensional fracture

propagation in heterogeneous media, SPE 12273-MS, 1983.

14. Clifton R.J., Abou-Sayed A.S., On the computation of the three-dimensional

geometry of hydraulic fractures, SPE 7943-MS, 1979.

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G.F. Asalkhuzina, A.Ya. Davletbaev A., A.M. Ilyasov, N.A. Makhota, A.Kh. Nuriev (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.R. Nazargalin (RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk), A.V. Pestrikov, A.V. Sergeychev (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow)
Pressure drop analysis before and after fracture closure for test injections before main fracturing treatment

Keywords: pressure drop curve, injection tests, displacement pumping, minifrac, reservoir pressure, pressure transient analysis, rate transient analysis, after-closure analysis

The paper discusses examples of wellhead and bottomhole pressure analysis during hydraulic fracturing. Horner and Nolte methods are used for pressure fall-off curves interpretation. These methods are implemented in the minifrac analysis module in RN-GRID, the corporate hydraulic fracturing simulator. The shortcomings of the Horner method are shown by practical examples, including reservoir pressure estimate accuracy dependence on pressure fall-off curve length. On the other hand, the Nolte approach enables to diagnose after-closure-analysis (ACA) flow regimes and enhance reservoir parameters estimate accuracy, if pseudo-linear and pseudo-radial flow regimes are distinguished. The paper compares reservoir pressure values obtained by fall-off interpretation via Horner and Nolte methods to average pressure estimates by drill stem formation tests.

The paper also discusses examples of how to enhance accuracy of decline curve analysis for pumping production wells using permanent downhole gauges (PDG) pressure data and results of fall-off curves after ACA interpretation. The decline curve analysis results obtained for the initial pressure as a first point registered by PDG and for initial pressure obtained by ACA are matched.

The ACA results can be used to forecast well production in new well drilling areas. The displacement fluid efficiency estimates are compared with well production for a field sector. The result obtained concludes that the ACA displacement fluid efficiency allows one to forecast production of newly drilled wells with sufficient accuracy.
1. Afanas'ev I.S., Antonenko D.A., Mullagalin I.Z. et al., Results of massed hydrofracturing
introduction at Priobskoye deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 8, pp. 6264.
2. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Ivashchenko D.S., Non-Darcy fluid flow
modeling in low-permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil
Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 5458.
3. Ishkin D.Z., Nuriev R.I., Davletbaev A.Ya. et al., Decline-analysis/Short buildup
welltest analysis of low permeability gas reservoir (In Russ.), SPE 181974,
4. Sarapulova V.V., Mukhamedshin R.K., Davletbaev A.Ya., Express-method of
forecasting the maximum annular pressure in mechanized production wells
during pressure transient analysis (In Russ.), SPE 181976, 2016.
5. Makhota N.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Fedorov A.I. et al., Examples of Mini-Frac
Test Data Interpretation in Low-Permeability Reservoir (In Russ.), SPE 171175.
6. Nolte K.G., Background for after-closure analysis of fracture calibration test,
SPE 39407, 1997.
7. Soliman M.Y., Craig D., Bartko K. et al., New method for determination of
formation permeability, reservoir pressure, and fracture properties from a
minifrac test, ARMA/USRMS 05-658 2005.
8. Barree R.D., Barree V.L., Craig D.P., Holistic fracture diagnostics, SPE 107877,
9. Baykov V.A., Rabtsevich S.A., Kostrigin I.V., Sergeychev A.V., Monitoring
razrabotki mestorozhdeniy s ispol'zovaniem ierarkhii modeley v programmnom
komplekse RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK
Rosneft', 2014, no. 2, pp. 1417.
10. Baryshnikov A.V., Sidorenko V.V., Kokurina V.V. et al., Low permeable collectors
with fracturing: the interpretation of hydrodynamic research based on
the analysis of well's yield reduction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2010, no. 12, pp. 4245.
11. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Long-term monitoring of field parameters as
a signed development direction of modern well test (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya
praktika, 2012, no. 9, pp. 48.

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Designing of arrangement of deposits

A.A. Kaverin, A.M. Korkin, S.E. Motus (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow), A.F. Agafontsev, A.A. Nizametdinov (RN-SakhalinNIPImorneft LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)
The development of the standard designs system in Rosneft Oil Company

Keywords: : unification, typical, economic effect, engineering, oil and gas development
The Standard Designs System being created at the Rosneft Oil Company PJSC is aimed to the decision of inter-related tasks package on optimization of the expenses when designing, construction and maintenance the objects of oil and gas fields development. On the basis of the methodological procedures being the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation in the sphere of design and construction, the Company experience accumulated while realization of projects in the different regions, there had been established the basic types of the documentation, which shall be subjected to unification and type assignment. The work conducted will permit to provide by 2017 the settlement of the standard design documentation for approximately 35% of the design objects. The integrated assessment of economic impact thru the Standard Designs System, and also the drawing up of the solutions for point correction of the existing System is possible by means of the information lifetime being created for application monitoring of the standard design documentation and acquisition of statistical data. The methodological procedures built-in to the Standard Designs System of the Company make possible to realize the extrapolation of beneficial effects for type designs of the construction objects in oil refining, petrochemistry, the development of gas and gas-condensate fields, as well as the offshore fields, including the Arctic.
1. Liron E., The goal quality of design products (In Russ.), Neftyanoy kur'er,
20152016, V. 104/105, p. 4.
2. Kaverin A.A., Korkin A.M, Belyaev P.V., Assessment of effects from implementation
of unified design solutions in Rosneft Oil Company OJSC (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 6063.
3. Kudryashov S.I., Belkina E.Yu., Ismagilov A.F., Lipatov I.A., Butsaev I.V.,
Abramova N.S., Cost monitoring in oilfield construction at different stages of
the investment cycle (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015,
no. 11, pp. 7275.
4. Sushko Yu.V., Kaverin A.A., Korkin A.M., Agafontsev A.F, Shafikov I.S., Unified
design solutions in Rosneft Oil Company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =
Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 6163.
5. Hart J., Phaf N., Vermeltfoort K., Saving time and money on major projects,

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Shelf development

V.A. Pavlov, K.A. Kornishin (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow), Ya.O. Efimov (Arctic Research Center, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.U. Mironov, R.B. Guzenko, V.V. Kharitonov (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Peculiarities of consolidated layer growth of the Kara and Laptev Sea ice ridges

Keywords: ice ridge, keel, consolidated layer, porosity, thermal drilling
In spring seasons of 2014 and 2015 the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute according to the contract with Rosneft Oil Company carried out the expedition studies in the Kara and Laptev Sea aimed at determining the morphometric characteristics of ice ridges using hot water drilling methods with recording the penetration rate on computer. Average and extreme values of basic morphometric characteristics of ice ridges such as a sail height, keel depth, total ice thickness, consolidated layer thickness, porosity etc. are obtained for the several investigation areas. Special attention in the paper is paid to the growth of consolidated layer of the ice ridges. The following large-scale spatial regularity is revealed: the thickness of the consolidated layer increases when moving eastwards from area to area. The connection between average thickness of the consolidated layer and total degree-days of frost in separate region is confirmed. Regression equations of this dependence with high level of validity are obtained. This peculiarity is consequence of the effect of gravity and buoyancy forces, under the influence of which the concentration and following compaction of small ice fragments occur nearby the sea level during the ice ridge formation. In general, the most massive consolidated layer corresponds to the areas of the most massive keel.
1. SP 33-101-04, Inzhenernye izyskaniya na kontinental'nom shel'fe dlya
stroitel'stva morskikh neftegazopromyslovykh sooruzheniy (Site investigation
on the continental shelf for offshore oil gas facilities construction), Moscow,
2. Marchenko A.V., Models of sea ice hummocking (In Russ.), Uspekhi
mekhaniki, 2002, V. 1, no. 3, . 333339.
3. Patent no. 2153070 RF, Method of determining structure of ice hummocks
and grounded ice hummocks, properties of ice and boundaries of ice and
ground, Inventors: Morev V.A., Morev A.V., Kharitonov V.V.
4. Mironov E.U., Porubaev V.S., Formation of ice ridges in the coastal part of
the Kara Sea and their morphometric characteristics (In Russ.), Sovremennye
problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2012, no. 4, p. 8.
5. Surkov G.A., Thickness of the consolidated layer in first-year hummocks, Proceedings
of 16th Int. Conf. on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions,
August 12-17, 2001, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, pp. 245252.
6. Kharitonov V.V, Morev V.A., Hummocks near the North Pole 35 drifting station
(In Russ.), Meteorologiya i gidrologiya = Russian Meteorology and Hydrology,
2009, no. 6, pp. 6873.
7. Hyland K.V., Lset S., Measurements of temperature distribution, consolidation
and morphology of a first-year sea ice ridge, Cold Regions Science
and Technology, 1999, V. 29, pp. 5974.
8. Grishchenko V.D., Morfometricheskie kharakteristiki gryad torosov na l'dakh
Arkticheskogo basseyna (The morphometric characteristics of ridge formation
on the ice of the Arctic Basin), Proceedings of AANII, 1988, V. 401,
pp. 4655.

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Rational use of oil gas

D.I. Petukhov, A.A. Poyarkov, E.A. Chernova, A.V. Lukashin, A.A. Eliseev (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), E.S. Pyatkov, V.N. Surtaev (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow)
Removal of acidic components of associated petroleum gas by pertraction on microporous membranes

Keywords: associated petroleum gas, pertraction, microporous membranes, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans
In the current study the efficiency of utilization of microporous hollow-fiber membrane contactors made of polyvinylidenfluoride, polysulfone, polyethersulfone and polypropylene with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces was analyzed for acidic components removal during pertraction process. An ultimate efficiency of CO2 capture of 0,23 nm3/(m2h) was illustrated for polypropylene hollow-fibers, having a packing density of 3200 m2/m3, which corresponds to a specific volumetric performance of acid gas removal up to 750 nm3/(m3h). Polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes were used in the pertraction module of a pilot plant for associated petroleum gas conditioning. This module provides the purification of feed gas stream from carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans. Pilot plant consisting of pertraction module and capillary condensation module allows conditioning of the feed stream with a pressure of 0.6 MPa and a fluxex of 13.4 nm3/h to the requirements of STO Gazprom 089-2010. Proposed method allowed to reduce the content of carbon dioxide from 8,47 vol. % to 0.26 vol. % The total sulfur content in the purified gas was reduced below 0,4 mg/m3, while containing 0,2 vol. % H2S and 50 mg/m3 CH3SH in a feed stream. This allows utilization of the proposed technology for conditioning of associated petroleum and natural gas for piping in accordance with the requirements of STO Gazprom 089-2010.
1. Petukhov D.I., Lukashin A.V., Eliseev A.A. et al., Removing of heavy hydrocarbons
from associated petroleum gas using capillary condensation on microporous
membranes (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik
OAO NKRosneft', 2015, no. 4, pp. 2731.
2. Pyatkov E.S., Surtaev V.N., Petukhov D.I. et al., Conditioning of associated
petroleum gas using capillary condensation technique with asymmetric microporous
anodic alumina membranes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =
Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 8285.
3. Petukhov D.I., Berekchiian M.V., Pyatkov E.S. et al., Experimental and theoretical
study of enhanced vapor transport through nanochannels of anodic
alumina membranes in a capillary condensation regime, J. Phys. Chem.,
2016, V. 120, no. 20, pp. 1098210990.
4. Kohl A.L., Nielsen R., Gas purification (5th edition), Elsevier Science, 1997,
pp. 41174.
5. Yu C.H., Huang C.H., Tan C.S., A review of CO2 capture by absorption and
adsorption, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2012, no. 12, pp. 745769.
6. Scholes C.A., Stevens G.W., Kentish S.E., Membrane gas separation applications
in natural gas processing, Fuel, 2012, V. 96, pp. 1528.
7. Kratochvil A.M., Koros W.J., Decarboxylation-Induced cross-linking of a
polyimide for enhanced CO2 plasticization resistance, Macromolecules,
2008, V. 41, pp. 79207927.
8. Gale J., Hendriks C., Turkenberg W. et al., Hollow fiber membrane contactors
for CO2 capture: From lab-scale screening to pilot-plant module conception,
Energy Procedia, 2011, no. 4, pp. 763770.
9. Shutova A.A., Trusov A.N., Bermeshev M.V. et. al., Regeneration of Alkanolamine
solutions in membrane contactor based on novel Polynorbornene,
Oil and Gas Science and Technology, 2014, V. 69, pp. 10591068.
10. Volkov A.V., Tsarkov S.E., Goetheer E.L. et. al., Amine-based solvents regeneration
in gas-liquid membrane contactor based on asymmetric PVTMS,
Petroleum Chemistry, 2015, V. 55, pp. 716723.
11. Petukhov D.I., Eliseev A.A., Gas permeation through nanoporous membranes
in the transitional flow region, Nanotechnology, 2016, V. 27, no. 8, Article
no. 085707.
12. Petukhov D.I ., Napolskii K.S., Eliseev A.A., Permeability of anodic alumina
membranes with branched channels, Nanotechnology, 2012, V. 23, no. 33,
Article no. 335601.

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Information technology

A.A. Pashali, M.A. Aleksandrov, A.G. Klimentiev, I.R. Yamalov (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow), A.S. Topolnikov, A.V. Zhonin, A.V. Kolonskikh, V.G. Mikhaylov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Automatization of collecting and preparation of telemetry data for well testing using virtual flowmeter

Keywords: well testing, telemetry, virtual flow meter
In recent years the application of high-precision thermo-manometric systems (HTMS) for resolving problems connected with monitoring of field development is widely distributed. The technologies of application of telemetry data (pressure, temperature, liquid rate) for monitoring of reservoir parameters, which do not need for special stops of wells and application of additional metering equipment are united under the name automatic well testing (abbreviated auto-GDIS). The paper is dedicated to implementation of algorithms of prior preparation of telemetry data for subsequent well testing interpretation. The algorithms include selection of conditional pressure data, filtration (reduction and smoothing), marking the informative intervals (curves of pressure drop and restoration) and liquid rate calculation of oil well on the base on the indirect indicators of its operation work (field measurements, characteristics of pumping equipment, parameters of ESP control station). The algorithms form the basis of calculating module for data preparation for well testing interpretation. On the basis of parameters of telemetry and ESP control station received from field databases it forms the rating of wells and informative intervals, which are the most interest for subsequent interpretation. The feature of realization of algorithms is that the prior preparation of data can be done automatically with given regularity by user. In this case the results of calculations rating of wells and intervals for subsequent interpretation are upd ated upon receipt of new data from telemetry and ESP control stations. The outlook of realization of the algorithms in corporative se t of IT-products of Rosneft Oil Company is described.
1. Feofilaktov S.V., High precision submersible telemetry
system for hydrodynamic studies (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya
vertikal' = Oil&Gas Vertical, 2011, no. 11,
pp. 6263.
2. Nuriev R.I., Asmandiyarov R.N., Slabetskiy A.A. et al.,
Experimental work for the "low-cost" well testing on RN-Yuganskneftegaz LLC
fields (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2012, no. 9, pp. 14-17.
3. Anderson D.M. et al., Production Data Analysis Challenges, Pitfalls, Diagnostics,
SPE 102048, 2006.
4. Garipova L.I. et al., Use Topaze program to determine the filtration parameters
of the reservoir (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 2014, no. 1, pp. 40-44.
5. Shagiev R.G., Issledovaniya skvazhin po KVD (Research well on pressure
build-up curve), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1998, 304 p.
6. Silkina T.N., Kolupaev E.Yu., Experience in the organization and use of the
data from the telemetric sensors to monitor the development (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya
praktika, 2012, no. 8, pp. 12-17.
7. Afanas'ev I.S., Sergeychev A.V., Asmandiyarov R.N. et al., Automatic well
test data processing: a time series wavelet analysis approach (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 34-37.
8. Ivashchenko D., Davletbaev A., Baykov V. Et al., Wavelet-based transform
analysis for non-darcy gas flow noisy data interpretation (In Russ.), SPE 166909,
9. Orfanidis S.J., Introduction to signal processing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 1996, 798 p.
10. Khoroshev E., Zolotarev I., Shevtsov D., Ivanovskiy V., Remote management
system - Novomet SmartNet (In Russ.), Arsenal neftedobychi, 2015,
no. 1(18), pp. 15-19.
11. Camilleri L.A.P., Banciu T., Ditoiu G., First installation of 5 ESPs offshore Romania
A case study and lessons learned, SPE 127593, 2010.

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Ecological and industrial safety

M.V. Medyakina (Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, RF, Moscow), S.A. Gromykin (Posneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow)
n draft version of new Guidelines for calculating harm to aquatic biological resources

Keywords: guidelines, aquatic biological resources, legal regulation, oil and gas deposits, continental shelf, compensation measures
The paper presents brief information on a draft version of new Guidelines for calculating harm to aquatic biological resources. At the present time Guidelines for calculating harm to aquatic biological resources? Approved by the Order of the Federal Agency for fishery 1166 ,25 November 2011, is subject to critics both from the side of oil and gas companies and territorial departments of the Federal Agency for fishery. A lot of suggestions were made by oil and gas companies and other companies in the period of 2015-2016 for improvement of the Guidelines In July 2016, the Draft passed the procedure of Estimate of the Regulatory Impact and is currently being reviewed in the RF Ministry of Agriculture to be approved under the established procedure. The key objective of the new revision of the Guidelines is to develop a maximum accurate assessment of impacts from intended activities on aquatic bioresources. The Draft Guidelines includes inputs from Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography and other fishery research institutes for the period 2012 - 2016 related to calculation of the amount of damage to aquatic bioresources resulting from implementation of the intended activities affecting aquatic bioresources and their habitats, and some suggestions from business. When adopted, the new Guidelines will simplify the process of assessment of impacts on bioresources and of sourcing the input data. The new revision of the Guidelines will contribute to transparency of the calculations of compensation for damage to aquatic bioresources and to optimization of the companies associated costs, including of the companies implementing offshore projects.
1. Gromykin S.A., Turchin R.V., Legal regulation in the area of damage compensation
to aquatic bioresources in exploration activities and development
of oil and gas deposits on the continental shelf (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 109111.
2. Morshchinina N.V., Medyankina M.V., Zelenikhina G.S. et al., Application of
the water biological resource damage calculation procedure (In Russ.),
Ekologiya proizvodstva, 2012, no. 8, pp. 1218.
3. URL:

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Oil refining

O.E. Eremina, A.V. Sidorov, I.A. Veselova, V.G. Lakeev, E.A.Goodilin (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), V.N. Surtaev, K.B. Rudyak (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow)
Express-analysis of chlorine-containing compounds in petroleum products via Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering spectroscopy

Keywords: spectral analysis, organochlorine compounds, chlorophenols, sensors
The prospects of solving the problem of monitoring of such chloroorganic compounds as chlorinated phenols in petroleum products through the use of Raman spectroscopy were discussed. A novel approach for the determination of chlorinated phenolic compounds crude oil markers of quality via Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy in conjunction with the binding of analytes in recognizing molecular complexes absorbing light in the visible region of the spectrum (450 750 nm) was demonstrated. It happens due to the charge transfer between the analyte and special compounds acceptors acting as a traps. High affinity of p-chlorophenol to chemically non-modified substrate due to the presence of chloride group in the molecule structure that provided chemisorption of the analyte, but with less interaction energies than in the case of thiols and amines, was shown. However, without the use of special recognizing agents on the silver nanostructured surface low values of the useful signal / noise (S/N) ratios were observed, what made analysis of complex mixtures rather difficult. The obtained SERS spectra allowed speculating about the nature of the amplified vibrations, also a slight shift of frequencies ( 5 cm-1) was figured concerning the theoretical oscillation frequencies. The special planar SERS-sensing element (consisting of silver nanostructures rough chemically modified with a polymer layer) in order to determine organochlorine compounds was developed. Thus, we found that the greatest enhancement factor values were observed for the analytical signal in the case of SERS-active surface had been modified with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone as the compound - traps by forming molecular recognizing complex. As a model solvent for the study of the proposed indicator system isooctane was selected as the closest to the real fuel samples according to physicochemical properties. Application of the proposed technique succeeded in the desired selectivity for determining isomeric chlorinated phenolic compounds in their binary mixtures. The main stages of the organochlorine isomers determination, in particular, o-chlorophenol in the presence of p-chlorophenol (what confirmed the high selectivity of the proposed technique), were designed. A characteristic signal with a frequency of 1465 cm-1 was chosen as the analytical. The least detectable concentration for o-chlorophenol was 510-6 110-4 M, the limit of detection 2 μM. The example of determination of -chlorophenol in the presence of p-chlorophenol shows that practical applications of the suggested approach provides superior selectivity of isomers in their complex mixtures.
1. Egazar'yants S.V., Chromatographic methods for the petroleum products
analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 2.
Khimiya, 2009, V. 50, no. 2, pp. 7599.
2.GOST R 52247-2004, Neft'. Metody opredeleniya khlororganicheskikh
soedineniy (Petroleum. Methods for determination of organic chlorides).
3. Zanozina I.I., Non-standard chromatographic techniques of accelerated
monitoring of petroleum feedstock (In Russ.), Sorbtsionnye i khromatograficheskie
protsessy, 2008, V. 8, no. 2, pp. 281287.
4. Sidorov A.V., Eremina O.E., Veselova I.A. et al., New highly sensitive
sensors for SERS analysis of oil components and markers using recognizing
complexes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015,
no. 11, pp. 6871.
5. Patent no. 2572801 RF, Chemically modified planar optical sensor,
method of making same and method of analyzing polyaromatic heterocyclic
sulphur-containing compounds using same, Inventors: Sidorov
A.V., Veselova I.A., Gudilin E.A., Borzenkova N.V.
6. Xia Y., Halas N.J., Shape-controlled synthesis and surface plasmonic particles
of metallic nanostructures, MRS Bulletin, 2005, V. 30, pp. 338 348.
7. Alvarez-Puebla R.A., Liz-Marzan L.M., Environmental applications of
plasmon assisted Raman scattering, Energy Environ. Sci., 2010, V. 3,
pp. 10111017.
8. Jiang X., Yang M., Meng Y. et al., Cysteamine-modified silver nanoparticle
aggregates for quantitative SERS sensing of pentachlorophenol
with a portable Raman spectrometer, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces,
2013, V. 5, pp. 69026908.
9. Jiang X., Lai Y., Yamg M., Yang H., Zhang J., Silver nanoparticle aggregates
on copper foil for reliable quantitative SERS analysis of polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons with a portable Raman spectrometer,
Analyst, 2012, V. 137, pp. 3995 4000.
10. Korenman I.M., Fotometricheskiy analiz. Metody opredeleniya organicheskikh
soedineniy (Photometric analysis. Methods for organic
compounds determination), Moscow: Ripol Klassik Publ., 2014, 346 p.
11. Castillo N., Boyd R.J., The hostguest inclusion complex of
p-chlorophenol inside  -cyclodextrin: An atoms in molecules study,
Chem. Phys. Lett., 2005, V. 416, pp. 7074.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works

R.I. Kadyrov, T.R. Zakirov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
2D fractal and multifractal analysis of porous space in carbonate oil reservoir

Keywords: limestone, carbonates, reservoir, porosity, fractal dimention, multifractal analysis
This article describes a method of fractal and multifractal analysis of porous space on the basis of microphotographs of carbonate rocks thin sections. The results of measurements of porosity in the image, the fractal dimension Dbc, informational dimension D1 and variation index of fractal properties Δα are shown. The direct positive relationship between the fractal dimension Dbc and porosity is found. Maximal values of informational dimension D1 correspond to bioclastic-phytozoogenic and bioclastic-zoogenic limestones in which there is irregular arrangement of the very large voids on the background of fine pores. Minimal values correspond to the bioclastic phytogenic limestones with a relatively uniform distribution of small pores. High levels of variation index of fractal properties Δα> 1 characterize bioclastic phytogenic and partly bioclastic phytozoogenic limestone. The biggest bulk of the sample is concentrated within variation index of fractal properties Δα from 0.2 to 0.7 and has a similar geometry and reservoir properties.
1. Lee B.H., Lee S.K., Effects of specific surface area and porosity on cube
counting fractal dimension, lacunarity, configurational entropy, and permeability
of model porous networks: Random packing simulations and NMR
micro-imaging study, Journal of Hydrology, 2013, V. 496, pp. 122141.
2. Mandelbrot B.B., The fractal geometry of nature, New York: Freeman, 1982,
468 p.
3. Bozhokin S.V., Parshin D.A., Fraktaly i mul'tifraktaly (Fractals and multifractals),
Izhevsk: Publ. of Regulyarnaya i khaoticheskaya dinamika, 2001, 128 p.
4. Morozov V.P., Sedimentogenez i postsedimentatsionnye izmeneniya paleozoyskikh
karbonatnykh otlozheniy vostoka Vostochno-Evropeyskoy platformy
(Sedimentogenesis and postsedimentary changes of Paleozoic carbonate
deposits of the East European platform): thesis of doctor of geological and
mineralogical science, Kazan', 2009, 283 p.

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B.V. Uspensky, R.F. Vafin, S.E. Valeeva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), M.Ya. Borovsky (Geofizservis OOO, RF, Kazan)
Conditions of formation and geophysical methods of forecasting factors complicating the development of natural bitumen deposits

Keywords: form factors, field, natural bitumen, geophysical methods, field development

Effective development of hydrocarbon deposits depends on the features of the geological structure, the terms of which are caused by the formation of traps and processes of the minerals genesis. Genetic, geodynamic, structural and hydrogeological factors are significant for the formation of traps and deposits of heavy oil and natural bitumen in the Permian deposits Melekess depression. Analysis of the conditions of heavy oil and bitumen deposits formation shows that this process occurred in various facies and paleogeographic environments. The initial stage of the relief formation of Permian sediments in some areas associated with nuclear draping of reef coal formations; many structural shapes formed due to sedimentation processes. The traps in Ufimian - Lower Kazanian bitumen deposits are atetonic. Coincidence of structural plans of sandstone packs roofing and overburden is the result of non-uniform densification processes lithology inhomogeneous rocks. Deposits of sandstone packs form linear body in the form of strips, which are located within the channel, delta and delta front, where the reservoir rock is characterized by unevenness. Complicating factors are the development of zones of increased tectonic fracturing the sedimentary sequence; Neogene incisions and others.

The leading geophysical methods in the development of heavy oil and bitumen deposits is a gravimetric, which is of great importance as an effective method for the diagnosis of tectonic zones in the sediment decompression during the operation methods of the secondary stimulation. The authors recommended range of geophysical methods of control over the development of heavy oil and bitumen deposits by secondary stimulation methods, including high-precision magnetic survey, termometric and electromagnetics in various modifications.
1. Uspenskiy B.V., Valeeva I.F., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov
Tatarstana (The geology of natural bitumen deposits in Tatarstan), Kazan: PF
Gart Publ., 2008, 349 p.
2. Uspenskiy B.V., Vafin R.F., Sedimentation conditions affecting structure and
reservoir properties of oil-bitumen rocks (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources,
2015, no. 3, pp. 1723.
3. Uspenskiy B.V., Vafin R.F., Morozov V.P., Characteristics of reservoir properties
Ashalchinskoye member and their dependence on conditions of forming
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 6971.
4. Borovskiy M.Ya., Shvydkin E.K., Mukhametshin R.Z. et al., Geofizicheskie
metody podgotovki i kontrolya protsessov ekspluatatsii mestorozhdeniy
prirodnykh bitumov (Geophysical methods of implementation and control
the natural bitumen deposits exploitation), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2000, 170 p.
5. Uspenskiy B.V., Borovskiy M.Ya., Vafin R.F., Petrov S.I., Geologicheskie kriterii i
geofizicheskie metody podgotovki mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov k osvoeniyu
(The geological criteria and geophysical methods of preparing of
natural bitumen deposits to development), Collected papers Osobennosti
razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy netraditsionnykh uglevodorodov (Features
of exploration and development of unconventional hydrocarbon), Proceedings
of International scientific and pract ical conference, Kazan': Ikhlas
Publ., 2015, pp. 294296.

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G.R. Khusnullina, A.A. Kopyltsov (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
The relevance of the exploration work in regions of traditional oil production by example of discovery missed previously deposits

Keywords: geological structure, exploration work, reservoir, deposit, reserves of oil

In this authors discuss the results of exploration work performed in 2010-2012 on the territory of Maloklyuchevoye oil field on the basis of geologic-geophysical studies. Challenges associated with additional exploration were solved by 3D seismic survey, prospect drilling and well testing techniques in the previously drilled wells. Geological structure of the Maloklyuchevoye field and its connection zone with the Severo-Potochnoe field was clarified by seismic survey of MOGT 3D (the territory is 270 km2). Oil reserves were changed almost in all paying zones (except Ach2 formation) as a result of the drilling of exploration well 4P and operational drilling data. Test of BV10 formation in the well 4P confirmed its commercial oil content. As a result discovery of new oil saturated layers the level of oil-bearing for the Maloklyuchevoye field was increased.

Today this data and conducted comprehensive analysis are used for designing additional exploration work on the neighbor territory, Eguryahsko-Martallerovskaya zone (North Eguryahsky 1, 2 and Martallerovsky license areas).

Thus, a full range of research, including drilling data, well logging data, dynamic, litho-facies and paleogeographic analyzes in order to increase the resource base of operating companies and for further exploration of the territories, involving modeling that allows to predict as the new objects and their facial structure, as the reservoir fluid presence. Repeated well test data can be used for evaluation of production capacity of oilfield objects, to reveal the missed objects, and also significantly reduce the financial cost, which is especially important in the current economic conditions.

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Drilling of chinks

N.I. Krysin, A.A. Melekhin, I.V. Dombrovsky, D.Yu. Rusinov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), V.V. Nekrasov (SKB CJSC, RF, Perm), M.V. Vedel (Motovilikha Plants PJSC, RF, Perm)
Study of an information transmission channel in drill pipes during wells construction using rotary steerable system

Keywords: well, rotary steerable system, data transmission channel, drill pipes
Currently, rotary steerable systems (RSS) are increasingly being used when drilling wells of a complex profile to allow a controlled wellbore`s curvature with a given intensity while continuously rotating the drill string. To create an uninterruptible communication channel between bottomhole and wellhead specialists of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, SKB CJSC and Motovilikha Plants PJSC are developing a complete high-speed communication channel using the cable in the walls of the drill pipe. Cable routing in the body of the drill pipe is performed in the outer longitudinal groove with a protective polymeric compound. It was decided to use an inductive method for transmitting a digital signal through a threaded connection. The advantage of this solution is that during assembly of the drill string does not require additional actions for the electrical drill pipe`s cable docking. Screwed drill pipes automatically create a digital network. It is offered to place compact inductive coils connected by a cable with a small-sized electronic unit at both ends of each drill pipe in the area of threads. In the body of the drill pipe a pocket with a removable cover is performed for placing an electronic module and a battery. As the key electronic component a chip LT6820 (Linear Technology) is chosen, designed to organize digital networks with inductive isolators (contactless data transfer). Coils reeled up with wires PETV-2 0.2, GF 0.35 and litzendraht of 5 PETV-2 0.2. wires were tested. To determine a coupling coefficient between coils the inductance of each coil was measured. The resistance of wire coils was measured to direct current. Waveforms of the test pulse transmission with width of 40 and 120 ns were recorded. Paired pulses of different polarity and rectangular form were feed through a current limiter of 20 mA. The studies found that the number of coil turns between 7 and 9 is sufficient to obtain the desired shape of the output pulse with a duration and intensity of the incoming pulse 40 and 120 ns. The use of this data transmission method allow to create an uninterruptible two-way communication channel between bottomhole and wellhead in the complex profile well`s construction using rotary steerable systems, to transfer the entire data volume received from downhole systems without time delay and to control the well trajectory in manual mode.
1. Borikhovich S.Yu., Kholmogorova D.K., Vasileva E.A., Yatskovskaya A.S., Termopolymeric
techniques of development of complex structure fields with viscous
and high-viscosity oil in carbon-bearing reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik
Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta.
Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research
Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2012,
no. 2, pp. 95104.
2. Baldenko D.F., Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Ways to further improvement of
well drilling by downhole drilling motors (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo
issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic
University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2016, V. 15, no. 19,
pp. 165174, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.19.7.
3. Barton S.P., Teasdale P., Robson R.I. et al., Ultra slim rotary steerable system
achieves world record performance in the Middle East, SPE 125678-MS, 2009,
DOI: 10.2118/125678-MS.
4. Kuzmina T.A., Mironov A.D., Experience in the development of objects unproductive
using technology multihole drilling (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo
natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research
Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2012, no. 3,
pp. 89-93.
5. Baker Hughes INTEQs Guide to measurement while drilling, USA, Houston:
Baker Hughes, 1997, 50 p.
6. Neff J.M., Camwell P.L., Field-test results of an acoustic MWD system,
IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, 2022 February 2007.
7. Almeida Jr. De et al., A review of telemetry data transmission in unconventional
petroleum environments focused on information density and reliability,
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 2015, V. 8, pp. 455462.
8. Pankov I.L., Morozov I.A., Study of the friction coefficient influence on salt
rocks mechanical indicators in sample compression of varying heights
(In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of
Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering
& Mining, 2013, no. 7, pp. 5767.
9. Ustkachkintsev E.N., Increase productivity of construction in sidetrack of
Verkhnekamsk potassium-magnesium salts field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo
natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research
Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2012, no. 5,
pp. 3946.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), A.G. Khabibrakhmanov, V.B. Podavalov (Oil and Gas Production Department Bavlyneft, RF, Bavly), Yu.P. Kemaeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), L.M. Mironova (NAUKA OOO, RF, Bugulma))
Geological features and prospects for development of low-permeability carbonate reservoirs of podveryuskoye oil field

Keywords: revised geological model, low-permeability reservoirs, pilot development
The Podveryuskoye oil field in the Arkhangelsk Region is developed by Oil and Gas Production Department Bavlyneft (Tatneft PJSC). The productive intervals are made of the Ovinparmskian low-porosity and low-permeability carbonate reservoirs dated to the Lower Devonian. The fields complex geology is attributed to faults dividing the DI formation into separate blocks with very poor, if any, connectivity. The connectivity can only be determined in the process of field development based on pressure behavior. Productive zones with improved reservoir properties were identified based on the seismic surveys data, and the latter were used as a basis for planning of exploration and further exploration programs. Reservoir development system was selected based on geological and reservoir modeling data. Lack of infrastructure adds to difficulties. Commercial production of the Podveryuskoye oil field demands ample investments. Two exploratory wells are planned for drilling, followed by the full-scale waterflooding field development. Considering that there is no breakthrough of bottom water, hydrofracturing will be the most optimal method to enhance productivity of low-permeable reservoirs. A pilot development area in the central part of the reservoir will also be formed to test waterflooding technologies. In the process of planned wells drilling, geological parameters will be controlled by the at-bit sensor. Design solutions will be updated as new drilling and well data are available.
1. Patent no. 2203405 RF, MPK7 E 21 V 43/20, Method of development of oil
field, Inventors: Abdulmazitov R.G., Ganiev G.G., Khannanov R.G., Khurryamov
A.M., Mukhametvaleev I.M., Ganiev B.G.
2. RD 153-39.0-484-06, Reglament Kompleksnaya tekhnologiya razrabotki
karbonatnykh kollektorov 6 bloka Bavlinskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya
(Regulation "Complex technology of development of carbonate reservoirs
6 block of Bavlinskoye oil field"), Bugul'ma, Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2006.

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V.I. Galkin, I.N. Ponomareva (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Study of reservoirs properties of fractured-porous Tournasian-Famennian productive formation within Solikamskaya depression

Keywords: porous-fractured reservoir, well test, methods of Warren Root, cracks open, fracture permeability, dependence of permeability from disclosure cracks , regression analysis, stepwise linear discriminant analysis, classes depending on the permeability of the cracks

This article is devoted to research the impact of openness of cracks on their permeability for the Tournaisian-Famennian deposits in the Solikamskaia depression. Occurrence of fractured zones within these deposits is confirmed by data of many surveys. Receiving the parameters of cracks is based on the interpretation of hydrodynamics research materials using the Warren Root technique. The dependence between permeability and openness is constructed and analyzed on the first stage. It is established that the dependence is complex nonlinear. To research more details one-dimensional regression is constructed. As a result, four classes, characterized by special permeability dependence on openness are determined. The assessment of the availability of these classes is verified by stepwise linear discriminant analysis. This method is useful for solving such a predictive task. Linear discriminant functions are received. The use of these functions confirms correctness of four classes determination with permeability of cracks depends on their openness. There is no single type of permeability dependence on openness because there are four diapasons where permeability has different character. The resulting equations of regression help us to find the magnitude of reservoir permeability. These equations allow us to raise the effectiveness of geological-hydrodynamic modeling.


1. Nekrasov A.S., The results of dispersion factor analysis in verifying a structure

of pore space in reservoir rocks (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo

issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.

Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic

University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015, no. 16,

pp. 2534, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.16.3.

2. Cherepanov S.S., Integrated research of carbonate reservoir racturing

by Warren Root method using seismic facies analysis (evidence from tournaisian-

famennian deposit of Ozernoe field) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo

natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.

Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research

Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015,

no. 14, pp. 6 12, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.14.1.

3. Cherepanov S.S., Martyushev D.A., Ponomareva I.N., Analysis of reservoir

heterogeneity and gas saturation, estimated by well logging data is a

basis for reservoir management (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2013, no. 3, pp. 6265.

4. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Repina V.A., Study of oil recovery from reservoirs

of different void types with use of multidimensional statistical analysis

(In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo

universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo =

Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil &

Gas Engineering & Mining, 2016, no. 19, pp. 145154, DOI: 10.15593/2224-


5. Martyushev D.A., Ilyushin P.Yu., Express assessment of the interaction between

the production and injection wells in the Tournaisian-Famennian deposits

of Ozernoe field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo

politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe

i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University.

Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2016, no. 18, pp. 3341, DOI:


6. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Cherepanov S.S., Development of the

methodology for evaluation of possibilities to determine reservoir types

based on pressure build-up curves, geological and reservoir properties of

the formation (case study of famen deposits of Ozernoe field) (In Russ.),

Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo

universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National

Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering &

Mining, 2015, no. 17, pp. 3240, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.17.4.

7. Putilov I.S., Razrabotka tekhnologiy kompleksnogo izucheniya geologicheskogo

stroeniya i razmeshcheniya mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Development

of technologies for a comprehensive study of the geological

structure and location of oil and gas fields), Perm: Publ. of Perm National

Research Polytechnic University, 2014, 285 p.

8. Putilov I.S. Galkin V.I., The results of statistical analysis for study facies

characterization of T-Fm stage of Sibirskoe oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 9, pp. 112114.

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E.V. Bogdanov (Oil and Gas Production Department Surgutneft, RF, Surgut)
Uncertainty quantifying of the green field: integrating experimental design and field development strategy

Keywords: uncertainty, design of experiments, risk, experimental design, probability, forecast

Qualitative and quantitative determination of the risks and uncertainties in oil and gas fields - one of the key problems in the industry at the moment. The main purpose of the article is to improve the accuracy in the determination of the initial geological reserves of hydrocarbons and probable recoverable reserves through the application of uncertainty and risk assessment methodologies for development strategy optimization of the oil field. The author proposes a solution to the problem of identifying and taking into account the static geological uncertainty (when calculating reserves) and dynamic reservoir uncertainty of the field development (for the calculation of the forecast cumulative production). Unconventional approach has been applied, including the use of the method of design of experiments, to significantly reduce the time spent on analysis and quantification of the uncertainty.

The method of design of experiments aimed, in particular, quick calculation of the dynamic reservoir uncertainty as the most time-consuming calculations to assess the risks. This method can significantly reduce the number of starts of hydrodynamic reservoir models for determination possible forecasts for the field, taking into account the uncertainty for the risk assessment. Method testing was carried out in the field, has not yet entered into an industrial development phase (green field), through geological and hydrodynamic reservoir modeling, taking into account uncertainties, including applying the various field development systems. Result is the identification and quantification of the static uncertainty of reserve estimates and dynamic uncertainty of the cumulative production forecast calculation. An alternative field development strategy and optimal well planning was proposed, better taking into account the geological structure of the field, including static and dynamic uncertainty. The final calculation of the cost-effectiveness (NPV increase) of alternative development strategy that takes into account the risks is given.
1. Thore P., Shtuka A., Lecour M. et al., Structural uncertainties: Determination,
management, and applications, Geophysics, 2002, V. 67 (3), pp. 840852.
2. Oliver D. S., Reynolds A.C., Liu N., Inverse theory for petroleum reservoir characterization
and history matching, Cambridge University Press, 2008, 380 p.
3. Bhark E., Dehghani K., Matching Benchmarking: Design of-Experimentsbased
techniques, SPE 170690, 2014.
4. Kostenko A.V., Hyndman R.J., Forecasting without significance tests, Australia:
Monash University, 2008.
5. Nuzzo R., Statistical errors. P values, the gold standard of statistical validity,
are not as reliable as many scientists assume, Nature, 2014, V. 506,
pp. 150152.
6. Pyrcz M.J., Deutsch C.V., Geostatistical reservoir modeling, New York: Oxford
University Press, 2014, 376 p.
7. Ringrose P., Bentley M., Reservoir model design: A practitionerss guide,
Springer Netherlands, 2015.

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A.A. Baida, S.G.Agaev (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen)
Principles for the development reversible micellar systems for enhanced oil recovery

Keywords: micellar solution, microemulsion, dielectric spectroscopy, oil displacement, oil recovery

The efficiency of enhanced oil recovery with the application of reversible micellar systems (RMS) is determined by the component composition. The results on dielectric spectroscopy of reversible micellar systems components based on ammonium salts of fatty acids are presented in this paper. Dielectric spectroscopy was used to estimate the compatibility of RMS key components regarding basic ones. Water and kerosene are the basic components. The nitrogen-containing bases (monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine and polyethylenepolyamines), fatty acids (stearic, distilled oleic, technical oleic acids, bottoms of vegetable and synthetic fatty acids production) and monoalcohols (propanol, i-propanol, n-butanol, i-butanol , tert-butanol , cyclohexyl and other alcohols) are the key components of RMS. The dielectric parameters were defined for the tested products: the dielectric loss tangent, the frequency of the electric field, the dielectric constant, the dielectric loss factor and relative values of these parameters.

The principles for the development of reversible micellar systems were formulated according to the results of the dielectric spectroscopy. The principles are based on the evaluation of physical-chemical properties and intermolecular interactions of their constituent components. It is proposed to carry out components selection for reversible micellar systems among nitrogen-containing bases, fatty acids and alcohols in pairs regarding kerosene and water. We recommend to apply distilled oleic acid, polyethylenepolyamines, isopropyl and tret-butyl alcohols.

The formulated principles suggest the possibility to predict the application of petrochemical products as RMS components. Several RMS are developed on the basis of polyethylenepolyamine salts of fatty acids using the proposed principles. The reversible micellar systems can further extract residual oil in tertiary methods of enhancing oil recovery.
1. Mittal K.L., Micellization, solubilization, and microemulsions, Plenum Pross,
2. Holmberg K., Jnsson B. et al., Surfactants and polymers in aqueous solution,
John Wiley & Sons, 2002, 562 p.
3. Microemulsions: structure and dynamics: edited by Friberg S.E., Bothorel
P., Boca Raton: CRC, 1986.
4. Surguchev M.L., Shevtsov V.A., Surina V.V., Primenenie mitsellyarnykh
rastvorov dlya uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (The use of micellar solutions
for enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 175 p.
5. Shvetsov I.A., Manyrin V.N., Fiziko-khimicheskie metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi
plastov. Analiz i proektirovanie (Physical and chemical methods
of enhanced oil recovery. Analysis and design), Samara: Publ. of The Russian
office Oil Technology (Overseas) Production Limited, 2000, 350 p.
6. Patent no. 2236574 RF. MPK E 21 V 43/22, Oil stratum production-increasing
composition, Inventors: Kozin V.G., Muslimov R.Kh., Shakirov A.N., Ismagilov
O.Z., Bashkirtseva N.Yu., Gusev Yu.V., Kudryashov V.N., Garaev L.A.,
Gabidullin R.I., Garipov R.N., Rakhmatullin R.R., Khusnullin M.G.
7. Patent no. 2314414 RF. MPK E 21 V 43/20, Method for multizone oil reservoir
development, Inventors: Sulaeva T.V., Prass L.V., Medvedeva T.V.
8. Certificate of authorship no. 826772 RF. MPK E 21 V 43/22, Mitsellyarnyy
sostav dlya vytesneniya nefti iz plasta (The micelle composition to displace
oil from the reservoir), Authors: Mirsayapova L.I., Mulyukova L.F.,
Bazdyrev A.A., Vorontsova G.S.
9. Diyarov I.N., Bashkirtseva N.Yu., Kovalchuk O.A., Khazimuratov R.Kh., The
modified technology based on structured micelle system for increase of
extraction and stimulation of oil production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 4, pp. 6871.
10. Magadova L.A., Podzorova M.S., Gubanov V.B., Magadov V.R., Methodical
bases for laboratory tests of ASP-flooding compositions (In Russ.),
Territoriya Neftegaz, 2013, no. 6, pp. 4852.
11. Lange K.R., Poverkhnostno-aktivnye veshchestva: sintez, svoystva, analiz,
primenenie (Surfactants: synthesis, properties, analysis, application):
edited by Zaychenko L.P., St.Petersburg: Professiya Publ., 2005, 240 p.
12. Gafiullin M.G., Belonogov V.V., Sayakhov F.L., Electrophysical methods
of control of the use of chemicals (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
1997, no. 12, pp. 6164.
13. Patent no. 2186202 RF. MPK E 21 V 37/06, Method of selecting potentially
efficient reagents for removal and prevention of resinous-paraffin accumulations,
Inventors: Sayakhov F.L., Barinov A.V., Safin S.G.,
Tarasova G.M., Cherepanov A.N., Sufyanov R.R., Zinatullin R.R.
14. Sayakhov F.L., Zinnatullin R.R., Sufyanov R.R. et al., High-frequency dielectric
spectroscopy for the selection and evaluation of the effectiveness
of paraffin inhibitors on Archangelskgeoldobycha fields (In Russ.),
Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2002, no. 2, pp. 2730.
15. Nelyubov D.V., Semikhina L.P., Inductive dielectric method for designing
compositions of ARP sediments inhibitors (In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy
zhurnal Neftegazovoe delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and
Gas Business, 2013, no. 1, pp. 223231.
16. Bayda A.A., Rudakova A.V., Agaev S.G., Dielectric spectroscopy of
aminoalcohols and polyethylenepolyamines (In Russ.), Zhurnal fizicheskoy
khimii = Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2013, V. 87, no. 2,
pp. 243247.
17. Bayda A.A., Rudakova A.V., Agaev S.G., Dielectric spectroscopy of
monatomic alcohols (In Russ.), Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii = Russian Journal
of Physical Chemistry A, 2013, V. 87, no. 4, pp. 659663.
18. Patent no. 2382064 RF. MPK S09K 8/588, Microemulsion for oil extraction,
Inventors: Agaev S.G., Bayda A.A., Glazunov A.M.
19. Patent no. 2382065 RF. MPK S09K 8/588, Microemulsion for oil extraction,
Inventors: Agaev S.G., Bayda A.A., Glazunov A.M.
20. Bayda A.A., Agaev S.G., Oil displacement by micellar systems on the
vertical model of reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2015, no. 6, pp. 7678.

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A.V. Vasilevsky, E.A. Nikitina, S.I. Tolokonsky, S.A. Charuev (VNIIneft AO, RF, Moscow)
An integrated approach to the study of the processes of air-injection for enhanced oil recovery

Keywords: air injection, differential scanning calorimeter, reactor (kinetic cell), combustion tube

Development of technologies and methods enhancing oil recovery with thermal, physical, chemical methods and its combinations being widespread among them is crucial challenge for developing stranded and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. The high pressure air injection in productive stratum is resulting in occurrence of complex thermo-chemical and thermo-dynamical reactions. Application efficiency of the injection should be estimated by preliminarily defining of hydrocarbon chemical conversion mechanism while interacting with air`s oxygen and experimental studying of thermal air impact on oil-containing rock in reservoir conditions.

To address these challenges VNIIneft AO has developed a comprehensive approach to assess the possibility of this technology utilization for the particular field conditions. The cornerstone of developed technique consists in subsequent carrying out of complex experimental researches (physical modeling of in-situ combustion process) with high pressure differential scanning calorimeter (DSC1), thermochemical reactor and combustion tube to obtain data required for mathematical modeling of in-situ oxidizing/combustion on particular field. Complex approach to study a mechanism of in-situ combustion occurrence is based on its dividing into stages differing physical and chemical processes with specific reactions of chemical conversion for hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon oil components and on definition of principal parameters for the oil displacement modeling while thermal impacting with an oxygen in the air.

While interaction with air`s oxygen in the low-temperature area the largest amount of different reactions is occurring in accordance with chemical conversion mechanism of hydrocarbon groups. Thus, an area of low temperature oxidizing commonly being not taken into account in modeling of the thermal method presented has a major role during in-situ combustion. The studying of the reactions specified for the areas of low temperature oxidizing and building of the chemical conversion model fully taking into account the oxidizing process of reservoir oil with oxygen in the air are the essential advantages of the developed technique.
1. Antoniadi D.G., Garushev A.R., Ishkhanov V.G., Nastol'naya kniga po termicheskim
metodam dobychi nefti (Handbook on thermal methods of oil extraction),
Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban' Publ., 2000, 464 p.
2. Mamora D.D., Kinetics of in-situ combustion, 1993, URL: http://pangea.stanford.
3. Glatz G., Moore R.G., Ursenbach M.G., Laureshen C.J., Mehta S.A., In-situ
combustion kinetics of a Central European crude for thermal EOR,
SPE 152363-STU, 2011.
4. Glatz G., Hascakir B., Castanier L.M. et al., Kinetic cell and combustion tube
results for a Central European crude oil, SPE 146089, 2011.
5. The chemistry of petroleum hydrocarbons: edited by Brooks B.T., Boord C.E.,
Kurtz S.S., Schmerling L., Part 2, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York,
6. Chernozhukov N.I., Kreyn S.E., Okislyaemost' mineral'nykh masel (Oxidation
of mineral oils), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1955, 372 p.
7. Akbarzadeh K., Hammami A., Kharrat A., Asphaltenes problematic but,
rich in potential, Oilfield Review, 2007, Summer, pp. 22-43.
8. Plynin V.V., Fomkin A.V., Urazov S.S., Chemical transformation model for numerical
simulation of the oxidation of oil in the reservoir (in situ combustion)
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 12, pp. 100103.
9. Plynin V.V., Urazov S.S., The formation of the structure of chemical transformations
model for in-situ combustion simulation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 8691.

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S.A. Sitnov, M.S. Petrovnina, D.A. Feoktistov, D.R. Isakov, D.K. Nourgaliev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), M.I. Amerkhanov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk)
Intensification of thermal steam methods of production of heavy oil using a catalyst based on cobalt

Keywords: aquathermolysis, heavy crude oil, in situ conversion, catalyst precursor, transition metal
The article aims to study the possibility of improving the efficiency of thermal steam methods of production of high-viscosity oil based on the results of laboratory modeling of catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis. Study was conducted on the sample of high-viscosity oil of Ashalchinskoye field in conditions close to reservoir under thermal steam treatment: an initial pressure of 3 bar, temperature 150 and 180C for 6 hours while adding the precursor (jointly and individually) of the catalyst and proton donor in the amount of 1% by weight of oil. Study presents the results of determining the viscosity-temperature characteristics and group composition by the SARA method of original and transformed oils. It is found that the oil samples after non-catalytic thermal steam exposure, both at 150C and 180C, are characterized by higher values of viscosity in comparison with other research subjects. It is connected, apparently, with the formation of high molecular weight alkanes as a result of the recombination of the destroyed fragments of high molecular weight components. In addition, the result of thermal steam exposure is a more dense structure due to the lack of protons available to bond with the formed radicals to prevent the process of increasing the molecular weight of the oil system. It is shown that the use of the catalyst, the active form of which is formed in situ, in combination with a protons donor allows to reduce the content of asphalt-resinous compounds. This provides an irreversible decrease in viscosity of produced oil, facilitates further transportation and processing.
1. Yakutseni V.P., Petrova Yu.E., Sukhanov A.A., Dynamics of share of the relative
content of stranded oil in the general reserve (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya
geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2007, no. 2, pp. 111.
2. Maksutov R., Orlov G., Osipov A., The development of high-viscosity oil reserves
in Russia (In Russ.), Tekhnologii TEK, 2005, no. 6, pp. 3640.
3. Maity S.K., Ancheyta J., Marroqun G., Catalytic aquathermolysis used for
viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils: A Review, Energy & Fuels, 2010, V. 24,
pp. 28092816.
4. Kayukova G.P., Gubaidullin A.T., Petrov S.M. et al., The changes of asphaltenes
structural-phase characteristics in the process of conversion of
heavy oil in the hydrothermal catalytic system, Energy& Fuels, 2016, V. 30,
pp. 773783.
5. Vakhin A.V., Morozov V.P., Sitnov S.A. et al., Application of thermal investigation
methods in developing heavy-oil production technologies, Chemistry
and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 2015, V. 50(6), pp. 569578.
6. Feoktistov D.A., Sitnov S.A., Vahin A.V. et al., The description of heavy crude
oils and the products of their catalytic conversion according to SARA-analysis
data, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2015, V. 10,
pp. 4500745014.

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K.S. Basniev, A.A. Nekrasov, F.A. Adzynova, V.S. Yakushev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Simulation of Paleogene gas-hydrate deposit development at the North of Western Siberia

Keywords: gas-hydrate deposit, Paleogene deposits, Western Siberia, development simulation
The possibility of long-time development of Paleogene gas-hydrate deposit located at the North of Western Siberia at depths 300-600 m is considered in the paper. Known data on lithology and geologic structure of Paleogene sediments are introduced to the model of the deposit. Rock properties were taken from experimental data on gas hydrate saturation of similar deposits. Development simulation was made using ECLIPSE 300 software. Following approximations have been accepted: the deposit is developed by depressurization method and bottomhole depressions do not allow the deposit leave thermodynamic field of gas hydrate stability. I.e. the deposit is developed as low-temperature gas deposit. Simulation results have shown, that about 220 production wells are needed for deposit of 30 x 30 km size and 10-100 m in thickness. Medium gas flowrate is about 18 000 m3/day. About 150 x 109 m3 of gas will be produced from the deposit during 100 years (17% of gas reserves or 3,3% of total gas reserves). The deposit will stay thermodynamically in the field of gas hydrate stability. Gas production technology change for example redirection of produced gas downhole to the already exhausted Cenomanian natural gas deposit using old Cenomanian gas production wells, can considerably change deposit exhaustion regime through gas flowrate increase. The deposit development simulation has shown, that at the North of West Siberia there is the possibility of use of new gas reserves and additional deposits energy for uploading of Cenomanian gas production facilities.
1. Yakushev V.S., Basniev K.S., Adzynova F.A., Indications of regionally spread
gas-bearing horizon of new type at the north of Western Siberia (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 100-101.
2. Stroganov L.V., Skorobogatov V.A., Gazy i nefti ranney generatsii Zapadnoy
Sibiri (Earlier generation gas and oil of Western Siberia), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
2004, 415 p.
3. Chuvilin E.M., Grebenkin S.I., Experimental estimation of gas permeability of
gas-saturated sediments during hydrate formation and freezing (In Russ.),
Kriosfera Zemli, 2015, no. 2, pp. 67-74.
4. Basniev K.S., Kul'chitskiy V.V., Shchebetov A.V., Nifantov A.V., Methods for
the gas hydrate deposits development (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost'
= GAS Industry of Russia, 2006, no. 7, pp. 22-24.
5. Istomin V.A., Nesterov A.N., Chuvilin E.M., Decomposition of hydrates of different
gases at temperatures below 273 K (In Russ.), Gazokhimiya, 2008, no. 3,
pp. 30-44.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery

Yu.F.Kovalenko, V.I.Karev (Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS, RF, Moscow), A.V. Gavura, R.R. Shafikov (LUKOIL-Engineering, RF, Moscow)
About necessity of taking into account the anisotropy of strength and filtration rocks properties in geomechanical modeling of wells

Keywords: geomechanics, well, rock, strength, anisotropy, core tests, specimens, stability, permeability

A geomechanical approach to solving the horizontal wells stability problem and increasing well productivity based on the physical modeling of deformation and filtration processes in the vicinity of the well is presented. The modeling was performed on a unique experimental facility Triaxial Independent Load Test System (TILTS) created at the Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the RAS. The importance of taking into account of the strength and filtration rock properties anisotropy is demonstrated on the example of Filanovsky field reservoir rock. The tests of rock specimens showed that rocks having the isotropic elastic properties and outward appearance can have significant anisotropy of strength and filtration properties. In this regard, fracture conditions of horizontal well vary for different circuit points, the fracture of a horizontal borehole begins in the areas near the intersection of well contour with the vertical plane. The rock permeability in the horizontal plane was significantly higher than in the vertical direction. Modeling of decompression process in horizontal downhole using TILTS revealed that the occurrence of non-uniform stress conditions in the vicinity of the well when creating a depression in its bottom may result to a substantial change in permeability in this zone both to a decrease or an increase. The very significant permeability increase mainly observed in the test specimens corresponding to their location in the points of intersection of the contour of a horizontal well and a vertical plane.

The studies lead to the important conclusions regarding the selection of the prioritized strength and filtration properties of reservoir rocks to be determined experimentally under creating and filling in the geomechanical model of the deposit. Currently used traditional set of data is based on the assumption of an isotropic elastic and strength properties of rocks (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, the Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager strength constants, etc.). The facilities which based on the Karman principle mainly used to determine these characteristics, but they do not allow to create real stress conditions arising in the formations in the vicinity of the well. At the same time, deformation, strength and filtration properties of rocks depend intrinsically on the level and type of stresses created in the formation. Conclusions and forward recommendations to ensure the stability of rocks in the bottomhole zone of reservoir, find the maximum of allowable depression and well production can be quite remote from reality if the strength rock properties anisotropy, as well as the dependence of the filtration properties on stresses, will not be taken into account. And the central objectives to reduce risk and enhance efficiency in well production will not be achieved.
1. Blokhin B.C., Terent'ev V.D., Method for evaluation of wellbore wall stability
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1984, no. 7, pp. 1215.
2. Vasil'ev Yu.N., Dubinina N.I., Model of stressed state of bottomhole formation
zone (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 2000, no. 4, pp. 4447.
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(The destruction of rocks during drilling), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1994, 261 p.
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na depressii (Wells drilling and oil anf gas reservoirs drilling on depression),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2003, 160 p.
5. Karev V.I., Kovalenko Yu.F., Triaxial loading system as a tool for solving geotechnical
problems of oil and gas production. True Triaxial Testing of Rocks, Leiden:
CRC Press. Balkema, 2013, pp. 301310.
6. Love A.E.H., A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, University
Press, 1892, 681 p.
7. Klimov D.M., Karev V.I., Kovalenko Yu.F., Ustinov K.B., Mechanical-mathematical
and experimental modeling of well stability in anisotropic media
(In Russ.), Izvestiya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. Mekhanika tverdogo tela = Mechanics
of Solids, 2013, no. 4, pp. 412.
8. Klimov D.M., Karev V.I., Kovalenko Yu.F., Ustinov K.B., Mathematical and
physical modeling of rocks destruction in the sinking of directional wells
(In Russ.), Nefteservis, 2006, no. 5 (30), pp. 2227.
9. Shadchnev R.A. , Zorina A.P., Sharapov D.N. et al., Initial data preparation
for creating a geomechanical model of Yu. Korchagin field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 9, pp. 8083.

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N.F. Teplyakov, M.N. Pislegin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Using the tools of cost engineering to improve profitability and efficiency of the pumping well stock

Keywords: oil extraction, pumping wells, the energy for lifting, downhole pressure, cost model, cash flow, selection of optimal mode of operation

The article discusses the process of creating and using technical-economic models for optimization of pumping well stock, starting from the modeling of power consumption by the artifitial oil lift taking into account the main influencing factors, and ending with the construction of a general cost model of profitability of wells operation, allowing to define optimum modes of wells operation from the point of view of economic efficiency.

We shown the main disadvantages of common approaches to the calculation of the target bottom-hole pressure based solely on geological and technical limitations, and provide a methodology for determining optimal modes of extraction wells on the criterion of maximization of economic efficiency. Building technal-economic models are based on existing field information on the operation of the pumping well stock, estimation of the calculated and actual energy consumption. The main result is the final cost models of producing well operation. On the basis of these models the evaluation of the optimum operation of the production wells on the criterion of maximizing cash flow is made.

The proposed method allows to determine the most cost-effective mode of operation (optimal bottom-hole pressure) for each pumping well to maximize cash flow from the development of the field as a whole. It opens new possibilities for improving the efficiency of operation of high water-cut low-profit and unprofitable wells.


1. Andreev A.F., Zubareva V.D., Sarkisov A.S., Otsenka effektivnosti i riskov innovatsionnykh

proektov neftegazovoy otrasli (Evaluating the effectiveness

and risks of innovative oil and gas projects), Moscow: Maks Press Publ., 2008,

236 p.

2. Makarov A.V., Ekonomicheskie voprosy proektirovaniya i razrabotki

neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Economic issues of design and development of

oil fields), St. Peterburg: Nedra Publ., 2010, 196 p.

3. Mishchenko I.T., Skvazhinnaya dobycha nefti (Oil production), Moscow:

Neft' i gaz Publ., 2007, 826 p.

4. Dunaev V.F., Shpakov V.A., Epifanova N.P. et al., Ekonomika predpriyatiy

neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennosti (Economics of oil and gas industry),

Moscow: TsentrLitNefteGaz Publ., 2008, 305 p.

5. Khasanov M.M., Maksimov Yu.V., Skudar' O.O. et al., Cost engineering in

Gazprom Neft PJSC: current situation and future development (In Russ.),

Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 3033.

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I.I. Mukhamatdinov, A.V. Vahin, F.A. Aliev, S.A. Sitnov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Study of rheological behavior of systems polymer solution rocks

Keywords: heavy crude oil, polymer flooding, contact angle, rheology
The main problem of high-viscosity oil is the low profitability of their involvement in the development. One of the promising ways to solve the problem is to find new technologies and approaches to improve the productivity of wells and oil recovery factor. For tertiary oil recovery techniques are widely used polymer and surface-active compounds that provide a controlled increase in the viscosity of formation water and extraction residual oil. The study of intermolecular interactions in the oil reservoir should be carried out, taking into account the general properties of the reservoir rock. As a result of studies have shown differences in calcite and dolomite parameters associated with different pore morphology and the interaction of polymer molecules with a porous surface. New data on the processes occurring at the interface in the system of formation fluids - mineral. Results of the study of the surface properties and rheological behavior of various mineral reservoir rock components, selected as model, allow us to establish the effectiveness of the various polymers in the technology of polymer flooding. The principles upon which the method further reagents for assessing the effectiveness of polymer flooding is proposed which takes into account the complex phenomena which take place in the surface layer of the formation fluid in contact with the reservoir rock.
1. Idahosa P.E.G., Oluyemi G.F., Oyeneyin M.B., Prabhu R., Rate-dependent
polymer adsorption in porous media, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,
2016, V. 143, pp. 6571.
2. Demikhova I.I., Likhanova N.V., Hernandez P.J.R. et al., Emulsion flooding for
enhanced oil recovery: Filtration model and numerical simulation, Journal of
Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2016, V. 143, pp. 235244.
3. Al-Hashmi A.R., Luckham P.F., Grattoni C.A., Flow-induced-microgel adsorption
of high-molecular weight polyacrylamides, Journal of Petroleum Science
and Engineering, 2013, V. 112, pp. 16.
4. Mohsin M.A., Attia N.F., Inverse emulsion polymerization for the synthesis of
high molecular weight polyacrylamide and its application as sand stabilizer,
International Journal of Polymer Science, 2015, Article ID 436583, 10 p.
5. Kachurin A., Sattarov R., Ayupova D., Gabdullina A., Improvement of the
technology of strata oil recovery enhancement using SoftPusher Polyacrylamide
in the fields of LUKOIL - Western Siberia OOO (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 8, pp. 126128.
6. Gutina A., Axelrod E., Puzenko A., Rysiakiewicz-Pasek E., Kozlovich N., Feldman
Yu., Dielectric relaxation of porous glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline
Solids, 1998, V. 235, pp. 302307.

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Pipeline transport of oil

A.G. Akhmadeev, Tong Canh Son, Ph.D., Pham Thanh Vinh (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Subsea pipelines cleaning technologies in the absence of the possibility of using pigging devices

Keywords: oil treatment and transportation, pour point depressant, high-paraffin crude oil, offshore field, pipeline pigging
The article describes the use in the Vietsovpetro JV a variety of ways subsea pipelines cleaning and capacity recovering in the absence of the possibility of the use of pigging devices. These methods include blowing gas lift pipeline gas; flushing by water from injection system; combined water and gas supply method to create a larger shear stress at the interface with the deposits; dissolving the deposits with condensate formed during the preparation and gas compression; comprehensive method that combines an increase depressant and demulsifier dosage, heating products using mobile steam unit and periodic flushing of the pipeline. Selection of method depends on the characteristics and function of the pipeline, the type and hardness of the deposits, technological capabilities of this type of treatment in each specific pipe. The above methods have their limitations and do not allow for a thorough cleaning, however, provide an acceptable level of transport safety of the high paraffin crude oils.
1. Tong Canh Son, Akhmadeev A.G., Le Dinh Hoe, Ivanov S.A., Vosstanovlenie
propusknoy sposobnosti morskogo podvodnogo nefteprovoda (Reduction
of marine underwater pipeline capacity), Proceedings of the conference
Problemy i metody obespecheniya nadezhnosti i bezopasnosti sistem
transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Problems and methods of ensuring
safety and security of oil, oil products and gas transportation systems), Ufa,
2010, pp. 133134.
2. Nguyen Thuc Khang, Tong Canh Son, Zhuravlev G.V., Akhmadeev A.G., Otlozheniya
ASPO v praktike dobychi i transporta nefti na mestorozhdeniyakh
Yuzhnogo V'etnama (Paraffin deposits in the practice of oil production and
transportation on South Vietnam fields), Proceedings of International educational
and scientific and practical conference Truboprovodnyy transport-
2009 (Pipeline transport 2009), Ufa, 2009, pp. 111112.
3. Nguyen Thuc Khang, Tong Canh Son, Akhmadeev A.G., Le Dinh Hoe, Bezopasnyy
transport vysokoparafinistykh neftey morskikh mestorozhdeniy v
usloviyakh nizkoy proizvoditel'nosti (Secure transport of high-paraffin oil of offshore
fields in conditions of low productivity), Proceedings of XX Petersburg International
Energy Forum, St. Petersburg, 2010, pp. 154157.
4. Nguyen Thuc Khang, Tong Canh Son, Akhmadeev A.G. et al., Opyt puska
i ekspluatatsii truboprovodov s nizkoy proizvoditel'nost'yu, perekachivayu -
shchikh vysokoparafinistye nefti (Experience in start-up and operation of the
pipelines with low productivity, pumping highly paraffinic oil), Proceedings of
the conference SP V'etsovpetro 30 let sozdaniya i razvitiya (Vietsovpetro
JV - 30 years of establishment and development), Vung Tau, 2011, pp. 8694.
5. Akhmadeev A.G., Tong Canh Son, Ivanov S.A., Comprehensive approach
to provide high-paraffin oil transportation from the offshore fields (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 6, pp. 100103.

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Information technology

A.V. Kychkin, V.D. Volodin, A.A. Sharonov, A.V. Belonogov, S.N. Krivoshchekov, M.S. Turbakov, A.A. Shcherbakov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University)
The synthesis of the hardware and software system structure for remote monitoring and control of the wellbore trajectory while drilling by rotary steerable system

Keywords: monitoring and control systems, wells measuring equipment, directional drilling, rotary steerable system

The efficiency of the hydrocarbon deposits development is determined by recovery factor of oil or gas and the amount of material costs for the development of mineral resources and their exploitation - profitability of the project. Today, science and technology allows to develop economically feasible deposits with hard to recover reserves by applying methods of stimulation to the well, one of the most popular is the construction of wells with horizontal profiles. Drilling of directional and horizontal wells require the use of special drilling equipment - rotary-steerable systems (RSS) to control the trajectory of the wellbore in real time. Today the market offers a large number of equipment for directional drilling the main is a foreign proceeding. Work with such systems need to attract highly qualified personnel, and often foreign experts. In this regard, the development of a remote monitoring and control system of the trajectory of the wellbore hardware and software while drilling wells using RSS is an actual scientific and practical task.

The paper presents the set-theoretic model of the synthesis of the structure of remote monitoring and control system of the trajectory of the wellbore hardware and software while drilling wells using the rotary steerable systems. Approach to systematize the creation of software and hardware systems structure for monitoring and control provides qualitative information and algorithmic environment that meets all the requirements of modern standards. On the basis of the proposed model the structure of the complex is designed, which includes a set of submersible units, executive and implementing measurement and control system, communication system, scheduling system. The structure of hardware and software has a modular principle of organization, it involves building up features, including the introduction of additional telemetry parameters, has the mainstream and alternative information channels, advanced power system components, including redundant power supplies.
1. Zaikin I.P., Pankov M.V., Ismailov N.A., Pushkarev S.V., Rotary controllable system
PowerDrive and well log survey system PeriScope operation in horizontal
well drilling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 11,
pp. 68 70.
2. Baldenko D.F., Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Ways to further improvement of
well drilling by downhole drilling motors (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo
issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of PNRPU. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering
& Mining, 2016, V. 15, no. 19, pp. 165174, DOI: 10.15593/2224-
3. Kuz'mina T.A., Mironov A.D., Experience in the development of objects unproductive
using technology multihole drilling (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo
natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of PNRPU. Geology. Oil & Gas
Engineering & Mining, 2012, no. 3, pp. 8993.
4. Binder Ya.I., Gutnikov A.L., Paderina T.V. et al., Import-substituting domestic
technology of drilling oil and gas wells on the continental shelf (In Russ.), Neft'.
Gaz. Novatsii, 2015, no. 10, pp. 2227.
5. Ust'kachkintsev E.N., Increase productivity of construction in sidetrack of
Verkhnekamsk potassium-magnesium salts field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo
natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of PNRPU. Geology. Oil & Gas
Engineering & Mining, 2012, no. 5, pp. 3946.
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Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1981.
7. Xue Qilong, Wang Ruihe, Huang Leilei et al., The strap-down automatic vertical
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8. Farah Omar Farah, Directional well design, trajectory and survey calculations,
with a case study in Fiale, Asal Rift, Djibouti, Technical Report, 2013.
9. Kychkin A.V., The long-term energy monitoring based on OpenJEVis software
(In Rus s.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Elektrotekhnika, informatsionnye tekhnologii,
sistemy upravleniya, 2014, no. 1 (9), pp. 515.
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group of intelligent mobile platforms in real time (In Russ.), Datchiki i sistemy,
2013, no. 9 (172), pp. 6569.
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Ecological and industrial safety

A.V. Nikolaev (Perm National Research Polytechnical University, RF, Perm)
The method for ventilating the slope blocks of oil mines enhancing the energy efficiency of the underground oil production

Keywords: oil mine, slope block, energy efficiency, natural draught

When oil mining method is used in the LUKOIL-Komi LLC (Yaregskoye field), there is a problem of deterioration of sanitary and hygienic working conditions of miners in the mine oil, associated with an increase in air temperature in the drilling gallery in the slope block. To combat this negative phenomenon Yareganeft is now implements wells drilled from the surface for outside air supply. Reducing the temperature in the gallery may be provided only a in the case of cooling air supplied to the well. It is known, the air conditioning systems consumes a tremendous amount of power. In addition, during the cold season according to the safety rules the air supplied has to be heated to a temperature above 2 C. In this case the amount of energy consumed is also significant. All these aspects contribute to the increase of crude oil cost and reservoir cooling reduces production efficiency.

The article provides a method for ventilating the oil mine unit without cooling the air supplied to the drilling gallery. Removing the heated air it is assumed using ventilation hole by the action of natural draught (thermal depression) and reinforcing its action by a deflector and surface fan. Airing outgoing excavations carried a fan of local ventilation, performing sampling of the incoming fresh air to evade the block. The entire process is carried out in an automated mode.

As a result of the comparative analysis based of data on actual measurements in the oil mine NSh-1 Yareganeft it was found that the proposed method of ventilation saves energy and provides the required sanitary and hygienic conditions of work much more effectively than the method implemented at the moment.
1. Konoplev Yu.P., Buslaev V.F., Yagubov Z.Kh., Tskhadaya N.D., Termoshakhtnaya
razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Thermoshaft oil production):
edited by Tskhadaya N.D., Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2006, 288 p.
2. Chertenkov M.V., Mulyak V.V., Konoplev Y.P., The Yarega heavy oil field History,
experience, and future, Journal of Petroleum technology, 2012,
pp. 158160.
3. Konoplev Yu.P., Gulyaev V.E., Introduction of new methods of thermal mining
development at Yaregskoye heavy oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 2, pp. 8991.
4. Tyun'kin B.A., Konoplev Yu.P., Opyt podzemnoy razrabotki neftyanykh
mestorozhdeniy i osnovnye napravleniya razvitiya termoshakhtnogo sposoba
dobychi nefti (Experience of underground mining of oil fields and the
main directions of development of thermal mining method for oil extraction),
Ukhta: Publ. of PechorNIPIneft', 1996, 160 p.
5. Nikolaev A.V., Faynburg G.Z., On energy and resource-saving of underground
oil mine workings (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo
politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i
gornoe delo = Bulletin of PNRPU. Geology. Oil & gas engineering & mining,
2015, no. 14, pp. 9298, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.14.10.
6. Nikolaev A.V., Method of the separate ventilation of oil mine`s gradient excavations
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