|JSC VNIIneft - 75 years|
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The article describes the experience of basin modeling for various exploration stages such as searching and localization of new prospect areas, detailed field appraisal, and exploration works within areas of brownfields. Three typical cases are considered as examples. They differ by level of elaboration, implementation and final goals. The first example is a carefully verified model used at the prospecting stage. This model includes a full set of calculations – backstrip modelling, its adjustment to actual geological and geophysical data, calibration of the thermal history and kerogen maturity, modeling of secondary migration, risk assessment and sensitivity analysis. The second example is the model for assessing risks at the stage of the exploration well selection. In this case the main emphasis was made on the evaluation of the influence in the formation of traps of the uncertainties of the structural factor, faults properties and their effect on hydrocarbon migration. The last example illustrates the application of basin modeling in the ranking of undetected traps and the choice of the order of wells drilling at the late stages of exploration. Here the main accent was on the distribution of facies, the content of organic matter, the ages of faults and their permeability properties. The key conclusion is made that more effective use of basin modeling can be achieved with more flexible use of this method, modifying the ways of its implementation depending on the final task. This makes it possible to use both machine and human resources more appropriately.
1. Burlin Yu.K., Galushkin Yu.I., Yakovlev G.E., Basseynovyy analiz (Basin analysis), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2007, 112 p.
2. Galushkin Yu.I., Modelirovanie osadochnykh basseynov i otsenka ikh neftegazonosnosti (Simulation of sedimentary basins and assessment of their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007, 456 p.
3. Gavrilov V.P., Galushkin Yu.I., Geodinamicheskiy analiz neftegazonosnykh basseynov (basseynovoe modelirovanie) (Geodynamic analysis of oil and gas basins (basin modeling)), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2010, 227 p.
4. Osadochnye basseyny: metodika izucheniya, stroenie i evolyutsiya (Sedimentary basins: a technique of studying, a structure and evolution): edited by Leonov Yu.G., Volozh Yu.A., Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2004, 526 p.
5. Rose P.R., Risk analysis and management of petroleum exploration ventures, AAPG, 2012.
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Within the Timan-Pechora petroleum province several dozen of oil and gas fields have been discovered in the Lower Permian formations, which productivity is associated with carbonate deposits – reefs, bioherms, marginal platforms. Carbonates differ from terrigenous rock not only by improved reservoir properties but also by complex structure of carbonate formation, ambiguity of lithotypes within reservoir, there are still unsolved issues on the assessment and forecast of vugginess and rock fracturing. The important issues regarding to assessment and development carbonate oil or gas fields are determination of deposition environment, identification of main geological factors influenced on high-capacity reservoir forming, studying of regularities of poroperm properties changing in carbonates with various genesis, analyzing of correlation relationships between estimated parameters. Field data available for modeling usually is very scarce and limited by insufficiency or low quality of well and seismic data, which in turn facilitates the development of simple but effective reservoir poroperm properties estimation algorithms. Modeling algorithm for permanent geological and technological model (PDGTM) of the Lower Permian carbonate deposits in conditions of insufficient field data was studied using an example of oil field located on the Kolvinsky megaswell (Timan-Pechora province). The purpose of actual work is properly analyzing of all available data and revealing of lithotypes distribution patterns, which have most promising poroperm properties for field development. In geological modeling, methodology choosing generally depends on object of research and quality of available data. Taking into account specific features of carbonate deposits, proposed algorithm in this paper can be used for rapid assessment of field at exploration activities.
1. Bagrintseva K.I., Usloviya formirovaniya i svoystva karbonatnykh kollektorov nefti i gaza (Conditions for formation and properties of carbonate reservoirs of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. RGGU, 1999, 285 p.
2. Baraboshkin E.Yu., Sozdanie kontseptual'noy sedimentologicheskoy modeli nizhnepermskikh otlozheniy Khar'yaginskogo mestorozhdniya na osnove kernovogo materiala s ispol'zovaniem kompleksa geofizicheskikh, geokhimicheskikh, paleontologicheskikh i strukturnykh dannykh (Creation of a conceptual sedimentological model of the Lower Permian deposits of the Kharyaga field based on the core material using a complex of geophysical, geochemical, paleontological and structural data), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2013.3. Reading H.G., Sedimentary environments: processes, facies and stratigraphy, Blackwell Publishing Limited, Second edition, 1986.
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The authors consider special features of structure and conditions of formation of Upper Devonian sediments at Kharyaginskoye field. Typification of the sections by well logging and core data, seismofacies analysis and paleotectonic analysis are the main methods used in this study. Seismofacies and paleotectonic analysis were applied involving the partial correlation of secondary seismic horizons.
It was observed that Upper Devonian section of Kharyaginskoye field is described in terms of dramatic facies variation. Both the main facies zones of Upper Devonian complex and shallow shelf backreef zone are varied in terms of reservoir and seal formation. Shallow shelf backreef zone widely developed in central and north parts of the area in later Frasnian and Famenian time. This study allowed to outline the paleoelevation in Evlaov-Liven part of the section. This paleoelevation was the base for carbonate block of uncertain genesis in zadon-elets sedimentation time. Potentially this kind of carbonate build-ups could have the enhanced reservoir properties. It is noted that because of insufficient drilling and core data it is impossible now to make definite conclusions if carbonate blocks with good reservoir properties are developed within the backreef zone. Nevertheless, this zone is prospective in terms of the presence of carbonate blocks with enhanced reservoir properties.
1. Parmuzina L.V., Verkhnedevonskiy kompleks Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii (stroenie, usloviya obrazovaniya, zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya kollektorov i neftegazonosnost’) (Upper Devonian complex of the Timan-Pechora province (the structure, conditions of formation, placement patterns of collectors and oil and gas bearing)), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2007, 152 p.
2. Kushnareva T.I., Famenskiy yarus Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii (Famennian stage of Timan-Pechora province), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 135 p.
3. Zhemchugova V.A., Aktual'nye nauchno-tekhnicheskie problemy razvitiya geologo-geofizicheskikh, poiskovo-razvedochnykh i promyslovykh rabot v Respublike Komi (Current scientific and technical problems of the development of geological, geophysical, prospecting and fishing operations in the Komi Republic), Moscow” Publ. of MSMU, 2002, 244 p.
4. Nikonov N.I., Osnovnye cherty geologicheskogo stroeniya verkhnedevonskikh bar'ernykh rifov v svyazi s ikh neftegazonosnost'yu (The main features of the geological structure of the Upper Devonian barrier reefs due to their oil and gas potential), Collected papers “Neftegazonosnye kompleksy Pechorskoy sinklizy” (Oil and gas complexes of the Pechora Synclise), 1981, V. 35, pp. 58–65.
5. Valeev R.N., Avlakogeny Vostochno-Evropeyskoy platformy (The Aulacogenes of the East European Platform), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 388 p.
6. Dedeev V.A., Struktura platformennogo chekhla Evropeyskogo severa SSSR (The structure of the platform cover of the European north of the USSR), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1982, 200 p.
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The audit of hydrocarbon reserves estimate based on international classification is an established process in a majority of international and Russian companies. The main purpose of the audit is to determine the capitalization of a company, its market value, as well as its collateral value in case of external borrowings and securities offering in stock markets. Zarubezhneft pays special attention to the process of auditing its Russian and international assets, especially with respect to the technical part of the assessment (determination of geological and technical recoverable volumes). Along with the assessment performed by an affiliated international auditor, the Company carries out an internal evaluation to estimate possible results of an independent audit and to form an optimal strategy of asset development.
The process of internal reserves estimate is carried out in accordance with the Procedure adopted by the Company. It consists of three stages: appraisal of geological reserves as of the established date, estimation of technical recoverable volumes and economic assessment. The first stage involves systematization of geological, geophysical, production and design data followed by information analysis to get a comprehensive idea of a reservoir structure and to identify uncertainty (WOC position, petrophysical models, uncertainty in structural plan, etc.). The result of the work at this stage includes geological volumes, calculated according to SEC and SPE/PRMS categories, and graphic maps with selected categories. At the second stage, recoverable reserves by each of the categories are estimated on a well after well basis. The evaluation is based on the actual production dynamics and analogues data. The results of the stage are technical recoverable amounts, final oil recovery factor and anticipated production levels by categories TP, 2P and 3P. Upon obtaining anticipated production profiles, economic appraisal is carried out for each asset based on individual characteristics of the assets (production sharing, inter-Government agreement, etc.) and exploitation targets (very heavy oil, level of reserve depletion, availability of benefits, etc.)
The internal evaluation is based on the use of international standards along with own tools for performance of engineering design. A large amount and variety of input data, as well as specific characteristics of the Group of Companies` assets have caused a necessity to optimize the existing process. The transition to the use of databases, as well as automation of some operations through application of software (tools) has significantly improved the process.
1. Guidelines for application of the petroleum resources management system, Publ. of World Petroleum Council, 2011, 197 p.2. Polozhenie o poryadke organizatsii i sbora iskhodnykh materialov dlya provedeniya nezavisimogo audita zapasov nefti, gaza i kondensata po mezhdunarodnym standartam (Regulations on the procedure for the organization and collection of raw materials for an independent audit of oil, gas and condensate reserves according to international standards), 2014.
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Laboratory tests on core samples generally serve as one of the most important source of input data to oil and gas simulation studies. The reliability of results core data directly depends on quality of the tests carried out and how well the samples used are representative of the reservoir. The quality of cores or samples is of foremost importance, as among other sources of input data to reservoir modeling and simulation core tests are the only direct means of determining reservoir properties. The data obtained from core tests are generally unique, well founded and can be repeated by other specialists elsewhere.
This article focuses on the quality of cores used in laboratory tests, while pointing out the need for samples used to be consolidated, most especially in flow experiments in order to obtain reliable data. Possible mishaps affecting experimental results from unconsolidated cores or low quality samples, like those drilled with liquid nitrogen are discussed. We present the results of laboratory tests, showing how the quality of core samples can affect experimental results. Examples of capillary pressure curves, obtained from cores samples, disintegrated in a centrifugal experiments are shown. A criterion for assessing the quality of the results of such studies is presented.To improve upon data quality of laboratory tests on core samples, reservoir rock type and possible rock-fluid interaction must be taken into account. Results presented show the much impact such interactions can have of on rock flow properties. Core preservation by bottom hole sealing or well-site preservation to prevent alteration of reservoir and fluids characteristics also plays a key role in obtaining reliable data in laboratory tests. Samples from preserved cores are shown to yield more reliable experimental results.
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The example of the Beluga oil field on the southern shelf of Vietnam shows the possibility of complex geological modeling of Miocene and Oligocene deposits with limited data, using a conceptual model. In studying the field, a number of features have been identified, concerning an allocation of new productive sediments, a large oil-saturated level, a complex fault system, and high heterogeneity of the section within the key beds. The main problems and uncertainty in the field are the low confirmability of the structural plan according to the seismic data, low study of the full-sized core, fragmentary testing of the pay zone, uncertainty of the well logging interpretation, ambiguous level of the oil-water contact.
The experience of neighboring fields demonstrated that high expectations for reserves and productivity in conditions of insufficient knowledge led to the failure to fulfill the production plan. Thus, within the framework of geological and hydrodynamic modeling on a new feature, attention is focused on sources of geological uncertainty. To this end, a conceptual model of the geological structure was created, an approach to modeling under conditions of significant uncertainties was developed and a probabilistic estimate of the reserves was made. The history of the development of the Cuulong basin has been studied and applied in modeling; the sweep direction of the material has been taken into account. Due to the limited volume of core material during the drilling of exploratory wells, an electrofacial analysis was performed. The performed analysis of the distribution of the reservoir porosity and permeability and the results of PLT on the isolated electrofacies was used in further modeling. The risks associated with the allocation of reservoirs and the non-confirmation of the structural plan, performed on the basis of a probabilistic model are also taken into account. A variant of object modeling based on the conceptual model of sedimentation of pay beds is implemented, in which variations in the sizes, shapes and orientations of features are determined.
As a result, a detailed, volumetric representation of the geological structure of the field was created. In the framework of insufficient knowledge of the offshore field, the creation of a conceptual geological-facial model served as the basis for constructing probabilistic geological and hydrodynamic models and their analysis, the results of which allowed planning the economically efficient development of the feature.
1. Obobshchenie i analiz geologo-geofizicheskikh materialov severnoy i severo-vostochnoy chastey mestorozhdeniya Belyy Tigr s tsel'yu vyyavleniya nestrukturnykh lovushek UV (Generalization and analysis of geological and geophysical materials of the northern and northeastern parts of the White Tiger field in order to identify non-structural hydrocarbon traps), Hanoi: Publ. of VPI, 2014.
2. Shoup R.C., Morley R.J., Swiecicki T., Clark S., Tectono-stratigraphic framework and tertiary paleogeography of Southeast Asia: Gulf of Thailand to South Vietnam shelf, URL: http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/pdfz/documents/2012/30246shoup/ndx_shoup.pdf.html.
3. Podschet zapasov nefti i rastvorennogo gaza mestorozhdeniya Beluga bloka 09-/12 Kyulongskogo basseyna (Calculation of oil reserves and dissolved gas of the Beluga field of Block 09-/12 of the Kyulong Basin), Vung Tau: Publ. of NIPImorneftegaz, 2016.
4. Pereschet zapasov nefti i rastvorennogo gaza mestorozhdeniya Belyy Tigr bloka 09-/12 Kyulongskogo basseyna (Recalculation of oil and dissolved gas reserves of the White Tiger field of Block 09-/12 of the Kyulong Basin), Vung Tau: Publ. of NIPImorneftegaz, 2016.
5. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel – litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies - lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.
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The article suggests an approach to the selection of the optimal development strategy of the greenfield in conditions of insufficient data and high geological uncertainty on the example of Beluga oil field located on the continental shelf of Vietnam. Development strategy selection approach consistently includes geological analysis, probabilistic static model, dynamic model, optimization of project solutions. Geological analysis allowed identifying the main geological uncertainties and their ranges. A calculation scheme of the static model is created. To simplify the calculation scheme, three sets of rules have been created comprising probable, pessimistic and optimistic geological scenarios. A variation of uncertainty parameters is performed within each geological scenario. To create a dynamic model, the calculation scheme for building a static model is supplemented with the rules for calculating the permeability field for the matching purpose on the of production logging and well testing results. Optimization of the development strategy is based on the net present value (NPV) for a probable geological scenario. The most probable value of the NPV and its range within the given uncertainty is calculated. Optimization is performed to ensure a stable-positive NPV value over a wide range of uncertainty parameter variations. As a result of the geological scenarios comparison, additional exploration activities are suggested.DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-9-40-43
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Khoreyver Uplift (CKU) oilfields from 2009. So far, some of the oilfields have been put into production and are on the build-up or plateau stages. Other fields are going to be put into production in the next several years. The company drills both new deviated and sidetrack wells. Reservoir simulation model (RSM) is the main tool for making a decision on well pattern optimization and prediction of reservoir performance. Construction and continuous update of the models is a crucial task for the company. Productive reservoirs of CKU oilfields consist of a carbonate rock formation. Pores (matrix) form the most part of the reservoir void volume and contain almost all oil in place. The other part of the void volume is made up of secondary porosity: fractures and vugs. As a rule of thumb the dual porosity/permeability simulation model should be used in this case. However there are some disadvantages associated with this application of this approach for CKU fields. Firstly, the simulation time is dramatically increased in comparison with single porosity model. Secondly, the complexity of dual porosity/permeability models is not consistent with the availability and confidence level of the input data predominantly with the data about secondary porosity structures: areal distribution of fractures (vugs), porosity, fractures length and aperture. In this paper, we present the approach for construction and update of RSM, which is based on single porosity model with the effective properties of matrix and fractures (vugs). Fracture influence on fluid flow is modelled by implementation of non-neighbor connections (NNC) between cells. The transmissibility of NNC is adjusted during history matching. Well productivity index is matched by modifying effective permeability. Distribution of initial water saturation is based on J-function with the adjustment on initial well water cut. Application of the considered approach for construction and update of RSM of CKU fields results in obtaining the tool with high prognostic capability.
1. Sazonov E.O., Nugaeva A.N., Chervyakova A.N., New approaches to equilibrium initialization of the BlackOil model and free water level evaluation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 70-75.
2. Chan K.S., Water control diagnostic plots, SPE 30775, 1995.
3. TNavigator Reservoir simulation model software. Version 4.2. Technical Reference, Moscow: Publ. of RFDynamics, 2017, 2325 p.
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Digital lab project was launched in 2018. The most important part of the project is the development of digital core software for EOR methods using micro-level simulation. All accumulated knowledge about the carbonate reservoirs forms the basis for EOR technologies research plan. The first step of the plan was to summarize and classify EOR technologies with participation of the international EOR experts. EOR techniques were defined. To unify EOR technologies research process we develop a template workflow. Using this template the company launched multiple research process on key EOR technologies for carbonate reservoirs. While designing a carbonate field development plan, one can face a variety of problems associated with reservoir complexity, heterogeneity and great uncertainty of main influencing on recovery factor parameters. A series of simulations, using a sector model of one of the oilfields, were carried out to demonstrate the importance of taking into account those parameters (fracturing, wettability etc.). It can be concluded, that the influence of wettability factor and pore volume structure have a critical impact on a selection of recovery mechanism. To understand the wettability of a reservoir all the existing data was summarized. A new approach to complex characterization of heterogeneity and anisotropy of carbonate reservoir properties has been proposed. This approach is based on a complex transition algorithm from micro to macro scale in simulation models. The problem of qualitative definition of reservoir parameters on every scale was defined and successfully solved.
1. Yudkina E., The modern approach to core data analysis application for studying of reserves structure of carbonate deposits of Zarubezhneft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 29-33.
2. Yudin. E. et al., Development of approach to modelling complex structure carbonate reservoirs using example of the Central Khoreyver uplift fields, SPE 187811-MS, 2017.3. Kudryashov S.I., New approaches in physical modelling of enhanced oil recovery methods based on steam injection and high-pressure air injection for carbonate oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 25-29.
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Paper presents the case study of diverter injection at Kharyaginskoye field. Main development target is Devonian carbonate reservoir. In horizontal plane, the reservoir is divided into two zones: barrier reef and lagoon area. Zones differ by permeability distribution and fluids flow behavior. Core analysis is shown the presents of second porosity system, however, the hydrodynamic survey doesn’t indicate double porosity system in the reservoir. The reservoir is saturated by the light oil (1.15 mPa⋅s). Formation water salinity is relatively high (170000 ppm). The waterflood process is implementing. The production watercut is about 60%. Reservoir temperature is 61 °C, it makes possible to inject a variety of diverters. As screening result cross-linked acrylamide polymer with addition of chromium acetate (cross-linking agent) was selected as the most efficient injection agent (diverter). Injection was performed in 5 injector wells; the production rates of 16 producers were monitored. The incremental recovery after 7 months after diverter injection is about 20000 tons and still increasing.
1. Abdalla R., Gomes J., Al Kobaisi M., Mahmoud G., Assesment of the areal and vertical sweep efficiency in cyclic carbonate reservoirs of the Middle East, SPE 184008-MS, 2017.
2. Al-Hattali R., Al-Sulaimanu H., Al-Wahaibi Y., Al-Bahry S. et al., Improving sweep efficiency in fractured carbonate reservoirs by microbial biomass, SPE 154679-MS, 2012.
3. Lalehrokh F., Bryant S.L., Huh Ch., Application of pH-triggered polymers in fractured reservoirs to increase sweep efficiency, SPE 113800, 2008.
4. Zakharov V.P., Ismagilov T.A., Antonov A.M. et al., Waterproofing of cracks from the side of injection wells in carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 12, pp. 102–105.
6. Zhdanov S.A., Gorubnov A.T. et al., Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po otsenke tekhnologicheskoy effektivnosti primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi (Methodological guidance on the assessment of technological effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery methods), Moscow: Publ. of RMNTK Nefteotdacha, 1996, 87 p.
7. Metodika otsenki tekhnologicheskoy effektivnosti metodov povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Technique for assessing the technological effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery methods), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Energy of Russia, 2003.
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The paper presents the results of pilot run of cyclic steam stimulation on the carbonate reservoir saturated with bitumen. Some aspects of well performance and reaction of the reservoir to steam injection in two pilot areas are considered. The paper also describes the case of cyclic steam stimulation history matching in the first pilot area based on the theory of natural fracture reactivation by applying high injection pressure. The modelling results show good correlation between actual and calculated data. Based on data of continuous temperature monitoring from fiber optic measurement system installed in the well it was possible to locate steam intake intervals. These intervals are consisted of rocks of much less porosity and bitumen content and at the same time developed system of fractures. The results of the pilot run show that the development of the reservoir M by means of vertical wells in the zones of distribution of such rocks, which cover 50% of the area of the reservoir, can be technically and economically effective. For areas of lower net thickness and lateral extension of low porosity fractured intervals, three cases of steam stimulation in the system of horizontal wells are considered. The first of the considered cases is steam – assisted gravity drainage, and the other two cases are cyclic steam stimulation on horizontal wells, which differ from each other by the distance between the wells. Third option proved to be the best out of 3 considered – cyclic steam stimulation with a distance between wells of 50 m. The characteristic of displacement of the calculated forecast variants are similar to the actual characteristics of displacement at steam stimulation on analogous oil fields that confirms accuracy of modeling results.
In the near future, it is planned to conduct pilot works to test technologies of steam-assisted gravity drainage and cyclic steam stimulation in horizontal wells.
1. Afanasev I.S., Yudin E.V., Azimov T.A. et al., Technology for the thermal treatment of the productive formations of the Boca de Jaruco field: Challenges, opportunities, prospects (In Russ.), SPE 176699-RU, 2015.
2. Anfanasev I.S., Yudin E.V., Fedorchenko G.D. et al., Ozhidanie i real'nost' razrabotki karbonatnykh kollektorov (The expectation and reality of the development of carbonate reservoirs), Proceedings of V International Scientific Symposium “Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov” (Theory and practice of applying enhanced oil recovery methods), 16-17 September 2015, Moscow.
3. Grishin P., Osipov A., Solomatin A., Results and main features of experimental studies of heavy oil carbonate reservoir, Proceedings of International Workshop “Thermal Methods for Enhanced Oil Recovery: Laboratory Testing, Simulation and Oilfields Applications”, 28 June – 1 July 2016, Kazan: Publ. of Kazan Federal University, 2016.
4. Jiang Q., Yuan J., Russel-Houston J. et al., Evaluation of recovery technologies for the Grosmont carbonate reservoirs, SPE 137779-PA, 2010.
5. Yudin E.V., Petrashov O.V., Osipov A.V., Results of pilot work on extraction of natural bitumens from oil-wet fractured carbonate rocks: Boca De Jaruco field case (In Russ.), SPE 187683-RU, 2017.
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While continuously reducing of conventional oil resource base in Russia, the interest of large oil companies has been changed to development of hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves, in particular, to the Bazhenov formation with significant potential of organic matter. The bedrock is mainly represented by practically impermeable clay-carbonate-silicon rocks, with a significant content of organic matter being separated by low-thickness permeable carbonate-siliceous rocks. An oil being able to recover from carbonate rocks by traditional methods, the primary purpose of the impact on the Bazhenov reservoirs is to involve into development the undrained or low-drained areas of the deposit, and subsequent conversion of solid organic matter (kerogen) into mobile hydrocarbons, which has been confirmed by numerous laboratory and field tests. Researches carried out have shown thermal and gas impact`s most promising EOR technique for application on Bazhenov reservoirs, which consists in pumping air (enriched air, the air / water mixture) in the reservoir and in occurring of high temperature oxidation processes in it with the aim of involving solid organic substances in the development. In addition, the formation rock heated results in improved filtration and capacitive properties as well as formed network of cracks (channels) being for further recovery of mobile hydrocarbons.
Laboratory studies have been carried out in VNIIneft JSC for determination of two essential parameters, which are the amount of mobile hydrocarbons formed from solid organic matter and parameters of chemical reactions under thermal effects on oil and kerogen - containing rock for subsequent thermohydrodynamic modeling. Based on the results of studies for high-temperature oxidation in the "combustion tube", the main technological parameters of the thermal gas treatment are determined with the assessment of data obtained from the field tests for the Bazhenov formation stratum.
1. Lazeev A.N., Kashik A.S., Bilibin S.I. et al., Main problems of studying of the Bazhen formation deposits (In Russ.), Geofizika = Russian Geophysics, 2015, no. 3, pp. 2–4.
2. Nemova V.D., Conditions of reservoir formation in deposits of bazhenov strata whithin the junction of Krasnolenin arch and Frolov megadepression (In Russ), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 2, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/4/23_2012.pdf
3. Nemova V.D., Litologiya i kollektorskie svoystva otlozheniy bazhenovskogo gorizonta na zapade Shirotnogo Priob'ya (Lithology and reservoir properties of Bazhenov horizon sediments in the west of Ob River Region): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical sciences, Moscow, 2012.
4. Kokorev V.I., Sudobin N.G., Polishchuk A.M. et al., Termodestruktsiya kerogena bituminoznykh porod Galyanovskogo mestorozhdeniya bazhenovskoy svity (Thermal degradation of kerogen of bituminous rocks of the Galyanovsky deposit of the Bazhenov suite), Proceedings of conference “Nanoyavleniya pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya: ot nanomineralogii i nanokhimii k nanotekhnologiyam” (Nano-phenomena in the development of hydrocarbon deposits: from nanomineralogy and nanochemistry to nanotechnology), Moscow, 18–19 November, pp. 261–266.
5. Kokorev V.I., Sudobin N.G., Polishchuk A.M., Termodestruktsiya kerogena bituminoznykh porod tutleymskoy (bazhenovskoy) svity mestorozhdeniy Krasnoleninskogo rayona (Thermal degradation of kerogen of bituminous rocks of the Tutleymskaya (Bazhen) formation of the deposits of the Krasnoleninsky District), Proceedings of II international scientific symposium “Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov” (Theory and practice of applying enhanced oil recovery methods), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2009, Part 1.
6. Kokorev V.I., Vlasov S.A., Sudobin N.G., Polishchuk A.M., Studies of thermal impact on samples of Bazhenovsky series rocks (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 3, pp. 12–18.
7. Vasil'evskiy A.V., Nikitina E.A., Tolokonskiy S.I., Charuev S.A., An integrated approach to the study of the processes of air-injection for enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 102–104.
8. Khimiya uglevodorodov nefti (Chemistry of petroleum hydrocarbons), edited by Bruks B.T., Burd S.E., Kurtts S.S., Shmerling L., Part 2, Leningrad: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1958, 391 p.
9. Chernozhukov N.I., Kreyn S.E., Okislyaemost' mineral'nykh masel (Oxidation of mineral oils), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1955, 372 p.
10. Nikitina E.A., Tolokonskiy S.I., Darishchev V.I. et al., Usloviya obrazovaniya topliva pri primenenii termicheskogo vozdeystviya na plastakh bazhenovskoy svity (Conditions of fuel formation applying the thermal recovery method in Bazhenov formation horizons), Collected papers “Tekhnologii razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov uglevodorodov” (Technologies for the development of hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves): edited by Fomkin A.V., Zhdanov S.A., Proceedings of VNIIneft', 2016, V. 155.
11. Sheynman A.B., Malofeev G.E., Sergeev A.I., Vozdeystvie na plast teplom pri dobyche nefti (Effects on the formation of heat during oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1969, 256 p.
12. RITEK: The thermogas treatment of the Bazhen's series deposits (In Russ.), ROGTEC, 2013, V. 35, pp. 28–32.
13. Tekhnika i tekhnologiya termogazovogo vozdeystviya na zalezhi bazhenovskoy svity (Technique and technology of thermogas effect on deposits of the Bazhenov suite): edited by Grayfer V.I., Moscow: Publ. of RITEK, 2017, Part 2, 200 p.
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The problem of developing deposits with hard-to-recover oil reserves is becoming more urgent as soon as available deposits with favorable geological and physical conditions are developed; high-tech methods of increasing oil recovery are required, including those associated with the injection of associated gas into oil strata. The methodology for preparing, conducting and interpreting the results of experiments evaluating the efficiency of oil displacement by gas methods differs markedly from the requirements of OST 39-195-86, developed for laboratory determination of the coefficient of oil displacement by water. To obtain qualitative experimental data, it is necessary to take into account the processes of interaction of oil and gas in a porous medium, special requirements to the equipment used, the type of the model of the porous medium is chosen depending on the goals and objectives of the researches, changes are made in the procedure for performing the experiments and processing the results.
Based on many years of experience of VNIIneft JSC carrying out filtration studies of processes of oil displacement by gas and water-gas methods, the principles of physical modeling of gas and water-gas effects on the oil reservoir are formulated:
- the use of recombined models of oils, similar in properties and composition to real reservoir oil;
- maximum correspondence of the parameters of the model gas of recombination (injection) to the characteristics of a real gas;
- choice of the model of a porous medium in accordance with the task of ongoing research;
- minimization of gas leaks during filtration experiments;
- calculation of the displacement coefficient of oil by volume and by mass.
1. Petrakov A.M., Egorov Yu.A., Nenartovich T.L., On the reliability of the experimental determi-nation of oil displacement coefficients by gas and water-gas stimulation methods (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 100–102.
2. Petrakov A.M., Egorov Yu.A., Lebedev I.A. et al., Gas and WAG methods for oil recovery Meth-odological principals of the laboratory study (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 60–63.
3. Polishchuk A.M., Khlebnikov V.N., Gubanov V.B., Usage of a formation slim tubes for physical modeling of oil displacement processes by miscible agents. Part 1. Methodology of the experiment (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2014, no. 5, pp. 19–24.
4. Khlebnikov V.N., Gubanov V.B., Polishchuk A.M., Usage of a formation slim tubes for physical modeling of oil displacement processes by miscible agents. Part 2. Assessment of usage of standard filtration equipment to implement slim-method (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2014, no. 6, pp. 32–38.
5. Khlebnikov V.N., Gubanov V.B., Polishchuk A.M., Application of formation slim-models for physical modeling of oil displacement processes by miscible agents. Part 3. Some specific features of mass-transfer while oil replacement by carbon dioxide (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2014, no. 9, pp. 43–47.
6. Holm L., Josendal V., Mechanisms of oil displacement by carbon dioxide, JPT, 1974, V. 26, no. 12, pp. 1427–1438.
7. Holm L., Josendal V., Effect of oil composition on miscible-type displacement by CO2, SPE 8814-PA, 1982.
8. Orr F., Silva M. et. al., Laboratory experiments to evaluate field prospects for CO2 flooding, JPT, 1982, V. 34, no. 4, pp. 888–898.
9. Utility Patent no. 172011 RF, Gazonepronitsaemaya manzheta dlya germetizatsii obraztsov kerna (Gas-tight cuff for core samples sealing), Inventors: Petrakov A.M., Egorov Yu.A., Rogova T.S., Makarshin S.V.
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|News of the companies|
|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
The paper studies the dynamics of the balance of the global oil market for the period 2016-2017. It is shown that the balance of the world oil market is one of the key factors determining oil price. The market balance is the difference in supply and demand, which are analyzed separately. For the analysis and forecast of time series of supply and demand, their decomposition into trend, seasonality and oscillations is used. For the supply the fourth component is used - supply interruptions.
The analysis showed that the seasonal components of demand and supply are similar to each other. They make a negative contribution in the first two quarters and a positive contribution in the last two quarters. A significant excess of the seasonal component of demand in the third quarter over the supply component can regularly lead to a decrease in the surplus (or deficit growth) in the global oil market and an increase in prices at that time. In the fourth quarter, there is an inverse relationship between the seasonal components of supply and demand, which negatively affects the price of oil. The component of "oscillations" outstripped other components in terms of size, both for demand and for supply. The maximum amplitude of supply oscillations arose due to a reduction in OPEC+ production in the first quarter of 2017, and demand - due to its volatility in the Middle East.
A hypothesis was formulated that the world oil market will remain balanced throughout 2018, and this will allow the world oil price to rise relative to the previous year and its average annual value may be above $70/bbl (Brent). Among the key risks that can affect the price are geopolitical tensions, trade wars, economic instability and a change in the policies of OPEC and its allies.
1. Polbin A., Econometric estimation of the impact of oil prices shock on the Russian economy in VECM model (In Russ.), Voprosy ekonomiki, 2017, no. 10, pp. 27–49.
2. Gurvich E.T., Prilepskiy I.V., Analysis of expert and official oil price forecasts (In Russ.), Voprosy ekonomiki, 2018, no. 4, pp. 26–48.
3. What drives crude oil prices, EIA, 2018, April, 23 p.
4. Short-term Energy outlook, EIA, 2018, April.
5. Medlock K.B., Energy demand theory. In International handbook on the economics of energy, Edvard Elgar Publishing, 2009, 848 p.
6. Hyndman R.J., Athanasopoulos G., Forecasting: principles and practice, Pert: University of Western Australia, 2013, 520 p.
7. Svetun'kov I.S., Svetun'kov S.G., Metody i modeli sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo prognozirovaniya (Methods and models of socio-economic forecasting), Part 2. Modeli i metody (Models and methods), Moscow: Yurayt Publ., 2014, 447 p.8. Malanichev A.G., Modelling of economic oscillations of shale oil production on the basis of analytical solutions of a differentiation equation with a retarded argument (In Russ.), Zhurnal Novoy ekonomicheskoy assotsiatsii, 2018, no. 2 (38), pp. 54–74.9. https://www.goldmansachs.com/insights/pages/outlook-2016/?playlist=0&video=0
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
Currently, there is an increased interest in VSP-3D when detailing the structure of hydrocarbon traps in the near-well space. The article provides a justification for the most optimal variants of VSP-3D observation systems and a method of calculating their parameters, the multiplicity of tracking and the size of the illuminated area depending on the required density of observations, the depth of the installation and the length of the used borehole equipment. It is necessary to distinguish between two modifications of 3D borehole seismic with different requirements for observations: VSP-3D observations for the purpose of studying the geological structure of the near-well space and combined observations of CDP-3D and VSP focused on the implementation of the tasks of CDP-3D. The choice of VSP-3D observation system for studying the near-wellbore space is determined by the length of the used well probe. With a short probe (several dozens of receiving modules), the optimal placement of sources on a square grid on the area in the form of a circle, which ensures the preservation of the multiplicity of tracking and the reduction of the maximum removal of the source, but is expensive. When using a long equipment, covering the wellbore to the bottom, preferably the placement of sources in a circle, the multiplicity of tracking in this case is uneven and quickly decreases with the distance from the well. Combined observations are more cheaper, but cause the appearance of unlit areas and do not provide high-quality cube VSP-3D data, so cannot be recommended for detailing the geological structure of the near-well space. Practical examples are given.
1. Shekhtman G.A., Area modification of the VSP method (In Russ.), Geofizika, 1996, no. 1, pp. 23–28.
2. Shekhtman G.A., Zernov A.E., Potapov O.A., Lebedeva I.I., Sokolova K.B., Areal modification of the VSP method, Proceedings of 55th Annual Meeting of EAGE, 1993, Stavanger.
3. Baranov K.V., Bikeev V.S., Starikov N.V., Tabakov A.A., Results for applying the 3D + VSP local project and 2D + VSP local project in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2004, no. 1, pp. 19-22.
4. Tabakov A.A., Baranov K.V., Rykovskaya N.V., Kopchikov A.V., Techniques and some results of walkaway and 3D VSP data processing (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2006, no. 2, pp. 8–13.
5. Andersen J., Bartling B., Nelson H.R.Jr., Borehole seismic defines reservoirs at point of extraction, Oil & Gas Journal, 2014, June, pp. 50–57.
6. Irkabaev D.R., Atnabaev R.F., Lenskiy V.A., Yakupov M.T., Complex seismic technologies VSP-2D, VSP-3D,VSP-CDP (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2017, no. 3, pp. 24–28.
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The lithological typification of the section was carried out, the conditions for the formation of deposits were identified, and maps of facies heterogeneity for each horizon of the terrigenous thickness of the Lower Carboniferous within the Republic of Bashkortostan were constructed. Using the data of wells with high core removal, microscopic description of the thin sections and granulometric studies of the samples, structural-lithological typification of terrigenous and carbonate deposits of the terrigenous thickness of the Lower Carboniferous was carried out. The granulometric composition and textural features revealed in the visual description of the core are taken as a basis for isolating lithotypes. Based on a detailed analysis of the core for the depositions of the terrigenous thickness of the Lower Carboniferous, a number of facies features were identified that allowed these deposits to be assigned to a delta complex of river type. The main diagnostic features that characterized this type of sedimentation environment have been identified. The main facies zones are the delta channels and secondary channels of the promontine, the delta plain, the delta dying, the mouth bars, the delta front, the prodelta and the shallow-marine carbonate sediments. Descriptions are given for each facies zone, its core characteristics that are characteristic for it, which make it possible to identify these complexes with confidence. In order to increase the detail of the maps of facies heterogeneity, wells with a GIS complex were involved in the wells with a core, for which an electrofacial analysis was performed, based on the methods of spontaneous potential log and Gamma ray log.
The created geological framework will serve as the base for petrophysical typing of deposits. Facies features revealed during the work can serve as a basis for constructing conceptual models of local objects, and also will allow to compare different objects according to the conditions of their formation at the regional level.
1. Rykus M.V., Rykus N.G., Sedimentologiya terrigennykh rezervuarov uglevodorodov (Sedimentology of terrigenous hydrocarbon reservoirs), Ufa: Mir Publ., 2014, 324 p.
2. Baraboshkin E.Yu., Prakticheskaya sedimentologiya. Terrigennye kollektory (Practical sedimentology. Terrigenous reservoirs), Moscow: GERS Publ., 2011, 152 p.3. Botvinkina L.N., Zhemchuzhnikov Yu.A., Timofeev P.P. et al., Atlas litogeneticheskikh tipov uglenosnykh otlozheniy srednego karbona Donetskogo basseyna (Atlas of lithogenetic types of carboniferous deposits in the middle carboniferous of the Donetsk Basin), Moscow: Publ. of USSR AS, 1956, 368 p.
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With the increase in the share of hard-to-recover reserves, the role of high-tech logging methods is increasing, which today are mainly represented by equipment and technologies of foreign manufacturers. Such methods include: logging while drilling (LWD), nuclear magnetic logging (NMR), monopole and cross-dipole acoustic logging, hydrodynamic logging, acoustic and electrical microscanning methods, and others.
The analysis of the competitiveness of domestic logging equipment in comparison with foreign analogues is carried out. The possibility of import substitution of geophysical equipment is considered. By the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that in the domestic market there are only single copies of modern Hi-Tech equipment and logging technologies that can compete with foreign counterparts. A small part of the technologies can be used directly (without modification), and the main part requires further development and improvement to the level of modern requirements for quality and informativeness of special logging methods.
Corporate research and design institutes can play an important role in solving logging equipment development problems, because they possess a significant knowledge base about geological objects, the efficiency of the applied technologies and the problems that need to be addressed. The role of the institutes is to comprehensively analyze various domestic and foreign technologies, choose technologies to substitute for domestic analogues, and formulate technical criteria for developing new technologies that do not have domestic analogues.
Based on the analysis, the paper provides a recommendation on the creation of project management of innovation activities in the development of high-tech geophysical equipment.
2. Laptev V.V., Russian geophysical market (In Russ.), Vremya koltyubinga, 2016, no. 3 (057), pp. 12-17.
3. Nazmutdinova S.S., The development of Russian geophysical service based on multi-project management (In Russ.), Naukovedenie, 2014, no. 2.
4. Gubina A.I., Zryachikh E.S., Gulyaev P.N. et al., The results of Russian electric microscanner and foreign analogs on Perm Kama fields compared (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2015, V. 256, no. 10, pp. 131–139.
5. Nuclear magnetic resonance comes out of its shell, Oilfield Review, 2008/2009, Winter, V. 20, no. 4, ðð. 14–16.
6. MR eXplorer (Magnetic Resonance Logging Service), Baker Hughes, Drilling and Evaluation, 2010, URL: https://www.bakerhughes.com/products-and-services/evaluation/
7. Coates G.R., Xiao L., Prammer M.G., NMR logging principles and applications, Houston, TX: Halliburton Energy Services, 1999, ðð. 2–5.
8. Vershinin A.G., Vershinin S.A., Dobrynin S.V., Designing a cross-dipole full-wave sonic logging tool using finite-element modeling (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2013, no. 1, pp. 87–95.
9. Shubin A.V., Gorodnov A.V., Chernoglazov V.N. et al., The choice of optimal technology of measurement and processing of borehole acoustic data in open and cased wells (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2017, no. 2, pp. 2–13.
10. Dobrynin S.V., The current state of the equipment of cross-dipole acoustic logging in Russia (In Russ.), Geofizicheskiy vestnik, 2014, no. 1, ðð. 1–12, URL: http://www.ifz.ru/uploads/media/DobryninCV_annotation.pdf
12. Chernykh I.A., Savich A.D., Import-substituting technologies for well logging and downhole operations in oil-and-gas wells of Perm territory (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2015, no. (256), pp. 140-149.13. Tikhonov A., About problem questions of import substitution of software (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2015, no. 5, pp. 42–45.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Now there is a problem of a research of zones of work of high-output wells, obtaining parameters of layer and the analysis of interference. Filtration parameters of layer are defined by means of standard well test, however the radius of researches allows to estimate only a near-well zone. Parameters of interference test space are necessary for creation of correct geological and hydrodynamic model. At traditional well interference test the stop of the reacting (listening) wells is necessary for reducing noise pollution of the measured bottomhole pressure that leads to considerable losses of oil production. Therefore the special relevance is acquired by a problem of development of the new technique of interference test which isn't demanding a stop of work of wells including listening.
Thus, the purpose of research is creation of the new technique without the need for reacting wells stopping during interference tests based on application of filtration waves of pressure. And the object of research is algorithms of signal processing during interference tests by method of filtration waves of pressure. Under interference tests by method of filtration waves of pressure detection and filtration of data in the conditions of a high noise level of pressure are required. Numerical modeling of signal (pressure) distribution between wells (interference tests) is carried out on the basis of the solution of the equations of hydraulics and filtration by methods of a diagonal pro-race. Methods of mathematical suppression of noise are used when processing a signal.
The numerical testing of the offered algorithm of signal processing during interference tests by method of filtration waves of pressure confirms it correctness. It is shown that use of the offered algorithm allows to find out indignation on the listening wells in the conditions of a high noise level and influence of wells of an environment that considerably expands scope of interference test with method of filtration waves of pressure. The technique has been verified on several numerical models, various on a configuration and the set filtration parameters.
1. Ovchinnikov M.N., Kushtanova G.G., Gavrilov A.G., Sudarev M.V., Filtrational pressure waves as a method of reservoir flow parameters investigation (In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal “Neftegazovoe delo” = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2015, no. 6, pp. 124–161.
2. Filippov A.I., Koval'skiy A.A., Akhmetova O.V., Sfericheskie fil'tratsionnye volny (Spherical filtration waves), Collected papers “Nauka vchera, segodnya, zavtra” (Science: yesterday, today, tomorrow), Proceedings of XI international scientific-practical conference, Novosibirsk, 2016, no. 11(33), pp. 124–128.
3. Shagapov V.Sh., Nagaeva Z.M., Harmonic pressure waves in fractures occurring in oil and gas strata (In Russ.), Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2017, V. 90, no. 5, pp.1109–1117.
4. Ovchinnikov M., Kushtanova G., Effective matrix block sizes in percolation model and filtrational parameters of fractured environments, ARPN journal of engineering and applied sciences, 2016, V. 11, no. 13, pp. 8139-8143.
5. Patent no. 2584253 RF, Method for reactant-wave treatment of bottomhole formation zone with filtration pressure waves, Inventors: Agliullin M.M., Zakirov A.F., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Mannapov I.K., Sterljadev Ju. R., Chupikova I.Z., Musabirov M.Kh., Jarullin R.R., Bikkulov A.A.
6. Kobyashev A.V., Volkov V.A., Study of the formation structure using hydro-listening on the example of the Suzun field (In Russ.), NEFT''. GAZ. NOVATsII, 2016, no. 2, pp. 38–41.
7. Ryazanova M.A., Samoylov V.V., Realizatsiya metoda fil'tratsionnykh voln davleniya dlya povysheniya KIN (Implementation of the filtration pressure wave method for increasing the oil recovery rate), Collected papers “Energiya molodezhi dlya neftegazovoy industrii” (Youth Energy for the Oil and Gas Industry), Proceedings of international scientific-practical conference of young scientists, Al'met'evsk: Publ. of ASPI, 2016, pp. 179–182.
8. Ifeachor E., Jervis B., Digital signal processing: A practical approach, Prentice Hall, 2001, 960 p.
9. Trusov A. V., Ovchinnikov M.N., Marfin E.A., Filtration waves of pressure distribution peculiarities and characteristics during local unbalanced models usage (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2012, no. 6, V. 46, pp. 44–48.
10. Radzishevskiy A.Yu., Osnovy analogovogo i tsifrovogo zvuka (Basics of analog and digital sound), Moscow: Vil'yams Publ., 2006, 288 p.
11. Smith J.O.III., Spectral audio signal processing, W3K Publishing, 2011,674 p.
12. Anderson B.D.O., Moore J.B., Optimal filtering, Prentice-Hall, 1979
13. Kontorovich V.A, Lapkovskiy V.V., Lunev B.V., The model of forming the wedge-like Neocomian complex of the Western Siberian oil and gas province in view of isostasy (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = Oil and gas geology, 2014, no. 1, pp. 65–72.
14. Stern H.P.E., Mahmou S.A., Communication systems: Analysis and design, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004, 552 p.
15. Smith S.W., Digital signal processing: A practical guide for engineers and scientists, 2003, 650 p.
16. Jonathan Y.S., Digital signal processing: A computer science perspective, 2000, 859 p.
17. Smith S.W., The scientist and engineer’s guide to digital signal processing, 1999, 650 p.
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Water injection as a method of pressure maintenance on a high-oil-viscosity fields causes unstable displacement front. In its turn it may lead to appearance of non-covered by water flood segments, and low development efficiency may be as a result. In this case use of polymer solutions as pressure maintenance agent may lead to better development efficiency. This article considers the results of numerical and theoretical calculations for polymer flooding on a high-oil-viscosity field. Two case of polymer flooding was investigated: non-stop polymer flooding and cyclic polymer flooding. Cyclic polymer flooding means that slugs of polymer solution and slugs of water injects in the same well alternately (with different time-periods). Polymer concentration within each calculation has not been changed. Obtained results shows a method of polymer flooding have a good performance. Both of technological and economical effects are higher than in case of waterflooding. However, underlaying water may lead to extremely low effects because of polymer solution losses (it may flow through underlaying water but not through oil-soaked formation). Cyclic polymer flooding in comparison with non-stop polymer flooding shows better performance. Thus NPV increasing equal to 20% in case of cyclic polymer flooding an 16% in case of non-stop polymer flooding. Also an important dependency has been investigated: polymer/water period length ratio (for cyclic polymer flooding) depends on polymer concentration. This dependency can be described by power equation. Coefficients of this equation may depend on different characteristics of geological feature, fluid properties and relative permeability curves. Evaluation of this dependencies and creation of i-charts (based on results of this evaluation) may simplify procedure of optimal parameter definition for polymer flooding.
1. Al-Saadi F.S., Al-Subhi H.A., Al-Siyabi H., Recovery factor in EOR polymerflood project: Field case, SPE 169694-MS, 2014.
2. Zagrebel'nyy E.V. et al., Benchmarking of techniques for improvement of geological model predictive ability (PK1-3 formation, Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 12–15.
3. Kovalenko I.V. et al., Modeling of reservoir pressure maintenance options using horizontal injection wells in conditions of uncertainty of geological parameters of high-viscosity oil deposit PK1-3 of the Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 98 – 101.4. Lake L.W., Johns R., Rossen B., Pope G., Fundamentals of enhanced oil recovery, Publ. of SPE, 2014, 496 p.
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Main object development unique Arlanskoye oilfield has exceptionally complex subsurface geology and contains heavy oil with increased viscosity. In section of terrigenous low carbonic thick series, eight productive layers have been identified. Taking into account the heterogeneity of the filtration-capacitive properties of these layers, in the section of the object, it is lawful to single out three packs. The upper one, uniting mainly of three highly permeable layers, predominantly sustained in area, middle pack with four thin middle-permeable layers, and a lower pack, represented by a single high-permeable layer with an extensive aquifer. The layers of the middle pack have deteriorated reservoir properties in comparison with the layers of the upper and lower packs, which influences the development of the multi-layered object. According to the results of development survey and geophysical studies, with the joint operation of packs of the object, the middle pack is characterized by the worst output, both qualitatively and quantitatively. These facts point to the unevenness of the coverage of the layers by waterflooding and the lesser degree of production efficiency from the middle pack. To assess the localization of current oil reserves in the conditions of a multi-layered object, a deep geological and field analysis of production was carried out with the involvement of sectoral geological and hydrodynamic modeling. The carried out analysis made it possible to identify the zones of localization of current oil reserves by section and area. The application of differentiated influence systems on packs and layers - partial disaggregation of the object in the zones of localization of current oil reserves in production and injection wells and application of the targeted program of geological and technical measures will significantly improve the production efficiency of the object's reserves.
1. Lozin E.V., Razrabotka unikal'nogo Arlanskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya vostoka Russkoy plity (Developing a unique Arlan oil field of the East of the Russian Plate), Ufa: Skif Publ., 2012, 704 p.
2. Baymukhametov K.S., Enikeev V.R., Syrtlanov A.Sh., Yakupov F.M., Geologicheskoe stroenie i razrabotka Arlanskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Geological structure and development of the Arlanskoye oilfield), Ufa: Publ. of Bashneft', 1997, 368 p.
3. Satarov M.M., Andreev E.A., Klyucharev V.S. et al., Proektirovanie razrabotki krupnykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Designing the development of large oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1969, 238 p.
4. Gabitov G.Kh., Lozin E.V., Designing the development of Arlanskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 7, pp. 76-79.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
This paper presents the data of salt mud testing for abnormal high pressure oil wells. There were defined basic physical and chemical properties of salt solutions and their compatibility with the brine of oil deposits. It is shown that precipitation occurs in the course of preparation of well-killing fluids using the brine from oil deposits of Bashkortostan. The composition of Scale has been examined by means of X-ray phase analysis. The paper presents the results of precipitation intensity calculation by Oddo – Tomson method, considers the peculiarities of high-pressure well-killing technology selection at the deposits of Bashkortostan and offers solutions for well-killing fluids quality improvement.
The key moment for the choice of high pressure oil well-killing technologies on LLC «Bashneft» oilfields is the possibility of using formation water as well-killing fluid. However, there are a number of significant limitations. First of all sedimentation occurs when salt compositions on the chloride calcium basis with reservoir water of the Republic of Bashkortostan oilfields are mixed. According to calculations using the Oddo – Tomson technique, it has been found that the colmatant composition is complex and includes insoluble salts. The method of the X-ray phase found that precipitation can attend soluble salts-chlorides. Secondly taking into account the obtained data on water compatibility, preparation of well-killing fluid with maximum density is possible only with the use of fresh process water. The use of reservoir water for the preparation of heavy oil well-killing fluid is possible in a limited range of their required density.
Filtration tests show the negative effect of using heavy well-killing fluids on the reservoir. The obtained relative value of reduction of reservoir permeability is comparable with the effect of well-killing fluid based on calcium chloride.
1. Ryabokon' S.A., Vol'ters A.A., Surkov V.B., Glushchenko V.N., Zhidkosti glusheniya dlya remonta skvazhin i ikh vliyanie na kollektorskie svoystva plasta (Killing fluids for well repair and their impact on reservoir properties), Obzornaya informatsiya VNIIOENG. Seriya "Neftepromyslovoe delo" (Information review by VNIIOENG. Series "Oilfield business"), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1989, V. 19, 42 p.
2. Company’s Instructions for preparation and application of kill fluids. Company’s Regulations No. P2-05.01 M-0027 version 2.00 (Order No. 88 made on October 5, 2018 by the PJSC “NK “Rosneft”), 2018, 101p.
3. Folomeev A.E., Vakhrushev S.A., Mikhaylov A.G., On the optimization of acid compositions for geotechnical conditions of oilfields of Bashneft JSOC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 108–112.
4. Vakhrushev S.A., Mikhaylov A.G., Kostin D.S. et al., Production wells killing on R. Trebs high-temperature cavernous-fractured carbonate deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 41–45.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
During operation of the electric centrifugal pump, a gas-oil mixture accumulates above its suction eyes. As the temperature rises, the pressure decreases to saturation pressure, and the pump is surrounded by gas bubbles that are in dynamic equilibrium with the layers of oil upflow and downflow. The centrifugal pump efficiency depends mainly on the content of free gas bubbles in the mixture. On model liquids it is shown that with an air-to-oil content of 5%, the pump efficiency can be reduced by 25 - 30%. Pump starvation happens at higher gas content in the mixture. Excessive temperature rise in the pump results in the boiling of the formation water inside it. At low pump intake pressure the boiling point of water can be 120-150°C, as the pressure at the pump intake increases, the water boiling temperature also increases. Changes in pressure and the corresponding water boiling temperature are the reason for the beginning of the process of deposition of salts - scale in the internal cavity of the pump.
During electric centrifugal pump well operation the pressure at the pump intake decreases, which leads to an increase in the content of free gas in the gas-liquid mixture. The increase in gas content causes a pump efficiency decrease, which in turn causes an increase in its temperature. If, at the same time, the boiling temperature of the produced water is equal to or less than the temperature of the pump, then the process of its boiling will begin in the cavity of the pump. By adjusting the pressure at the electric centrifugal pump intake, it is possible to avoid boiling of the formation water and, consequently, salt deposits in the cavity of the pump.
1. Gareev A.A., On the significance of thermal practices in electrical centrifugal pumps units (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftepromyslovogo kompleksa, 2009, no. 1, pp. 23–29.
2. Gareev A.A., About maximum gas content on the electrical centrifugal pump (ECN) suction (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftepromyslovogo kompleksa, 2009, no. 2, pp. 21–25.
3. Gareev A.A., Temperature regime of electric submersible pump (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftepromyslovogo kompleksa, 2010, no. 6, pp. 35–41.
4. Kashchavtsev V.E., Mishchenko I.T., Soleobrazovanie pri dobyche nefti (Salt formation in oil production), Moscow: Orbita-M Publ., 2004, 432 p.
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The application of neural networks is the main element in the recognition of images, classification and prediction of space-time sequences in solving a wide range of problems in many industries.
At the same time, most modern works on the classification of time sequences are focused on one-dimensional structures. Within in this paper, transformations from the one-dimensional to the two-dimensional structures of the original time series representations were used to solve the recognition problems. Implementation of this method in the field of diagnosing the operation of pumping equipment allows for better recognition of spatial structures and training of neural networks with a small number of initial data (images).
The aim of the work is to improve the efficiency of determining the technical condition of rod pumps during the operation by dynamometry. A comprehensive approach to the interpretation of rod pumps dynamogram cards was proposed and described. Using the encoding of dynamogram card in various types of images, the optimal methods for their representation are established. The following ways of dynamogram representation were analyzed: initial representation (image), plot in polar coordinates, recurrent diagrams and cross-correlation matrix with sequential delays. Various methods of computer vision were used for classification problems of dynamometers. The complex analysis carried out made it possible to establish the most optimal approach to the presentation of dynamogram cards based on the accuracy of recognition.
As a result of the work carried out, methods for presenting data were shown that showed high classification accuracy and a low level of learning error in small samples of the original data, i.e. these representations provide the best way of «isolating» the topological features of the original dynamogram cards (among the methods compared). Due to the fact that often deep-pumping equipment is operated in downhole conditions with the presence of several types of complications, a new architecture of the classifier for diagnosing dynamogram cards operation was proposed. In it, it is possible to implement complex diagnostics of the equipment condition taking into account all known technological factors (complications) that affect the operation of the equipment.
1. Valiakhmetov R.I., Yamaliev V.U., Shubin S.S., Alferov A.V., Application of heuristic algorithms in analyzing data to solve the problem of detection of electric centrifugal pumping units (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov, 2018, V. 329, no. 2, pp. 159–167.
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15. Akbar S. et al., The transition module: a method for preventing overfitting in convolutional neural networks, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Bio-medical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization, 2018, ð. 1‒6.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The article presents a new approach to the development of information systems on the maintenance of operation of field pipelines. New guidelines for the technological development of the Company - advanced information technology, the transition to digital production, predictive analytics, decision support was adopted as the basis. The main principles of the concept of a new system for monitoring the technical condition of field pipelines (RN-PipeControl) are data gathering, accumulation and analysis of the maximum amount of data generated during the operation of pipelines. The system should provide automated loading and processing of data in a time mode close to real time. Data processing involves the use of machine learning methods, technologies for working with big data, to use emergent approach to the formation of Analytics. The system will solve a wide range of tasks, automate processes and reduce the number of routine operations both at the workshop level, oil-and-gas production department, and at the level of the group companies and the Company as a whole.
The main automated processes are the formation and technical service and repair maintenance programs of pipelines, optimum performance control determination, complications monitoring and prevention, risks management. The formation and implementation of reliability improvement program is an important component of maintaining the operation of pipelines. For reducing the number of failures the program represents various activities on the pipeline fund (reconstruction, diagnostics, capital upgrades). A common approach (both in domestic oil companies and abroad) involves ranking pipelines for assigning them certain activities based on relative criteria (points, expert appraisal on the probability of failure, damage). In the developed approach it is supposed to depart from the current indicators of effectiveness evaluation (specific frequency of gusts, operational costs, and capital costs) and use a single integrated indicator - total cost of ownership (CER). The transition to the CER indicator combined with the use of simulation modeling will allow to predict the accident rate and to evaluate the effectiveness of reliability improvement programs in the short, medium and long term.
2. Kiefner J.F., A risk management tool for establishing budget priorities, NACE TechEdge Series Program, Houston, Texas, 1997, 10-12 February.
3. Vinogradov P.V., Litvinenko K.V., Valiakhmetov R.I., Bakhtegareeva A.N., Development of a model for ranking field pipelines based on risk assessment in exploitation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 9, pp.
4. Orlov A.I., Prikladnaya statistika (Applied statistics), Moscow: Ekzamen Publ., 2006, 671 p.
5. Butov A.A., Sharov V.D., Makarov V.P., Orlov A.I., The automated system of aviation accidents forecasting and prevention at the organization and performance of flights (In Russ.), Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2012, V. 14, no. 4(2), pp. 380-385.
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The technology of heat treatment of steel as a set of operations of heating, holding and cooling of steel products in order to obtain a given level of properties due to changes in the internal structure and texture has long been known. The determining factors that affect the properties of metals are the holding time in the heated state and the cooling rate. However, in the field of pipeline construction, heat treatment technology has been actively used only since the middle of the last century, when they began to use local heat treatment and subjected to thermal effects only part of the design, where it is necessary to optimize the properties, in particular, welded joint. Local heat treatment makes it possible to obtain the required mechanical properties in certain areas of metal structures. Basically, heat treatment optimizes the parameters of hardness, strength, viscosity and plasticity. During the construction of pipelines by means of thermal effects on the weld joint reduce the level of residual welding stresses and contribute to their more uniform distribution along the perimeter of the joint, improve the structure of the metal in the weld areas, and when performing repair work by heating the repair zone reduce the content of diffusion and residual hydrogen in the metal. The reduction of hydrogen in the metal increases the weldability of steel, especially when welding is performed at low temperatures.
The article presents various technologies of heat treatment of steel structures, both on the track and in the factory. The requirements to the equipment, quality control and organization of works at heat treatment are considered, classification of control operations at various stages of works is presented, perspective variants of work are offered.
1. Anokhov A.E., Korol'kov P.M., Svarka i termicheskaya obrabotka korpusnogo energeticheskogo oborudovaniya pri remonte (Welding and heat treatment of hull power equipment during repair) Kiev: Ekotekhnologiya Publ., 2003, 88 p.
2. Korol'kov P.M., Khanapetov M.V., Sovremennye metody termicheskoy obrabotki svarnykh soedineniy (Modern methods of heat treatment of welded joints), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1987, 112 p.
3. Korol'kov P.M., Termicheskaya obrabotka svarnykh soedineniy truboprovodov i apparatov, rabotayushchikh pod davleniem (Thermal treatment of welded joints of pipelines and apparatus operating under pressure), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1987, 233 p.
4. Khromchenko F.A., Korol'kov P.M., Tekhnologiya i oborudovanie dlya termicheskoy obrabotki svarnykh soedineniy (Technology and equipment for heat treatment of welded joints), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1987, 198 p.
5. Korol'kov P.M., Termicheskaya obrabotka svarnykh soedineniy (Heat treatment of welded joints), Kiev: Ekotekhnologiya Publ., 2003, 122 p.
6. Blanter M.E., Fazovye prevrashcheniya pri termicheskoy obrabotki stali (Phase transformations during heat treatment of steel), Moscow: Metallurgizdat Publ., 1962, 268 p.
7. Lysak L.I., Nikulin B.I., Fizicheskie osnovy termicheskoy obrabotki stali (Physical basis of heat treatment of steel), Kiev: Tekhnika Publ., 1975, 304 p.
8. Khimiko-termicheskaya obrabotka metallov i splavov (Chemical heat treatment of metals and alloys): edited by Lyakhovich L.S., Moscow: Metallurgiya publ., 1981, 424 p.
9. Khromchenko F.A., Spravochnik po svarochnym rabotam (Welding works guide), Moscow: Publ. of NPO OBT, 1998, 430 p.
10. Korol'kov P.M., Termicheskaya obrabotka svarnykh soedineniy (Heat treatment of welded joints), Kiev: Ekotekhnologiya Publ., 2002, 112 p.
11. Khismatulin E.R., Korol'kov P.M., Livshits V.I. et al., Sosudy i truboprovody vysokogo davleniya (Vessels and high pressure pipelines), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1990, 384 p.
12. Nikolaev G.A., Vinokurov V.A., Svarnye konstruktsii. Raschet i proektirovanie (Welded constructions. Calculation and design): edited by Nikolaev G.A., Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1990, 446 p.
13. Goncharov N.G., Kolesnikov O.I., Vorontsov A.N., Heat treatment of pipeline welding joints in conditions of the route and plant (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2013, no. 2 (10), pp. 55–59.
14. Goncharov N.G., Kolesnikov O.I., Yushin A.A., Filippov O.I., Study of the impact of low ambient temperatures on welding technology and properties of welded joints of main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 1 (21), pp. 62–67.15. Shoter P.I., Neganov D.A., Studenov E.P., Nesterov G.V., Development and approval of national standard "Trunk oil and oil product pipeline transport. Welded steel pipes. Technical specifications" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation,2015, no. 4 (20), pp. 113–119.
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One of the main goals that any operator of a major energy system aims to achieve is maintaining the system’s safety, reliability and integrity at the required level. The operators are concerned with providing safe and reliable supplies of hydrocarbon resources to the customers without causing an adverse impact on the personnel, community, customers or natural environment.
This paper is a short summary of the methodology framework for the energy system safety, reliability and integrity management model when a risk-based analysis approach is used. The methodology of a risk-oriented approach is based on the models used for evaluation and prediction of the technical condition of the facilities composing the energy system, analysis of man-made risk during operation, identifying the facilities to be repaired and the methods of repairs, optimization of planning and performance evaluation. With risk-oriented approach, the scope of repair activities at the energy system facilities is determined with consideration for additional information: basing on the results of evaluation of the technical condition and risk – analysis the reliability indicators are determined and failure effects evaluation is run. Routine and remedial maintenance program is optimized by implementing an iterative procedure, which includes the evaluation of the effects that maintenance and repairs will have on the risk indicators, evaluation of the risk indicators mitigation, and selection of the best maintenance and repairs case in terms of the performance criterion.
This approach uses more data, but it allows an operator to use more comprehensive methods of analysis and achieve greater flexibility in order to make better informed decisions when determining the intervals of time between diagnostic inspections, and use instruments, tools and risk mitigation methods.
1. Voropay N.I., Saneev B.G., Senderov S.M. et al., Energetika Rossii v XXI veke. Innovatsionnoe razvitie i upravlenie (Energy of Russia in the XXI century. Innovative development and management), Irkutsk: Publ. of Energy Systems Institute (ESI) SB RAS, 2015, 591 p.
2. Sagdatullin A.M., Intelligent control processes transport and treatment of petroleum products (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Al'met'evskogo gosudarstvennogo neftyanogo instituta, 2015, V. XIII, no. 2, pp. 28–34.
3. Plyaskina N.I., Prognozirovanie kompleksnogo osvoeniya uglevodorodnykh resursov perspektivnykh rayonov: teoreticheskie i metodologicheskie aspekty (Prediction of integrated development of hydrocarbon resources in perspective regions: theoretical and methodological aspects), Novosibirsk: Publ. of Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, SB of RAS, 2006, 327 p.
4. Abdrakhmanov N.Kh., Turdymatov A.A., Abdrakhmanova K.N. et al., Improving safety of gas pipeline exploitation (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, no. 3, pp. 183–186.
5. Filippov G.A., Shabalov I.P., Livanova O.V. et al., The comprehensive evaluation of the reliability and durability of the cross-country pipe-lines (In Russ.), Chernaya metallurgiya, 2017, no. 2 (1406), pp. 63–70.
6. Shammazov A.M., Mastobaev B.N., Soshchenko A.E. et al., Tekhnicheskaya diagnostika ob"ektov transporta nefti i nefteproduktov (Technical diagnostics of transport facilities for oil and oil products), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2011, 488 p.
7. Lisin Yu.V., Neganov D.A., Varshitskiy V.M., Justified choice of repeated test interval as a guarantee of faultless pipeline operation (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 3, pp. 32–40.8. Khafizov A.R., Nazarova M.N., Tsenev A.N., Tsenev N.K., On the role of construction and metallurgic defects in destruction failure of main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 3, pp. 24–31.
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Analysis of the global energy market development allows to conclude that natural gas is becoming the main energy resource in the structure of world energy consumption in the nearest future. At the same time the statistical data show that there is a significant reduction in the hydrocarbon reserves over hydrocarbon production, and the time is right to concern about the development of renewable energy projects. The authors analyzed the indicators of the availability of the hydrocarbon reserves over hydrocarbon production. Calculations show that the values of the reserves-to-production ratio are estimated as 90 years for organic fuel and as 54 years for hydrocarbon raw materials in 2017. The projects of "hybrid" energy that combine the traditional production of hydrocarbons with the development of renewable energy projects will be the most needed in the medium term. Some proposals on the subject of this article are based on the collaborate research of Gubkin University and Royal Institute of Technology (Stockholm, Sweden). Currently the autonomous combined power installation on renewable energy sources with energy storage system application is very attractive. The analysis shows that the most objects of the Russian oil and gas complex are located in areas that are promising for the practical use of renewable energy such as solar and wind energy. The results of modeling show that the autonomous combined power installation on renewable energy sources with energy storage system application is one of the possible ways to increase the energy efficiency and reliability of remote oil and gas facilities energy supply.
1. BP statistical review of world energy, June 2018, URL: http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview
2. Kucherov V.G., Zolotukhin A.B., Bessel' V.V. et al., Natural gas is the main source of energy in the 21st century (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2014, V. 716, pp. 8–12.
3. Bessel' V.V., Non-traditional hydrocarbon resources - an alternative or a myth (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2013, no. 9, pp. 64–70.
4. Postuglevodorodnaya ekonomika: voprosy perekhoda (Post-hydrocarbon economy: transition issues): edited by Telegina E.A., Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2017, 406 p.
5. Bessel' V.V., Real state exploration in the oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2016, no. 6, pp. 26–29.
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7. Gavrilov V.P., Grunis E.B., The state of oil production resource base in Russia and its increase prospects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2012, no. 5, pp. 30–38.
8. Morgunova M.M., Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Arctic offshore oil and gas resources in a competitive environment (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2016, no. 3, pp. 114–119.
9. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Martynov V.G., Energoeffektivnost' toplivno-ekonomicheskogo kompleksa Rossii (Energy efficiency of Russia's fuel and economic complex), Proceedings of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2015, no. 2, pp. 13–26.
10. Bessel' V.V., Lopatin A.S., Kucherov V.G., Potential for the use of solar and wind energy in the fuel and energy complex of Russia (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2014, no. 6, pp. 74–79.
11. GDP, PPP (current international $) from The World Bank, URL: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.PP.CD
12. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Martynov V.G., The paradigm shift in the global energy market (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2017, V. 751, no. 4, pp. 28–33.
13. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S. et al., Efficiency of using autonomous combined low and medium power plants on renewable energy sources (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2016, V. 737–738, no. 5–6, pp. 87–92.
14. Kutcherov V.G., Bessel V.V., Lopatin A.S., The paradigm shift in the global energy market: domination of natural gas, Proceedings of 17th international multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2017, V. 17, no. 43, Sofia: STEF92 Technology LTD., pp. 813–820.15. Mingaleeva R.D., Bessel' V.V., Balashov Yu.I., Energy efficiency increase for gas transportation systems objects by the autonomous combined power installation on renewable energy sources with energy storage system application (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2018, no. 4, pp. 74–82.
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|STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REGULATION|
Vertical cylindrical steel tanks (VST) represent one of the most popular and widespread varieties of industrial structures, which, even in normal operation, are in a complex stress-strain state, therefore the task of ensuring their safety is determined primarily by complying with the requirements of federal norms and rules in the area of design, construction, operation and technogenic safety.
Features of technical regulation in the area of ensuring the safety of buildings and structures are established by Federal Law No. 384-FZ dated 30.12.2009 "Technical Regulations on the Safety of Buildings and Structures". To comply with the requirements of this law, the Government of the Russian Federation approves the List of national standards and codes of practice (parts of such standards and sets of rules) of mandatory application.
The article provides evidence that mandatory national standards and rules included in the List do not reflect special aspects of the design and operation of VST for oil and petroleum products. The documents considered in this article from the List refer to other normative documents with corresponding requirements, as well as the standards of various organizations, but all of them have the status of voluntary application. Thus, designers to ensure safety requirements in the design, manufacture, construction and testing of VST are currently forced to use normative and technical documents that have the status of voluntary application. The main task for the realization of safe, economically and functionally effective structural and engineering solutions is the development of an interconnected system of mandatory standards and voluntary regulations.
1. Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of December 26, 2014 no. 1521 approved a new List of national standards and codes of practice, mandatory compliance with which results in compliance with the Federal Law of 30 December 2009 no. 384-FZ "Technical Regulations on safety of buildings and facilities".2. Rukovodstvo po bezopasnosti vertikal'nykh tsilindricheskikh stal'nykh rezervuarov dlya nefti i nefteproduktov (Guide to the safety of vertical cylindrical steel tanks for oil and petroleum products), Moscow: Publ. of NTTs PB, 2013, 121 p.
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