|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
The complex of questions connected with long-term forecasting of development of oil and gas sector of world economy in the context with forecasting of global energy consumption in general is considered in the article. The most important factors, problems, trends and events that determine the behavior of the oil market in the short and medium term are considered. The analysis of the forecasts published in 2016-2017 of the world's leading forecasting centers - the International Energy Agency, the US Energy Information Administration, the OPEC Secretariat, Japan Energy Economics Institute and ExxonMobil - is carried out. Based on this analysis, the main trends and patterns of development of global energy consumption in the period up to 2040 were revealed. Among them are further improvement of the energy balance in use without carbon and low-carbon energy and energy resources, while the role of oil in it in the latest forecasts even grows. The inconsistency of the considered forecasts is particularly noted that, according to the author, the degree of uncertainty of development of both the world economy as a whole and the world energy is growing. In his treasure in this growth are making and globalization, and geopolitics, and the explosive development of science and technology. The situation is aggravated by the emerging surplus of energy resources. The upcoming changes in both the structure of liquid fuel consumption and its production are discussed in detail.
1. Bezopasnostĺ i kontrolĺ nad vooruzheniyami 2015ľ2016. Mezhdunarodnoye vzaimodeystviye v borĺbe s globalĺnymi ugrozami (Security and Arms Control 2015-2016. International cooperation in combating global threats): edited by Arbatov A.G., Bubnova N.I., Moscow: Publ. by IMĚEMO, RAS, 2016, 303 p.
2. Mastepanov A.M., On the evolution of world energy forecasts made in 2013/2014 and 2016 (In Russ.), Neftyanoye khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 20ľ25.
3. Market report series: Oil 2017. Analysis and forecasts to 2022, URL: http://www.iea.org/bookshop/740-Market_Report_Series:_Oil_2017
4. Medium term oil market report 2016. Market analysis and forecasts to 2021, URL: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/MTOMR2016.pdf
5. World Oil Outlook 2016. Organization of the petroleum exporting countries, 2016; World Oil Outlook 2040. Organization of the petroleum exporting countries, 2017, URL: http://www.opec.org
6. Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), January 2017; Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). January 2018, URL: https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/outlook.php#issues2017
7. World Energy Outlook 2017. OECD/IEA, 2017, 782 p.
8. Mastepanov A.M., Prospects of development of the oil industry of Russia in assessments of national and foreign experts (part 1) (In Russ.), Neftyanoye khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 83ľ87 (part 1); no. 12, pp. 92ľ94 (part 2).
9. IEEJ Outlook 2018. Tokyo, 12 October 2017, URL: http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/ data/ş7748.pdf
10. World Energy Outlook 2016. OECD/IEA, 2016, 684 r.
11. International Energy Outlook 2016. With Projections to 2040. May 2016; International Energy Outlook 2017. September 14, 2017, URL: https://www.eia.gov/şoutlooks/şieo/
12. ASIA/World Energy Outlook 2016. IEEJ, October 2016, 256 p.
13. The Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040. ExxonMobil, 2016; Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040. ExxonMobil, 2017, URL: http://corporate.exxonmobil.com/search
14. Mastepanov A.M., Energy forecasts of the world energy council (In Russ.), Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom, 2017, no. 5, pp.12ľ17.Ôü
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The article describes the scheme of the Influence and Verification cycles, which demonstrates the importance of 4D tectonic modeling. Also, the term of the ôstructural-dynamic field modelö is proposed. The critical parameters are defined for paleotectonic modeling, including tectonic activation period and dominant tectonic movement. In case of tectonic modeling there are two issues. Theoretically, the way of study has to go from a global level, based on convection mantle flaw, via regional and area level to the local one. The local level is usually presented as a static model of an oil field. This is the Influence Cycle because the global crust movements control the big (regional) faults, the regional faults form the area structures and middle size faults, and the process of structure forming creates the local faults and zone of natural fractures. In this case, a typical static oil field model does not present paleo tectonics processes. To solve this methodological problem, the best way is to build the structural-dynamic oil field model which includes paleo tectonic reconstructions. The structural-dynamic model is a conceptual view on the geological body geometry, geometry changes and movements during some period of geological time. The structural-dynamic model is the start point for Verification Cycle when the systematization of oil field data verifies the area or regional tectonic concepts.
Also the understanding of area tectonic concept is very important because it is 4D paleo tectonic reconstructions based on real data from several oil fields covering the territory with similar geological history and illustrates the periods of tectonic activities in the area under investigation. The idea of dominant tectonic movement is a key for studying the paleo stresses. For practical issues, the best way is to use the three main movements: lateral (plate tectonic), vertical (asthenosphere isostatic) and rotation (small plate borders by subduction, collision or spreading in the same geological time). The complicated part of this study is the identification of tectonic activity periods, the dominant movements for each period and the degree of influence from the secondary type of movements.
1. Porotov G.S., Matematicheskie metody modelirovaniya v geologii (Mathematical methods of modeling in geology), St. Petersburg: Publ. of St. Petersburg State Mining Institute (Technical University), 2006, 223 p.
2. Miloserdova L.V., Matsera A.V., Samsonov Yu.V., Strukturnaya geologiya (Structural geology), Moscow: Neftĺ i gaz Publ., 2004, 537 .
3. Khain V.E., Tektonika kontinentov i okeanov (god 2000) (Tectonics of continents and oceans (year 2000)), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2001, 606 p.
4. Sorokhtin O.G., Chilingar Dzh.V., Sorokhtin N.O., Teoriya razvitiya Zemli: proiskhozhdenie, evolyutsiya i tragicheskoe budushchee (Theory of the Earthĺs development: Origin, evolution and the tragic future), Moscow ľ Izhevsk: Publ. of RAS, 2010, 752 p.
5. Belov A.A. et al., Tektonicheskaya rassloennostĺ litosfery i regionalĺnye geologicheskie issledovaniya (Tectonic stratification of the lithosphere and regional geological studies), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990, 293 p.
6. Gzovskiy M.V., Osnovy tektonofiziki (Fundamentals of tectonophysics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 256 p.
7. Tektonicheskaya karta fundamenta territorii SSSR (Tectonic map of the basement of the USSR territory); edited by Nalivkin D.V., 1974.
8. Tektonicheskaya karta fundamenta Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity (Tectonic map of the basement of the West Siberian plate); edited by Surkov V.S., 1981.Ôü
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At the area covered by North and Middle Caspian Sea we allocated thick geological body ľ Paleo-Volga, which extends to the northern border of the Apsheronian basin. Its length is more than 600 km with a width of 10-25 km. There is ample research which testifies that 58 % of deposits are linked with paleochannels. Sediments of paleochannels are represented by interbedding of sands and clays. The formation of hydrocarbon deposits and non-structural traps are associated with the vertical migration of fluids fr om great depths. The article presents the perspective directions of exploration works with a view to identifying hydrocarbons deposits in non-anticlinal traps of Paleo-Volga. We mean sediments Paleo-Volga area, contrasting anomaly associated with paleochannel partial barrier in Samur-Peschanomyssk zone of uplift, and gas anomaly along the border of Khvalynsk-Sarmatian uplift zone.
According to obtained results the following conclusions were made. Paleo-Volga extends from north to south for a great distance. Indirect confirmation of the formation of deposits in the non-anticlinal traps of paleochannel is a fluid accumulation in small depths widely developed in the Northern Caspian Sea.
On the basis of the assumptions of the accumulation of deposits in the sediments of the Paleo-Volga, exploration should be focused in delta of the Paleo-Volga.
We recommend sink a wildcat in zone of contrast anomalies near seismic profile No. 821005 wh ere there is a paleochannel partial barrier in Samur-Peschanomyssk uplift zone. To refine borders of allocated gas anomalies zones which is linearly stretched along the border Khvalynsk-Sarmatian uplift zone it necessary to conduct additional geochemical studies.
1. Popkov V.I, Tverdokhlebov I.I., Features mining of sea hydrocarbon fields and direction prospecting work in the Caspian Sea water area (In Russ.), GeoInzhiniring, 2014, no. 12, pp. 64-68
2. Popkov V.I., Osnovnye cherty geologicheskogo stroeniya Srednego Kaspiya i prilegayushchey sushi. Tektonika i geodinamika (The main features of the geological structure of the Middle Caspian and adjacent land. Tectonics and geodynamics), Stavropol': Publ. of SevKavGTU, 2000, pp. 28ľ55.
3. Gadzhiev A.N., Popkov V.I., New data on the geology of the Middle Caspian (In Russ.), Doklady AN SSSR, 1988, V. 299, no. 3, pp. 682ľ685.
4. Gadzhiev A.N., Popkov V.I., Structural features of the sedimentary cover of the Middle Caspian (In Russ.), Geotektonika, 1988, no. 6, pp. 116ľ128.
5. Khain V.E., Popkov V.I., Chekhovich P.A., Origin and main regularities of tectonic development of the South Caspian basin (In Russ.), Yuzhno-Rossiyskiy vestnik geologii, geografii global'noy energii, 2004, no. 3 (9), V. I, pp. 159ľ163.
6. Oknova N.S., Nonanticlinal traps ľ examples from Volga-Ural and Western Siberia oil-and-gas provinces (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 1, pp. 1ľ14.
7. Sabanaev K.A., Sabanaev A.K., Ustanovlennye i prognoziruemye tipy lovushek nefti i gaza na Rossiyskom sektore Kaspiya (Determined and projected types of oil and gas traps in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea), In ôSostoyanie i perspektivy neftedobychi v Dagestaneö (State and prospects of oil production in Dagestan), Makhachkala: Publ. of , 2014, pp. 16ľ21.
8. Guliev I.S., Levin L.E., Fedorov D.L., Uglevodorodnyy potentsial Kaspiyskogo regiona (sistemnyy analiz) (Hydrocarbon potential of the Caspian region (system analysis)), Baku: Nafta-Press Publ., 2003, 127 p.
9. Averbukh B.M., Alieva S.A., Prospects of oil and gas content of suprasalt (Upper Permian-Mesozoic) formations of the Northern Caspian (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1992, no. 9, pp. 9ľ14.
10. Volozh Yu.A., Dmitrievskiy A.N., Leonov M.G. et al., International project for Caspian regional geosciences survey of the deep structure (In Russ.), Georesursy, Geoenergetika, Geopolitika, 2010, no. 1.
11. Murzin Sh.M., Geologicheskoe stroenie i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti akvatorii Srednego i Severnogo Kaspiya (Geological structure and prospects of oil and gas potential in the water area of the Middle and Northern Caspian), Thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical sciences, Moscow, 2010, 123 p.
12. Anisimov L.A., The gas content of the Pliocene sediments of the Northern Caspian (In Russ.), Yuzhno-rossiyskiy vestnik geologii, geografii i global'noy energii, 2006, no. 4, pp. 100-107.
13. Tverdokhlebova L.L., Geoecological problems of development of the Caspian water area and ways to solve them (In Russ.), Geologiya, geografiya i global'naya energiya, 2009, no. 2, pp. 56ľ59.
14. Markovskiy N.I., Paleogeograficheskie osnovy poiskov nefti i gaza (Paleogeographic foundations of oil and gas exploration), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1973, 304 p.
15. Vasil'ev Yu.M., Obryadchikov O.S., Perspektivy gazoneftenosnosti pliotsenovykh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny (Prospects of gas-and-gas content of the Pliocene sediments of the Caspian depression), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1962, 180 p.Ôü
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The present study describes approaches for geological modeling applied on complex reservoir rocks formed by metamorphic processes on example of field located in Serbia, Pannonian basin. Key objectives are identification of productive intervals in contact zone of crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits, reliable reserves estimation and new targets proposition. At the first stage of data analysis, the quality of logging and core availability was graded, which allowed to develop a strategy for working with data of varying degrees of representativeness. The algorithm of typing and correlation basement rocks is described taking into consideration different well log quality, volume and core recovery in the target interval. On wells with sufficient set of data, the concept of the reservoir formation mechanism and its structure was elaborated, and secondary data was used to confirm the model.
As a result of detailed material-genetic analysis of core the core-typing matrix has been developed. This matrix allowed us to determine vertical heterogeneity of rocks. Five main objects with different rock properties have been defined: crystalline schists - basement rocks, breccias are divided into three types based on formation mechanism and cap rocks - marls. Maps that describe lateral heterogeneity were used as a basis for block fieldĺs structure. Lateral heterogeneity of rocks composition and seismic interpretation results has been juxtaposed. The proposed mechanism of deposition formation has been confirmed. These results formed the basis of 3D geological model. Previously, reserves estimation of the reservoirs related to basement rocks was carried out assuming average parameters of all layers. After a comprehensive analysis was done the detail geological model with block structure become the main tool for decision making process.
1. Gavrilov V.P., Gulev V.L., Kireev F.A., Granitoidnye kollektory i neftegazonosnostĺ yuzhnogo shelĺfa Vĺetnama (Granitoidal reservoirs and petroleum potential of the southern shelf of Vietnam), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2010, 294 p.
2. Kucheruk E.V., Oil and gas potential of basement rocks (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1998, no. 1, URL: http://www.geolib.ru/OilGasGeo/1992/01/Stat/stat15.html
3. Khalimov Yu.E., Petroleum potential of granitoid basement reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 4, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/9/58_2012.pdf
4. Jovanovič R., Sedimentology, petrography, tectogenesis and lithostratigraphy of reservoir rocks of petroleum deposit ôPz+Smö Kikinda-Varoš, Novi Sad: DIT-Naftagas Publ., 2011, 121 p.5. Elaborat Rezervi ugljovodonika lezista Majdan Duboko (Study of hydrocarbon reserves of Majdan Duboko), Novi Sad, 2008.Ôü
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Based on well log correlation in the interval fr om the base of the Domanic horizon of Middle Devonian sediments to the top of Vereiskian horizon of middle Carboniferous deposits in the Samara and Orenburg regions by the block structure of the Kama-Kinel system of downfolds is confirmed. Changing the thickness between the wells in two adjacent blocks and taking into account the loss of significant thickness intervals allowed us to lim it each block assumed syndepositional faults. Subsequent analysis of the results of regional seismic surveys showed that the boundaries of blocks allocated for the correlation are confirmed by the seismic data.
Sequential paleoreconstruction of deposits the Kama-Kinel system of downfolds allowed the unambiguous answer questions regarding the time and nature formation of the Kosvinskian (mostly clay) sediments in the axial zone of the system of downfolds. The analysis of 10 consecutive paleoreconstructed cross sections it is shown that the formation of a very thick layer of predominantly clayey sediments was preceded by the blocks lifting in the axial zone of this system and the erosion of carbonate deposits of the Tournaisian and Famennian tiers the most part. The lifting completed in late Tournaisian time. Beginning in Visean time, the blocks immersion was accompanied by accumulation of terrigenous sediments Kosvinskian horizon, in the bottom of which was captured on top of the Tournaisian fauna.
The location of the Tournaisian fauna in the cross section Lower Carboniferous terrigenous strata is a consequence of the tectonic blocks dip during the formation of these strata after complete erosion of the overlying Tournaisian deposits in late Tournaisian time and has nothing to do with plicative nature of the bedding. The process of forming clinoforms is not typical for carbonates. It is associated with the formation of terrigenous strata of the Lower Carboniferous in the initial period of its formation.
Thus, the Kama-Kinel system of downfolds is a complex tectonically active structure between the arches with no doubt, confined to large rivers, due to deep-seated faults.
1. Kleshchev A.I., Kirov V.A., Petropavlovskiy V.V., On the age of the Saraylina terrigenous thickness of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti, 1957, no. 12.
2. Pozner V.M., K stratigrafii nizhnego karbona Kamsko-Kinelĺskoy vpadiny (To the stratigraphy of the Lower Carboniferous of the Kamsko-Kinel Basin), Proceedings of VNIGNI, 1959, V. XIV
3. Troyepolĺskiy V.I., Ellern S.S., Badamshin E.Z., Napalkov V.N., Some data on the structure of the lower part of the terrigenous sequence of the Lower Carboniferous in the Aksubaevo-Melekess depression, the paleogeographic conditions of its formation and the prospects of oil content (In Russ.), Uchenyye zapiski KGU, 1959, V. 119, no. 2.
4. Tikhiy V.N., Novyye dannyye po stratigrafii i geologicheskoy istorii devona Volgo-Uralĺskoy oblasti (New data on the stratigraphy and geological history of the Devonian of the Volga-Urals region, In: Neftegazonosnostĺ Uralo-Volzhskoy oblasti (Oil and gas potential of the Ural-Volga region), Moscow: Publ. of USSR AS, 1956, pp. 127ľ134.
5. Kiligina M.L., Stratigrafiya kamennougolĺnykh otlozheniy Tatarii (Stratigraphy of Carboniferous deposits of Tatarstan), In Neftegazonosnostĺ Uralo-Volzhskoy oblasti (Oil and gas potential of the Ural-Volga region), Moscow: Publ. of USSR AS, 1956.
6. Markovskiy N.I., On the paleogeography of the Lower Visean time in the areas of the Middle Volga and trans-Volga region (In Russ.), DAN SSSR, 1955, V. 104, no. 4.
7. SHaronov L.V., On the comparison of the Yasnaya Polyana deposits of Tataria and some other territories (In Russ.), Tatarskaya neftĺ, 1957, no. 3, pp. 37ľ41.
8. Grachevskiy M.M., Dolitskiy V.A., Proiskhozhdeniye Kamsko-Kinelĺskoy vpadiny (Origin of the Kamsko-Kinel Basin), In: Materialy po regionalĺnoy tektonike SSSR (Materials on regional tectonics of the USSR), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1964.
9. Mirchink M.F., KHachatryan R.O., Mkrtchyan O.M., Tektonika i proiskhozhdeniye Kamsko-Kinelĺskoy sistemy progibov (Tectonics and the origin of the Kamsko-Kinelsky system of deflections), In: Voprosy tektoniki neftegazonosnykh oblastey (Issues of tectonics of oil and gas bearing areas), Moscow: Publ. of USSR AS, 1962, pp. 86ľ101.
10. Valeyev R.N., Tektonika Vyatsko-Kamskogo mezhdurechĺya (Tectonics of the Vyatka-Kama interfluve), Proceedings of KGI, 1968, V. 12, pp. 4ľ109.
11. Sokolova T.N., Faktory, opredelyayushchiye usloviya sedimentatsii otlozheniy achimovskoy tolshchi Zapadnoy Sibiri (Factors determining the sedimentation conditions of the deposits of the Achimov strata of Western Siberia), Collected papers ôPrognoz mestorozhdeniy nefti i gazaö (Forecast of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIGNI, 1989, pp. 135-142.
12. Egorov P.S., O dizöyunktivnom kharaktere dislokatsii nizhnego Prikamĺya (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1963, no. 8, pp. 45ľ50.
13. Aleksandrov A.A., Surovikov E.YA., Sanarov S.V., Danilov B.A., Izucheniye radayevsko-bobrikovskikh plastov-kollektorov Dmitriyevskogo mestorozhdeniya nefti v svyazi s predstavleniyami o klinoformnom stroyenii terrigennoy tolshchi nizhnego karbona (The study of the Radaevsko-Bobrikov reservoirs of the Dmitrievsky oil field in connection with the views on the clinoform structure of the terrigenous sequence of the Lower Carboniferous), Moscow: Publ. of IGiRGI, 1995, 40 p.
14. Sanarov S.V., Sivkov N.R., Danilov B.A., Razrabotka geologicheskoy i seysmorazvedochnykh osnov poiskov zalezhey nefti v klinoformnykh lovushkakh terrigennoy tolshchi nizhnego karbona v zone yugo-zapadnogo borta Mukhano-Erokhovskoy vpadiny (Development of a geological and seismic basis for the search for oil deposits in the clinoform traps of the terrigenous sequence of the Lower Carboniferous in the zone of the southwestern side of the Mukhano-Erokhiv depression), Moscow: Publ. of IGiRGI, 1997, 211 p.15. Gutman I.S., Korrelyatsiya razrezov skvazhin slozhnopostroyennykh neftegazonosnykh oböyektov na osnove innovatsionnykh tekhnologiy (Well log correlation for complex oil and gas bearing objects on the basis of innovative technologies), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2011, 116 p.Ôü
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The article presents the results of studying the role of rocks fracturing in the formation and spatial distribution of hydrocarbon deposits in the North-Western Caspian Sea. A comprehensive study of the features of the rocks internal structure, their spatial oil saturation and the relationships between them has been carried out. As a source data, a large amount of core material and the latest information on the geological structure, oil and gas content and geodynamic development of the territory at the final stage of geological history were used.
The leading role of differently oriented zones of increased early age fracturing (two young generations) in the formation and spatial distribution of hydrocarbon deposits in this water area has been established. It is noted that a special role is played by a horizontally oriented complex (multi-stage) zone of increased fracturing, regionally developed in the earth's crust in the interval of thicknesses of rocks of the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age. It is established that this large zone of low-amplitude disjunctive dislocations controls the range of regional oil and gas content of the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sediments, as well as the selective (through the section) oil saturation of rocks within productive layers. It is determined that the non-uniform (up to thin-layered) character of the oil saturation of contemporaneous rocks within the limits of one productive horizon (layer) does not have a direct connection with the lithologic-petrophysical characteristics of rocks, and is always associated with the presence of a horizontal oil-saturated fracture network in them.
The early age and the ongoing two-stage formation of hydrocarbon deposits within the water area of the North-Western Caspian are justified. Conclusions and results are valid for all deposits in the North-Western Caspian Sea. The obtained results can also be used for carrying out of prospecting and exploration in other regions (onshore and offshore), where zones of high fracturing are the primary exploration targets.
1. Agzyamov K.G., Bagov L.S., Makhonin M.V., Paleotektonicheskiy analiz podnyatiy Khvalynskoe i ô170 kmö (Paleotectonic analysis of Khvalynske and 170 km upheavals), Collected papers ôGeologiya, burenie i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Prikaspiya i Kaspiyskogo moryaö (Geology, drilling and development of oil deposits of the Caspian Sea and the Caspian Sea), 2003, V. 61, pp. 132ľ136.
2. Bayukanskiy Yu.F., Noveyshaya tektonika i neftegazonosnostĺ rossiyskogo sektora Severnogo i Srednego Kaspiya (The newest tectonics and oil and gas potential of the Russian sector of the Northern and Middle Caspian): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2007.
3. Kasĺyanova N.A., Vliyanie sovremennoy geodinamiki na neftegazonosnostĺ Kavkazsko-Skifskogo regiona (Influence of modern geodynamics on the oil and gas content of the Caucasus-Scythian region), Moscow: Geoinformmark Publ., 1995, 55 p.
4. Kasĺyanova N.A., New concept for the structure and formation of the North Caspian Rakushechno-Shirotnyi swell (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2017, no. 1, pp. 24ľ31.
5. Ostroukhov S.B., Bochkarev V.A., Vorontsov R.A. et al., Nekotorye aspekty formirovaniya zalezhey uglevodorodov mestorozhdeniya im. V.P. Filanovskogo (Some aspects of the formation of hydrocarbon deposits of the V.P. Filanovsky), Collected papers ôVoprosy osvoeniya neftegazonosnykh basseynovö (The issues of development of oil and gas basins), 2008, V. 67, 74 p.Ôü
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To date, in regions with a high degree of exploration maturity, the issue of prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbon deposits is relevant with a more detailed account of the accumulated data. In the context of increasing search for the oil and gas field on the territory of the Perm region, the creation of more advanced models for forecasting the oil and gas potential of local small-size structures is gaining more and more economic importance. The territories have accumulated a certain amount of actual material on local structures both containing hydrocarbon deposits, and on those structures where exploratory drilling is carried out, but hydrocarbon deposits are not open. This statistical material develops a forecasting methodology for oil and gas bearing by constructing probabilistic statistical models not only according to the traditional criteria for forecasting oil and gas, but also on new criteria. In the opinion of the authors, with the use of additional characteristics that take into account the significant complexity of the structure of oil and gas traps, it is possible to solve the forecast problem of oil and gas content more correctly. With the help of the analysis of indicators, those that actually form the oil and gas potential of the structures will be quantified. Based on the results of calculations, probabilistic complex models of oil and gas potential prospects of productive deposits of the Perm Territory will be constructed. With their help, one can assess the prospects of oil and gas content of prepared and identified small-sized uplifts. Note that according to these models, it is possible to rank the prepared and identified structures in terms of the degree of oil and gas potential. Thus, the completed evaluation of the fund of local structures allows to rank the structures according to the degree of their prospects, to single out the priority objects under deep drilling, which will increase the geological and economic efficiency of deep oil exploration drilling.
1. Putilov I.S., Galkin V.I., Developing the technology for probabilistic and statistical forecast of oil-and-gas-bearing capacity of the South Perm Region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 26ľ29.
2. Galkin V.I., Rastegaev A.V., Galkin S.V., Veroyatnostno-statisticheskaya otsenka neftegazonosnosti lokal'nykh struktur (Probabilistic and statistical evaluation of oil and gas potential of local structures), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of UB of RAS, 2001, 277 p.
3. Galkin V.I., Rastegaev A.V., Galkin S.V., Voevodkin V.L., Determination of potentially oil bearing areas by behavioristical method by the example of Perm Region (Krai) (In Russ.), Nauka Proizvodstvu, 2006, no. 1, pp. 1ľ5.
4. Galkin V.I., Krivoshchekov S.N., Substantiation of the directions of prospecting oil and gas fields in the Perm Krai (In Russ.), Nauchnye issledovaniya i innovatsii, 2009, V. 3, no. 4, pp. 3ľ7.
5. Putilov I.S., Galkin V.I., The results of statistical analysis for study fades characterization of T-Fm stage of Sibirskoe oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 9, pp. 112ľ114.
6. Krivoshchekov S.N., Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Determination of potentially oil bearing areas by behavioristical method by the example of Perm Region (Krai) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 4, pp. 7ľ14.
7. Melkishev O.A., Krivoshchekov S.N., Stochastic evaluation of oil resources forecast on the stage of geological exploration work (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 4, pp. 33ľ40.
8. Putilov I.S., Technological innovation for polivariation collector prognostication on the basis 3D seismic exploration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 3, pp. 50ľ53. Ôü
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Drilling-in oil and gas producing horizons involves contamination of the bottomhole formation zone with various solid fractions, as well as mud filtrate. Conventional process operations sometimes result in reservoir properties deterioration, a significant increase in exploration cost, and loss of time. These factors and a number of other ones deeply affect well construction workmanship in the abnormal thermobaric conditions of clay-bearing rocks.
Accident-free and complication-free drilling-in oil and gas producing horizons closely depends on the correct selection of the blend composition, structural-mechanical properties and colloid-chemical properties of the chemicals and chemical base drilling muds, as well as technological fluids. New technological solutions aimed at property regulation of the above systems are proposed. In particular, an analysis of state-of-the-art problems in the area of development and implementation of chemicals and chemical base drilling muds for abnormally high and low reservoir pressures was conducted. New ecologically sound and cost-effective reagents and drilling fluids on their basis, process liquids, lubricating compositions have been developed and tested based on the proposed methodological approach. Performance capabilities of nanotechnology were used at the development stages. Especially, for preserving reservoir properties in the process of drilling and development of productive layers, a composite weighting agent has been developed to replace barite, as well as a tannin agent that allows to regulate the rheological properties of drilling fluids, both in mineralized and highly mineralized dispersion media, perforating liquid compositions with surface-active properties, a nanostructured composition to regulate tribotechnological parameters of drilling fluids.
At present, the developed composition is successfully used in the process of well drilling in Azerbaijan.
1. Jagafarov A.I., Nohrin A.F., Analysis of the quality of the sompletion of a well based on the test results during drilling (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftjanyh i gazovyh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 1999, no. 4ľ5, pp. 45ľ47.
2. Janyshev L., Perspective drilling fluid systems for sompletion of a well (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2005, no. 10, pp. 28ľ29.
3. Dupriest F.E., Smith M.V., Zeilinger S.C., Shoykhet N.I., New method éliminâtes lost returns, World oil, Neftegazovye tehnologii, 2008, V. 229, no. 10.
4. Furlow W., New downhole fluids further improve recovery, Offshore. Int. Ed., 1998, no. 8, pp. 94, 96, 134.
5. Hallman John H., Formates in practice: field use and reclamation, World Oil, 1996, V. 217, no. 10, pp. 81-89.
6. Grjaznov I.V., Konovalov E.A., Ivanov Ju.A., Izjumskij V.P., Raw materials extention to produce chemical reagents required for bore holes construction (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftjanyh i gazovyh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2010, no. 9, pp. 33ľ37, 55, 57.
7. Kister E.G., Khimicheskaya obrabotka burovykh rastvorov (Chemical treatment of drilling fluids), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1972, 392 p.
8. Miskarli A.K., Kolloidnaja himija promyvochnyh glinistyh suspenzij (Colloid chemistry of sludge), Baku: Azerneshr Publ., 1963, 217 p.9. Patent no. 2567574, Reagent preparation method for chemical treatment of drill mud, Inventors: Kjazimov Je.A., Aliev N.M., Bajramova Sh.S., Sulejmanov A.B.Ôü
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The problem of reservoir fluid migration through oil- and water- impermeable layers has not been completely resolved yet. A variety of different models is proposed to explain this process of oil migration from oil-source rocks. Migration through the impermeable layers occurs due to two main mechanisms: through the discontinuities of the medium (along fractures and faults) and through the continuous medium itself (multiphase filtration through the pore space). Remarkably enough there are no satisfactory mathematical models that describe these mechanisms of the migration process through the impermeable layers.
The article focuses on the problem of mathematical and numerical description of the fluid migration process through the impermeable layers along the fractures induced by hydraulic fracturing. The mechanism of hydraulic fracture vertical growth due to buoyancy forces is considered as minimum closure stress gradient in the reservoir exceeds pressure gradient of the fluid induced by gravity.
This paper presents the following results. We present a closed integral-differential equation system describing the fluid flow through the impermeable layer (fluid stop) in the presence of fractures. We show that for the typical geological parameters with fracture height over 20 meters, the fluid flow is determined by the buoyancy forces and described by a simple transport equation. We describe the mechanism of fracture break through the permeable layer. It is shown that fracture grows slower in the permeable area. Even if fracture breaks through into an upper impermeable layer, it grows slower than in the absence of a permeable area. This mechanism may describe the transfer of oil from source rock into a series of permeable layers.
The authors believe this mechanism of liquid filtration through impermeable seals along hydraulic fractures may play a major role in oil and gas deposits formation process.
1. Tissot B.P., Welte D.H., Petroleum formation and occurrence, Springer-Verlag Telos, 1984, 699 p.
2. Gol'dberg V.M., Skvortsov N.P., Pronitsaemost' i fil'tratsiya v glinakh (The permeability and filtration in clays), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 160 p.
3. Zheltov YU.P., Khristianovich S.A., On hydraulic fracturing of oil reservoir (In Russ.), Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR, 1955, no. 5, pp. 3ľ41.
4. Nordgren R., Propagation of a vertical hydraulic fracture, SPE 3009-PA, 1972.
5. Jin Z.H., Johnson S., Primary oil migration through buoyancy-driven multiple fracture propagation: Oil velocity and flux, Geophysical Research Letters, 2008, V. 35, L09303, DOI:10.1029/2008GL033645
6. Roper S., Lister J., Buoyancy-driven crack propagation from an over-pressured source, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2005, V. 536, pp. 79ľ98.
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8. Watanabe T., Masuyama T., Nagaoka K., Tahara T., Analog experiments on magma-filled cracks: Competition between external stresses and internal pressure, Earth, Planets and Space, 2014, V. 54, pp. 1247ľ1261
9. Le Corvec N., Menand T., Lindsay J., Interaction of ascending magma with pre‐existing crustal fractures in monogenetic basaltic volcanism: an experimental approach, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2013, V. 118, no. 3, pp. 968ľ984.
10. Muskhelishvili N.I., Nekotorye osnovnye zadachi matematicheskoy teorii uprugosti (Some basic problems of the mathematical theory of elasticity), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1966, 709 p. Ôü
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In recent decades, complex-architecture wells have been extensively substituted for vertical wells. Slanted, horizontal, multilateral horizontal wells, fractured horizontal wells hold much promise as regards improvement of tight reservoirsĺ performance and increase of final oil recovery. In this connection, a great number of equations describing steady-state and unsteady-state flows in such wells have been offered by different authors, but, most regrettably, flow formulae for these wells can only be obtained in particular cases given of idealization of flow. Besides, a great number of different flow equations for horizontal wells in contrast to the only Dupuit equation for vertical wells cannot but testify to a low level of solution to this problem.
The previous papers discussed an alternative approach to describe fluid flow in complex-architecture horizontal wells. This approach involved a set of closely spaced nodes (vertical wells) and pseudo-skin effect for horizontal wells differentiating between flow to fracture and flow to horizontal wellbore. However, complete solution can only be obtained by representing a wellbore by a set of closely spaces spheres. One of the challenges of the solution to the problem is that in order to take into account the effect of impermeable formation tops and bottoms, summation from minus to plus infinity is necessary. Because of that, the solution is not infrequently simplified; furthermore, the known equations do not consider interference of spheres. These drawbacks have been duly considered, and a calculation algorithm has been worked out, as well as an external program to Saphir to determine steady-state and unsteady-state flows to wellbore(s), no matter how complex its architecture, not involving finite-difference methods. This method not only considers different well types, it also considers the limited entry completions. The calculation algorithm tested for particular cases for horizontal and vertical wells demonstrated high extent of matching with modeled PBU calculated in Saphir. It is noteworthy that it is incomparably faster than numerical solution methods.
The offered method to describe steady- and unsteady-state flows to complex-architecture wellbores using the spherical flowing approach enabled (a) to replace a great number of formulae applicable to particular cases, (b) to describe flow and PUB for wells with no analytic formulae, and (c) to select the most effective well drainage architecture considering reservoir characteristics, operational and technological aspects, etc.
1. Iktisanov V.A., Gidrodinamicheskie issledovaniya i modelirovanie mnogostvolĺnykh gorizontalĺnykh skvazhin (Hydrodynamic studies and modeling of multilateral horizontal wells), Kazanĺ: Pluton Publ., 2007, 124 p.
2. Iktisanov V.A., Pressure transient analysis and simulation of nonconventional wells (In Russ.), SPE 133477, 2010.
3. Iktisanov V.A., Fluid flom pattern towards horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2017, no. 1, pp. 95-126. ľ http://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/2e67f9_40a056e73d114e52a9fccded0bbbebbe.pdf.
4. Borisov Yu.P., Pilatovskiy V.P., Tabakov V.P., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s gorizontalĺnymi i mnogozaboynymi skvazhinami (Development of oil fields using horizontal and multilateral wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1964, 364 p.
5. Butler R.M., Horizontal wells for the recovery of oil, gas and bitumen, Calgary: Petroleum Society, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy & Petroleum, 1994, 228 p.
6. Ozkan E, Raghavan R., New solutions for well test analysis problems: Part 1. Analytical considerations, SPE 18615-MS, 1991.
7. Domanyuk F.N., Zolotukhin A.B., Productivity estimation of the well with straight-line profile in anisotropic reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 5, pp. 92ľ95.8. Domanyuk F.N., Razrabotka analiticheskikh metodov prognozirovaniya proizvoditelĺnosti gorizontalĺnykh i slozhnoprofilĺnykh skvazhin (Development of analytical methods for forecasting the productivity of horizontal wells and wells with compound section): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2012.Ôü
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Statistical methods for data and displacement characteristics analysis co-application can be used as an effective tool for the prediction of an oil production in the conditions of a low descriptiveness of geological characteristics of oil reservoirs and physical properties of oil. A systematic literature review showed that the development of the algorithm to determine displacement characteristics is an actual problem.
In order to solve the mentioned problem, the algorithm based on regression methods, prediction methods, optimization methods, and ranking methods was proposed. The used wells stock is formed by the exclusion of wells where workover actions were performed either to increase the inflow rate, or to obtain an influx from an inactive well, or to obtain an influx from a new well, or to change an influx structure from the active wells stock by the last monthly production report date.
The algorithm for the determination of displacement characteristics was tested on oil fields of Bashneft PJSOC. As the result, 162 displacement characteristics of oil fields were determined. The quality of displacement characteristics was defined by the adequacy criteria and accuracy criteria. Using determined displacement characteristics, the median of the module of the mean deviation of the estimated oil production rate from the real one was 7.85% during the retrospective period.
Based on the test results, the proposed algorithm is confirmed to be sustainable and resultative and can be applied to predict base oil production in oil companies.
1. Garifullin A.Sh., Kurmakaeva S.A., Rodin V.I., Ispolĺzovanie empiricheskikh zavisimostey pri proektirovanii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy Krasnokholmskoy gruppy (The use of empirical dependencies in the design of the Krasnokholmskoye field development), Collected papers ôProblemy geologii i razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v rayonakh s istoshchayushchimisya resursamiö (Problems of geology and development of oil fields in areas with depleting resources), 1989, pp. 81ľ86.
2. Maksimov M.I., The method for calculating recoverable oil in the final stage of exploitation of oil reservoirs under oil displacement by water (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1959, no. 3, pp. 42ľ47.
3. Nazarov S.N., Sipachev N.V., Technique of forecasting technological indicators at the late stage of development of oil deposits (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neftĺ i gaz, 1972, no. 10, pp. 41ľ46.
4. Sazonov B.F., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy pri vodonapornom rezhime (Perfection of technology of development of oil deposits at a water-pressure mode), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1973, 238 p.
5. Pirverdyan A.M., Nikitin P.I., Listengarten L.B., Danelyan M.G., On the forecast of oil and associated water production in the development of bedded heterogeneous reservoirs (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 1970, no. 11, pp. 19ľ22.
6. Kambarov G.S., Almamedov D. G., Makhmudova T.Yu., Determining the initial recoverable reserves of oilfield (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 1974, no. 3, pp. 22ľ24.
7. Garifullin A.Sh., Salakhov R.T., Sovremennyy metod otsenki potentsialĺnoy nefteotdachi ob╗ekta razrabotki pri vytesnenii nefti vodoy (A modern method for assessing the potential oil recovery of a development facility when oil is displaced by water), Collected papers ôNoveyshie issledovaniya v neftyanoy geologii, modelirovanii, razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy i dobyche neftiö (The latest research in oil geology, modeling, development of oil fields and oil production), 2011, pp. 128ľ135.
8. Kostrigin I.V., Mukhamedshin R.K., Zagurenko T.G., Khatmullin I.F., Rukovodstvo polĺzovatelya po modulyu Zapasy programmnogo kompleksa RN-KIN (Userĺs Guide to the module Expected Reservesof the RN-KIN software package), Moscow: Publ. of Rosneft Oil Company, 2011.
9. Garb F.A., Calculations of the dynamics of production decline according to the data of the water cut in the extracted products (In Russ.), Inzhener-neftyanik, 1978, no. 7, pp. 21ľ25.
10. Rumshinskiy L.Z., Matematicheskaya obrabotka rezulĺtatov eksperimenta (Mathematical processing of experimental results), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1971, 192 p.
11. Sukharev A.G., Timokhov A.V., Fedorov V.V., Kurs metodov optimizatsii (Course of optimization methods), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1986, 328 p.
12. Shelobaev S.I., Matematicheskie metody i modeli (Mathematical methods and models), Moscow: Publ. of YuNITI, 2000, 367 p.
13. Dixon W. J., Massey F.J. Jr., Introduction to statistical analysis, New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill, 1957.
14. Regenwetter M., Grofman B., Approval voting, Borda winners, and Condorcet winners: Evidence from seven elections, Management Science, 1998, V. 44, no. 4, pp. 520ľ533.
15. Panchenko T.V., Geneticheskie algoritmy (Genetic algorithms), Astrakhanĺ: Publ. of Astrakhanskiy universitet, 2007, 87 p.
16. Rogers D.F., Adams J.A., Mathematical elements for computer graphics, McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY, USA, 1990, 604 p.
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Traditional methods for increasing oil recovery for deposits of high-viscosity oil and heavy oil are aimed at reducing the viscosity of oil and increasing its mobility through the use of methods based on heat injection into the reservoir. In some cases, thermal methods do not show a good result, for example, for thin-bedded or deep-seated formations. Currently, specialists use chemical methods for stimulating the formation as the most commonly used means of increasing the efficiency of the oil field development process. One of the most commonly used chemical methods is polymer flooding. Traditionally, the economically advantageous area of application of this method is: 1) a high mobility ratio in the case of classical water flooding, 2) high heterogeneity of the formation, 3) a combination of these factors. In these cases, polymers can be injected both in the form of conventional polymer solutions and in the form of polymer systems crosslinked in formation, in order to increase the oil recovery due to the thickening of the displacing fluid or the reduction of phase permeability along it, as well as by puncturing the zones of increased permeability. Classical polymer flooding involves the injection of a large-sized rim polymer solution to reduce the mobility ratio. It is very important in the design of polymer flooding to find a rational concentration of polymer (substance) in the polymer solution, to determine the viscosity of the polymer solution, the size of its rim, the injection regime, etc. In this article, the authors considered in detail such a parameter as the viscosity of a polymer solution, and also proposed an express method for determining its rational value.
1. Lake L.W., Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery, The University of Texas at Austin, 2005, URL: http://www.txessarchive.org/documents/J_EOR_ppt.pdf.
2. Huh C., Pope G.A., Residual oil saturation from polymer floods: Laboratory measurements and theoretical interpretation, SPE 113417, 2008.
3. Gao S.H., Scientific research and field applications of polymer flooding in heavy oil recovery, J Petrol Explor Prod Technol, 2011.
4. Carcoana A., Applied enhanced oil recovery, USA: Prentice-Hall, 1992, 152 p.
5. Taber J.J., Martin F.D., Seright R.S., EOR screening criteria revisited, Part 1: Introduction to screening criteria and enhanced recovery field projects, SPE 35385-PA, 1997, August.
6. Saboorian-Jooybari H., Dejam M., Chen Z., Half-century of heavy oil polymer flooding from laboratory core floods to pilot tests and field applications, SPE 174402-MS, 2015.
7. SNF FLOERGER ôSituatsiya s polimernymi MUN v mireö (The situation with polymer EOR in the world), Moscow, 2012. ľ http://gubkin.ru/upload/ iblock/45b/SNF_Presentation_şMoscow_Sept_2012_ru.pdf
8. Mogollon J., Lokhandwala T., Rejuvenating viscous oil reservoirs by polymer flooding: Lessons learned in the field, SPE 165275, 2013.
9. Delamaide E., Bazin B., Rousseau D., Chemical EOR for heavy oil: the Canadian experience, SPE 169715-MS, 2014.
10. Wang J., Dong M., A laboratory study of polymer flooding for improving heavy oil recovery, Paper PETSOC-2007-178 presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2007, 12ľ14 June.
11. Wang J., Dong M., Optimum effective viscosity of polymer solution for improving heavy oil recovery, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2009, V. 67(3-4), pp. 155ľ158.
12. Telkov V.P., A new vision of polymer flooding as method of high-viscous oil displacement, Proceedings of X International Scientific and Technical Conference ôGEOPETROL 2016ö, Krakov: Oil and Gas Institute, 2016, pp. 383ľ389.
13. Telkov V.P., Kim S.V., Sharafiddinov KH.S., Alali V., Novyye vozmozhnosti ispolĺzovaniya polimernogo zavodneniya kak metoda vytesneniya vysokovyazkoy nefti (New possibilities of using polymer flooding as a method of displacement of high-viscosity oil), Proceeding of XV International Conference ôResursovosproizvodyashchiye, malootkhodnyye i prirodookhrannyye tekhnologii osvoyeniya nedrö (Resource-reproducing, low-waste and nature protection technologies for the development of subsoil resources), Homs (Syria), 2016, pp. 133ľ136.14. Telkov V.P., Kim S.V., Mostadzheran M., Povysheniye effektivnosti vytesneniya vysokovyazkikh neftey polimernymi rastvorami (Increase in the efficiency of displacement of highly viscous oils by polymer solutions), Proceedings of XXI International Symposium named after Academician M.A. Usov of students and young scientists dedicated to the 130th anniversary of the birth of Professor M.I. Kuchina ôProblemy geologii i osvoyeniya nedrö (The problems of geology and mineral development), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2017, V. 2, pp. 148ľ150.Ôü
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The present paper contains the results showing the comparison of surface activity and oil-displacing abilities of the compositions recovered at the basis of petroleum sulfonates from the extracts of oily fraction selective cleaning as well as by petroleum sulfonates with dimeric structure, recovered while using the given type of raw material but in presence of a component providing the formation of di-sulfonic acids. The conducted studies have shown that the use of cross-linker in a process of hydrocarbon raw material sulfonating gives the formation of petroleum sulfonates with dimeric structure w/o the reduction in active component recovery. The authors have completed ratio test of petroleum sulfonate surface activity and have found that petroleum sulfonates containing surfactant with dimeric structure at the boundary between aqueous surfactant solutions - kerosene have lesser surface activity, but the figures of critical micelle concentration are significantly lower. The produced surfactant samples were used to mix-up the compositions for alkaline ľ surfactant polymer flooding. The results of filtration studies have shown that displacement factor of residual oil from recovered petroleum sulfonates (PS) with ordinary structure was equal to 46.3%, and the displacement factor of residual oil from PS with dimeric structure was equal to 67.5%. So, it was proved by the experiments that the use of PS containing the surfactants with dimeric structure increases the displacement efficiency of the residual oil (after flooding) and is a promising factor for the designing of the compositions used in physical and chemical reservoir treatment methods.
1. Lake L.W., Johns R., Rossen B., Pope G., Fundamentals of enhanced oil recovery, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014, 496 p.
2. Kelland M.A., Production chemicals for the oil and gas industry, Second Edition, CRC Press, 2014, 454 p.
3. Holmberg K., Jönsson B., Kronberg B., Lindman B., Surfactants and polymers in aqueous solution, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2002, 545 p.
4. Zana R., Novel surfactants: Preparation, applications and biodegradability, New York: M. Dekker Inc., 1998, 241 p.
5. Zana R., Dimeric and oligomeric surfactants. Behavior at interfaces and in aqueous solution: A review, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2002, V. 97, pp. 205ľ253.
6. Kamal Muhammad Shahzad, A review of gemini surfactants: Potential application in enhanced oil recovery, J. Surfact. Deterg., 2016, no. 19, pp. 223ľ236.
7. Gayle A.A., Somov V.E., Zaltshchevskiy G.D., Selektivnye rastvoriteli. Razdelenie i ochistka uglevodorodsoderzhashchego syr'ya (Selective solvents. Separation and purification of hydrocarbon-containing raw materials), St. Petersburg, Khimizdat Publ., 2008, 736 p.
8. Konovalov V.V., Sklyuev P.V., Babitskaya K.I. et al., Fractional analysis and surface activity of petroleum sulfonates synthesized by the extraction of oil distillates through a selective solvent (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 122ľ126.
9. Zhidkova M.V., Gorodnov V.P., Konovalov V.V., Study of effectiveness of oil-driving compositions on the base of petroleum sulphonates from oil cut solvent extraction extracts (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2017, no. 3, pp. 20ľ25.
10. Liu J. et. al., Preparation of surfactant for oil displacing refined from furfural extract oil, J. Petroleum Science and Technology, 2011, V. 29, pp. 1317ľ1323.
11. Konovalov V., Kirillov A., Shiryaev A., Sklyuev P., Synthesis surface activity, and composition of dimeric petroleum sulfonates from low quality hydrocarbon feedstock, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2016, V. 34, no. 22, pp. 1861ľ1865.12. Cullum D.C., Introduction to surfactant analysis, Springer Science & Business Media, 1994, pp. 105ľ147.Ôü
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In the recent years the number of oil and gas wells, in which hydrofracturing is carried out in order to increase productivity, grows all over the world. In the hydrofracturing process a system of cracks is formed through the action of high pressure on the formation, into which the granular material (proppant), designed to fix the cracks in the opened state after removal of the excess pressure, is transported. In this regard, the need arises to monitoring the work of wells with hydrofracturing in order to control the spontaneous release of proppant from the created fracture beyond the productive strata (into the water-saturated horizons) and to optimize the design of the hydrofracturing.
The traditional way of estimating inflows from well productive intervals with standard downhole logging does not allow uniquely determination of proppant backflow intervals. The article describes an effective technique for detecting solids backflow intervals using high-sensitivity broadband spectral noise logging. The method was tested in the slanted well with a known interval of possible proppant backflow, since the hydrofracturing was carried out selectively in a certain interval of the formation. The article presents the results of the study, indicating a good correlation between the intervals, in which the proppant backflow was assumed, and the signals, caused by solid particles impacts on the instrument body. To analyze the data and extract the proppant backflow zones, a neural network recognition system for such signals was used.
The obtained data were compared with the profile of fluid inflow from the formation, obtained with the help of an extended logging complex. The developed technique of recognition of sand production intervals together with determination of the fluid inflow profile will allow to qualitatively improve the design of the subsequent hydrofracturings on a deposit.
1. Maslennikova Y.S., Bochkarev V.V., Savinkov A.V., Davydov D.A., Spectral noise logging data processing technology, SPE 162081-MS, 2012, DOI:10.2118/162081-MS.
2. Ghalem S., Serry A.M., Al-felasi Ali et al., Innovative logging tool using noise log and high precision temperature help to diagnoses complex problems, SPE 161712-MS, 2012, DOI:10.2118/161712-MS.
3. McKinley R.M., Bower F.M., Rumble R.C., The structure and interpretation of noise from flow behind cemented casing, SPE 3999-PA, 1973, DOI:10.2118/3999-PA.
4. Aslanyan A., Wilson M., Al Shammakhy A., Aristov S., Evaluating injection performance with high-precision temperature logging and numerical temperature modelling, SPE 166007-MS, 2013, DOI:10.2118/166007-MS.5. Aslanyan A., Aslanyan I., Salamatin A., Karuzin A. et al., Numerical temperature modelling for quantitative analysis of low-compressible fluid production, SPE 172090-MS, 2014, DOI:10.2118/172090-MS.Ôü
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This article provides answers to a number of issues related to the prospect of a new type of vehicle, which is used a screw auger (screw-propelled vehicle). As the main purpose of the function is seen movement on the ice of the Arctic territories. The article assesses the potential market size of the vehicles. As potential target segments at the same time considered the company serves ice-resistant platform in the Arctic shelf. The functional purpose of the vehicles considered in three ways: rescue vehicles for drilling platforms in the Arctic shelf, the Okhotsk Sea and the Caspian Sea (the northern territories have similar to the Arctic ice conditions in winter); vehicles used to remove oil spills in ice conditions; research - research facilities in the Arctic. To estimate the potential market capacity of vehicles used an approach based on the method of chain indicator. Sources of information include: the investment projects of companies engaged in the development and exploitation of the Arctic offshore, infrastructure projects of laying oil and gas pipelines in remote areas with wetlands; the development strategy of the Arctic territories of the subjects of the Russian Federation, given the authorities' statistics, data consulting agencies, reports the Arctic marine geological expedition.
Investment projects analyzed in this study are distributed by geographic area: Russian part of the Arctic shelf of the Barents Sea (excluding the Pechora Sea); Pechora Sea (coastal sea in the south-eastern part of the Barents Sea between the islands of Vaigach and Kolguev); Karf Sea; Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea; Okhotsk Sea; the northern part of the Caspian Sea (this area during the winter characterized by the formation of ice and the broken ice).
1. Best practices in ecosystem-based ocean management in the Arctic, Tromso: Norsk Polarinstitutt/Norwegian Polar Institute Polar Environmental Centre, 2009, no. 129, 116 p.
2. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, World Oil Outlook, 2014.
3. Tavasszy L., Minderhoud M., Perrin J., Notteboom T., A strategic network choice model for global container flows: Specification estimation and application, Journal of Transport Geography, 2017, no. 19 (6), pp. 1163 ľ1172.
4. Bambulyak A., Frantzen B., Oil transport from the Russian part of the Barents Region. Status per January 2011, The Norwegian Barents Secretariat and Akvaplanniva, 2011, pp. 9ľ13.
5. Attanasi E.D., Freeman P.A., Survey of stranded gas and delivered costs to Europe of selected gas resources, SPE 130089-PA, 2011.
6. Aaker D.A., McLoughlin D., Strategic market management ľ Global perspectives, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2010, 368 p.
7. Molenaar E.J., Arctic marine shipping: overview of the international legal framework, gaps, and options, J. of Transnational Law & Policy, 2008, no. 18.2, pp. 289ľ325.Ôü
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
Many perspective technologies aimed at production of oil and gas at harsh conditions are not sufficiently developed due to problems with high pressure compressors. The main problem is absence of low-cost compressors and technologies capable of injecting gas without prior treatment. At the same time, there are jet compressors, capable of pumping gas without prior treatment, dehydration and with solids in a stream. However, it is necessary to develop new principles of gas compression with increasing efficiency of the work process in order to reach the jet compressor working pressure of 20 MPa. At Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas laboratories research studies aimed at development of efficient and low-cost ejector systems with implementation of cyclic working process at low frequencies are carried out. Using cyclic working regime allows increasing of efficiency of compressing technologies. Based on unification advantages it is important to develop low-cost compressing technology utilizing produced ejectors, pumps and separation equipment. At the current stage of studies, the main goal is reached: new gas compressing principles using ejector systems are developed. Further studies deal with solving optimization problems and development of mathematical models in order to substitute real experiments with simulations.
1. Sazonov Yu.A., Osnovy rascheta i konstruirovaniya nasosno-ezhektornykh ustanovok (Basics of calculation and design of pump-ejector systems), Moscow: Neftĺ i gaz, 2012, 305 p.
2. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Ejector system development for hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbon reserves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 110ľ112, DOI: 10.24887/0028ľ2448ľ2017ľ10ľ110ľ112.
3. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Prospects of application of two-chamber pump-compressor units for pumping of multiphase medium (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 137ľ139, DOI: 10.24887/0028ľ2448ľ2017ľ11ľ137ľ139.
4. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Development of jet-powered devices for energy effective oil and gas production technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 138ľ141, DOI: 10.24887/0028ľ2448ľ2017ľ12ľ138ľ141.
5. Drozdov A.N., Terikov B.A., Application of submerged jet pumps systems with dual-string lift for the sticky holes operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 6, pp. 68-72.
6. Orlov D.G., Terikov V.A., Drozdov A.N. et al., Field test of preproduction prototype of the packerless hydraulic jet pump with a double string in the Samotlor field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo. ľ 2003.- ╣ 11. ľ C. 20-24.
7. Patent no. 1538586 RF, M. kl. E 21 V 43/00, Method for gas injection into formation, Inventor: Mullaev B.T.-S.
8. Patent no. 2190760 RF, M. kl. E 21 V 43/20, Manner of water and gas treatment of formation, Inventors: Drozdov A.N., Fatkullin A.A.
9. Drozdov A.N., Egorov Yu.A., Telkov V.P. et al., Technology and technique of water-gas stimulation on oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 2, pp. 54-59.
10. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Laboratory researches of the heavy oil displacement from the Russkoye Fieldĺs core models at the SWAG injection and development of technological schemes of pump-ejecting systems for the water-gas mixtures delivering (In Russ.), SPE 157819, 2012.
11. Drozdov A.N., Stand investigations of ESPĺs and gas separatorĺs characteristics on gas-liquid mixtures with different values of free-gas volume, intake pressure, foaminess and viscosity of liquid (In Russ.), SPE 134198, 2010
12. Drozdov A.N., Investigations of the submersible pumps characteristics when gas-liquid mixtures delivering and application of the results for SWAG technologies development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no, 9, pp. 108-111.
13. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Simple solutions of complex swag injection problems (In Russ.), Burenie i neftĺ, 2017, no. 3, pp. 38-41.
14. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Increasing the oil recovery factor: Water-gas stimulation of the formation. Experience in the pump-ejector system operating and ways to water-gas stimulation technological improvements (In Russ.), Neftegaz.ru, 2017, no. 7, pp. 70-77.
15. Patent no. 2642198, Well equipment for processing the bottom zone of formation, Inventors: Dmitrievskiy A.N., Sazonov Yu.A.
16. Podvidz L.G., Nasosnye ustanovki impulĺsnogo deystviya (Impulse pumping plant), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1980, pp. 51ľ56.17. Patent no. 2154749. MPK 7 F04 D23/08, Method of and device for compressing and pumping over gases or gas-liquid mixtures, Inventors: Eliseev V.N., Yudin I.S., Sazonov Yu.A.Ôü
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The later stages of the development of many oil fields in the Russian Federation require the use of additional methods for increasing oil recovery, which leads to an increase in the content of the aqueous phase in the produced hydrocarbon products. Formation water, which is almost always present in the operation of oilfield facilities, provokes the development of major complications that lead to intensive corrosion of equipment in the stages of extraction, collection, preparation, transportation, processing and storage of oil. Corrosive aggressiveness of field fluids is caused by the presence of dissolved acid gases (CO2, O2 Ŕ H2S), abrasive particles, basic ions of salts (Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, SO42-, Cl-), water-soluble mineral and organic acids and bases, and the presence anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms whose metabolic products provoke biological corrosion of metal and biofouling. Analysis of statistical data on accidents and destruction of oilfield equipment has shown that corrosion of metal and contamination of transported raw materials by its products can be attributed to the main types of complications that considerably shorten the life of pipelines and technical systems. Studies have shown that the electric polarization of water-salt solutions allows localizing in their volume a region with a high content of hydroxyl ions, which, in the case of electrochemical corrosion, significantly alkalize cathodic sections of micro-galvanic elements, lead to the formation of stable corrosion products having sufficiently high continuity, and effectively protect the metal from self-dissolution. An increase in pH and a decrease in Eh in the polarization of water-salt solutions contribute to a significant reduction in the rate of corrosion of oil equipment (for example, in reservoir pressure maintenance systems, an average of 3.7 times). These parameters can be controlled by polarization of water-salt solutions with current strength at working electrodes of 2 A with the help of a specially designed unit UIS 1-50-4.0 1M.
1. Valyushok A.V., Vladimirov L.V., Zamyatin A.V., Goncharov A.V., Search of engineering solutions for berthing facilities corrosion protection (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, V. 7, no. 6, pp. 82ľ92.
2. Latypov O.R., Zashchita neftepromyslovogo oborudovaniya ot korrozii bezreagentnym metodom (Non-reagent method for protection of oilfield equipment against corrosion), Collected papers ôAktualĺnye problemy razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossiiö (Actual problems of development of the oil and gas complex in Russia), Proceedings of XI All-Russian scientific and technical conference, Moscow: Publ.of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2016, p. 284.
3. Latypov O.R., Bugai D.E., Boev E.V., Method of controlling electrochemical parameters of oil industry processing liquids, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 2015, V. 51, no. 3, pp. 283ľ285.
4. Damaskin B.B., Petriy O.A., Elektrokhimiya (Electrochemistry), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 2001, 624 p.
5. Latypov O.R., Reduction of salt deposits on the surface of oilfield equipment by management of electrochemical parameters of the medium, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 2015, V. 51, no. 7, pp. 522ľ525.
Latypov O.R., Bugay D.E., Boev E.V., Method of controlling electrochemical parameters of oil industry processing liquids (In Russ.), Khimicheskoe i neftegazovoe mashinostroenie = Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 2015, no. 4, pp. 42ľ44.
6. Latypov O.R., Latypova D.R., Bugay D.E., Ryabukhina V.N., Features of the unit for the modification of technological liquids oilfield (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, V. 14, no. 3, pp. 66ľ71.
7. Latypov O.R., Stepanov D.V., Bugay D.E., Ibragimov I.G., Stand for change electrochemical parameters of thetechnological mediums (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2015, V. 13, no. 1, pp. 119ľ124.
8. Latypov O.R., Stepanov D.V., Bugay D.E., Calculation of device for controlling field medium electrochemical parameters (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 3 (101), pp. 52ľ58.
9. Patent no. 2546736 RF, MPK C02F 1/46, Control method of Ph value and Eh oxidation-reduction potential of process liquids of oil fields and device for its implementation, Inventors: Latypov O.R., Tyusenkov A.S., Laptev A.B., Bugay D.E.Ôü
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Technical complications that arose during the construction of underwater crossings of main pipelines by directional drilling method caused the need for a detailed study of the processes of the drilling tools. Breakage the drilling tool during the underreaming of the pilot well occurred as a result of fastening of the drilling tool and the fatigue failure of metal in the body of the drill pipes. This required the development of a simulation model of the stress-strain state of drill pipes near the reamer.
The article presents the design scheme of the structure, established dangerous cross-sections and determining the effect of bending stresses on the strength of the section of the drill string. The coefficients of safety margin and endurance limit of the pipes material are determined.
The performed work allowed to form limitations on the application of technologies for underreaming the pilot wells to the drilling rig ("on yourself") and from the drilling rig ("from itself"). On the basis of calculations conclusions are drawn that if it is necessary to carry out operation of underreaming of a well by a method "from itself", there is no sufficient resource of work of a drill string in the course of underreaming. The most preferred method is to expand "on yourself", in the process of which the magnitude of the stresses in the dangerous cross-section become much smaller. For dangerous cross-section in the layout of the drill tool, the critical operation time of drill pipes is determined, at loads implemented in practice. For drill pipes operating in the hazardous area, set the service life to 520 h at a rotational speed of 32 rpm and 300 h at a rotational speed of 56 rpm.
1. Vafin D.R., Komarov A.I., Shatalov D.A., Zemlyanoy A.A., Controlling the stability of non-cemented grounds during construction of underwarer main pipeline crossings by directional drilling (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 64ľ71.
2. Vafin D.R., Sapsay A.N., Shatalov D.A., Technical and economic limits to the application of the horizontal direction drilling method in the construction of underwater transitions of main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, V. 7, no. 3, pp. 66ľ73.
3. Spector Yu.I., Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Golofast S.L., Requisiti per incroci tecnologia di costruzione utilizzando trivellazione orizzontale, Italian Science Review, 2014, 12 (21), pp. 163ľ172, URL: http://www.ias-journal.org/archive/2014/december/Spector.pdf
4. Belyaev N.M., Soprotivlenie materialov (Strength of materials), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1965, 856 p.
5. Kogaev V.P., Raschety na prochnostĺ pri napryazheniyakh, peremennykh vo vremeni (Calculations for strength at voltages, variables in time), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1977, 232 p.
6. Kogaev V.P., Makhutov N.A., Gusenkov A.P., Raschety detaley mashin i konstruktsiy na prochnostĺ i dolgovechnostĺ (Calculations of machine parts and structures for strength and durability), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1985, 224 p.
7. Khazhinskiy G.M., Osnovy raschetov na ustalostĺ i dlitelĺnuyu prochnostĺ (Basics of fatigue and long-term strength calculations), Moscow: LENAND Publ., 2016, 168 p.
8. PNAE G-7-008-89. Normy rascheta na prochnostĺ elementov reaktorov, parogeneratorov, sosudov i truboprovodov atomnykh elektrostantsiy, opytnykh i issledovatelĺskikh yadernykh reaktorov i ustanovok (Rules for arrangement and safe operation of equipment and piping of nuclear power installations), Moscow: Metallurgiya Publ., 1973, 408 p.
9. Truby neftyanogo sortamenta (Pipes of oil assortment): edited by Saroyan A.E., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 504 p.Ôü
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Article is devoted to project management experience for the development and implementation of the corporate hydraulic fracturing simulator aimed at improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing technology and providing technological independence in the field of engineering software for the design of hydraulic fracturing. It is shown that the following solutions were used to develop a physically adequate model of the fracturing process: the application of the Planar3D-concept to describe the fracture geometry; fully-coupled fully-implicit solution for the elasticity and hydrodynamics; proppant transport solution for each of the pumped proppants, taking into account the rheological properties of the fracturing fluid, the gravitational settling / floating of the proppant, the proppant slowing / acceleration due to interaction with the fracture walls and between the proppant particles.
To keep the high pace of the project implementation, the following organizational solutions proved effective at the software development stage: quick release of the working beta version, the presence of the active pilot test group, bug and tasks tracking system, daily assembly of the new software version, regular distribution of the new software version to the pilot group testing, the constant ranking of planned and unplanned tasks, the start of user training at the beta stage, the constant benchmarking and increasing the productivity of the calculation core. It is noted that the choice of a solid calculation core without separation into program elements for individual physical processes allows to methodically and organizationally concentrate efforts to optimize the core and increase its productivity, which is critical for numerical grid simulation of the fracturing based on Planar3D-concept.
1. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 35ľ40.
2. Adachi J., Siebrits E., Peirce A., Desroches J., Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures, International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 2007, V. 44, no. 5, pp. 739ľ757.Ôü
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Production of oil and gas, at the mature stage of field development, is accompanied by extraction of ground water to the surface, which leads to an increase in the intensity of complications, including scaling. Oil companies use various methods to deal with complications, the effectiveness of which, in most cases, depends on the chemical composition of the water. The justified choice of technology for combating complications requires laboratory and pilot studies to determine the chemical composition of water, as well as the effectiveness of the technology in relation to current operating conditions. Reduction of the required number of studies is of undoubted practical interest.
One way to reduce the number of studies is to generalize the objects of research within the groups on the basis of their proximity to the totality of characteristics, the solution of such a problem is to solve the clustering problem. In the article, the solution of the clustering problem is realized by the joint use of methods to reduce the dimension of the source space of features describing the object of research and establishing dominant relationships within the data with the subsequent application of clustering algorithms to the obtained representation of the initial data.
The proposed calculation method was applied at the facilities of Bashneft Company. Depending on the chemical composition of the reservoir waters, samples are pooled into groups. The description of both qualitative and quantitative properties of samples of formation water was carried out on the basis of calculating the intensity of scaling, for each of the clusters obtained, according to the Oddo ľ Thomson method. The main practical value of the proposed methodology is the possibility of its application to the solution of the problem of optimizing the number of laboratory and pilot-field tests of oil production reagents at facilities allocated to clusters.
Further development of the proposed methodology assumes an increase in the dimension of the initial data and a search for such a representation space that provides a scientific and technical justification for testing oilfield reagents at existing and new oil production facilities. Among promising methods that require an assessment of the applicability to the problems being solved, the following can be distinguished: the problem of clustering-autocoders, Markov chains; the task of describing the properties of formation water is the Pitzer method.
1. Bouhlel J., Bouveresse D.J.-R. et al., Comparison of common components analysis with principal components analysis and independent components analysis: Application to SPMEľGCľMS volatolomic signatures, Talanta, 2018, V. 178, no. 1, February, pp. 854ľ863.
2. Marghade D., Malpe D.B., Subba Rao N., Identification of controlling processes of groundwater quality in a developing urban area using principal component analysis, Environmental Earth Sciences, 2015, V. 74(7), pp. 5919ľ5933.
3. Agarwal A., Maheswaran R., Kurths J., Khosa R., Wavelet Spectrum and selfľorganizing mapsľbased approach for hydrologic regionalization ľ a case study in the western United States, Water Resources Management, 2016, V. 30(12), pp. 4399ľ4413.
4. Ley R., Casper M.C., Hellebrand H., Merz R., Catchment classification by runoff behaviour with selfľorganizing maps (SOM), Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2011, V. 15(9), pp. 2947ľ2962.
5. Chang F.J., Chang L.C., Huang C.W., Kao I.F., Prediction of monthly regional groundwater levels through hybrid softľcomputing techniques, Journal of Hydrology, 2016, V. 541, pp. 965ľ976.
6. Haga J., Siekkinen J., Sundvik D., Initial stage clustering when estimating accounting quality measures with selfľorganizing maps, Expert Systems with Applications, 2015, V. 42, no. 21, pp. 8327ľ8336.
7. García H.L., González I.M., Selfľorganizing map and clustering for wastewater treatment monitoring, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2004, V. 17(3), pp. 215ľ225.
8. Hentati A., Kawamura A., Amaguchi H., Iseri Y., Evaluation of sedimentation vulnerability at small hillside reservoirs in the semi-arid region of Tunisia using the selfľorganizing map, Geomorphology, 2010, V. 122(1ľ2), pp. 56ľ64.
9. Kriegel H.-P., Schubert E., Zimek A., The (black) art of runtime evaluation: Are we comparing algorithms or implementations, Knowledge and Information Systems, 2016, V. 52, pp. 341ľ378.
10. Halim Z., Waqas M., Efficient clustering of large uncertain graphs using neighborhood information, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 2017, V. 90, November, pp. 274ľ291.
11. De Amorim R.C., Feature relevance in Wardĺs hierarchical clustering using the Lp norm, Journal of Classification, 2015, V. 32(1), pp. 46ľ62.
12. Domokos E.-K., Bálint C., Definition of user groups applying Wardĺs method, Transportation Research Procedia, 2017, V. 22, pp. 25ľ34.
13. Moosavi V., Pre-specific modeling: Diss., Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, no. 22683, 2015.
14. Oddo J.E., Tomson M.B., Why scale forms and how to predict it, SPE 21710-PA, 1994.15. Zahedzadeh M., Karambeigi M.S. et al., Comprehensive management of mineral scale deposition in carbonate oil fields ľ A case study, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2014, V. 92, no. 11, pp. 2264ľ2272.Ôü
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
The territory of business activities of Surgutneftegas JSC has long been located on the territory of Middle Ob. For more than 50 years history of oil extraction itsĺ supplies have merely exhausted. To support the stable oil extraction rate the company leads different projects, including the extraction in other regions such as Nenets autonomous district. Nowadays the company leads different oil supplies researches on some license areas in this region. Even this stage of the extraction changes the environment. Some components (such as the soils) are influenced only on the territories of the sites, but some (such as water resources) are influenced even far fr om the extraction territories due to the specific factors. Even small sites can change the geochemical condition of the environment and its appearance.
Surgutneftegas made a lot of different monitoring projects to lesser the influence on all the components of the nature. These researches are important because of the known exceeds of the lim it threshold concentration of different chemicals on all the new minefields of Russia. This is all because of the human and natural factors. The ecological monitoring helps preserving the environment from pollution and assists people to provide different modern protection measures oriented to minimize the damage and influence on the environment from the human activity.
Some of the results connected to the condition of Nenets autonomous district are presented below. The results of threshold analysis shows us that on the territory of Nenets autonomous districts there're some exceeds of the limited number of polluting substances despite the fact of the lack of gas-oil extraction.
1. Sever Evropeyskoy chasti SSSR (North of the European part of the USSR): edited by Gerasimov I.P., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1966, 452 p.
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3. Yurtsev B.A., Gipoarkticheskiy botaniko-geograficheskiy poyas i proiskhozhdenie ego flory (Hypoarctic botanical and geographical zone and the origin of its flora), In: Komarovskie chteniya, 1966, V. 19, 94 p.
4. Gorodkov B.N., Vegetation of the Arctic and mountain tundra of the USSR (In Russ.), Rastitelĺnostĺ SSSR, 1938, V. 1, pp. 297ľ354.5. Soromotin A.M., Solodovnikov A.YU., The ecological condition of Sarutausk group of licensed sites (In Russ.), Neftyanoye khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 96ľ99.Ôü
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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