May 2014




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The oil and gas industry

The 21st World Petroleum Congress in Moscow: Responsibly Energising a Growing World


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M.N. Grigoryev (Gecon JSC, Scientific council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on problems of geology and development of oil, gas and coal fields, RF, Moscow)
The analysis of structure of resource base of the mineral-resources centers of oil of continental part of the Nenets Autonomous District

Key words: oil, reserves, resources, structure of resource base, involvement in development, mineral-resource center, quality of oil, production, address recommendations, Nenets Autonomous District

According to the "Strategy of development of geological branch till 2030" approved by the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation as objects of program and target planning in the sphere of geological studying of a subsoil, reproduction and use of mineral resources are defined the mineral-resources centers - set of fields developed and planned to development and the perspective areas connected by the general existing and planned infrastructure and having uniform point of shipment of produced oil in federal or regional transport system for delivery to consumers. Thus, development of resource potential is regulated in frames of uniform resource and infrastructure technological systems.

The oil fields being a part of the mineral-resources centers of oil of the Nenets Autonomous Area and providing functioning transport systems are characterized.

The analysis of structure of the resource base of mineral-resources centers of oil of the Nenets Autonomous District is carried out on the basis of allocation of objects of the licensed and nonlicensed funds of a subsoil, in various degree involved in industrial development. Developed pools of developed fields are grouped according the rate of extraction. Alternative estimates of security of production by proved reserves, and taking into account the probable reserves and perspective resources are carried out.

Modeling of change of the main qualitative characteristics of extracted oil on the main commodity indicators (to density and the content of sulfur) due to input is carried out to development of taken stocks of industrial categories of various groups of resource objects.

The contribution to ensuring development of base of oil production of all groups of the allocated objects is defined. It allowed to formulate reasonably more address recommendations about licensing, prospecting works, application of high-tech solutions for production for ensuring development of base of oil production of considered mineral-resources centers.
References
1. Donskoy S.E., Grigor'ev M.N., Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and
Gas Geology, 2010, no. 5, pp. 2428.
2. Grigor'ev M.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2004, no. 5, pp. 2629.
3. Grigor'ev M.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2012, no. 5, pp. 1013.
4. Grigor'ev M.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2003, no. 12, pp. 16-19.
5. Otmas A.A., Podol'skiy Yu.V., Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika
Petroleum Geology - Theoretical and Applied Studies, 2013, V.8, no. 3
http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/6/29 2013.pdf

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R.Kh. Muslimov (Kazan (Volga Region ) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Effective oil and gas sector management can be an adequate response to the current challenges to the energy security of Russia

Key words: fuel and energy complex, energy resources, the oil recovery factor, the oil and gas sector, hard-to-recover oil reserves, unconventional resources, reproduction of the mineral resource base, advanced recovery methods, well bottom zone treatment, innovative design, standards.

The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of government regulation of subsoil use in the US, USSR and RF. An effective system of state regulation of subsoil use contributes to solving the basic problems of development of the oil and gas sector - production optimization and oil recovery factor maximization. Modern technological progress in improving the efficiency of development of hard-to-recover oil reserves and unconventional hydrocarbons fields, amplified by US claims to political monopoly of socio-economic development of the world community, defies RF Security and especially in the energy sector.

Despite the immense natural energy resources, modern Russia is not able to give an adequate momentary response to these challenges because of the poor state of the oil industry. To remedy the situation the immediate modernization of oil and gas sector with transition (not in words but in deeds) to the innovative development is required. The latter should start with innovative design of field development. And this entails the whole chain of innovation and modernized actions: building new geological and hydrodynamic models, close to the natural conditions of the formation of deposits, creation of a new laboratory base of research in reservoir rocks, fluids, organic matter, new methods of laboratory research, petrophysics, wells survey, preparation to development design. And at the head of this complex the reformed systems of monitoring and rational subsoil use public management should stand. The goal - improving the efficiency of hydrocarbon fields development to optimize production and maximize oil recovery factor by oil and gas sector intellectualization. Science and practical reorganization of oil and gas sector management is offered.
References
1. Gumerov A.G., Bazhaykin S.G., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2014,
no. 1, pp. 8-11.
2. Kimel'man S., Poldobskiy Yu., Neftegazovaya vertikal' Oil&Gas Vertical,
2010, no. 19(246), pp. 20-26.
3. Savushkin S., Neft' i Kapital Oil & Capital, 2010, no. 11 (173), pp. 10-13.
4. M.I. Levinbuk., V.N. Kotov., Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik Neftyanykh Kompaniy - World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies’ bulletin 2013, no. 9, pp.
5. Muslimov R.Kh., Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 1, pp. 3-14.
6. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee
(optimizatsiya dobychi, maksimizatsiya KIN): Uchebnoe posobie (Oil recovery:
Past, Present and Future (production optimization, maximization oil recovery):
Textbook), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2014, 720 p.
7. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee:
Uchebnoe posobie (Oil recovery: Past, Present, Future: Textbook), Kazan': Fen
Publ., 2012, 664 p.

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The oil and gas companies



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Yu.S. Krasnevsky, M.L. Pelevin, V.F. Chekushin, A.V. Zainullin (Bashneft JSOC, RF, Ufa), A.R. Latypov, E.V. Lozin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Scientific foundations, findings and future potential of petroleum exploration and production in Bashkortostan

Key words: oilfield, geological exploration, development, modeling, horizontal wells.

Oil and gas exploration in the Republic of Bashkortostan has relied on the constantly evolving theoretical perspectives.

Oil and gas exploration in the Republic of Bashkortostan has always relied on the constantly evolving theoretical perspectives.

On the East European Platform the theoretical views on the stacked nature of large swell-like structures of Tuimazinsk-trend down from the Lower Permian setting resulted in the unique Tuimazinskoye oil discovery and a number of big discoveries such as Serafimovskoye, Shkapovskoye and Mancharovskoye oil fields. Extrapolation of these ideas on the other regions within the eastern margin of the platform led to the unique Arlanskoye oil discovery in the Birsk Saddle and Krasnokholmsk group of Arlanskoye-trend oil discoveries on the western flank of the Bashkir Dome. At this stage (1944-1960) virtually the bulk of the hydrocarbon resource base of the Republic

of Bashkortostan was built.

Small discoveries characterize oil and gas exploration in Bashkortostan. Exploration and appraisal of small oil fields is always technologically and economically marginal. That holds true especially for minimal fields with less than one million ton initial recoverable reserves of oil. As the approaches to the exploration and appraisal of such fields developed the main principle of the present technology was defined which implies one exploration well placed at the highest point or crest of an individual seismic prospect and further exploration and appraisal by a cluster of development wells with special emphasis on horizontal completions. 3D seismic acquisition and offset VSP are widely employed.

The foundation for the contemporary science-based oil field engineering and development was laid when developing the unique Tuimazinskoye field. Peripheral water flooding was first designed and implemented then. Contour flooding was introduced on this field to isolate DIFm from DIIFm. Subsequently contour flooding was widely used at Tuimazinskoye, Arlanskoye and other fields to produce from the crestal parts of vast platform reservoirs.

Many engineering solutions for improved oil recovery on the fields in Bashkortostan provided significant and valuable input to the theory and practice of petroleum industry. The theoretical framework was created for engineering and monitoring of the platform fields; over 1000 field development projects have been compiled. Techniques have been developed to reduce the volumes of produced water which at the same time do not affect oil production rates on mature fields, flow deviation or diverter technology being one of them. From 2009 to 2013 Bashneft boosted its current oil production with decrease in water cut from 91.2 % in 2008 down to 90.6 % in 2013 and increase in the average daily rate from 2.0 to 3.0 tons of oil through hi-tech geological and technical field operations.
References
1. Lisovskiy N.N., Khlebnikov V.D., Kukharenko Yu.N., Khat'yanov F.I.,Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1974, no. 11, pp. 22-29.
2. Lozin E.V., Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 1987, V. 76, pp. 15-26.
3. Lisovskiy N.N., Afanas'ev V.S., Lozin E.V., Nadezhkin A.D., Geologiya nefti i
gaza The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1985, no. 9, pp.. 1-6.
4. Shchelkachev V.N., Vazhneyshie printsipy nefterazrabotki (75 let opyta)
(The most important principles for the development of oil fields (75 years experience)), Moscow: Neft' i gaz, 2004, 574 p.
5. Baymukhametov K.S., Enikeev V.R., Syrtlanov A.Sh., Yakupov F.M., Geologicheskoe stroenie i razrabotka Tuymazinskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya
(Geological structure and development of the Tuimazy oilfield), Ufa:
Kitap Publ., 1993, 280 p.
6. Lozin E.V., Razrabotka unikal'nogo Arlanskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya
vostoka Russkoy plity (Developing a unique Arlan oil field of the East of
the Russian Plate), Ufa: Skif Publ., 2012, 704 p.
7. Krasnevskiy Yu.S., Chekushin V.F., Latypov A.R., Lozin E.V., Proceedings of
VNII, 2013, Issue devoted to the 70th anniversary of Institute, pp. 30-41.

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Drilling of chinks



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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft RF, Almetyevsk), A.V. Nasybullin, A.V. Lifantyev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Application limits for deterministic geological-and-reservoir models

Key words: geological-and-reservoir model, well logging, oil recovery efficiency, fine grid, reservoir heterogeneity.

According to reservoir engineering regulations, design projects should be based on permanently upd ated geological-and-reservoir models. This paper analyzes model dataware based on well logging and offse t well drilling.

This paper discusses the effect of grid size on reservoir properties heterogeneity using three methods:

- qualitative evaluation from probability density diagram

- quantitative estimation of the system entropy

- quantitative estimation from variation coefficient

It has been shown that grid refinement doesn’t result in simulated reservoir heterogeneity growth. When input data are entered into the grid, simulated heterogeneity decrease rate doesnt change with increase of actual reservoir heterogeneity. Permeability distribution is fractal and hyperbolic. Fractal distribution can not be simulated by deterministic methods. Stochastic models shall be used to take into account the effect of well spacing on oil recovery efficiency.
References
1. Recommended practice on volumetric estimation of petroleum reserves,
Edited by Petersilye V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow - Tver: VNIGNI, NPTs Tvergeophisika, 2003.
2. Mirzadjanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Simulation of petroleum
production processes. Non-linearity, non-equilibrium, uncertainties,
Moscow-Izhevsk: Institute of computer-assisted surveys, 2004.
3. Aziz K., Ten golden rules for simulation engineers, JPT, 1989, V. 41, no. 11,
pp. 1157.

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V.Yu. Kerimov, U.S. Serikova, R.N. Mustayev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), I.S. Guliyev (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan, Baku)
Deep oil-and-gas content of South Caspian Basin

Key words: South-Caspian basin, oil-and-gas content, avalanche sedimentogenesis, progradation, geotemperature conditions, deep depth.

The unique South Caspian basin, differing fr om internal and marginal seas by a number of parameters and indicators, is formed as a result of the lithosphere evolution. Study of the hydrocarbons ontogenesis processes indicates that the pool is all-sufficient evolutionary system. Phase transformations of the organic matter in the conditions of the closed physicochemical system create abnormally high pore pressures and provide the initial stage of hydrocarbons emigration beyond argillaceous mass, in reservoirs and fractured zones. The principal difference of the processes of deep oil and gas formation is connected to the hindered mass transfer and physicochemical properties of rocks and fluids, which in relevant thermodynamic conditions represent a single mining solution. Significant subvertical and subhorizontal decompressed geological bodies, essentially representing a new class of geological structures, are revealed in the Caspian Basin. Most of them on the surface are associated with large mud volcanoes, with focused intense shows of hydrocarbons, which are logically to relate with the phase transitions processes of various types. A very important factor is that large accumulations of hydrocarbons are confined to them.

Migration of hydrocarbons fr om fluid-generating intervals and hydrocarbon-generating zones to the pay thickness of South Caspian Basin, occurs against the background of practical absence of infiltration water exchange and significantly limited elision regime. At these depths, the dominant form of the movement of natural fluids is interformational ( between the floors ) pulse-injection subvertical migration along planes of conducting disjunctives, zones of increased fracturing and decompression, eruptives of mud volcanoes , lithofaciesdiscordance and other rocks discontinuities, realizing synchronously with the activation of paleo- and neo-tectonic processes.

South Caspian Basin is multifocal pool, within limits of which several autonomous areas of oil and gas formation with their own areals of distribution and spatial-temporal evolution are established. Areas of hydrocarbon generation are confined to various hypsometric and stratigraphic levels, the lower lim it of the oil and gas formation interval reaches depths of more than 12-15 km, which corresponds to the interval of the Paleogene and Mesozoic sediments, and the upper lim it of the oil window is confined to hypsometric depths of 5-7 km and corresponds to Miocene sediments.
References
1. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu., Teoreticheskie osnovy i tekhnologii poiskov i
razvedki nefti i gaza, 2012, no. 1, pp. 24–33.
2. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu., Osipov A.V., Neft', gaz i biznes, 2011, no. 5, pp. 9-16.
3. Kerimov V.Yu., Khalilov E.A., Mekhtiev N.Yu., Geologiya nefti i gaza The
journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1992, no. 10, pp. 917.
4. Kerimov V.Yu., Rachinskiy M.Z., Geoflyuidodinamika neftegazonosnosti
podvizhnykh poyasov (Geofluid dynamics of oil and gas potential of mobile
belts), Nedra Publ., 2011, 598 p.
5. Mamedov P.Z., Izvestiya NAN Azerbaydzhana. Seriya Nauki o zemle, 2010,
no. 4, pp. 4672.

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I.A. Kozlova, S.N. Krivoschekov, L.Yu. Zykova (rm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), M.A. Shadrina (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), S.E. Bashkova (KamNIIKIGS JSC, RF, Perm)
Geological and geochemical assessment of oil and gas in the upper proterozoic possibility sediments of in the Perm Region

Key words: Upper Proterozoic sediments, Kaltasinsky entourage, oil generating potential, chemical and pyrolytic bituminous figures promising zones, zoning intensity of petroleum.

In the geological section of Perm Region Upper Proterozoic sediments lying below the industrial development of the oil industry depths are considered as potentially oil generating and oil productive column. As part of these deposits two sets of rocks were allocated: Riphean and Vendian, degree of scrutiny that is uneven. This study was conducted on the results of the processing sections 700 wells penetrated these deposits in the Perm region. According to a survey set spatial boundaries spread stratigraphic subdivisions of the Riphean and Vendian complexes, changing the thickness and lithology. Analyzed geological and geochemical information allowed to identify in these deposits Kaltasinsky retinue Lower Riphean complex having the most optimal and favorable conditions during sedimentation in terms of forming generation potential. To assess the possibility of generation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments authors analyzed Kaltasinsky Formation geological, chemical and pyrolytic bituminous indicators (from 200 - to 400 determinations). Using statistical analysis methods parameter distributions studied by area spread Kaltasinsky suites and the section in the Perm region. Zoning development of Kaltasinsky Formation was carried out by the degree of intensity of oil and gas generation.

Thus, the analysis made it possible to differentiate the study area on the prospects of a possible oil and gas potential on the basis of the study of geological and geochemical characteristics of the organic matter of rocks and highlight priority areas for more detailed studies of the structural, tectonic and other features that characterize the conditions of migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in the Upper ancient sediments.
References
1. Stratigrafiya verkhnego proterozoya SSSR (rifey i vend) (The stratigraphy
of the Upper Proterozoic of the USSR (Riphean and Vendian)): Proceedings
of II All-Union Conference “Obshchie voprosy raschleneniya dokembriya
SSSR” (Precambrian dismemberment of the USSR). Ufa, 1990, 91 p.
2. Explanatory note Stratigraficheskaya skhema rifeyskikh i vendskikh otlozheniy
Volgo-Ural'skoy oblasti (Stratigraphic scheme of Riphean and
Vendian deposits of the Volga-Ural region), Ufa: MSK RF Publ., 2000, 81 p.
3. Belokon' T.V., Gorbachev V.I., Balashova M.M., Stroenie i neftegazonosnost'
rifeysko-vendskikh otlozheniy vostoka Russkoy platformy (Structure
and oil and gas potential of the Riphean-Vendian deposits of the eastern
Russian platform), Perm': Zvezda Publ., 2001, 108 p.
4. Sharonov L.V., Formirovanie neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy severnoy
chasti Volgo-Ural'skogo basseyna (Formation of oil and gas fields of
northern part of Volga-Ural Basin), Perm': Publ. of VNIGNI, 1971, 291 p.
5. Karaseva T.V., Bashkova S.E., Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2011, no. 3, pp. 9093.
6. Galkin V.I., Karaseva T.V., Bashkova S.E., Kozlova I.A., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2011, no. 5, pp. 60-63.
7. Belokon' T.V., Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Bashkova S.E., Geologiya, geofizika i
razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2005, no. 9-10, pp. 2428.
8. Larskaya E.S., Zagulova O.P., O geokhimicheskikh predposylkakh
formirovaniya neftematerinskikh porod v proterozoyskikh tolshchakh
Russkoy platformy. Osobennosti rasseyannogo organicheskogo veshchestva
i neftey na razlichnykh etapakh tsiklov neftegazoobrazovaniya
(About geochemical prerequisites of formation of petromaternal breeds in
Proterozoic thicknesses of the Russian platform. Features of scattered organic
substance and oil at various stages of cycles Oil-and-gas formation),
Moscow, Publ. of VNIGNI, 1974, no 153, pp. 83-91.
9. Rodionova K.F., Maksimov S.P., Geokhimiya organicheskogo veshchestva
i neftematerinskie porody fanerozoya (Geochemistry of organic matter
and the Phanerozoic source rock), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 367 p.
10. Krivoshchekov S.N., Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 4, pp. 7-14.
11. Volkova A.S., Krivoshchekov S.N., Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo
issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe
i gornoe delo, 2010, no. 5, pp. 23-30.
12. Larskaya E.S., Diagnostika i metody izucheniya neftematerinskikh tolshch
(Diagnosis and methods of studying oil source strata), Moscow:
Nedra Publ., 1983, 200 p.
13. Bashkova S.E., Kompleksnyy analiz kriteriev i pokazateley prognoza
neftegazonosnosti rifey-vendskikh otlozheniy Volgo-Ural'skoy neftegazonosnoy
provintsii (A comprehensive analysis of the criteria and indicators
of prognosis petroleum Riphean-Vendian deposits of the Volga-Ural oil and
gas province): Thesis of the candidate of geological and mineralogical
science, Perm', 2009, 21 p.

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I.S. Gutman, T.R. Sultanshina (Gubkin Russian University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), S.V. Khalyapin (LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym)
Structural features of oil deposit in the horizon YuS1 of Gribnoye field

Key words: Gribnoye field, Upper Jurassic deposits, well log correlation, chlorites, water-retentive capacity, OWC tilt, types of well log, block structure of the horizon.

The results of a detailed study of oil deposit in the YuS1 are presented. The results are based on the automated well log correlation regarding thin rock section analysis, formation tests and hydrodynamic tests.

According to the well log interpretation results the section under study was divided into 16 lithological members. It is established that sedimentation was occurring sequentially in the lower and upper parts of the section. Parallel bedding of the layers and sufficient continuity of the overall thicknesses confirm sequential sedimentation. Several types of the section were identified due to the changes in the thicknesses of separate members.

Each type of the section has block extension over the deposit area which is characterized by the distinct thicknesses of individual members. Sedimentation of these members with maximum thicknesses is identified by greater rate of structure dipping. Conversely, the minimum thickness values of the members are fixed under the conditions of slight structure dipping.

Non-conformities are observed in the middle part of the section in case of structure increasing. These non-conformities are recognized in the reducing thicknesses of separate members up to their complete disappearance. Boundaries of the section type change can be regarded as tectonic block boundaries.

On the basis of hydrodynamic studies the researchers of Lukoil established that the wells with similar development properties are grouped in the distinct blocks. When comparing hydrodynamic test data with the results of the detailed well log correlation almost complete similarity of the fault configuration was determined.

According to earlier researches it was considered that the main reservoir YuS1a was productive and oil-saturated in almost all the wells. The lower reservoirs were water-saturated due to high induction log readings.

The thin rock section analysis showed that the lower reservoirs YuS1b and YuS1c contain chlorites in significant amount in the cementing material. Chlorites as known to be characterized by high-water-retentive capacity that essentially affects not only the high induction log readings, but also influences the sharp deterioration of reservoir properties, making reservoirs YuS1b and YuS1c nonproductive. The results of well tests confirm this fact.

It was established that OWC change occurs simultaneously with the detected block dipping on both structures.

Neglecting of these important features resulted in erroneous picture of OWC tilt on both structures of the Gribnoye field.
References
1. Gutman I.S., Balaban I.Yu., Kuznetsova G.P. et al., ARM spetsialista geologicheskoy sluzhby. Detal'naya korrelyatsiya geologicheskikh razrezov
skvazhin i podgotovka geologicheskoy osnovy dlya modelirovaniya zalezhey
UV s pomoshch'yu programmy AUTOCORR (AWS for specialist geological service. Detailed correlation of geological sections of wells and preparation of
geological basis for hydrocarbon deposits modeling using the AUTOCORR),
Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2010. – 89 s.
2. Gutman I.S., Balaban I.Yu., Staroverov V.M. et al., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii k korrelyatsii razrezov skvazhin (Guidelines to the well log correlation), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2013.
3. Gutman I.S., Balaban I.Yu., Kopylov V.E. et al., Promyslovaya geologiya nefti
i gaza. Detal'naya korrelyatsiya geologicheskikh razrezov skvazhin i podgotovka
geologicheskoy osnovy dlya modelirovaniya zalezhey UV s pomoshch'yu
programmy AutoSorr (Oil and gas field geology. Detailed correlation
of wells logs and preparation of geological basis for the hydrocarbon deposits
modeling using the AutoSorr), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2004.
4. Entsiklopediya nauchnoy biblioteki (Encyclopedia of Scientific Library), URL:
http://enc.sci-lib.com/article0012076.html
5. Gutman I.S., Korrelyatsiya razrezov skvazhin slozhnopostroennykh neftegazovykh ob"ektov na osnove innovatsionnykh tekhnologiy (Correlation of well logs for complicated oil and gas facilities on the basis of innovative technologies),
Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2011, 116 p.

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T.V. Khismetov (GEOTECHNOKIN NTC CJSC, RF, Moscow), G.G. Yatsenko (Tvergeophysics NTC OJSC, RF, Tver), I.F. Rustamov (Gazprom Neft OJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.I. Yurkov (N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, RF, Moscow), A.M. Brekhuntsov (Siberian Scientific and Analytical Centre, RF, Tyumen)
Spectrometric nuclear-physical methods of research of wells during development and supplementary exploration of oil and gas fields under the late stage of operation

Key words:spectrometric nuclear physics research methods, carbon-oxide logging, deposit, residual oil saturation, dropped deposits, depletion of reserves, volumetric data, mineralogical composition of the rocks.

The article presents new opportunities and results of an effective control of the processes of the development and supplementary exploration of oil and gas fields under the late stage of operation , based on the application of complex spectrometric nuclear-physical methods of well survey. Nuclear-physical methods are the only direct methods of assessing the material constitution of the rocks of studied deposit, its saturation by formation fluids in a cased hole.

Radioactive logging multiparameter equipment , including 73 mm diameter one for wells of different design and offshoots, produced by N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics in partnership with Tvergeophysics NTC OJSC and GEOTEKHNOKIN NTC CJSC, found its widespread industrial application at oil facilities in Russia.

Comparison of modern foreign analogues and pulsed neutron logging equipment of new generation shows, that the new domestic equipment surpasses foreign analogues in technical and economic efficiency. Program- methodical organization of processing and interpretation of the results of spectrometric nuclear-physical methods of well survey, generated in Tvergeophysics NTC, provides high efficiency of the works and reliability of the received information.

Widespread use of nuclear-physical methods of well survey complex in oil and gas fields in Western Siberia , Orenburg region , the Volga region , the Krasnodar Territory, the Komi Republic allowed to use the received results of research in the solving following problems:

- reserve addition and supplementary exploration of oil and gas deposits

- commingling and return to other process facilities;

- study of small diameter wells and offshoots;

- address technology of bottomhole formation zones treatments;

- geomodeling of deposits for operational decision-making for the geological and technical measures execution ;

- control of the parameters of the secondary formation exposing.

Practically all oil and gas facilities under operation for a long time (10-50 years and more) in Western and Eastern Siberia, Volga-Urals , Orenburg region , Stavropol and Krasnodar regions , the Komi Republic, etc. are promising to reserve addition.
Reference
1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po primeneniyu yaderno-fizicheskikh
metodov GIS, vklyuchayushchikh uglerod-kislorodnyy karotazh, dlya otsenki
nefte- i gazonasyshchennosti porod kollektorov v obsazhennykh skvazhinakh
(Guidelines for the use of nuclear-physical methods of well survey , including
the carbon-oxygen logging to evaluate oil and gas saturation of reservoir
rocks in cased wells): edited by Petersil'e V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow – Tver':
Publ. of VNIGNI, NPTs “Tver'geofizika”, 2006, 39 p.
2. Rustamov I.F., Khal'zov A.A., Chikhirin A.A., Collected papers Effektivnoe
upravlenie protsessami razrabotki i dorazvedki zalezhey uglevodorodov na
osnove dannykh kompleksa skvazhinnnykh spekrometricheskikh yadernofizicheskikh metodov issledovaniy (Effective management of development
and additional exploration of hydrocarbon deposits on the basis of complex
downhole spectrometric nuclear-physical methods of research), Moscow:
Publ. of Otkrytye sistemy, 2012, pp. 2125.
3. Khal'zov A.A., Tupitsin A.M., Collected papers Effektivnoe upravlenie protsessami razrabotki i dorazvedki zalezhey uglevodorodov na osnove dannykh
kompleksa skvazhinnnykh spekrometricheskikh yaderno-fizicheskikh
metodov issledovaniy (Effective management of development and additional
exploration of hydrocarbon deposits on the basis of complex downhole
spectrometric nuclear-physical methods of research), Moscow: Publ. of
Otkrytye sistemy, 2012, pp. 2931.
4. Khismetov T.V., Bernshteyn A.M., Khal'zov A.A. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
Oil Industry, 2007, no. 9, pp. 121124.
5. Yurkov D.I., Bogolyubov E.P., Miller V.V. et al., Karotazhnik, 2013, no. 9(231), pp. 7780.

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G. Bada, E. Dombrádi, A. Horányi, G. Molnár (Falcon-TXM Oil and Gas Exploration Ltd., Hungary, Budapest), Orsolya Sztanó (Falcon-TXM Oil and Gas Exploration Ltd, Hungary, Budapest, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary, Budapest), Mikhil Shevelev (NIS Gazpromneft & Pannon Naftagas Kft., Hungary, Budapest)
The Algyő Turbidite Gas Play in the Makó Trough, Pannonian Basin, Hungary

Key words: gas sand, seismic attributes, turbidite, Miocene, Pannonian basin.

The Algyő gas play in the Makó Trough, Pannonian basin, in south-eastern part of Hungary represents a Miocene petroleum system where turbiditic sandstone reservoirs are charged from the underlying mature lacustrine dark shales as source rocks and sealed by the overlying uniform slope shales. Recognition of stratigraphic traps within various types of turbidites was based on high-resolution 3D seismic geomorphology, mapping of numerous seismic attributes and AVO analysis. The presence of a series of 10-50 m thick, gas bearing slope detached sandy lobes and turbidite channels is validated by the Kútvölgy-1 well drilled in the summer of 2013.

References
1. Brczi I., Phillips R.L., Process and depositional environments within
Neogene deltaic-lacustrine sediments, Pannonian Basin, Southeast
Hungary. Geophysical Transactions, 1985, V. 31, pp. 55-74.
2. Horvth F., Royden L., Mechanism for formation of the intra-
Carpathian basins: a review, Earth Evolution Science, 1981, V. 1,
pp. 307-316.
3. Horvth F., Cloetingh S., Stress-induced late-stage subsidence anomalies
in the Pannonian basin, Tectonophysics, 1996, V. 266, pp. 287-300.
4. Horvth F., Tari G., IBS Pannonian basin project: a review of the main
results and their bearings on hydrocarbon exploration, In: Durand, B.,
Jolivet, L., Horvth, F., Sranne, M., (Eds.), The Mediterranean basins:
Tertiary extension within the Alpine orogen. Geological Society London
Special Publications, 1999, V. 156, pp. 195-213.
5. Magyar I., Geary D.H., Mller P., Paleogeographic evolution of the
Late Miocene Lake Pannon in Central Europe. Palaeogeography,
Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 1999, V. 147, pp. 151-167.
6. Magyar I., Fogarasi A., Vakarcs G., Buk L., Tari G.C., The largest hydrocarbon field discovered to date in Hungary: Algy. In: Golonka, J.,
Picha, F.J., (Eds.), The Carpathians and their foreland: geology and hydrocarbon
resources, AAPG Memoir, 2006, V. 84, pp. 619-632.
7. Magyar I., Radivojevi D., Sztan O., Synak R., Ujszszi K., Pcsik M.,
Shelf-margin progradation across the Pannonian basin in the Late
Miocene and Early Pliocene. Global and Planetary Change, 2013,
V. 103, pp. 168-173.
8. Partyka G., Gridley J., Lopez J., Interpretational applications of spectral
decomposition in reservoir characterization. The Leading Edge,
1999, V. 18, 353-360.
9. Sztan O., Szafin P., Magyar I., Hornyi A., Bada G., Hughes D.W.,
Hoyer D.L., Wallis R.J., Aggradation and progradation controlled
clinothems and deep-water sand delivery model in the Neogene Lake
Pannon, Mak Trough, Pannonian Basin, SE Hungary, Global and Planetary
Change, 2013, V. 103, pp. 149-167.
10. Tari G., Dvnyi P., Dunkl I., Horvth F., Lenkey L., Stefanescu M.,
Szafin P., Tth T., Lithospheric structure of the Pannonian basin derived
from seismic, gravity and geothermal data, In: Durand, B., Jolivet,
L., Horvth, F., Sranne, M., (Eds.), The Mediterranean basins: Tertiary
extension within the Alpine orogeny, Geological Society London Special
Publications, 1999, V. 156, pp. 215-250.
11. Young R.A., LoPiccolo R., A comprehensive AVO classification, The Leading Edge, 2003, V. 22(10), pp. 1,030-1,037.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


V.V. Lavrov, K.M. Fedorov, G.P. Nalimov, P.D. McMorran (OILTEAM Company, RF, Sochi)
Competence transfer for offshore russian operators

Key words: offshore, Arctic, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), unconventional hydrocarbon resources, MSc program, training and engineering cluster, multidisciplinary approach.

The paper analyzes three scenarios of maintaining the high level of hydrocarbon production: expansion to offshore production, application of EOR, development of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves. Positive and negative aspects of the scenarios are considered, advantages of E&P on Russia’s Arctic shelf are highlighted. All scenarios require immediate formation of new competences. The authors consider different solutions and practical approaches implemented in Russia. The analysis of the service company OILTEAM reveals critical stages of competence formation and personnel development. Related challenges are addressed.

References
1. Osadchiy A.V., Oil and gas of Russian shelf: assessments and predictions,
Science and Life, 2006, no. 7.
2. Wright B., Full scale experience with Kulluk stationkeeping operations in
Pack Ice, Submitted to the National Research Council of Canada, July 2000.
3. Green D.W., Willhite G.P., Enhanced Oil Recovery, SPE monograph series,
Richardson Texas, 1998, 545 p.
4. Borodkin A.A., Evseeva M.Y., Volokitin Y.I., Shuster M.U., Koltsov I.N., Sidelnikov A.V., Investigation of steady state adsorption mechanisms for project
risk decrease of ASP flooding application on West Salym field, Neftyanoe
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo - Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12.
5. Strizhnev K.V., Experience of unconventional hydrocarbon resources development on the fields of Gazpromneft, ROGTEC, 2014, no. 34, pp.40-46.
6. Bessel V.V., Unconventional Russian conventional energy resources, Economy
politics, Ecopol.ru/2012-04-05-13-45-47/2012-04-05-13-46-05/956.
7. Oil and Gas production of Russian shelf, Moscow: RPI International, 2014, URL: rus.rpi-conferences.com.

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I.S. Afanasiev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.A. Baikov, A.V. Kolonskikh, A.I. Fedorov (RN-UfaNIPIneft, RF, Ufa), V.V. Maltsev (RN-Yuganskneftegaz, RF, Nefteyugansk)
Development of ultra low-permeability oil reservoirs

Key words: low-permeability reservoirs, multiple fractured horizontal wells, optimal waterflood pattern, non-linear flow, geomechanics, hydraulic fracture direction, injectioninduced fractures.
References
1. King F.H., Principles and conditions of the movement of ground-water,US Geological Survey, 19th Annual Report, 1898, no. 2, pp. 59-297.
2. Xiong Wei, Lei Qun, Gao Shusheng, Hu Zhiming, Xue Hui, Pseudo threshold
pressure gradient to flow for low-permeability reservoirs, Petroleum exploration
and development, 2009, 36(2), pp. 232–236.
3. Baykov V.A., Borshchuk O.S., Galeev R.R., Zhitnikov V.P., Kolonskikh A.V., Makatrov A.K., Politov M.E., Telin A.G., Yakasov A.V., Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK Rosneft'”, 2013, no. 2, pp. 4-19.
4. Baykov V.A., Kolonskikh A.V., Makatrov A.K., Politov M.E., Telin A.G.,
Yakasov A.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 52-56.
5. Latypov I.D., Borisov G.A., Khaydar A.M., Gorin A.N., Nikitin A.N., Kardymon D.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 34-38.
6. Oligney R., Economides M., Unified fracture design: bridging the gap between
theory and practice, Booklink Distribution, 2001.
7. Mal'tsev V.V., Asmandiyarov R.N., Baykov V.A., Usmanov T.S.,
Davletbaev A.Ya., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2012, no. 5, pp. 7074.
8. Fedorov A.I., Davletova A.R., Kolonskikh A.V., Toropov K.V., Nauchnotekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2013, no. 2, pp. 25-29.
9. Baykov V.A., Bochkov A.S., Yakovlev A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2011, no. 5, pp. 50-54.
10. Kolonskikh A.V, Galeev R.R., Zorin A.M., Khabibullin G.I., Musabirov T.R.,
Sudeev I.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013, no. 1, pp. 62-65.
11. Gilaev G.G., Afanas'ev I.S., Timonov A.V., Sudeev I.V., Sitdikov S.S., Musabirov T.R., Kolonskikh A.V., Galeev R.R., Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy Vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2012, no. 2.

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F.Yu. Aldakimov (Surgutneftegas OJSC, RF, Surgut), S.V. Gusev, V.Yu. Ogoreltsev, E.O. Grebyonkina (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
Results and prospects of application of deposit and gel forming compositions for enhancing oil recovery of AC4 -8 layer of Fedorovskoye field

Key words: flow deviation technology, enhanced oil recovery, deposit and gel forming composition.

Article is devoted to the use of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery for the AC4 -8 layer of Fedorovskoye field of Surgutneftegas OJSC by the example of deposit and gel forming pumping technology. The current state of implementation of deposit and gel forming pumping technology, aimed at sweep efficiency increasing, is analyzed, the effectiveness of its technological applications in 2008 - 2012 is evaluated. It is noted that the current efficiency of the deposit and gel forming pumping technology is higher than efficiency of base technologies. Distinctive features of the dynamics of the deposit and gel forming pumping technology efficiency are revealed and the time is determined, after which the efficiency reaches a maximum level at 5-6 months after treatment beginning, indicating on prolonged mechanism of its action on a layer. Efficiency of technology increases significantly due to the optimization of the specific volumes of pumping. With an increase in the specific volume of pumping up to 600-800 m3 per rig-up the specific efficiency can be increased to 3,500 t per rig-up with a reaction duration of at least 2 years. The deposit and gel forming pumping technology can be successfully applied to the layers with reserve recovery, close to the limit value at waterflooding and the current watering more than 95 %.

References
1. Koval' Ya.G., Gusev S.V., Narozhnyy O.G. et al., Collected papers “Osnovnye
napravleniya nauchno-issledovatel'skikh rabot v neftyanoy promyshlennosti Zapadnoy Sibiri” (Main directions of research work in the oil industry in West Siberia), Tyumen': Publ. of SibNIINP, 2002, pp. 88–95.
2. Sonich V.P., Sedach V.F., Misharin V.A., Bulatov R.A., Interval, 2001, no. 10, pp. 1427.

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A.Kh. Shakhverdiev (Institute of System Studies of the Oil-and-Gas Production Processes, RF, Moscow), G.M. Panahov, E.M. Abbasov (Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science, Azerbaijan, Baku), R. Jiang (Beijing New Horizon Energy Technology Co., LTD, PRC, Beijing), S. Bakhtiyarov (New Mexico Institute of Minung and Technology (USA, Socorro)
High efficiency EOR and IOR technology on in-situ CO2 generation

Key words: carbon dioxide, porous medium, displacement, gas-generation, supercritical fluid, fringe.

Enhanced oil recovery by injecting carbon dioxide CO2 as a tertiary hydrocarbon recovery mechanism under the water flooding is one of the ways to improve oil recovery, extend the oil field life and increase the efficiency of the oil field development in general. Despite the significant advantages of CO2 injection the risks associated with capturing, transportation and storage of carbon dioxide significantly reduce the possibility of its application in EOR and IOR processes.

In this paper we present the results of longstanding experimental, theoretical and field research on the development and wide implementation of high-technology industrial method of in-situ generation of CO2 gas-liquid slug has been shown. This process provides effectively regulation of the dynamic processes during oil displacement. Adjustability of gas generation dynamics of gas by controlling of carbon dioxide phase state, depending on the mineralization of water-based reactive agents under reservoir conditions. Laboratory tests demonstrate the technology efficiency in the processes of oil displacement on the core models. As a result of the widespread implementation of the technology on the oil fields of TNK, LUKOIL, SLAVNEFT (Russian Federation); SOCAR (Azerbaijan); Sinopec, CNOOC and PETROCHINA (China); GTT (United States, Oklahoma) significant results of additional oil recovery and increasing of oil recovery factor has been achieved.

First developed technology of residual oil recovery by the water flooding based on the in-situ formation of carbon dioxide under the process of sequential injection gas generating chemicals. Technology provides the implementation of gas generation process on the on-shore and off-shore development of oil fields. Efficiency and economic profitability of technology is determined by the special conditions of the gas-liquid creation slug no need to find industrial volumes of CO2 sources and of pipeline infrastructure construction; making operations in remote areas, oil and gas regions with complicated climatic conditions; no need to build additional communications and power supply for CO2 injection.
References
1. Thomas S., Enhanced oil recovery – an overview, Oil Gas Sci. Technol., 2008,
V. 63, no. 1, pp. 919.
2. Carbon capture and sequestration: framing the issues for regulation, An Interim
Report from the CCSReg Project, 2009, January.
3. Perry K.F., Natural gas storage industry experience and technology: potential
application to SO2 geological storage, Carbon dioxide capture for storage
in deep geological formations: edited by D.C. Thomas and S.M. Benson,
2005, V. 2, pp. 815825, Elsevier Ltd.,
4. Patent no. 2244110 RF, Oil pool development method, Inventors:
Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Panakhov G.M.
5. Patent no. 2308596 RF, Oil pool development method, Inventors:
Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Mandrik I.E., Panakhov G.M.
6. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, CO2 storage in depleted oilfields:
global application criteria for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, Report
IEA/CON/08/155, Prepared by Advanced Resources International, Inc. and
Melzer Consulting, 2009, August 31.
7. Schulte Willem experience for use in CO2 for Enhanced Oil Recovery in the
USA, Presentation to the 2004 CO2 Conference, Norway.
8. Gozalpour F., Ren S.R., Tohidi B., CO2 EOR and storage in oil reservoirs, Oil & Gas Science and Technology, Rev. IFP, 2005, V. 60, no. 3, pp. 537546.
9. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Cistemnaya optimizatsiya protsessa razrabotki
neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (System optimization of the process of oilfield development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 452 p.
10. Mandrik I.E., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Nauchno-metodicheskie
i tekhnologicheskie osnovy optimizatsii protsessa povysheniya nefteotdachi
plastov (Scientific and methodological and technological bases of process
optimization of EOR), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2010, 288 p.
11. Willem Schulte experience from use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in
the USA, Presentation, OG21 seminar, 2004, September.
12. Stepanova G.S., Gazovye i vodogazovye metody vozdeystviya na
neftyanye plasta (Gas and WAG methods of influence on oil reservoir),
Moscow: Gazoyl press Publ., 2006, 200 p.
13. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Panakhov G.M., Abbasov E.M., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
Oil Industry, 2002, no. 11, pp. 6165.
14. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Panakhov G.M., Renqi Jiang et al., Vestnik RAEN,
2012, no. 4, pp. 7381.
15. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Panakhov G.M., Mandrik I.E., Abbasov E.M., Proceedings of International Scientific Conference “Geopetrol'2008”, Pol'sha,
Krakov, 2008, p. 7.
16. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Abbasov E.M., Huimin Zeng et al., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2010, no. 6, pp. 4448.

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A.I. Ipatov, M.I. Kremenetskiy, I.S. Kaeshkov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Moscow), I.A. Klishin (Gazpromneft - Noyabrsneftegazgeofizika JSC, RF, Noyabrsk); M.A. Solodyankin, E.V. Figura (Laser Solutions CJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Undiscovered DTS potential of horizontal well inflow profile monitoring

Key words: distributed temperature sensing (DTS), transient process, inflow profile, fiber optics.

Distributed temperature sensors have several important advantages. They enable to obtain on-line information about well conditions and the frequency of measurements is greatly higher than traditional PLTs on wireline or coil-tubing. Additionally the price of multisensor PLT in horizontal well with low oil rate is extremely high.

Interpretation methods of such data, which are wide spread in literature, do not allow to realize informative potential of DTS technology completely. Interpretation models that are used contain a lot of input parameters and can’t be considered effective in case of limited volume of data.

The authors conducted mathematic modeling of heat and mass transfer in horizontal well and also realized several DTS measurements in vertical multilayered well. It showed that transient processes during well-start or stop contain information about inflow profile. This information is of high value because it almost doesnt depend on temperature properties of the rocks and fluid. It can be interpreted using simple express methods. In the authors opinion the development of such methods and measurements technologies is the matter of nearest future.
References
1. Ipatov A.I., Kremenetskiy M.I., Geofizicheskiy i gidrodinamicheskiy kontrol'
razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Geophysical and hydrodynamic
control of development of hydrocarbon deposits), Izhevsk: Regulyarnaya i
khaoticheskaya dinamika Publ., 2010, 780 p.
2. Valiullin R.A., Geofizicheskie issledovaniya i raboty v skvazhinakh (Geophysical
research and operations in wells), Part 3. Issledovaniya deystvuyushchikh
skvazhin (Research of operating wells), Ufa: Inform-reklama Publ., 2010, 184 p.
3. Mustafa H.D., Abdouche Gh., Khedr O.H., Elkadi A., Al-Mutairi A.M., A new
production logging tool allows a superior mapping of the fluid velocities and
holdups inside the well bore, SPE-93556-MS, 2005.
4. Torne J.P., Arevalo F.J., Jay Ph.L., Salim M.E., Guergueb N.F., Gary J., A successful introduction of a new tools configuration and analysis method for production logging in horizontal wells, SPE Conference Paper , 2011
5. Grechanov A., Naumov A., Velikodnev V. et al., Continuous real-time
pipeline deformation, 3D positioning and ground movement monitoring
along the Sakhalin – Khabarovsk Vladivostok pipeline, 9th International
Pipeline Conference, IPC2012-90476.
6. Braun Dzh., Sautkhempton, Rogachev D., Tekhnologii TEK, 2005, no. 1.

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Designing of arrangement of deposits


D.S. Pazderin (Giprotyumenneftegas, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen)
Hot underground pipeline and soils and seasonal cooling devices: thermal interference

Key words: permafrost soils, thermal interference, thermostabilisation, seasonal cooling device, pipeline.

Value of negative temperature is the upmost attribute to define strength of permafrost soils and thus, their bearing capacity when using for pipeline foundations. As a consequence, transfer of soils from plastic frozen to solidly frozen state both ensures higher safety of installations at unexpected temperature variations of permafrost soils, and is more economically effective. Most efficient ones, as per freezing efficiency and ease of operation and economic feasibility, are self-regulating seasonal cooling devices (SCD) with close-ended convection of V/L heat transfer fluid (ammonia, carbon dioxide, Freon gas). Close-ended convection units of V/L heat transfer fluid are featured for high freezing efficiency, as phase transitions occur with absorption and release of big amount of heat (e.g, 1300 kJ/kg for ammonia). The article considers thermal interference issues of a hot pipeline with permafrost soils in conditions of thermostabilisation applying the single vertical SCD. Boundary conditions on the pipeline – soil border, SCD - soil, and air soil are stated. Areas of soil freezing and thawing near the buried pipeline are defined. The finite-difference approximation of thermal conductivity 3D equation is compiled. The design strategy and its implementation to predict 3D temperature soil profile near the buried pipeline and SCD is obtained. The design strategy takes into account seasonal changes of temperature and number of precipitations on soil, soil inhomogeneity as per composition and thermophysical properties of permafrost soils.
References
1. Gorelik Ya.B., Shabarov A.B., Sysoev Yu.S., Kriosfera Zemli, 2008, V. XII, no. 1, pp. 59-65.
2. Vyalov S.S., Aleksandrov K.A., Mirenourg Yu.S., Fedoseev Yu.G., Collected
papers “Inzhenernoe merzlotovedenie” (Engineering permafrostology),
Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, pp. 72-90.
3. Primakov S.S., Pazderin D.S., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2013,
no. 4, pp. 124-125.
4. Wong H.Y., Heat transfer for engineers, Longman Group, 1977, 213 p.

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The oil-field equipment


R.R. Gizatullin, E.V. Poshvin (Novomet-Perm CJSC, RF, Perm) , S.N. Peshcherenko (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Viscous friction losses in the valve submersible electric motors

Key words: valve submersible electric motor, viscous friction losses, rotor-stator clearance, friction torque, power losses, the Taylor flow.

Currently valve submersible electric motors find more and more application in oil recovery by vane pumps. Their advantages over traditionally used asynchronous electric motors are as follows: higher efficiency, greater range of shaft speed, higher reliability. One of the design features of the valve electric motors is the possibility of increasing the rotor – stator clearance, as it can be increased while maintaining the original strength of the magnetic field due to changes in the magnets radial thickness.

Typically at electric motors calculating the empirical relationships are used, which taking into account the total mechanical losses as viscous friction in the rotor stator clearance, and friction in the bearings. These relationships are obtained by bench testing samples of already existing electric motors. It is clear that at the design of new products these relationships can't be used. Therefore, at designing new submersible electric motors another approach is required, allowing to calculate the losses based on the supposed construction.

In this paper we propose a method of numerical calculation of viscous friction losses in the rotor-stator clearance of valve submersible electric motors by means of computational fluid dynamics. The technique has been tested on three types of flows: laminar axial-symmetric, laminar Taylor and developed turbulent. The calculation of rotor stator clearance effect on viscous losses for valve submersible electric motor PED63-117 in the frequency range from 3000 to 10000 min-1 was fulfilled. It is determined, that at frequencies up to 5000 min-1 viscous losses lead to inessential efficiency reduction (less than 0.5 %), but at high frequencies it reaches 5 %.

References
1. Elektronnaya kniga po elektromekhanike (E-book on electromechanics),
URL: http://elib.spbstu.ru/dl/059/Contents.html
2. Santalov A., Perel'man O., Rabinovich A. et al., Neftegazovaya vertikal'
Oil & Gas Vertical, 2011, no. 12, pp. 58 65.
3. Khotsyanov I.D., Issledovanie vozmozhnostey i razrabotka sredstv sovershenstvovaniya seriynykh pogruzhnykh ventil'nykh elektrodvigateley neftedobyvayushchikh nasosov (Investigation of possibilities and development of
means to improve the production of AC electric motors of submersible
pumps): Thesis of the candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2012.
4. Kopylov I.A., Klokov B.K., Morozkin V.P., Tokarev B.F., Proektirovanie elektricheskikh mashin (Design of electrical machines), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola
Publ., 2005, 767 p.
5. Monin A.S., Yaglom A.M., Statisticheskaya gidromekhanika (Statistical Fluid
Mechanics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1965, 641 p.
6. Aleksenskiy V.A., Zharkovskiy A.A., Pugachev P.V., Izvestiya Samarskogo
nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2011, V. 13, no. 1(2), pp. 407410.
7. Svoboda D.G., Zharkovskiy A.A., Pugachev P.V., Donskoy A.S., Izvestiya
Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2012, V. 14, no. 1(2), pp. 685 688.
8. Belov I.A., Isaev S.A., Modelirovanie turbulentnykh techeniy (Modeling of
turbulent flows), St. Peterburg: Publ. of Baltic State Technical University, 2001,
108 p.
9. Drazin P.G., Introduction to hydrodynamic stability, Cambridge University
Press, 2002. 258 r.
10. Landau L.D., Lifshits E.M., Gidrodinamika (Hydrodynamics), Moscow: Fizmatlit Publ., 2001, 736 p.
11. King G.P., Li Y., Swinney H.L., Marcus P.S., Wave speeds in wavy Taylor-vortex flow, J. Fluid. Mech., 1984, V. 141, pp. 365-390.
12. Barsilon A., Brindley J., Organized structures in turbulent Taylor-Couette
flow, J. Fluid. Mech., 1984, V. 143, pp. 429-449.
13. Lewis G.S., Swinney H.L., Velocity structure functions, scaling, and transitions
in high-Reynolds-number Couette-Taylor flow, Phys. Rev. E., 1999, V. 59,
pp. 5457-5467.
14. Eckhardt B., Grossman S., Lohse G., Scaling of global momentum transport
in Taylor-Couette and pipe flow, Eur. Phys. J.B., 2000, V. 18, pp. 541-544.
15. Balonishnikov A.M., Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki Technical Physics. The Russian Journal of Applied Physics, 2003, V. 73, no. 2, pp. 139-140

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P.N. Tsylev, I.N. Shchapova (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), V.A. Shchapov (Institute of continuous media mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS, RF, Perm)
Direction to increase the energy efficiency of asynchronous electromechanical energy converters for electric drive of sucker rod pumping installations

Key words: asynchronous electric drive of sucker rod pump, the working winding, reactive current, power factor.

For periodic operation of unproductive oil wells is a number of shortcomings, to which, first of all, it is necessary to attributed decrease in volume of oil production, the intensive growth water cutting of production, productivity of the installed equipment does not meet the production rate of oil wells.

Transition to a continuous mode of operation for unproductive oil wells until recently restrained by absence in the market electrotechnical production of asynchronous electromechanical energy converters (AEEC) with synchronous rotation frequency of a rotor 150-500 min-1 and power 3-10 KW.

Vladimir Electromotor Plant JSC in 2010 started release one - and multi-speed AEEC with synchronous rotation frequency of a rotor 500 min-1 for the drive of rod pump. Use of such converters together with system of replaceable pulleys, belt drive and two-stage reducer allows provide a continuous mode of operation for number of unproductive oil wells.

A further solution the translation problems of the unproductive oil wells fr om periodic mode of operation to continuous mode demands development of production AEEC with synchronous rotation frequency of a rotor 150-375 min-1. Difficulty in solving this problem is connected with ensuring acceptable values of energy indicators AEEC.

A design AEEC with increased value for coefficient of efficiency is proposed. The increase for the energy coefficient of efficiency and power efficiency AEEC is provided due to power factor increase to the values close to its lim it value. The solution of this task is reached by placement on a stator AEEC the additional three-phase winding, which is connected to condensers. Such technical solution allows to create a magnetic field in air gap AEEC using reactive currents of additional winding and to unload a network three-phase winding from a reactive component of current.
References
1. Spravochnik po elektricheskim mashinam (Handbook of electric machines):
edited by Kopylov I.P., Klokov B.K., Part 1, Moscow: Energoatomizdat
Publ., 1988, 456 p.
2. Kisarimov R.A., Spravochnik elektrika (Electrician's reference), 4th ed.,
Moscow: Radiosoft Publ., 2010, 512 p.
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R. Casimiro (Schneider Electric / Invensys, US, Foxboro), M. Henry, M. Tombs (University of Oxford, UK, Oxford), A. Kroshkin (Schneider Electric / Invensys, RU, Moscow), A. Lischuk (HMS Group, RU, Moscow)
New multi-phase flow metering technology available for industrial measuring units in the oil and gas industry

Key words: multi-phase flow, Coriolis meter, neural net, measuring skid, oil and gas.

This paper describes a new commercial multi-phase metering system combining Coriolis mass flow with water cut metering. The NetOil&Gas measurement skid, utilizing this technology, has been developed and certified as an industrial multi-phase flow meter. Industrial stationary and mobile units MERA-MR, based on the NetOil&Gas flow meter, have brought this state-of-the-art technology to field metering practice. The results from a number of laboratory and field trials have confirmed that this technology is applicable in the oil and gas industry. The first commercial procurement contracts have now been signed.
References
1. Liu R.P., Fuent M.J., Henry M.P., Duta M.D., A neural network to correct mass flow errors caused by two-phase flow in a digital Coriolis mass flowmeter, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 2001, no. 12, pp. 53–63.
2. Tombs M.S., Henry M.P., Duta M.D., Lansangan R., Dutton R.E., Mattar W.M., Multiphase Coriolis flowmeter, US patent 7.188.534, 2007.
3. Test report for multi-phase flow meter NetOil&Gas, FGUP VNIIR, 18th March
2014.

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