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The article provides a rationale for clarifying or revising the working version of the oil and gas geological zoning of the offshore part of the Terek-Caspian trough, the accuracy of which determines the success of further oil and gas exploration here. A fundamentally new scheme of oil and gas geological zoning of the Terek-Caspian trough (linked to its land and offshore parts) was proposed, which was developed on a structural-geodynamic basis and does not contradict generally accepted ideas about the features of the regional geological structure, the spatial distribution of oil and gas potential and the latest geodynamic development of the territory. The scheme and dynamic characteristics of the main deep faults of the northwestern and northeastern orientations, showing a high neotectonic activity within the limits of the studied trough, are given. Particular attention is paid to the less studied northeastern fault system, which, along with the fault system of north-west orientation, has played an important role in the Terek-Caspian trough structure formation. Within the limits of the trough, five parallel linearly elongated narrow zones of oil and gas accumulation of the common Caucasian strike are distinguished, where all hydrocarbon deposits estimated on land and shelf and local elevations (structural noses), promising for oil and gas, are concentrated. Each of the selected zones of oil and gas accumulation consists of three subzones, displaced relative to each other at the intersection with faults of the northeast orientation (fault-shifts). Some of the selected subzones within the edge of platform of the trough are potentially petroleum-bearing ones. Fundamentally new ideas in structural and petroleum bearing relation touch upon the eastern part of the Terek-Caspian trough (Dagestan salient, Terek-Sulak depression and its offshore continuation).
The new version of the scheme of oil and gas geological zoning of the land and offshore parts of the Terek-Caspian trough is a scientifically based alternative to the working version of the oil and gas geological zoning, in particular, of the offshore part of the trough and can change the strategy of carrying out of oil and gas exploration in this area.
1. Mezhdunarodnaya tektonicheskaya karta Kaspiyskogo morya i ego obramleniya (International tectonic map of the Caspian Sea and its surroundings): edited by Khain V.E., Bogdanov N.A., Masshtab 1:2 500 000, Moscow, 2003.
2. Novikov A.A., Nikolaev N.M., Deliya S.V. et al., Estimation of oil and gas and economic potential of the East Sulak and Diagonal zones of oil and gas accumulation of the Caspian Sea in connection with the program of works for their development (In Russ.), Voprosy osvoeniya neftegazonosnykh basseynov, 2008, V. 67, pp. 4–15.
3. Sokolov B.A., Korchagina Yu.I., Mirzoev D.A. et al., Neftegazoobrazovanie i neftegazonakoplenie v Vostochnom Predkavkaz'e (Oil and gas formation and oil and gas accumulation in the Eastern Ciscaucasia), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990, 206 p.
4. Kas'yanova N.A., Formy proyavleniya neotektogeneza v Vostochnom Predkavkaz'e (Forms of neotectogenesis in the Eastern Ciscaucasia), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993, 128 p.
5. Milanovskiy E.E., Noveyshaya tektonika Kavkaza (The newest tectonics of the Caucasus), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1968, 490 p.6. Kas'yanova N.A., Sovremennaya geodinamika i ee vliyanie na neftegazonosnost' Kavkazsko-Skifskogo regiona (Modern geodynamics and its influence on the oil and gas potential of the Caucasus-Scythian region), Moscow: Geoinformmark Publ., 1995, 55 p.
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Advanced development of digital technologies has provided possibilities to evaluate and forecast characteristics of petroleum systems, predict oil and gas fields localization and their change through geological time in the zones previously not available for exploration: fold and thrust belts, fore deeps, transpressional regions of basins, under-thrust, over-thrust and under-salt geological sections.
As a part of technological strategy of Gazprom Neft Company the combination of new advanced tools for basin modeling was tasted and as a result the algorithm of 1D-2D-3D modeling illustrated on Pre-Ural fore deep basin (the south of Orenburg region) was developed. The complicity of geological history and tectonic structure of petroleum systems in basins with fold and thrust component impacts on exceptional and irregular distribution of geochemical, petrophysical, temperature etc. characteristics. Usually this type of petroleum systems consists of several isolated systems with different dynamic and geothermic regimes.
The process of petroleum systems modeling in fold and thrust belts regions is divided into two stages. The first one is balancing and restoration of geological cross section to pre-deformation geometry. This stage is very important and necessary for seismic interpretation validation, eroded layers restoration and moreover for preparation of structural frame for fluid-dynamic model of petroleum system.
Integration of advanced modeling tools allows to restore the history of predicted traps in tectonically complex zones, predict the distribution of hydrocarbon fluids in thrust zone and under-thrust layers in the digital models of 1D/2D format. Currently quantitative prediction of petroleum systems characteristics in 3D scale is not available for industrial projects.
1. Roure F., Sassi W., Kinematic of deformation and petroleum system appraisal in Neogen foreland fold-and-thrust belts, Petroleum Geoscience, 1995, V. 1, pp. 253–269.
2. Neumaier M., Littke R., Hantschel T. et al., Integrated charge and seal assessment in the Monagas thrust belt of Venezuela, AAPG Bulletin, 2014, V. 98, no. 7, pp. 1325–1350.
3. Moretti I., Working in complex areas: new restoration workflow based on quality control, 2D and 3D restorations, Marin and Petroleum Geology, 2008, V. 25, pp. 205–218.
4. Baur F., Di Benedetto M., Fuchs T. et al., Integrating structural geology and petroleum systems modeling – A pilot project from Bolivia’s fold and thrust belt, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 2009, V. 26, pp. 573–579.
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The paper is devoted to the questions of the geological structure and oil and gas potential of deep-buried pre-Jurassic deposits and the foundation of the central regions of Western Siberia and the granitoid rocks of the Pre-Cenozoic crystalline basement of the Vietnam shelf. A possible mechanism for the formation of an oil field in the basement is proposed, and a model of the reservoir structure is developed. Geochemical features of subterranean oil sedimentary strata covering the protrusions of the crystalline basement of the West Siberian oil and gas basin (NSA) are considered. The study of hydrocarbon (HC) and trace elements (TE) naphthyde composition made it possible to conclude about two sources of oil generation: syngenetic, associated with the Paleozoic OM, and epigenetic, generated Jurassic and Triassic OM. The possible depths of the processes of HC generation are specified. A differentiated distribution of TE, in particular, vanadium and vanadylporphyrins in naphthides of this region of Western Siberia, was noted. A zone of minimum concentrations in the bitumen formations of the Bazhenov deposits of vanadium and metal porphyrins is singled out, which is probably due to the different warmth of the interior and the migration of bituminoids fr om the lower horizons to the upper horizons. This zone practically coincides with the prospective oil-bearing zone of the pre-Jurassic sediments based on the results of mathematical modeling carried out by us earlier and with the existing oil content of the Khanty-Mansi and Nyurol regions. The depths of probable detection of hydrocarbon accumulations in the regions of fluid-conducting faults in the foundation, for example, Shaimsky, wh ere the increase in catagenesis with depth occurs most intensively, amount up to 3200 m for oil and up to 4000 m for gas condensates. To increase the probability of revealing medium and large reserves of oil and gas in the formations of the basement of Western Siberia, by analogy with Vietnam, the choice of the location and depth of the project well becomes extremely important. Considering the extremely uneven structure of the strata and the distribution of the unconsolidated fissured-cavernous rocks with good filtration-capacitive properties (in it, it is also necessary to conduct seismic operations using advanced technology, using scattered waves, to map the zones of increased fracturing even at the pre-drilling stage.
1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Shuster V.L., Punanova S.A., Doyurskiy kompleks Zapadnoy Sibiri – novyy etazh neftegazonosnosti. Problemy poiska, razvedki i osvoeniya mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (PreJurassic complex of Western Siberia — new floor petroleum potential. Problems prospecting, exploration and development of hydrocarbon deposits), Lambert Academic Publishing, 2012, 135 p.
2. Shuster V.L., Problemy neftegazonosnosti kristallicheskikh porod fundamenta (The problems of oil and gas potential of crystalline basement rocks), Moscow: Geoinformtsentr Publ., 2003, 48 p.
3. Khalimov Yu.E., Petroleum potential of granitoid basement reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 4, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/9/58_2012.pdf
4. Punanova S.A., About polygenic nature of the source of oil trace (In Russ.), Geokhimiya = Geochemistry, 2004, no. 8, pp. 893–907.
5. Phi Phi Manh Tung, Usloviya formirovaniya skopleniy uglevodorodov i otsenka perspektiv neftegazonosnosti v basseyne Yuzhnyy Konshon (shel'f Yuzhnogo V'etnama) (Conditions for formation of hydrocarbon accumulations and estimation of prospects for oil-and-gas-bearing capacity of the South-Konshon basin): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2016.
6. Punanova S.A., Shuster V.L., Geological-geochemical conditions for oil and gas content availability of Pre-Jurassic deposits located on West-Siberian platform (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2012, no. 6, pp. 20–26.
7. Kiryukhina T.A., Ul'yanov G.V., Dzyublo A.D., Geochemical aspects of the gas and petroleum sector of the Jurassic and pre-Jurassic deposits in the north of Western Siberia and the adjacent shelf (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' – GAS Industry of Russia, 2011, no. 7, pp. 66–70.
8. Fedorov Yu.N., Maslov A.V., Ronkin Yu.L., Lepikhina O.P., Mikroelementnaya kharakteristika syrykh neftey Shaimskogo i Sredneobskogo neftegazonosnykh rayonov Zapadnoy Sibiri: novye dannye. Degazatsiya (Trace elements characteristics of crude oils from Shaimskiy and Sredneobskiy oil and gas bearing regions of Western Siberia: new data. Degassing), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2010, pp. 586–589.
9. Chakhmakhchev V.A., Punanova S.A., To the problem of diagnostics of oil reservoirs on the example of Bazhenov deposits of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Geokhimiya = Geochemistry, 1992, no. 1, pp. 99–109.
10. Kontorovich A.E., Fomin A.N., Krasavchikov V.O., Istomin A.V., Katagenez organicheskogo veshchestva mezozoyskikh i paleozoyskikh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (The catagenesis of the organic matter of the Mesozoic and Paleozoic deposits of Western Siberia), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference “Litologicheskie i geokhimicheskie osnovy prognoza neftegazonosnosti” (Lithological and geochemical fundamentals for prediction oil and gas potential), St. Petersburg, Publ. of VNIGRI, 2008, pp. 68–77.
11. Stupakova A.V., Sokolov A.V., Soboleva E.V. et al., Geological survey and petroleum potential of Paleozoic deposits in the Western Siberia (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2015, no. 2(61), pp. 63–75.
12. Shuster V.L., Punanova S.A., Probabilistic estimation of oil-and-gas prospects of hydrocarbon potential of a pre-Jurassic complex of Western Siberia by means of the geological and mathematical program “Choice” (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 16–19.
13. Kremnev A.N. et al., Prediction of fracture-cavern type reservoirs by scattered seismic waves (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki = Seismic technologies, 2008, no. 3, pp. 12–16.14. Levyant V.B., Shuster V.L., Isolation in the foundation zone of fractured rock by seismic exploration 3D-methods (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2002, no. 2, pp. 21–25.
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The R. Trebs oilfield, located in the Nenets autonomous district, belongs to the Timano-Pechora oil-and-gas bearing province. Reservoir is characterized by the complex structure (fractured-vugular-porous type), poor continuity of producing formation in terms of thickness and quality (both in square and section), amplitude faults network and erosion zones. These properties cause uncertainties in localizing remaining oil reserves and composition of inflow in drilled wells.
This paper presents an integrated approach that helps to evaluate secondary porosity parameters for undeveloped areas of the R. Trebs oilfield. In the framework of this approach, geological and hydrodynamic modeling, modeling of a discrete fracture network occur iteratively, which makes it possible to jointly use field data, hydrodynamic well data, interpretation results of seismic, flow and geomechanical core research, image and acoustic logging results. Each of iteration is accompanied by the adjustment of all used models. The approach allows to predict oil production levels during water-and-gas impact considering geological heterogeneity in conditions of incomplete field well development. The reliability of the hydrodynamic model is confirmed by the successful prediction of the values of the initial reservoir pressure and the initial production rate of oil production at the new wells.
The novelty of the work is redesigning of discrete fracture net, interpreting of seismic data during adaptation process of reservoir simulation model. It significantly changed vision of the reservoir structure and allowed to extend a new vision to the entire oilfield.
1. Fedorov A.I., Nabiullin R.M., Fedorov V.N. et al., Determination of reservoir filtration system model of R. Trebs field using dynamic well tests (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 60–63.
2. Ardislamova D.R., Salimgareeva E.M., Gallyamova D.Ch., Integrated approach to modeling naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), SPE 176639-RU, 2015.
3. Nelson R.A., Geologic analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs, Butterworth – Heinemann, Woburn, Massachusetts, USA, 2001, 332 p.
4. Gaynullina E.K., Emel'yanov D.E., Kuchurina O.E. et al., Petrophysical framework for interpretation of Lower Devonian and Upper Silurian heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs: a case study from R. Trebs oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 5, pp. 44–46.
5. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1982.
6. Gimazov A.A., Russkikh K.G., Murinov K.Yu. et al., Core flow models for analysis of laboratory tests on parameters for WAG simulations: A case study from R. Trebs oil field (In Russ.), SPE 176593-RU, 2015.
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At present, one of the strategic objectives is to develop hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves in Western Siberia which include, along with Bazhenov, Lower and Middle Jurassic formations. Due to high uncertainty of initial parameters, standard methods of resource exploration and evaluation are not sufficiently effective. Therefore, development of hard-to-recover oil and gas reserves located in low permeable reservoirs, Tyumen and Urman in particular, implies development and implementation of new technological approaches to resource prospecting and production.
The relevance of the work is associated with the task to increase the increment of hydrocarbon reserve based on innovative technologies – statistical interpretation of old data of geophysical surveys. The purpose of the article is to analyze the relationship between secondary process of double electric layer formation in the argillaceous facies and oil-saturation of tight sand reservoir in the Lower-Middle Jurassic formation of Tomsk region. As an instrument to determine intensity of the secondary processes in tight sand reservoirs of Lower and Middle Jurassic, a new method of statistical interpretation of well logging data has been applied. Intensive secondary processes serve as indicators of hydrocarbon occurrence. Paragenesis of superimposed processes of pyritization, kaolinitization, and formation of surface conductivity in argillaceous cement in sandy intervals indicates their hydrocarbon saturation. The mathematical apparatus of estimating the perspective in reproduction of hydrocarbon resource and profitability of well logging statistical interpretation are presented. Economic feasibility and effectiveness of this technology is shown.
1. Gert A., Germakhanov A., Goncharov I. et al., Hard to recover reserves of the Tomsk region. Directions for accelerated study and involvement in operation (In Russ.), Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2015, no. 7, pp. 30–37.
2. Nedolivko N.M., Ezhova A.V., Perevertaylo T.G., Polumogina E.D., The role of disjunctive tectonics in the formation of a void space in the reservoirs of the Yu13 seam of the Western Moisei section of the Dvurechensk oil field (Tomsk Region) (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2005, V. 308, no. 5, pp. 47–53.
3. Predtechenskaya E.A., Shiganova O.V., Fomichev A.S., Catagenetic and hydrochemical anomalies in Lower-Middle Jurassic oil-and-gas bearing deposits in West Siberia as indicators of fluid-dynamic processes in disjunctive dislocation zones (In Russ.), Litosfera, 2009, no. 6, pp. 54–65.
4. Mel'nik I.A., Technology of increase information data geophysical researches with the purpose of allocation of zones imposed epigenesist in sandstones-collectors (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2007, no. 12, pp. 223–227.
5. Mel'nik I.A., Opredelenie intensivnosti geokhimicheskikh protsessov po materialam geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Estimates of the intensity of geochemical processes using well logging data), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 2016, 146 p.
6. Mel'nik I.A., Smirnova K.Yu., Zimina S.V. et al., Geological structure, stratigraphy and perspectives of oil and gas potential in the Low-Middle Jurassic deposits in Tomsk Region (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering, 2015, V. 326, no. 11, pp. 20–30.
7. Lebedev B.A., Geokhimiya epigeneticheskikh protsessov v osadochnykh basseynakh (Geochemistry of epigenetic processes in sedimentary basins), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1992, 239 p.
8. Zubkov M.Yu., Crystallographic and lithological and petrographical basis of iron minerals, clays and terrigenous reservoirs electrical properties (by the example of BV8 and UV1 strata of Povkhovskoye field) (In Russ.), Part 1, Gornye vedomosti, 2008, no. 11, pp. 20–32.
9. Zubkov M.Yu. Crystallographic and lithological and petrographical basis of iron minerals, clays and terrigenous reservoirs electrical properties (by the example of BV8 and UV1 strata of Povkhovskoye field) (In Russ.), Part 2, Gornye vedomosti, 2008, no. 12, pp. 30-53.
10. Chepikov K.R., Ermolova E.P., Orlova N.A., Epigenetic minerals as indicators of the time of arrival of oil in sandy industrial reservoirs (In Russ.), Doklady AN SSSR, 1959, V. 125, no. 5, pp. 1097–1099.
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In this paper we present the approach to prediction of reservoir properties distribution for carbonate reservoir of Timan-Pechora petroleum province based on petro-elastic modelling. The main idea of the approach is integration of multiscale reservoir surveys. Several rock types (lithotypes) were distinguished during lithologic analysis based on core description. Formation evaluation has been done by detailed lithological and petrophysical core-log interpretation. The effective petro-elastic model is identified for the considered reservoir. By the analysis of petro-elastic model parameters the criteria were established for prediction of reservoir properties by seismic data based on amplitude inversion.
Development and implementation of approaches for prediction of reservoir properties distribution based on petro-elastic modelling is of genuine concern.
In this paper we show application of petro-elastic modelling approach for one of the field of Central-Khoreyver Uplift. The considered approach can be applied for neighbor fields or for the analogous carbonate reservoirs.
1. Dobrynin V.M., Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)), Moscow: Neft i gaz Publ., 2004, 369 p.
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3. Xu S., Payne A., Modeling elastic properties in carbonate rocks, The Leading Edge, 2009, V. 28, no. 1, pp. 66–74.
4. Shubin A.V., Gassman’s theory: a basis of seismic data numerical interpretation (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2012, no. 1, pp. 16–19.
5. Mavko G., Mukerji T., Dvorkin J., The rock physics handbook: tools for seismic analysis in porous media, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, 2009, 511 p.
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7. Brie A., Pampuri F., Marsala A.F., Meazza O., Shear sonic interpretation in gas bearing sands, SPE 30595, 1995.
8. Gassmann F., Elastic waves through a packing of spheres, Geophysics, 1951, V. 16, pp. 673-685.
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Carbonates are known to differ significantly from conventional sandstone reservoirs and this mainly associated with the rock structure and rock-fluid interactions. The differences also influence on the study of the carbonate cores, especially on core handling and preparation procedures prior to laboratory tests. The main distinguishing features are following: high heterogeneity (anisotropy) of properties; presence of special features (cracks, caverns and the like) of sizes larger than core samples; initial wettability (intermediate or hydrophobic); rock-fluid interactions (ion exchange, chemical absorption, dissolution); relatively low rock strength. These differences impose a whole list of limitations and changes on carbonate core handling and preparation procedures.
A more than 10-year development history of a group of oil fields of the Central Khoreyver Uplift in the Nenets Autonomous District of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province, has come up with new approaches and a system of internal regulations. The reservoir rocks of the Central Khoreyver Uplift are mainly carbonates (up to 96-98%) with little impurities and rock wettability ranging from totally hydrophobic to intermediate.
Oil oxidation and evaporation from cores generally affect the results of subsequent studies. For better results, the initial wettability of carbonate cores must be maintained in any study. This can be achieved by carrying out mild cleaning procedures during core preparation. Core orientation coupled with stress anisotropy is also shown to greatly improve carbonate data quality and their correlations. Considering the above mentioned factors in core analysis techniques can bring about a change in the general understanding of the in-situ processes occurring in such reservoirs during field development. Studies, carried out to compare the results obtained from the study of preserved and unpreserved carbonate cores, showed the great impact core handling procedures (from the well site to the laboratory) has on subsequent lab results.
1. Kovalev K.M., Grishin P.A., Gabsiya B.K. et al., Carbonate core: Research features, complexities, prospects (In Russ.), SPE 187872-MS, 2017.
2. Luk'yanov V.G., Krets V.G., Gornye mashiny i provedenie gorno-razvedochnykh vyrabotok (Mining machines and carrying out mining exploration workings), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2010, 342 p.
3. API RP 40, Recommended practices for core analysis, 1998, February.
4. Grishin P.A., Kovalev K.M., Experimental determination of Visovoye oilfield carbonate formations stress-strain properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 6, pp. 78–81.
5. Van Genuchten M., A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 1980, V. 44, pp. 892-898.
6. Kovalev K.M., Fomkin A.V., Grishin P.A., Kurochkin A.D., Kolesnikov M.V., Levchenko A.S., Afanas'ev I.S, Fedorchenko G.D., Aged carbonate cores wettability verification (In Russ.), SPE 182064-MS, 2016.
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The principal features of the adaptive approach to digital geological modeling of oil and gas objects are considered, primarily related to the uncertainty of the initial data. It is shown that the adaptive approach, without requiring minimal discrepancies between the actual parameters and the results of modeling, allows to create the digital geological models of oil and gas objects adequate to the existing level of reliability of the input information, sufficiently accurate and acceptable in terms of labor costs, which take into account the most significant features of their geological structure. The adaptive geological model contains as many layers as can be identified from the results of detailed correlation, i.e. no upscaling of this model is required for its transformation into a hydrodynamic one. In the adaptive geological model, the actual and model parameters of wells may not coincide with each other, because such a model is a kind of averaged “surface” designed to minimize errors to the points of wells. To create an adaptive geological model of each layer, fuzzy-logical functions are used that describe the relationships between the parameters of wells and the seismic data. Due to the impossibility of selecting one function for the whole object, a field of fuzzy-logical functions is formed, in other words, a fuzzy-grid, which makes it possible to more flexibly model the geological structure of the object and its properties. A multi-layer adaptive model is formed by combining single-layer models. As an example, the results of adaptive geological modeling of the Permian-Carboniferous reservoir of the Usinskoye field which is the largest one in the Russian Timan-Pechora oil and gas province are presented. It is concluded that due to its mathematical apparatus based on fuzzy logic functions that are capable of adjusting themselves to specific initial data, the adaptive approach is an effective tool for operational forecasting of geological parameters necessary for solving different problems of originally oil and gas in place calculations as well as performance monitoring of the petroleum reservoirs.
1. Ashby W.R., An introduction to cybernetics, Chapman & Hall, London, 1956.
2. Danilenko A.N., Gutman I.S., Ursegov S.O. et al., Razvitie predstavleniy o geologicheskoy modeli permo-karbonovoy zalezhi Usinskogo mestorozhdeniya na osnove detal'noy korrelyatsii i tipizatsii razrezov skvazhin (Development of ideas about the geological model of the Permo-Carboniferous reservoir of the Usinskoye field based on the detailed correlation and typification of well sections), Collected papers “Problemy osvoeniya Timano-Pechorskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii” (Problems of development of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province), Ukhta: O-Kratkoe Publ., 2012, pp. 150–165.
3. Gutman I.S., Saakyan M.I., Ursegov S.O. et al., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii k korrelyatsii razrezov skvazhin (Methodological recommendations for the correlation of well sections): edited by Gutman I.S., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2013, 112 p.
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Design of reservoir drilling fluids (RDF) is often based on the return permeability coefficients received by filtration core analyses. Such approach is only partly justified as has there are several essential restrictions. In this article, there are considered some important factors influencing obtaining more reliable results from filtration core analyses.
Results of such researches on model Bandera Grey and Buff Berea sandstones have shown obvious dependence relative permeability coefficients from types of wettability of a core and types of RDF. The best results are noted for the samples which were tested with invert emulsion oil base mud, and the worst – with direct emulsion water base mud, intermediate results are recorded when using usual biopolymer water base mud. Also, certain features in core preparation are obtained for water saturation of a core which depends on primary wettability. The practical examples reflecting correctness of the received conclusions are given in this article.
Owing to a special role of filtration researches in design of RDF, variety of techniques, types of RF, interdependent, and versatile factors, authors call scientific community for consolidation of efforts in development of the uniform standard in the core filtration researches for oil and gas industry.
1. Marsshall D.S., Gray R., Byrne M.T., Development of a recommended practice for formation damage testing, SPE 38154-MS, 1997.
2. Marsshall D.S., Gray R., Byrne M.T., Return permeability: A detailed comparative study, SPE 54763-MS, 1999.
3. Han L., Lohne A., Stevenson B., Stavland A., Making sense of return permeability data measured in the laboratory, SPE 94715-MS, 2005.
4. Byrne M., McPhee C., Rojas E., Improving return permeability test data through representative drawdown simulation, SPE 143967-MS, 2011.
5. Byrne M., Patey I., Formation damage laboratory testing – A discussion of key parameters, pitfalls and potential, SPE 82250-MS, 2007.
6. Scott H.E., Patey l.T.M., Byrne M.T., Return permeability measurements – proceed with caution, SPE 107812-MS, 2007.
7. Van der Zwaag C.H., Olsen H., Lohne A., Significance of selected set-up parameters in return permeability measurements used for formation damage quantification, SPE 127994-MS, 2010.
8. Offenbacher M., Luyster M., Gray L. et al., Return permeability: When a single number can lead you astray in fluid selection, SPE 165106-MS, 2013.
9. Lutfullin A., Arslanbekov A.R., Mosin V.A. et al., Drilling in oil-wet reservoirs with oil based mud systems (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 9, pp. 57–61.
10. Andriadi S., Dontsov E., Sergeev S., Sibagatullin R., Using an oil-based drilling fluid for initial penetration of Jurassic sediments in the Van-Yoganskoye field (In Russ.), Novator, 2012, no. 6, pp. 24–28.
11. Ballard T.J. Dawe R.A., Wettability alteration induced by oil-based drilling fluid, SPE 17160-MS, 1988.12. Anderson W.G., Wettability literature survey, Part 1: Rock, oil, brine interactions and the effects of core handling on wettability, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1986, October, pp. 1125–1144.
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One of the most perspective areas in the field of drilling is small diameter well (SDW) construction. The early SDW construction has no proper development to a whole number of reasons. At present time the main questions are solved. The reducing of casing strings diameter and weight-supporting capacity of drilling rig leads to a well construction cost downsizing up to 25%. In 2010 LUKOIL-PERM LLC was drilled the first small diameter multilateral well and it profitability was confirmed. In 2014 the first directional well with horizontal completion was drilled. In 2017 LUKOIL-PERM LLC was drilled the first multihole small diameter well. Initial flow of multihole small diameter well was 18,8 t/day, that is more than 3,2 times exceed the flow rate of the surrounding directional small diameter wells and high by 1,8 times the horizontal small diameter wells.
The article gives the minimization risks solutions by the construction of first multihole small diameter well and description the drilling process. The analysis of SDW production evolution shows that a production decline rate of SDW and SDW with horizontal completion is comparable with the similar design gage diameter wells. The results of SDW construction are summarized in article. Technical and technological solutions, which favour to an additional reduction in construction period and material costs, are presented. The perspectives of small diameter wells drilling are marked out.
Because the SDW cost minimization was reached, it is necessary to revise the profitable flow rate criterion for wells with various architectures and draw the technical and technological assessment SDW for deep geological horizons, and also implement a dual completion. In connection with deterioration of residual recoverable reserves and new opportunities in oil production area, a part of SDW construction will be increase in total drilling content. Also small diameter well should substitute for sidehole with up to 1000 m length.
1. Meshcheryakov K.A., Yatsenko V.A., Il'yasov S.E., Okromelidze G.V., Drilling of small diameter wells as a way to reduce costs in the construction of development and exploratory wells (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2013, no. 10, pp. 26–29.
2. Kul'chitskiy V.V., Shchebetov A.V., Aygunyan V.V., The drilling of small diameter wells for the development of the Bazhenov Suite (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 9, pp. 88–89.
3. Meshcheryakov K.A., Il'yasov S.E., Okromelidze G.V., Yatsenko V.A., Drilling of the sidetrack from the small diameter well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 45–47.
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The data processing technique for rotational viscometry has been considered, which is based on the maximum likely hood function principle, takes into account the information content of the experiments and is built on the strict solution of the Couette flow equation in the viscosimeter gap. The class of models is formed fr om rheologically stationary (including biviscosity) models that admit an explicit analytical representation of the form .³ = .³ (Ä) wh ere .³ – velocity gradient, Ä – shear stress. It is noted that for a fairly complete class of rheological models, there are several models with similar values for the criteria of their choice.
To increase the efficiency of making technological decisions with certain requirements for information support, it has been proposed to evaluate the rheological model and properties on the basis of multi criteria analysis. The stages of processing rotational viscometry data has been described, including the formation of a class of rheological models, evaluation of rheological properties using the criteria of the likelihood function, selection of a subset of equivalent rheological models, construction of covariance matrices and the accuracy criteria for evaluating rheological properties and selection of a rheological model by the accuracy criteria.
Illustrative examples of the interpretation of the results of processing the rheological properties for the biopolymer Biokar system and the re-suspension slurry RTM-75 PV have been given.
1. Golubev D.A., The true rheological curves plotting using the data of rotational viscosimetry (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1979, no. 8, pp. 18–21.
2. Myslyuk M.A., On the procedure for determining the rheological properties of disperse media from the data of rotational viscosimetry (In Russ.), Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal, 1988, V. 54, no. 6, pp. 975–979.
3. Kelessidis V.C., Maglione R., Shear rate corrections for Herschel – Bulkley fluids in Coutte geometry, Applied Rheology, 2008, V.183, 34482 p.
4. Bui B.T., Tutuncu A.N., A generalized rheological model for drilling fluids with cubic splines, SPE 169527-PA, 2015.
5. Myslyuk M.A., Salyzhin Yu.M., The evaluation of biviscosity fluids rheological properties on the basis of rotational viscometry data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 12, pp. 40–42.
6. Myslyuk M.A., Salyzhin Yu.M., Evaluation of the influence of barothermic conditions on the rheological properties of drilling fluids (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2007, no. 4, pp. 44–47.
7. Myslyuk M., Salyzhyn I., The evaluation rheological parameters of non-Newtonian fluids by rotational viscosimetry, Applied Rheology, 2012, V. 223, 32381 p.
8. Myslyuk M.A., Rheotechnologies in well drilling, Journal of Hydrocarbon Power Engineering, 2016, V. 3, no. 2, pp. 39–45.9. Myslyuk M.A., Bogoslavets V.V., Luban Yu.V. et al., Research of rheological properties of "Biokar" biopolymer system (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2015, no. 8, pp. 31–36.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The article deals with a possibility of predicting abnormally high reservoir pressure (AHRP) of multiple reservoir systems which are not involved in the development process (oil extraction/water injection). This material will subsequently allow us to introduce tools which minimize the risks of complications originated during the borehole drilling and leading to their redrilling with associated material costs.
The work was carried out on the basis of existing experience of arising complications during the construction of wells with injected fluid inflow during the period fr om 2014 to 2017. The focus of this work is one of the reservoirs of the West Siberian oil and gas province: Priobskoie field, located in Tyumen region, which is unique regarding its reserves. A theory on the occurrence of technogenic AHRP zones was formulated using a number of input data, including the mechanical earth model, the actual data on hydralic fracturin and injection pressures in the system of reservoir pressure maintenance. The reason of the occurrrence of AHRP zones in undeveloped formations was determined, based on the phenomenon of auto hydraulic fracturing. Concomitant signs associated with the areas wh ere technogenic AHRP zones occur were determined. The development of auto hydraulic fractures was imitated taking into account the Mechanical Earth Model of the section, and the adaptation of development parameters in order to understand the mechanism of formation of AHRP zones. Based on the consolidation of factual material obtained during drilling and consolidation of geological information, forecast maps of isobars of multi-zone objects were compiled, specific features were taken into account. It is suggested to increase the forecast quality of the occurrence of AHRP zones and to reduce the number of complications in the course of drilling arising due to this reason in the future.
There is a possibility to replicate this approach for trouble-free drilling in other reservoirs with similar geological conditions of the reservoir structure, as the Priobskoie field has, and principles for the development of oil production facilities.
1. Milanovskiy E.E., Geologiya Rossii i blizhnego zarubezh'ya (Severnoy Evrazii) (Geology of Russia and the near abroad (Northern Eurasia)), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1996, 448 p.
2. Aleksandrov B.L., Anomal'no vysokie plastovye davleniya v neftegazonosnykh basseynakh (Abnormally high reservoir pressures in oil and gas basins), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 216 p.
3. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, New York: John Willey & Sons, LTD, 2000.
4. Perkins T.K., Gonzales J.A., The effect of thermoleastic stresses on injection well fracturing, SPE 11332, 1983.
5. Koning E.J.L., Fractured water injection wells – Analytic modelling of fracture propagation, SPE 14684, 1985.
6. A. Davletbaev et al., Field studies of spontaneous growth of induced fractures in injection wells (In Russ.), SPE 171232, 2014.
7. Kuzmina S. et al., Reservoir pressure depletion and water flooding influencing hydraulic fracture orientation in low-permeability oilfields (In Russ.), SPE 120749, 2009.
8. Afanasiev I.S. et al., Analysis of multiple fracture horizontal well application of Priobskoe field (In Russ.), SPE 162031, 2012.
9. Butula K.K., Vereschagin S. et al., Field development issues and newly developed sector pattern with horizontal multi stage fractures wells completed in mid-permeability oil reservoir under waterflood (In Russ.), SPE 181983-MS, 2016.
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World oil industry current tendency is a transition to development tight reserves. In order to take into account all possible risks related to different kind of geological and technological uncertainties to help make a decision about project economic efficiency, we propose to utilize multivariate simulation for production forecast. Based on actual data from drilled out zones in deep-water part of clinoforms three types of sections were selected. A geological uncertainty those sections is determined by distance from a source of conglomerate. Digital models for each type were created with keeping major morphological features of associated sand bodies. A pool of simulation models was created by variating geological parameters (absolute permeability, net thickness, Corey coefficients at oil relative permeability curves, original oil in place) and technological parameters (fracture half length, fracture height, fracture conductivity). A process of creating multiple models was accomplished by program module RExLab and Rosneft’s program software complex RN-KIM. Latin hypercube algorithm was applied for generating approximately 5000 models for each type of geology. Out of calculated models were selected cases matching actual liquid production and water cut. The selected cases were being used for evaluating technical and economic efficiency of a development pattern within forecast period. As a result of calculation was given Recovery Factor probability distribution function and cumulative NPV per development areas which allow to accomplish an economical project assessment out of P10/P50/P90 perspectives.
1. Baykov V.A., Bochkov A.S., Yakovlev A.A., Accounting of nonhomogeneity in Priobskoye field geological modeling and simulation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 5, pp. 50–54.
2. Belyakov E.O., Teploukhov V.M., Using a stochastic model of the pore space connectedness for describing filtration-capacitive properties of Priobskoye field AS9-12 layer (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 12, pp. 34–38.
3. Burkholder K., Coopersmith E., Schulze J., Appraisal excellence in unconventional reservoirs, SPE 162776-MS, 2012.
4. Ekeoma E., Appah D.A., Latin hypercube sampling for gas reserves, SPE 128349-MS, 2009.
5. Galeev R.R., Zorin A.M., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Optimal waterflood pattern selection with use of multiple fractured horizontal wells for development of the low-permeability formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 62–65.
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Currently, the main residual recoverable reserves in oil fields of Western Siberia, which are under development and planned for commissioning, are concentrated in oil deposits with a complex geological and geological structure, low filtration and reservoir properties, which have a difficult predictable nature of the spatial distribution of reservoir rocks. The main method of intensifying the flow of oil in production wells is hydraulic fracturing, which allows creating highly permeable cracks in low permeable terrigenous pore reservoirs, which leads to the formation of additional difficulties in the development of similar oil deposits with a mixed type of reservoir. The problem with premature watering of produced wells comes to the forefront. The productive deposits of the Tumen formation of the Middle Jurassic age is represented by interstratification of sand-siltstone and clay rocks, often enriched with carbonaceous material, having a complex lithological composition, variable, undeveloped in area and in section. Usualy hydrophobic acid compositions are used at the final stage of development after drilling wells or performing geological and technical measures. The waterproofing by changing the filtration in the pore space is based on a change in the character of the wetting capacity of the enclosing rock, increasing the permeability of oil and reducing the possibility of water movement, during which it is possible to form even more hydrophilic pores.
To change the nature of the wettability of the pore reservoir, various hydrocarbon water-based emulsions with the addition of various stabilization emulsifiers, as well as cationic surface-active agents, are generally applicable.
The results of filtration experiments indicate the high colmatation of the formation ability of various technological fluids during drilling, development and repair of wells, the value of oil permeability in the reservoir is reduced to 6 times from the initial value, when drilling mud is colmatized. The acid hydrophobic composition based on the cationic surfactant and the hydrochloric acid solution is proposed. It has confirmed its effectiveness in terms of restoring the oil phase permeability, by breaking the solid particles of the colmatants with a solution of hydrochloric acid and changing the nature of wettability of the pore space to the hydrophobic cationic surfactant.
1. Svalov A.M., Capillary forces effect on the process of a producing well flooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 10, pp. 64-67.
2. Svalov A.M., Analysis of the factors, determining the efficiency of hydrophobiation of producing wells bottom zones (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 74-77.
3. Khisamov R.S., Vysokoeffektivnye tekhnologii osvoeniya neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Highly efficient technology of development of oil field), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 628 p.
4. Akhmetshin M.A., Povyshenie proizvoditel'nosti neftyanykh skvazhin obrabotkoy prizaboynoy zony rastvorami poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshchestv (Improving the the productivity of oil wells by bottomhole treatment with surfactants solutions): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1968.
5. Akhmetshin M.A., On artificial hydrophobization of rocks of bottomhole zone of oil wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo= Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 73-77.
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According to estimates, the Russian Federation has 30 to 70 billion tons of technically recoverable heavy oil and natural bitumen resources, and this makes the issue of their commercial development a matter of national importance. Considerable reserves of super-viscous oil and natural bitumen are already being developed in Urals-Volga oil and gas province. Over the past 40 years, scientists and oilmen of Tatarstan have developed and received approval a variety of natural bitumen field development techniques such as the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection. Effective extraction of hard-to-recover reserves is impossible without an adequate understanding of the processes occurring in the development of deposits. Determination of the natural bitumen’s characteristics is important when choosing methods for their extraction, including detailed information on the geological structure of the reservoir, the properties of the rocks composing the reservoir, and also the control data of the variety of physical and chemical processes during the movement of formation fluids. Improvement of technological processes for the production of bituminous oil is impossible without fundamental knowledge of the features of its rheological properties. Understanding the rheology and structure formation processes relationship in oil dispersed systems makes it possible to purposefully sel ect the reagents for extraction, the parameters of the physical impact on the formation (including thermal methods). Therefore, a complex, systematic approach to assessing the changes occurring in deposits in a wide range of variations in their molecular, fractional, and component composition is essential.
Within the framework of the Federal Targeted Program for Research and Development in Priority Areas of Development of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex for 2014-2020, Almetyevsk State Oil Institute carries out the work to be performed under agreement 14.607.21.0195 “Research and development solutions to recover from unconventional reservoirs (Domanic) and hard-to-recover crude oil reserves (bitumen) on the basis of experimental studies". Experimental studies are aimed at improving the process of steam gravity drainage and cyclic steam injection in terms of increasing the flow rate, the oil vapor ratio, energy consumption. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of the composition and properties of bituminous oil using rheological, chromatographic and optical studies.
1. Khisamov R.S., Amerkhanov M.I., Khanipova Yu.V., Change of properties and composition of heavy oil in the process of Ashalchinskoye field development by steam-assisted gravity drainage method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 78–81.
2. Gussamov I.I., Petrov S.M., Ibragimova D.A. et al., Structurally grouped composition of high-viscosity oil fr om the Ashalchinskoye field (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2014, no. 7, pp. 248–251.
3. Gil'manshin A.F., Nekotorye zakonomernosti prostranstvennogo izmeneniya koeffitsienta svetopogloshcheniya nefti v predelakh mestorozhdeniy TatASSR i veroyatnost' ispol'zovaniya ikh dlya resheniy geologo-promyslovykh zadach (Some regularities of the spatial variation of the light absorption coefficient of oil within the limits of the deposits of the Tatar ASSR and the probability of using them for solving field-geological problems): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1965, 22 p.
4. Cherkasova E.I., Safiullin I.I., Features of extraction of high-viscosity oil (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2015, no. 6, pp.105–108.
5. De Souza-Mendes P.R., Thompson R.L., A unified approach to model elasto-viscoplastic thixotropic yieldstress materials and apparent yield-stress fluids, Rheol. Acta, 2013, V. 52, pp. 673–694.
6. Devlikamov V.V., Markhasin I.L., Babalyan G.A., Opticheskie metody kontrolya za razrabotkoy neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Optical methods for controlling the development of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 160 p.
7. Ganiev B.G., Gus'kova I.A., Nurgaliev R.Z., Gabdrakhmanov A.T., Study of optical properties of oil of Vishnevo-Polyanskoe deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 117–120.
8. Bogomolov A.I., Gayle A.A., Gromova V.V. et al., Khimiya nefti i gaza (Chemistry of oil and gas): edited by Proskuryakov V.A., Drabkin A.E., St. Petersburg: Khimiya Publ., 1995, 448 p.
9. Yusupova T.N., Ganeeva Yu.M., Romanov G.V., Barskaya E.E., Fiziko-khimicheskie protsessy v produktivnykh neftyanykh plastakh (Physical and chemical processes in the productive oil reservoirs), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2015, 412 p.
10. Petrov Al.A., Uglevodorody nefti (Hydrocarbons of oil), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1984, 264 p.
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When ranking the attractiveness of projects for the development of high-viscosity oil fields, a need has been identified for creating a single approach to the selection and rapid assessment of the efficiency of the technology of thermal methods for enhancing oil recovery (EOR). The purpose of this work is to create a convenient and fast tool for solving this problem.
In this paper, a comparative analysis of existing analytical methods for planning thermal EOR is carried out: steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), constant or cyclic steam injection, heating of the formation by borehole heaters. The limits of applicability of the models most often used in the literature are determined. For cases where formation parameters do not allow the use of analytical approaches to account for the entire range of physical parameters occurring in the formation under the influence of the thermal fluid, a new engineering tool is proposed. Its implementation is based on solving the equations of two-dimensional multicomponent multiphase non-isothermal filtration in an anisotropic formation. At the same time, the proposed tool allows us to directly use empirical dependencies and correlations obtained from the results of laboratory studies of core and oil or on formation-analogues.
As a result of the work, software was created for performing operational engineering calculations on simplified two-dimensional non-isothermal simulation models, which allows modeling and evaluating the effectiveness of various thermal methods for enhancing oil recovery on the formation. The developed algorithms significantly reduce the calculation time, without losing accuracy, take into account the type of completion of wells and the geometry of the "formation-well" system under various conditions at the reservoir boundaries and at the well. The possibility of cumulative accounting of the effect of physical effects in the process of thermal action is realized: change in wettability and relative permeability (including residual oil saturation), thermal expansion of fluid and rocks, oil distillation, change in the initial shear gradient for oil, and others.
1. Yudin E.V., Vorob'ev K.V., Bykov A.A., Stepanenko I.K., Calculation model for estimating the change of hot fluid properties along the wellbore during the steam injection (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 50-53.
2. Yudin E., Lubnin A., Lubnina E. et al., New engineering tools for rapid assessment of the efficiency of thermal methods for enhancing oil recovery (In Russ.), SPE 191608-18RPTC-RU, 2018.
3. Varx J.W., Langenheim R.H., Reservoir heating by hot fluid injection, Trans. Am. Inst. Min., Metall. Pet. Eng., 1959, V. 216, pp. 312–315.
4. Jones J., Steam drive model for hand-held programmable calculators, SPE 8882-PA, 1981.
5. Jones J., Why cyclic steam predictive models get no respect, SPE 20022-PA, 1992.
6. Jones J., Cyclic steam reservoir model for viscous oil, pressure depleted reservoirs, SPE 6544, 1977.
7. Van Lookeren J., Calculation methods for linear and radial steam flow in oil reservoirs, SPE 6788, 1977.
8. Wu Z., Vasantarajan S., Optimal soak time for cyclic steam stimulation of a horizontal well in gravity drainage reservoirs, SPE 146716-MS, 2011.
9. Wu Z., Vasantharajan S., El-Mandouh M., Suryanarayana P.V., Inflow performance of a cyclic-steam-stimulated horizontal well under the influence of gravity drainage, SPE 127518-PA, 2011.
10. Khisamov R.S., Morozov P.E., Khayrullin M.Kh. et al., The analytical model for development of heavy oil deposit by steam-assisted gravity drainage method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 2, pp. 62–64.
11. Mao Deming, Xie Xueying, Jones M.R., Harvey A., Karanikas J.M., A simple approach for quantifying accelerated production through heating producer wells, SPE 181757-PA, 2017.
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The paper describes the procedures for planning, implementation, interpretation of diagnostic fracture injection test (DFIT), analysis of calibration tests (substitution, mini-frac) in hydraulic fracturing. The main stages of the procedures, recommendations, as well as the results are given. The advantages of injection tests over traditional methods of wells hydrodynamic studies in respect of low-permeability reservoirs are considered. Particular attention is paid to description of injection test results interpretation algorithm. Theoretical foundations of methods for injection tests analysis (i.e., before closure analysis, after closure analysis (Nolte method) and log-log analysis) are discussed. The main problem is the lack of reliable information about the geometry of the crack, its height and the pay zone of the fractured formation. These parameters are important for reliable assessment of reservoir permeability.
The article describes in detail the injection tests results interpretation technology. It is shown that the basis of a reliable interpretation is the simulation of hydraulic fracture created while performing the injection test. In the concluding section, we present approbation results of discharge tests interpretation technology performed for the wells of the Rosneft Oil Company. Good agreement between the values of permeability and reservoir pressure obtained by different methods indicates the equivalence of the analysis methods used. In addition, comparison of the results of the analysis with the data obtained from the Decline Analysis confirms their reliability and correctness of the approach adopted.
1. Nolte K.G., Determination of fracture parameters from fracturing pressure decline analysis, SPE 8341, 1979.
2. Nolte K.G., A general analysis of fracturing pressure decline analysis with application to three models, SPE 12941-PA, 1986.
3. Castillo J.L., Modified fracture pressure decline analysis including pressure-dependent leakoff, SPE 16417, 1987.
4. Nolte K.G., Background for after-closure analysis of fracture calibration tests, SPE 39407, 1997.
5. Soliman M.Y., Analysis of buildup tests with short producing time, SPE11083-PA, 1986.
6. Soliman M.Y. et al., New method for determination of formation permeability, reservoir pressure, and fracture properties from a minifrac test, 05-658 ARMA Conference Paper, 2005.
7. Craig D.P., Blasingame T.A., Application of a new fracture-injection falloff model accounting for propagating, dilated, and closing hydraulic fractures, SPE 1005778, 2006.
8. Barree R.D., Barree V.L., Craig D.P., Holistic fracture diagnostics: Consistent interpretation of prefrac injection tests using multiple analysis methods, SPE 107877, 2007.
9. Soliman M.Y., Pongratz R., Rylance M., Prather D., Fracture treatment optimization for horizontal well completion, SPE 102616, 2006.
10. Makhota N.A., Davletbaev A.YA., Fedorov A.I. et al., Examples of mini-frac test data interpretation in low-permeability reservoir (In Russ.), SPE 171175, 2014.
11. URL: https://www. tricanwellservice.com/sites/default/files/pdf/ 806_MiniFracAnalysis-Poster.pdf
12. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, USA, New York: J.Wiley and Sons, 2000, 862 p.
13. Blasingame T.A., Johnston J.L., Lee W.J., Type curve analysis using the pressure integral method, SPE 18799, 1989.
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In general acid treatment can be applied for skin factor reducing, permeability increase of oil well borehole zone and reservoir hydraulic connectivity enhancement. A composition of HCL and HF, or mud acid, is the most efficient and well-known solvent for that purposes in terrigenous reservoirs. However, the efficiency of this agent can vary significantly. The processes of secondary precipitation and gelling of acidizing reaction products in tight reservoirs make goals listed above harder to achieve. Also, there can be pore volume colmatation by solid particles produced by clay minerals swelling and dispergation due to reaction with acid composition. As a result, the permeability of reservoir rock and well efficiency can be reduced, as it can be seen in practice.
This paper introduces the results of mud acid treatment performed on core samples of West Siberian tight shaly terrigenous reservoirs. It is shown that applying the HCl + HF acid composition with HF concentration more than 3 % on core samples with permeability less than 0.01 mkm2 leads to reduced permeability up to 19,7 – 82,9 %. Wherein the core samples with lowest permeability and acid solutions of a higher concentration provide the most negative effects. The fractured rock acid treatment provides the same effect with permeability reducing up to 40 %. However, if the same experiment is performed on a fractured matrix stabilized with a proppant agent, then positive results can be achieved. Therefore, using fractured and stabilized core samples with permeability of 13.7·10-3 mkm2 and acid solution with 6 % HCl concentration and 1.5 % HF concentration in laboratory tests shows increased permeability up to 0.021 mkm2, i.e. 1.5 times higher. The conclusion of the article declares that using a proppant agent while formation fracturing provides the most efficiency of the following acid treatment.
1. Shpurov I.V., Oil: structure and trends of the resource base of Russia (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2015, no. 6, pp. 40–46.
2. Antonov Yu.F., Mordvinov V.A., Influence of pore sedimentation on filtration properties of rocks (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2005, no. 6, pp. 64–67.
3. Shelepov V.V., Zemtsov Yu.V. et al., Issues of intensification of oil production in polymictic high clay reservoirs (In Russ.), Interval, 1999, no. 7, pp. 2–6.
4. Sergienko V.N., Zemtsov Yu.V., Issues of intensification of oil flow in Jurassic collectors (In Russ.), Interval, 2001, no. 6, pp. 6–7.
5. Sergienko V.N., Tekhnologii vozdeystviya na prizaboynuyu zonu plastov yurskikh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Technologies of impact on the bottomhole formation zone of the Jurassic sediments of Western Siberia), St.Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2005, 207 p.
6. STO 11-29-2014. Porody gornye. Metodika izmereniy pronitsaemosti po zhidkosti metodom statsionarnoy fil'tratsii (Rock formation. Procedure of measuring the permeability of the fluid by the method of stationary filtration), Tyumen': Publ. of TNNC LLC, 2014, 17 p.7. STO 11-13-2014. Porody gornye. Metodika izmereniy koeffitsienta vosstanovleniya pronitsaemosti plasta posle vozdeystviya tekhnologicheskoy zhidkost'yu (Rock formation. Methods of measuring the coefficient of reservoir permeability recovery after exposure to the process fluid), Tyumen': Publ. of TNNC LLC, 2014, 14 p.
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At present the majority of oil production companies clearly face the problems with field equipment failure risks through the salt depositions. These problems are allocated to various geological structures while developing the productive reservoirs as well as to physical and chemical properties of produced fluids. The associated water produced jointly with oil is the main source of salt deposition. This water is also used as well killing fluid during geo-physical well survey operations; it is also used during well routine servicing and work-over jobs. The process of salt deposition is mainly referred to drastic water over-saturation with hard-to-dissolve salts due to the reason of non-consistency in physical / chemical parameters of oil production system that is related to the changes of salt-organizing ions in their temperature, pressure and concentration. The chemical composition of inorganic sediments is mainly presented by sulfates and calcium carbonates (anhydrites, gypsum, calcite), barium sulfates (barites) and strontium sulfates (celestite), oxides, carbonates and iron sulfides.
In order to evaluate the risks of salt depositions Samaraneftegas jointly with SamaraNIPIneft have conducted scientific research program where they have studied 10-component formation and well-site water composition at well-killing fluid storage facility at the operating fields of the Company, including the quantitative composition of sedimentation ions (cations of Ca2+; Mg2+; Ba2+; Sr2+; Fegen; Na++K+; anions of SO42-; CO32-; HCO3-; Cl-). Within the frames of these works they have defined the water tendency to salt shows and have conducted physical and mathematical simulation of water compatibility. In course of simulation studied it was found that while mixing water from productive formations with well-killing fluids from storage facilities the strontium sulfate may severely affect the operation of both bottom-hole and surface process equipment and pipelines being one of the salt-generating components.
1. Kirkinskaya V.N., Smekhov E.M., Karbonatnye porody – kollektory nefti i gaza (Carbonate rocks - oil and gas collectors), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 201 p.
2. Kudinov V.I., Suchkov B.M., Metody povysheniya proizvoditel'nosti skvazhin (Methods of well productivity increasing), Samara: Samarskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1996, 411 p.
3. Chistovskiy A.I., Popov I.P., Izuchenie podzemnykh vod neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy i razvedochnykh ploshchadey na soderzhanie v nikh poleznykh komponentov (The study of groundwater of oil fields and exploration areas for the content of valuable component), Kuybyshev, 1990, 153 p.
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When prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons and the subsequent development of license blocks located in the Arctic waters to prevent colliding iceberg and offshore oil and gas facility is one of the key tasks. The paper presents scientific studies of outlet glaciers of the Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya archipelagoes in the area of license blocks of Rosneft Oil Company in the Arctic waters, performed by the Company during 2012-2017.
To build 3D models of the major outlet calving glaciers, the radar ice thickness survey was conducted for three years. In combination with digital elevation models, it allowed to build a three-dimensional model of the object to highlight the glacier transition zone to flotation together with current and potential intensity of iceberg production. The dynamics of glaciers was assessed from satellite remote sensing data. Changes of glacier margins and the ice surface velocity were also determined. Data on the ice flow rate were verified by satellite beacons installed on the main glaciers. The parameters of icebergs distribution produced by a certain glacier were determined by interpretation of satellite imagery directly at the glacier front. The results of interpretation of aerial photo survey of icebergs conducted near glaciers by Rosneft from 2012 to 2017 were also used.
As an example, the paper presents the results for one of the glaciers on Novaya Zemlya - the Vershinsky glacier. The data obtained allow to estimate the ice flux of the glacier into the sea. The glacier velocity data reveals the seasonal variability. Zones of intensive production of icebergs are distinguished on the glacier; the size distribution of produced icebergs is dependent on the structure of this glacier.
1. Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A., Efimov Ya.O. et al., Development of corporative Ice Management System for Arctic license blocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 48–51.
2. C-CORE (2004). Stability and drift of icebergs under tow – Draft report. Prepared for petroleum research NL (PRNL), C-CORE Report R-04-072-216, 2005, V. 1, January.
3. Vasilenko E., Machío F., Lapazaran J. et al., A compact lightweight multipurpose ground-penetrating radar for glaciological applications, Journal of Glaciology, 2011, V. 57, no. 206, pp. 1113–1118.
4. ArcticDEM digital surface model of the Arctic using optical stereo imagery, URL: https://www.pgc.umn.edu/data/arcticdem/
5. Atlas snezhno-ledovykh resursov mira (Atlas of snow and ice resources of the world): edited by Kotlyakov V.M., Moscow, 1997.
6. Leprince S., Ayoub F., Klinger Y., Avouac J.P., Co-Registration of optically sensed images and correlation (COSI-Corr): an operational methodology for ground deformation measurements, Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2007), Barcelona, July, 2007.
7. Scherler D., Leprince S., Strecker M.R., Glacier-surface velocities in alpine terrain from optical satellite imagery – Accuracy improvement and quality assessment, Remote Sensing of Environment, 2008, V. 112, no. 10, pp. 3806–3819.
8. Iannacone J.P. Falorni G., Macdonald B., The role of InSAR in detecting and evaluating geotechnical risk from ground deformation, Proceedings of Conference: Risk and Resilience Mining Solutions 2016, Vancouver, Canada, 2016.
9. Proceedings of Scientific seminar on the Importance of Calving for the Mass Balance of Arctic Glaciers (IASC – CWG NAG workshop summary report), 15-17 October 2016, Poland.
10. Willis M.J., Melkonian A.K., Pritchard M.E., Outlet glacier response to the 2012 collapse of the Matusevich Ice Shelf, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., 2015, V. 120, pp. 2040–2055.11. Moholdt G., Heid T., Benham T., Dowdeswell J.A., Dynamic instability of marine-terminating glacier basins of Academy of Sciences Ice Cap, Russian High Arctic, Annals of Glaciology, 2012, V. 53 (60), pp. 193–201.
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|FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT|
Application of advanced photogrammetry technologies for dimensional control based on a real project is described in the article. The research contains relative and absolute accuracy assessment of the final products and description of the possible usage of the data. The methodology comprises high speed of field data collection and good detailing level. For application of the photogrammetric approach there is no need in expensive geodetic equipment - data collection being done by standard photo camera. Utilization of the methodology helps to optimize current routines in the field of dimensional control of oil and gas facilities. Products of 3D reconstruction based on photogrammetry methods, point clouds and models draped by raster images help user to make precise measurements directly on the model. Integration of the technology into company production chains helps to cut costs of field-based part of the dimensional control process. In case when field stage of photogrammetric approach is combined with traditional survey using total station or GNSS receiver the precise coordination of 3D models in required coordinate system is possible. It has been planned to research of dependence of real objects complexity on accuracy, quality and details of created models as future development of the thesis. Better understanding of variety of object features may significantly improve the process performance and help to create accurate and detailed models with lower chance of getting bad results.
1. Agisoft PhotoScan: Point Cloud accuracy in close range configuration, URL: http://www.agisoft.com/pdf/articles/Paul_Koppel_Agisoft-PhotoScan_case_study_01.pdf2. Construction and Accuracy Test of a 3D model of non-metric camera images using Agisoft PhotoScan, URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187802961630233X
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The decrease in the growth of reserves and production is achieved through the use of new or improved technologies and organizational decisions. When evaluating the cost-effectiveness of new service technologies unit costs are a determining factor in the design. According to the instructions of the Russian President in 2017 state-owned companies should provide lower operating costs by at least 2-3% per year, while maintaining the pace of development. Execution of the Russian government directives today is complicated by positive dynamics of growth in unit costs, which requires companies to respond immediately and to develop compensatory measures aimed at changing its vector. For one of the main reasons for their increase is the rising cost of submersible equipment. At the moment the question of finding ways to reduce the cost of construction and reduce the total cost is relevant for all oil and gas companies.
The article offers an innovative design solution, which allows not only save a lot of money to buy equipment, but also reduce operating costs throughout the stages of his tenure, while maintaining all the technical advantages. This solution also makes it possible to preserve the effectiveness and reliability of the downhole pumping equipment operating on complicated fund. Cost optimization and improvement of the technical part of the existing filter - input module and has a significant economic impact, without significant cost of production.
1. Garifullin A.R., Basov S.G., Methods for protecting ESP from mechanical impurities (In Russ.), Territoriya “NEFTEGAZ”, 2010, no. 9, pp. 70–73.
2. Bakhtizin R.N., Smol'nikov R.N., Features of oil production with high content of mechanical impurities (In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal Neftegazovoe delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2012, no. 8, pp. 52–55.
3. Donchenko A.M., Pyatov, I.S. Sibirev S.V., Fil'try – vkhodnye moduli s fil'troelementami iz “metallicheskoy reziny”. Osobennosti primeneniya (Filters - input modules with filter elements from "metal rubber". Application features), Proceedings of 9th International Practical Conference “Mekhanizirovannaya dobycha 2012” (Mechanized mining 2012), 2012.4. Mikhalev E.A., Filters for ESP and SRP produced by RUSELCOM (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya Praktika, 2016, no. 4, pp. 23–24.
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Performance of electric submersible pumps (ESP) used for heavy oil extraction in low-pressure SAGD projects can be impaired because of high temperature of the produced fluids and the gas phase formed at the pump inlet. The answer to the problem is the technology for two-stage lifting. An intermediate casing string with a plugged-back end and openings cut at a specified depth is run in hole. An ESP with an enclosed submersible motor is conveyed into the intermediate casing on a tubing string. The diluted heavy oil enters the intermediate casing-production casing annulus, and rises to the openings in the intermediate casing below the flowing level in hole. As the formation fluid rises towards the flowing level, the pressure decreases, facilitating, thus, water vaporization. The temperature of the fluid also decreases with pressure decline. A certain amount of water is vaporized and rises to surface to enter the outgoing gas line. Because of energy consumed in the process of phase inversion, the temperature of the produced fluid decreases. The cooled-down fluid enters the intermediate casing-production casing annulus through the openings, goes downwards through the submersible motor housing to cool the motor to the ESP inlet, and then, through the tubing string, to oil gathering line. The separated gas goes through the annulus to the outgoing gas line. The density of the well fluid increases with the resultant increase of fluid pressure at the pump inlet.
Decrease of the fluid temperature and increase of the fluid pressure at the pump inlet creates downhole pressure-and-temperature conditions preventing boiling of water in ESP cavities when bottomhole pressure drops. This improves the ESP performance and the overall economics of the oil production process. The additional advantage is associated with decreased rate of salt precipitation in downhole pumping equipment.
The technology was successfully tested in two wells of the Ashalchinskoye heavy oil field in conditions of low bottomhole pressure and the fluid temperature close to the temperature of inversion. The technology is able to improve the performance of artificially-lifted shallow horizontal SAGD-wells: to attain multiple increase of oil production rate and to decrease steam-oil ratio.
1. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Sabirov R.K., Ibragimov N.G. et al., Sozdanie i promyshlennoe vnedrenie kompleksa tekhnologiy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkikh neftey (The creation and implementation of technology complex for heavy oil deposits development), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2011, 142 p.
2. Akhmadishin F.F., Stroitel'stvo skvazhin s gorizontal'nym okonchaniem na malye glubiny dlya dobychi vysokovyazkoy nefti i prirodnykh bitumov metodom parogravitatsionnogo drenazha (Construction of wells with horizontal completion at shallow depths for extraction of heavy oil and natural bitumen using SAGD method): thesis of candidate of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2016.
3. Ageev Sh.R., Grigoryan E.E, Matvienko G.P., Rossiyskie ustanovki lopastnykh nasosov dlya dobychi nefti i ikh primenenie (Russian vane-type pumps units for oil production and their application), Perm': Press-Master Publ., 2007, 648 p.4. Kisman K.E., Artificial lift – A major unresolved issue for SAGD, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 2003, V. 42, no. 8, pp. 39–45.
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The article shows the issues of oil wells exploitation by sucker rod pumping units when pumping out reservoir fluid of high viscosity, in which a device with a sinker bars is required to ensure the movement of the pump plunger. This article analyzes the effect of unbalanced forces acting on a string of pumping rods during a down stroke, including the frictional forces that occur in the plunger pair. In this paper, we review the existing dependencies that allow us to estimate the value of the frictional force of the plunger against the cylinder of a sucker rod pump. The effect of the sinker bar on the change in the stroke length of the plunger pump ram has been estimated when moving up and down. It is shown that the use of the sinker bar allows to increase the efficiency of the operation of the sucker-rod pump, with considerable frictional forces in the plunger pair. Two types of "sinker bar" structures are presented: mechanical (sinker bar) and hydraulic (in a differential plunger pump). Recommendations are given for choosing the design of the sinker bar, depending on the viscosity of the pumped liquid. Calculations for the choice of structures of the sinker bar were made for pumping conditions with a viscosity of up to 500 mPa·s and a rod speed of up to 2.4 m/s. The authors proposed a criterion for choosing a sinker bar design, based on taking into account the viscous friction forces of the weighted bars at the down stroke. The performed calculations showed that the efficiency of using the hydraulic sinker bar in the differential boom pump in the production of high viscosity oil is higher than the standard sinker bar of the pump rods.
1. Urazakov K.R., Latypov B.M., Komkov A.G., Davletshin F.F., Calculation of the theoretical dynamogram of a differential sucker-rod pump for the production of high-viscosity oil (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2017, no. 4, pp. 41–47.
2. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Latypov B.M. et al., The influence of regular microrelief forms on fluid leakage through plunger pair of sucker rod pump (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 113–116.
3. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Latypov B.M., Ishmukhametov B.Kh., Fluid leakage in a sucker-rod pump with regular micro-relief at surface of the plunger (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, V. 14, no. 4, pp. 33–39.
4. Urazakov K.R., Latypov B.M., Ishmukhametov B.Kh., Study of the influence of form of regular microrelief of the plunger on the output flow of sucker rod pump (In Russ.), Khimicheskoe i neftegazovoe mashinostroenie, 2018, no. 3, pp. 23–25.
5. Takacs G., Sucker-rod pumping handbook, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2015, 565 p.
6. Yamaliev V.U., Ishemguzhin I.E., Latypov B.M., Friction assessment plunger to barrel of sucker rod pump in design rod string (In Russ.), Izvestiya samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2017, V. 19, no. 1, pp. 70–75.
7. Urazakov K.R., Ekspluatatsiya naklonno napravlennykh skvazhin (Operation of directional wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993, 169 p.
8. Adonin A.N., Serdyuk V.I., Investigation of the friction force in the pair of sucker rod pump plunger (In Russ.), Mashiny i neftyanoe oborudovanie, 1972, no. 7, pp. 34–38.9. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Topol'nikov A.S. et al., Dobycha nefti shtangovymi ustanovkami v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Oil production by sucker-rigs in complicated conditions), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2016, 172 p.
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The construction of pipeline crossings through natural and artificial obstacles by directional drilling is associated with a great influence of geological conditions on the well. Complications arising in the process of pulling the pipeline are mainly due to the passage of curvilinear sections of the well in soils prone to collapse, namely gravel-pebble and very coarse ones. These areas are characterized by a significant increase in loads while reducing the speed of pulling.
The analysis of the process and results of construction of main oil and oil product pipeline submerged crossings by the directional drilling shows that inadequate control over well conditions leads to complete failure to comply with the time limits for the submerged crossing construction and therefore results in significant potential financial losses for the customer. The most technically complex and often leading to emergency incidents are cases with the collapse of the walls, leading to the impossibility of pulling the submerged pipeline and the need to build the crossing in a new location. The existing standard methods of control over the well conditions allow to control only the crossing profile along the bottom generatiõ of the constructed well, but do not provide an opportunity to assess the changes that occurred at the upper generatiõ of the well during the crossing construction. This limits the possibility to model the spatial state of the well, to assess its suitability for the pipeline pulling.
To ensure strict and technically justified regulation of the activities of design and contracting organizations in the field of submerged crossing construction, it is necessary to find methods and technologies that allow monitoring the submerged crossing well conditions at its acceptance from the contractor carrying out the drilling.
1. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Parizher V.I., Sorokin D.N. et al., Stroitel'stvo perekhodov magistral'nykh truboprovodov cherez estestvennye i iskusstvennye prepyatstviya (Construction of crossings of trunk pipelines through natural and artificial obstacles), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2013, 339 p.
2. Sal'nikov A.V., Zorin V.P., Aginey R.V., Metody stroitel'stva podvodnykh perekhodov gazonefteprovodov na rekakh Pechorskogo basseyna (Construction methods for underwater crossings of gas and oil pipelines on the rivers of the Pechora basin), Ukhta: Publ. USTU, 2008, 108 p.
3. Kharitonov V.A., Bakhareva N.V., Organizatsiya i tekhnologiya stroitel'stva truboprovodov metodom gorizontal'no-napravlennogo bureniya (Organization and technology of construction of pipelines using horizontal directional drilling), Moscow: ASV Publ., 2011, 344 p.
4. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Komarov A.I., Golofast S.L., Pilot drill hole reaming in construction of trunk pipelines’ submerged crossings (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport: teoriya i praktika, 2016, no. 5(57), pp. 32–40.
5. Varlamov N.V. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Building pipeline crossings: selecting the reaming technology (In Russ.), Oil & Gas Journal Russia, 2011, no. 10, pp. 92–96.
6. Rotimi O.O., Chinwuba V.O., Christopher O.A., Analyses of pipelines for deep horizontal directional drilling installation, American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2016, V. 4, no. 4, pp. 153–162, DOI: 10.12691/ajme-4-4-4.
7. Pipeline design for installation by horizontal directional drilling: edited by Eric R., Skonberg P.E., Tennyson M., Muindi P.E., Publ. of ASCE, 2014.
8. ASTM F1962 – 11. Standard guide for use of maxi-horizontal directional drilling for placement of polyethylene pipe or conduit under obstacles, including river crossings, Publ. of ASTM, 2011.
9. Vafin D.R., Komarov A.I., Shatalov D.A., Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Geomechanical modeling of building conditions for main pipeline submerged crossings (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 4(24), pp. 54–64.
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The article presents the experience of creating an information telemetry system called "Well workover" to improve the efficiency of workover operations in the Zarubezhneft Group of Companies. The relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the steady trend of development of information technologies in the oil and gas business. To ensure the prompt receipt, storage and analysis of information, it is necessary to create a single information system that permeates all the divisions of the company and links them into a coordinated mechanism. This construction of the management system allows obtaining reliable production and financial information across the entire oil and gas vertical: exploration-production-processing-transportation-sales-management. Thus, due to information solutions, the entire management IT chain of vertically integrated oil companies. The article describes the experience of the development of information technology for the block of well operations, namely the creation of the information telemetry system Well Workover, an overview of the existing problems and ways to solve them. In turn, the characteristics of the main elements of the information system are described, its functional capabilities are described at all levels of management of workover operations (planning of workover operations; monitoring of current performance of the workover rig; generation of reporting and database; analysis of the effectiveness of workover operations), information flows generated by the system are shown. The first results of the pilot operation of the telemetry system Well Workover have been summed up, the positive results achieved; further steps are indicated for the development of the system and for creating a single information space for planning, registration, control and managing well operations.
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In the article a microservice architecture approach is considered in making applications for oil operators. Some of key concepts in this paper are explained. There is an example of information technology system implementation based on microservices for field data visualization. Under the term ‘microservice’ we understand some specific software application development technology. It is a service oriented architecture where application represents a number of loosely connected services. Regarding an IT-architecture of oil operator there are few types of “standard” microservices that might be applicable: microservice for data collection and data loading, microservice for engineering calculations, microservice for data visualization. One of important feature of microservice architecture application is its dependence on API code used. To make it more independent several API versions is usually supported. Another important aspect is information security of oil operator network. To meet operator’s security requirements there are number of various authentication and authorization methods can be applied. In this paper, a microservice architecture application approach is described based on example of REPOS reservoir engineering and production optimization system implementation into “SKIF-NEDRA” application. To meet security requirements for “SKIF-NEDRA” application a token system is used with REPOS microservice app collection. By this way only authorized users can load and visualize field data using REPOS system microservices.
1. Richardson Ch., Microservices patterns with examples in Java, Manning Publication, 2018, 477 p.
2. Fowler M., Patterns of enterprise application architecture, Addison-Wesley, 2014, 558 p.
3. Gladkov A.V., Zakirova G.F., Reservoir engineering production optimization system for effective field management and performance (In Russ.), SPE 103580-MS, 2006.http://www.oil-industry.net/ Journal/archive_detail.php?art=230172
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Every year the introduction and use of innovative technologies opens up new opportunities and challenges to solve problems in oil and gas industry. One of these problems is operational and rational management of wells within the concept of Digital Field. Digital field is a complex system of remote control of oil and gas production processes, the basis of which is the continuous analysis of flows and timely diagnosis of problems. Almost all large oil and gas companies are actively engaged in the development and search for ‘smart’ technologies, but at the moment the development has received only some component of the system, not the system as a whole.
In this article the authors propose to use an integrated approach to the problem, that is, the control of the pumping unit using a new intelligent algorithm in the control station and the downhole flow meter located on the discharge from the pump. This approach makes it possible to improve and optimize the existing method for controlling well equipped with electric submersible pump units. The difference between new approach and the standard scheme is the independent operation of the well. Intellectual algorithm selects the frequency using flowmeter data. Based on the flow rate of downhole fluid control station adapts the work of the well under the maximum production mode.
Such a new step, aimed at the introduction of intelligent algorithms in the reservoir – well – pump system, allows to ensure the continuous operation of the well. The refinement of intelligent algorithms at the maximum flow rate mode in the controller of the control station will provide an increase in additional production. Most energy-efficient mode will optimize the cost of electricity for the lifting of the extracted products.
1. Eremin N.A., Sovremennaya razrabotka mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza. Umnaya skvazhina. Intellektual'nyy promysel. Virtual'naya kompaniya (Modern development of oil and gas fields. Smart well. Digital oil field. Virtual company), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr, 2008, 244 p.
2. Demarchuk V.V., Prospects and directions of realization of projects of smart oil and gas deposits (In Russ.), Molodoy uchenyy, 2014, no. 19, pp. 284–289.
3. Kochnev A.A., The concept of “intelligent” field (In Russ.), Master’s journal, 2015, no. 2, pp. 165–171.
4. Ivanovskiy V.N., Sabirov S.A., Gerasimov I.N., Klimenko K.I., Intellectualization of oil production: new opportunities, developments and trends, a system for monitoring the operating indicators of a mechanized well stock (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 7, pp. 60–63.
5. Gilaev G.G., Strunkin S.I., Pupchenko I.N. et al., Tekhnika i tekhnologiya dobychi nefti i gaza OAO “Samaraneftegaz” (Technique and technology of oil and gas production of Samaraneftegas JSC”), Samara: Neft'.Gaz.Innovatsii Publ., 2014, 528 p.
6. Ul'yanov C.S., Sagyndykov R.I., Davydov D.S. et al., A new approach to the measurement of wells yields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 9, pp. 116–119.
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New types of oilfield services in Russia, such as digital supervising of well service and workover and geo-supervising of drilling, provide for the transition from a disciplinary management paradigm to an interdisciplinary model of production management, in which supervisory solutions are formed by specialists with interdisciplinary knowledge using a single information and digital base. The pilot tests stage is implemented at the facilities of well service and workover of Langepasneftegas. The performance of software and hardware is assessed. The effectiveness of organizational and technical solutions (mobility of the complex, combination of professions, interdisciplinary management, improvement of technical and economic indicators of well service and workover) is determined when monitoring the parameters of pumped liquids during the performance of the control and process control system operations: well killing, repair and insulation work, processing of bottom hole, well washing, face normalization using a screw downhole motor (drilling, milling). The successful pilot tests made possible in 2018 industrial implementation of the digital supervising in Pokachevneftegas, Urayneftegas, Povkhneftegas, Kogalymneftegas and Langepasneftegas. For further cost cutting we tested in Povkhneftegas digital supervising of emergency operations and optimization of core operations during overhaul of wells. We compiled the test program, the methodology, formed and conducted advanced training for specialists in mobile post digital supervising. We constructed, upgraded and equipped specialized vehicle on the basis of four-wheel drive vehicle UAZ. Hardware and software complex is created for digital supervising of emergency operations. This complex combine software SCUTP, mud logging station «Kedr 101» and automated workstation for supervisor for drilling and workover.
1. Kulʹchitskiy V.V., Shchebetov A.V., Supervising – quality management of construction wells and workover (In Russ.), Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, 2016, no. 2, pp. 11–15.
2. Kulʹchitskiy V.V., Shchebetov A.V., Parkhomenko A.K. et al., Hardware-software complex of geosupervising of drilling and downhole works (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2017, no. 2, pp. 55–59.
3. Kulʹchitskiy V.V., Shchebetov A.V., Parkhomenko A.K. et al., Geosupervising – a progressive quality management system for well servicing and workover (In Russ.), Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, 2016, no. 4, pp. 12–16.
4. Kulʹchitskiy V.V., Parkhomenko A.K., Shchebetov A.V., Present day tendencies in well construction and work-over supervising development (In Russ.), Neftʹ. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 11, pp. 53–61.
5. Parkhomenko A.K., Kraynova EH.A., Organizational and management mechanism of interaction oil exploration and production companies and service companies in the stage of oil wells exploitation (In Russ.), Ehkonomika i predprinimatelʹstvo, 2017, no. 9-1, pp. 899–904.6. Vladimirov A.I., Martynov V.G., Kulʹchitskiy V.V. et al., Oil and gas future for a national research university (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 5, pp. 40–43.
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