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August 2018




GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

553.98.048
A.N. Ivanov (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), .G. Ryumkin (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), M.A. Fedoseev (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Nguyen Quynh Huy (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), I.B. Mukhutdinov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Using of stochastic methods for evaluation of hydrocarbon accumulation in terrigenous deposits on JV Vietsovpetros oil fields

Keywords: oilfield, oil and gas deposits, reserve estimation methods, clastic depositions, reservoir characteristics

The Joint Venture Vietsovpetro carry out exploration works in offshore of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and also develop deposits in Blocks 09-1, 09-3/12, 09-3 and 04-3. For more than 45-years period of Vietsovpetros activity and due to the cooperation of Russian and Vietnamese specialists, many promising (potential) geological structures were discovered within the Blocks.

The largest and most famous oilfields, such as the White Tiger and the Dragon, have been in development for more than 35 years. Taking into account the fact, that the oilfields are located in the shelf area, the exploration works are complicated by the lack of data concerning reserve properties, so for the purposes of studying geological features and petroleum potential there is a need to use the different methods for evaluation of reserve properties uncertainties. In different periods the deterministic (numerically-analytical) and probabilistic-statistical methods were used as for the evaluation of petroleum potential of the White Tiger oilfield and also for reserve engineering.

This article presents the results of reserve properties evaluation for terrigenous deposits at various stages of exploration and reserve engineering works (the White Tiger oilfield was taken as an example). It was made a comparison of generalized information about the study of reserve properties of the deposits which had been discovered in the oilfield during the periods 1980-2000 and 2000-2017. Established for those periods the parameters for reservoir properties evaluation were widely used to evaluate the deposits of Blocks 09-1 and 09-3, as well as during exploration activities in Blocks 09-3/12 and 04-3. From the year of 2005 the results of reserve properties uncertainties evaluation are being realized by using the Monte Carlo method for reserves calculation. The article presents the description of the algorithm and the results of the method used for the White Tiger oilfield deposits evaluation. Based on the presented material, it was made a conclusion about the quality of the obtained data concerning the reservoir producing quality at various periods of studying the White Tiger oilfield.

References

1. Gabrielyants G.A., Poroskun V.I., Sorokin Yu.V., Metodika poiskov i razvedki zalezhey nefti i gaza (The method of prospecting and exploration of oil and gas deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 304 p.

2. Zhdanov M.A., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya i podschet zapasov nefti i gaza (Oil and gas field geology and the calculation of oil and gas reserves), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 453 p.

3. Borisenko Z.G., Metodika geometrizatsii rezervuarov i zalezhey nefti i gaza (The method of geometrization of reservoirs and oil and gas deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, 206 p.

4. Dakhnov V.N., Interpretatsiya rezul'tatov geofizicheskikh issledovaniy razrezov skvazhin (Interpretation of the results of geophysical investigations of well sections), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, 310 p.

5. Gutman I.S., Metody podscheta zapasov nefti i gaza (Methods of calculating oil and gas reserves), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 224 p.

6. Ivanova M.M., Dement'ev L.F., Cholovskiy I.P., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya i geologicheskie osnovy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Oil and gas field geology and geological bases of oil and gas fields development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 422 p.

7. Bragin Yu.I., Vagin S.B., Gutman I.S., Cholovskiy I.P., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya i gidrogeologiya zalezhey uglevodorodov (Oil and gas field geology and hydrogeology of hydrocarbon deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 399 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-6-9

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550.822.3
E.N. Trofimova (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), E.V. Artyushkina (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), O.A. Bikova (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), A.V. Dyakina (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), U.A. Travina (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), I.L. Tsesarzh (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), I.L. Shesteryakova (SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut)
About rocks deformations (based on the study of core of deposits of Surgutneftegas PJSC)

Keywords: West Siberia, core, deformation, injective body, tectonic melange, milonite, system of joints, boudinage, turbuient-vortical formations

The study of the core of rock formations of the West Siberian sedimentary cover shows a wide development of various deformation textures. In continuation of the earlier themes there are examples of some types of deformations in the article, defined today by specialists of the scientific-research laboratory of lithology in complex and multi-level study of core. All types are interrelated. They indicate the magnitude of strike-slip tectonics in the context of the West Siberian oil and gas regions. The results of the study of injective deformations are presented. Among those deformations a special place is reserved for clastic intrusions, turbulent-vortex formations, zones of melange and blending deposits. Also in the sections revealed the following: connection between separate turbulent-vortex formations and spotted zones of their concentration (type as ryabchik or hazel-grouse); connection between the anomalous sections of bituminous upper Jurassic sediments and injective tectonics. Separate sections highlight new data on the character of bituminous argillite fracturing and tectonic dislensing of bituminous competent rocks of the upper Jurassic sediments. It has been revealed that the subhorizontal curvilinearly intersecting fracturing is similar to anastomosing lines in the strike-slip fault systems. Among sub-vertical cracks have been detected leading (advanced) ones, which are disrupted by subhorizontal displacement. The structural reconstruction has been made and on its basis the characteristic of the medium-small and large budinoid like formations has been given. Besides, it has been discovered that diverging of argillite fracturing in different directions indicates the presence of budinoid outside the column of core. Similarity between budinoides and mylonite porphyroclasts has been noted. In the border area budinoid-argillite have been identified: the zone of crushing, mixing; intensive exfoliation of mudstones; surfaces of slip, sometimes with brown raids HC; mylonitization zone. The final section addresses rocks mylonitization. There is an example of dynamometamorphit with striped pseudorhyolite image and superimposed curved pseudoperlite micro-cracks contributing to the division of rocks into small oval components to their further tectonization, textural reorientation, mineral transformations in porous medium. In the article the following questions are mentioned: convergence in Geology; the emergence of dissipative or highly ordered structures; evolutionary self-organization and reorganization of rock-forming material. In conclusion the necessity of core studying at different levels and from positions of differing scientific directions is expressed, for example from the point of vortex geodynamics or physical mesomechanics of materials of academician V.E. Panin.

References

 1. Trofimova E.N. et al., Deformatsii gornykh porod, kotorye nuzhno uchityvat' pri korrelyatsii plastov i modelirovanii zalezhey, mestorozhdeniy (po materialam makroizucheniya kerna v razrezakh mestorozhdeniy Zapadno-Sibirskoy territorii deyatel'nosti OAO Surgutneftegaz) (Deformations of rocks that need to be taken into account in the correlation of reservoirs and the modeling of deposits (based on the macro-study of cores in the sections of the fields of the West Siberian territory of the Surgutneftegas' activities)), Collected papers Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo i rudnogo potentsiala KhMAO Yugry (Ways of realization of oil and gas and ore potential of KhMAO-Ugra), Proceedings of XVII scientific-practical conference, Part 2, Khanty-Mansiysk, 2014, pp. 220233.

2. Trofimova E.N., Artyushkina E.V., Vyyavlenie elementov sdviga v kolonke kerna i izuchenie sdvigovykh deformatsiy gornykh porod na mestorozhdeniyakh OAO Surgutneftegaz (Identification of shear elements in a core column and study of shear deformation of rocks at the fields of OJSC "Surgutneftegas"), Collected papers Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO Yugry (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO-Ugra), Proceedings of XX scientific-practical conference, Part 2, Khanty-Mansiysk, 2017, pp. 118140, URL: http://ipktek.ru/templates/new_style_1/images/ konkurs_2016/sec9/pr/pr.pdf

3. http://ipktek.ru/templates/new_style_1/images/konkurs_2016/sec9/pr/pr.pdf

4. Braccini E., et al., Sand Injectites, Oilfield Review, 2008, Summer, pp. 34-49, URL: https://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_review/ors08/ sum08/03_sand_injectites.pdf.

5. Goncharov M.A., Talitskiy V.G., Frolova N.S., Vvedenie v tektonofiziku (Introduction to tectonophysics), Moscow: Publ. of KDU, 2005, 496 p.

6. Trofimova E.N., Alekseeva E.V., Medvedeva E.A. et al., Core macroinvestigation for study the conditions of formation of the recent sedimentary structure of the West Siberian mantle (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 5, pp. 5256.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-10-13

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WELL DRILLING

622.245.3
A. Garavand (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas), V.M. Podgornov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas), Yu.L. Rebetsky (Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Science), M.F. Ghasemi (Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Science), A.L. Shaybakov (Soyuzneftegazservice (SNGS))
Comprehensive wellbore stability analysis using elastic and porothermoelastic models

Keywords: porothermoelastic model, Wellbore instability, Mogi-Coulomb criterion, safe drilling

Problems associated with the instability of the wellbore annually cost the oil and gas industry billions of dollars around the world. However, the application of geomechanical models can significantly reduce these costs. Geomechanical models can be built based on mechanical constitutive laws (elastic, poroelastic, elastoplastic and etc.) and failure criterion of material (Mohr Coulomb, Mogi Coulomb and etc.). Selection of an appropriate failure criterion is crucial in wellbore stability analysis. The Mogi Coulomb criterion is applied in this work to calculate shear failure. The objective of this paper is to investigate the pore pressure and temperature effects on elastic deformations and resultant mechanical instabilities in the near wellbore zone. The results are compared with the case wherein the pore pressure and temperature effects are ignored. Accordingly, minimum required rock strength for safe drilling and stable well trajectory are estimated. It is shown that the coupled porothermoelastic model better cover the physics of mechanical wellbore instability problems and neglecting heating and cooling effects might cause to fallacious results. To verify our results, the proposed approach is applied to analyze the stability of a vertical wellbore drilled in an oil field in Siberia, Russia.

References

1. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

2. Etchecopar A., Vasseur G., Daignieres M., An inverse problem in microtectonics for the determination of stress tensors from fault striation analysis, Journal of Structural Geology, 1981, V. 3 (1), pp. 5165.

3. Qian W., Pedersen L.B., Inversion of borehole breakout orientation data, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 1991, V. 96 (B12), pp. 2009320107.

4. Al-Ajmi A.M., Zimmerman R.W., Relation between the Mogi and the Coulomb failure criteria, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2005, V. 42 (3), pp. 431439.

5. Zimmerman R.W., Al-Ajmi A.M., Stability analysis of deviated boreholes using the Mogi-Coulomb failure criterion, with applications to some North Sea and Indonesian reservoirs, SPE 104035-MS, 2006.

6. Garavand A., Rebetskiy Yu.L., Methods of geomechanics and tectonophysics in solving the problems of stability of oil wells during drilling (In Russ.), Geofizicheskie issledovaniya = Geophysical Research, 2018, V. 19 (1), pp. 5576.

7. Zoback M.D., Moos D., Mastin L., Anderson R.N., Well bore breakouts and in situ stress, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 1985, V. 90(B7), pp. 55235530.

8. Meier T., Rybacki E., Reinicke A., Dresen G., Influence of borehole diameter on the formation of borehole breakouts in black shale, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2013, V. 62, pp. 7485.

9. Carslaw H.S., Jaeger J.C., Conduction of heat in solid, Oxford; Clarendon Press, 1959.

10. Wang Y., Papamichos E., Conductive heat flow and thermally induced fluid flow around a well bore in a poroelastic medium, Water Resources Research, 1994, V. 30 (12), pp. 33753384.

11. Ghasemi M.F. et al., Coupled Thermo-Poro-Elastic modeling of near wellbore zone with stress dependent porous material properties, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2018, V. 52, pp. 559574.

12. Kirsch E.G., Die theorie der elastizität und die bedürfnisse der festigkeitslehre, Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, 1898, V. 29, pp. 797807.

13. Detournay E., Cheng AHD, Poroelastic response of a borehole in a non-hydrostatic stress field, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 1988, V. 25 (3), pp. 171182.

14. Tao Q, Ghassemi A., Poro-thermoelastic borehole stress analysis for determination of the in situ stress and rock strength, Geothermics, 2010, V. 39(3), pp. 250259. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-14-18

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OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT

622.24.085.5
I.P. Zaikin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), K.V. Kempf (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), R.R. Naboka (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), V.A. Guregyants (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), I.A. Romanov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Method for the mobile offshore drilling units contracting probability assessment

Keywords: offshore drilling, offshore, Mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU)

The crisis of prices at the hydrocarbons market has resulted in the decreased demand for the lease of the mobile offshore drilling units (MODU). Every day of MODU downtime, if maintained in hot stack mode, costs its owners from $5000 to 25000.

Such situation requires the managers of drilling companies to maintain constant awareness of the events occurring at the offshore drilling services contracting market, and it means not only monitoring the newsfeed, but also possession of up-to-date information on the structure and the content of the market. It needs to be highlighted that inaccurate assessment of the current market condition, including in terms of the MODU contracting opportunity, can result in significant financial losses for the company. As the crisis has shown, mistakes in assessments ultimately resulted in the bankruptcies of several drilling contractors.

This paper reviews one of the possible tools allowing developing a justified strategy for managing the drilling units. The proposed method is sufficiently simple, yet it allows forming a landscape scope of the whole global MODU fleet in part of opportunities for the rigs contracting. The ultimate information is presented in an illustrated and clear form. At this, there is a feature for changing the scale of the presented information (world, region, country) and digitalization of results for the purpose of improving the speed and relevancy of the performed analysis.

The developed method allows the drilling contractors to make more justified managerial decisions in part of the mobile offshore drilling units operation.

References

1. Fleisher C.S. Bensoussan B.E., Business and competitive analysis: Effective application of new and classic methods, FT Press, 2007, 528 p. 

2. Grant R.M., Contemporary strategy analysis, Wiley, 2010, 516 p.

3. Strategiya (Strategy), Ser. Harvard Business Review: 10 luchshikh statey, Moscow: Al'pina Pablisher, 2017, 288 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-20-23

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.031:5.32.5.001
N.N. Mikhailov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow; Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.V. Melekhin (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engeneering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Basic ideas about the curves of capillary displacement and their characteristics (review)

Keywords: capillary number, pinched saturation, mobilization threshold, displacement threshold, residual oil, capillary displacement curves, formation regimes of residual oil

The results of an experimental study of the curves of capillary displacement of wetting and non-wetting phases of fluids are analyzed. The theory of the capillary number is analyzed and the conditions for the adequacy of this parameter for various types of reservoir and fluids are shown. For the first time a systematic review of foreign and Russian studies for a sixty-year period of studying the curves of capillary displacement is presented. Classical and non-classical experiments of obtaining these curves in a wide range of changes in the number of capillarity are analyzed. The general regularities and features of the behavior of these curves under various experimental conditions, as well as in the absence of the unified methodology for their production, are revealed. It was demonstrated that, unlike the experiments carried out on the Berea and Fontainebleau model cores, the capillary displacement curves change when the structure of the pore space of wettability, porosity, permeability and other reservoir properties of the formation changes. Unlike foreign ones, in Russian publications this problem is reflected in a fragmented way. The generalization of the results allowed the authors to establish a wide range of changes in the threshold for the mobilization of residual oil for rocks with different reservoir properties. Previously conducted foreign and Russian experiments demonstrated the significance of the mobilization threshold in a narrow range of variation in the capillarity numbers. In this paper, based on the structure of the residual oil saturation, the existence of a new parameter - the threshold for the displacement of the capillary-clamped saturation and the corresponding value of capillarity numbers - is justified. The values of the displacement threshold are controlled by the relationship between the tightly bound and the conditionally mobile saturation. The magnitude of the displacement threshold depends on the reservoir properties and wettability. Accounting for the structure of residual oil leads to a nonclassical appearance of the curves of capillary displacement. Various forms of representing the curves of capillary displacement for different types of oil and gas collectors and for various types of saturation are demonstrated.A comparison of the classical and nonclassical curves of capillary displacement indicates a significant variability of these curves for rocks with a different pore space structure and wettability. Despite the proven effectiveness of the capillary displacement curves, the systematic study and accounting of these curves in determining the basic filtration properties and designing the development of the deposit in Russia is not currently carried out.

References

1. Mikhailov N.N., Glazova V.I., Vysokovskaya E.S., Prognoz ostatochnogo neftenasyshcheniya pri proektirovanii metodov vozdeystviya na plast i prizaboynuyu zonu (Forecast of residual oil saturation in the design of methods of stimulation of reservoir and the bottom zone), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1983, 71 p.

2. Mikhailov N.N., Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabatyvaemykh plastov (Residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992, 240 p.

3. Wang Y., Zhao F., Bai B. et al., Presented at the optimized surfactant IFT and polimer viscosity for surfactant-polimer flooding in heterogeneous formations, SPE 127391-MS, 2010.

4. Lohne A., Fjelde I., Surfactant flooding in heterogeneous formations, SPE 154178-MS, 2012.

5. Crescente C., Asa S., Rekdal F et al., Pore level study of MIOR displasement mechanisms in class micromodels using rhodococcus SP.094, SPE 110134-MS, 2118.

6. Mikhailov N.N., Polishchuk V.I., Khazigaleeva Z.R., Modeling of residual oil distribution in flooded heterogeneous formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 3639.

7. Melekhin S.V., Mikhailov N.N., Experimental study of the residual oilmobilization at carbonate reservoirs flooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 7276.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-24-28

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622.276.65
T.N. Yusupova (Arbuzov IOPC FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan; Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), R.R. Ibatullin (TAL Oil Ltd., Canada, Calgary), R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), Yu.M. Ganeeva (Arbuzov IOPC FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan; Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), G.V. Romanov (Arbuzov IOPC FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), E.S. Okhotnikova (Arbuzov IOPC FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan; Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), E.E. Barskaya (Arbuzov IOPC FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan; Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Modelling of the thermal treatment process for oil deposit in the carbonate formation

Keywords: carbonate reservoir, laboratory bench, thermal stimulation, pressure, temperature, reservoir properties, kerogen, thermolysis products, oil composition, oil displacement

The experience of oilfield development shows that at present when oilfields with heavy oils are developed the thermal methods, in particular thermal steam stimulation, have no alternative and have a priority among other methods. The thermal methods are most relevant for development of complex carbonate reservoirs, in which more than 60 % of the world's oil reserves are concentrated. However, the recovery factor of the deposit is mostly very low. This is due to the textures complexity of carbonate reservoirs, the high heterogeneity of their composition and physical-chemical properties.  Problems   of carbonate reservoirs development are dramatized by high oil density and viscosity of oil. Model experiments with variation of temperature, pressure and composition of the injected heat carrier will allow creating scientific bases of thermal technologies for development of carbonate reservoirs. The paper presents the results of a laboratory study of thermal stimulation of carbonate rock of the oil reservoir. The investigation was carried out on a specially designed flow-type setup equipped by original core holder. The core samples were selected from the Middle Carboniferous deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan. The influence of the composition of steam-gas eluent, temperature, and pressure on the permeability of carbonate rock, the composition both of gaseous thermolysis products and recoverable oil, and the efficiency of oil recovery from the carbonate rock were discussed. A relatively low-temperature (400 ) decomposition of carbonates initiated by water vapor was established. It was shown that the thermal steam treatment at temperatures up to 500 was not accompanied by the destruction of oil components at a pressure of 4,0 MPa in the condensation zone. The most economical and ecological version of the thermal steam stimulation method for the carbonate oil reservoir was proposed.

References

1. Ibatullin R.R., Tekhnologicheskie protsessy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Technological processes of development of oil deposits), Moscow: Publ. of  VNIIOENG, 2011, 304 p.

2. Patent no. 2744825 Canada, F22B 1/22, F22B 37/00, F22B 37/52, F22D 7/04, F23J 15/04, F23J 15/06, High pressure direct contact oxy-fired steam generator, Inventor: Clements B.

3. Romanov G.V., Semkin V.I., Yusupova T.N. et al., Issledovanie zakonomernostey termicheskogo povedeniya kernov karbonatnykh kollektorov (Investigation of the regularities of the thermal behavior of cores of carbonate reservoirs), VINITI deposited manuscript no. 323-V87, 1987.

4. Yusupova T.N., Margulis B.Ya., Kotsyubinskiy V.L. et al., Izuchenie vliyaniya teplovogo vozdeystviya na kollektorskie svoystva karbonatnykh porod metodami termicheskogo analiza (Study of the influence of thermal effects on reservoir properties of carbonate rocks by thermal analysis methods), In: Termicheskiy analiz i fazovye ravnovesiya (Thermal analysis and phase equilibria), 1987, pp. 913.

5. Yusupova T.N., Romanov G.V., Ganeeva Yu.M. et al., Destruction of the mineral matrix and the oil fluid caused by steam stimulation of the oil containing carbonate rock, Proceeding of Conference GeoConvention 2015 Geoscience new horizons, Telus Convention Centre, 48 May 2015, Calgary, AB Canada.

6. Semkin V.I., Yusupova T.N., Margulis B.Ya., Kotsyubinskiy V.L., Termicheskoe issledovanie karbonatnoy porody pri modelirovanii parogazovogo vozdeystviya na plast (Thermal study of carbonate rock in the simulation of vapor-gas impact on the reservoir), Proceedings of X All-Union Conference on Thermal Analysis, Leningrad, 1989, 249 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-30-33

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622.276.1/4"712.8"
E.K. Solozhenkina (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara), S.V. Demin (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara), E,V. Shigaeva (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara), D.V. Kashaev (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), I.A. Sereda (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Efficiency evaluation in applying forced fluid recovery and operation of wells with horizontal completion in hydrocarbon high-productive and high-viscous reservoirs

Keywords: high viscous (heavy) oil, forced fluid recovery, high-productive, infill well drilling, lateral horizontal well-bores

Nowadays the problem of increasing oil recovery factor from the reservoirs being at the late stage of their development is a very acute one. Basing at the example of high-permeable pay of Bobrikovskian horizon saturated with high-viscous oil we illustrate the efficiency in applying the enhanced fluid recovery methods. It is scientifically proved that the procedure of fluid forced recovery (FFR) is one of the most effective and efficient methods in stimulating oil recovery and reducing the fluid rate drop; this procedure also gives the increase in reservoir sweep displacement efficiency. But the nature of reservoir physical and chemical properties, the parameters of well water-cut, at what stage of reservoir development we can get the highest process effect while using the methods of FFR as well as the influence of FFR upon the oil recovery rate are still in doubts by now.

The procedure used at the considered object was initiated at the end of drilling-out stage, when we have seen the significant drop in oil productivity rate and faced the problem of high water-cutting at the stage of oil production. The application of FFR procedure from wells and the growth in oil water-cut quickly enabled to neutralize the effect of water-oil mixture viscosity growth in a process of its displacement. The method to evaluate the FFR efficiency through the multiple oil and fluid production rate increase verifies its high practical application effectiveness. Application of FFR procedure at all the stages of object development process enabled not only to increase well productivity rates and, respectively, annual oil production rates, as is proved by extrapolation empirical method of field development monitoring, but also to increase oil recovery factor. The confidence in geological structure, the amount of OOIP in considered reservoir, the detailed study of object heterogeneity and adequate evaluation of physical and chemical properties of reservoir fluid permitted us to use a set of hydro-dynamic development methods at pay B-2, including water-flooding, FFR and horizontal bore-hole drilling that finally resulted in reaching high oil recovery factor.

References

1. Ponomarev A.G., Sazonov B.F., Berezhnaya G.N. et al., Obobshchenie metodov razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v pozdney stadii i ikh prakticheskoe vnedrenie na mestorozhdeniya OAO Samaraneftegaz (Generalization of methods for the development of oil fields in the late stage and its practical implementation on the fields of OJSC "Samaraneftegaz"), Samara, 2010.

2. Sazonov B.F., Ponomarev A.G., Nemkov A.S., Pozdnyaya stadiya razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The late stage of development of oil fields), Samara: Kniga Publ., 2008, 350 p.

3. Nemkov A.S., Kolganov V.I., Kovaleva G.A., The analysis of application of the forced selection of liquid on fields of energy industry of high-viscosity oil of the Samara region (In Russ.), Tekhnologii TEK, 2006, no. 1.

4. Fomina A.A., Povyshenie effektivnosti forsirovannogo otbora zhidkosti iz peschanykh kollektorov na primere neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Samarskoy oblasti (Increase in the efficiency of forced fluid withdrawal from sand collectors by the example of oil fields of the Samara Region): thesis of candidate of technical science, Samara, 2009.

5. Ol'khovskaya V.A., Povyshenie effektivnosti FOZh po zalezham so srednevyazkimi neftyami na primere mestorozhdeniy Kuybyshevskoy oblasti (Increase of efficiency of the forced fluid withdrawal on deposits with medium viscosity oil on the example of deposits of Kuibyshev region): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1994.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-34-38

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622.276.1/.4.004.58
A.M. Andrianova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.V. Belonogov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.Yu. Korovin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.S. Perets (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.A. Pustovskikh (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), R.N. Asmandiyarov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), F.F. Khaliullin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
The benchmarking of base production

Keywords: benchmarking, base production analysis, RCI, field development monitoring

Annually in perimeter of the company for expeditious monitoring the analysis of current state of field development more than one hundred fields is carried out. As one of possible instruments of identification of the best the practician is offered to use approach called benchmarking. The benchmarking is the process of the comparative analysis on the basis of reference indicators for the purpose of improvement of own work including a complex of the means allowing to find, estimate and adapt systematically available examples of effective functioning of the company. Broadcast of the found best approaches potentially is able to afford to optimize business processes separately taken TO and to increase overall performance of the Company in general.

In this work the analysis of basic production of the extracting assets of the Company is considered. The most indicative criteria of efficiency of development of fields allowing to establish sizes and the reasons of deviations from standards and to estimate the potential for development are revealed. In work the allocated blocks of indicators characterizing development of stocks, power and a producing well stock are described. For more correct comparison of the analyzed objects, carrying out a preliminary clustering of fields on similarity of PVT and the filtrational and capacitor properties (FCP) is offered, respectively, it is offered to carry out the analysis separately in each of the received groups. The possibility of a clustering of fields is considered in two parameters: hydraulic conductivity and a complex indicator of complexity of development of the reservoir (Reservoir Complexity Index, RCI). RCI is a complex parameter which is characterized by set of properties of layer and fluids. On the basis of results of carrying out a benchmarking the card (matrix) of health of an asset on subjects of the analysis on the basis of which the program of the correcting actions directed to relaying of the best practices in the directions of processes, technologies and personnel in perimeter of Upstream Division of Gazprom Neft PJSC is formed.

References

1. Stapenhurst T., The benchmarking book: Best practice for quality managers and practitioners, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009.

2. Mikhaylova E.A., Basics of benchmarking (In Russ.), Menedzhment v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2001, no. 2, pp. 114121.

3. Naugolnov M.V., Bolshakov M.S. Mijnarends R., New approach to estimate reservoir complexity index for West Siberian fields (In Russ.), SPE 187780-MS, 2017.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-39-41

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622.276.432
Yu.. Pityuk (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa), .Y. Davletbaev (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.. Zarafutdinov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa), .. Musin (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa), L.. Kovaleva (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa)
Numerical analysis of thermohydrodynamic processes in the injection well and reservoir with a fracture

Keywords: temperature, pressure, fracture, temperature/pressure transient well tests, numerical simulation

In spite of the fact that the transient well tests are an integral part of the methods of control over the oil-field development, the traditional methods of pressure well testing do not provide one detailed information filtration properties of a fracture. Considering the temperature dynamics in the operation or shut-in well is a way to expand the number of determined reservoir parameters. Present methods, based on analytical solutions, do not allow one to take into account all significant thermohydrodynamic processes. Therefore, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the pressure and temperature propagation taking into account all the thermodynamic effects in the well, reservoir and fracture is a relevant problem.

The aim of the present work is the development of a program code to study thermohydrodynamic processes in injection wells in the presence of a fracture, as well as analysis of the numerical simulation results. A mathematical model describes the propagation of temperature and pressure in the reservoir for a three-dimensional case and in the vertical well for a one-dimensional case, taking into account the throttling effect and adiabatic expansion. On the basis of numerical simulation the analysis of the temperature change in the well and reservoir with a fracture, and temperature sensitivity to the change in flow rate are conducted. The proposed approach is used to analyze the pressure and temperature data obtained during pressure fall-off tests and temperature build-up tests in the injection well with a fracture.

References

1. Deeva T.A., Kamartdinov M.R., Kulagina T.E., Mangazeev P.V., Gidrodinamicheskie issledovaniya skvazhin: analiz i interpretatsiya dannykh (Well test: analysis and interpretation of data), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2009, 243 p.

2. Earlougher R.C. Jr., Advances in well test analysis, SPE Monograph Series, 1977, V. 5, 264 p.

3. Valiullin R., Ramazanov A., Khabirov T., Sadretdinov A. et al., Interpretation of non-isothermal testing data based on numerical simulation, SPE 176589, 2015.

4. Valiullin R.A., Sharafutdinov R.F., Ramazanov A.Sh., A research into thermal fields in fluid-saturated porous media, Powder technology, V. 148, 2004, pp. 7277.

5. App J.F., Yoshioka K., Impact of reservoir permeability on flowing sandface temperatures: dimensionless analysis, SPE 146951-PA, 2013.

6. Duru O.O., Horne R.N., Modeling reservoir temperature transients and matching to permanent downhole gauge data for reservoir parameter estimation, SPE 115791-PA, 2010.

7. Kamphuis H., Davies D.R., Roodhart L.P., A new simulator for the calculation of the in-situ temperature profile during well stimulation fracturing treatments, The journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 1993, V. 32, no. 5, pp. 3847.

8. Gil'miev D.R., Shabarov A.B., Modeling of non-isothermal waterflooding of an oil reservoir with hydraulic fracture crack (In Russ.), Innovatsii i investitsii, 20013, no. 7, pp. 273275.

9. Mel'nikov S.I., Control of joint development of low-permeability layers in fracturing conditions (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2013, no. 1, pp. 49-53.

10. Ribeiro M., Horne N., Detecting fracture growth out of zone using temperature analysis, SPE 170746-MS, 2014.

11. Pityuk Yu.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Musin A.A. et al., Estimation of various temperature effects influencing temperature change near bottomhole formation zone (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2016, no. 1, pp. 2834.

12. Pityuk Yu.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Musin A.A. et al., Estimation of near-field formation parameters in injection well on the base of temperature analyze (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2016, no. 44, pp. 7176.

13. Pityuk Yu.A., Davletbayev A.Ya., Musin A.A. et al., 3D numerical simulation of pressure/temperature dynamics in well with fracture (In Russ.) SPE 181971-MS, 2016.

14. Dawkrajai P., Analis R.A., Yoshioka K. et al., A comprehensive statistically-based method to interpret real-time flowing measurements, United States, 2004, doi:10.2172/860437, URL: https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/860437.

15. Yu. Pityuk, I. Zarafutdinov, E. Seltikova, 3D numerical simulation of well tests using GPU, Proceedings of  XI International Conference Parallel'nye vychislitel'nye tekhnologii (PaVT2017) (Parallel Computing Technologies), Chelyabinsk: Publishing center of SUSU, 2017, pp. 153166.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-42-46

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622.276.65
R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft, RF, Almetyevsk), P.E. Morozov (IME FIC KazanSC of RAS, RF, Kazan), M.Kh. Khairullin (IME FIC KazanSC of RAS, RF, Kazan), M.N. Shamsiev (IME FIC KazanSC of RAS, RF, Kazan), A.I. Abdullin (IME FIC KazanSC of RAS, RF, Kazan)
Simulation of the SAGD process taking into account the threshold pressure gradient

Keywords: SAGD, bitumen, super viscous oil, horizontal wells, flow rate, cumulative steam-oil ratio, steam chamber, threshold pressure gradient

Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an efficient method for super viscous oil and natural bitumen recovery. The SAGD method uses a series of pairs of injection-producing horizontal wells. The steam chambers formed above each pair of wells, reaching the top of the formation, propagate horizontally until they coalescence. As the angle of inclination of the steam chamber boundary decreases, the rate of drainage also decreases. The efficiency of a SAGD project depends strongly on bitumen-production rate, recovery factor, and cumulative steam-oil ratio (CSOR). Hence, an accurate CSOR and production rate predictions are the important task for the planning and implementation of SAGD project.

In this paper an analytical model for calculating the production rate of a horizontal well and the CSOR in the SAGD method is proposed. Verification with the results of experiments on physical models has shown that the proposed analytical model describes the SAGD process adequately. It is shown that due to non-Newtonian nature of the super viscous oils flow, the stagnant zones are formed in the inter-well space, which are not covered by the impact. The limiting angle of inclination of the steam chamber boundary at which the SAGD process terminates is obtained. The effect of the threshold pressure gradient on the horizontal well production rate and the cumulative steam oil ratio is investigated. The results of simulation showed that the threshold pressure gradient has a significant impact on the dynamics of the main indicators of the SAGD process at all stages of the steam chamber growth.

References

1. Zargar Z., Farouq Ali S.M., Analytical treatment of steam-assisted gravity drainage: old and new, SPE 185778-MS, 2017.

2. Butler R.M., Horizontal wells for the recovery of oil, gas and bitumen, Petroleum Society of CIM, Monograph no. 2, 1994.

3. Butler R.M., Thermal recovery of oil and bitumen, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991, 528 p.

4. Reis J.C., A steam-assisted gravity drainage model for tar sands: linear geometry, J. Can. Pet. Tech., 1992, V. 31, no. 10, pp. 1420.

5. Khisamov R.S., Morozov P.E., Khayrullin M.Kh. et al., The analytical model for development of heavy oil deposit by steam-assisted gravity drainage method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 2, pp. 6264.

6. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Voprosy gidrodinamiki vyazkoplastichnykh i vyazkikh zhidkostey v primenenii k neftedobyche (Issue of hydrodynamics of viscoplastic and viscous liquids in application to oil production), Baku: Aznefteizdat Publ., 1959, 409 p.

7. Bernadiner M.G., Entov V.M., Gidrodinamicheskaya teoriya fil'tratsii anomal'nykh zhidkostey (Hydrodynamic theory of the filtration of anomalous liquids), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 199 p.

8. Khisamov R.S., Musin M.M., Musin K.M., Obobshchenie rezul'tatov laboratornykh i opytno-promyshlennykh rabot po izvlecheniyu sverkhvyazkoy nefti iz plasta (Generalization of the results of laboratory and pilot-industrial work on the extraction of super-viscous oil from the reservoir), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2013, 232 p.

9. Miura K., Wang J., An analytical model to predict cumulative steam/oil ratio (CSOR) in thermal-recovery SAGD process, J. Can. Pet. Tech., 2012, V. 51, no. 4, pp. 268275.

10. Chow L., Butler R.M., Numerical simulation of the steam-assisted gravity drainage process (SAGD), J. Can. Pet. Tech., 1996, V. 35, no. 6, pp. 5562.

11.  Shijun H., Hao X., Shaolei W. et al., Physical simulation of the interlayer effect on SAGD production in mackay river oil sands, Fuel, 2016, V. 183, no. 3, pp. 373385.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-48-51

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622.276.031.011:53.09
A.A. Pachezhertsev (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, RF, Dolgoprudny), A.A. Erofeev (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, RF, Dolgoprudny), D.A. Mitrushkin (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, RF, Dolgoprudny), A.I. Tsitsorin (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), D.A. Kaushansky (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), V.B. Demianovskiy (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), A.N. Dmitrievsky (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Determination of porosity and permeability of a porous medium as a result of polymer structuring of disintegrated quartz sand using the IPNG-PLAST 2 technology

Keywords: semi consolidated sand, chemical conglomeration, polymeric composition, x-ray micro computed tomography, porosity and permeability calculations

High filtration rates and pressure gradients in the bottomhole formation zone affect the mechanical properties of the reservoir, causing additional rock deformations. In this regard, long-term exploitation of oil wells leads to destruction of the bottomhole formation zone and removal of mechanical impurities into the wellbore. That leads to problems in the work of downhole and ground equipment, reduction of time between overhaul period and increase in downtime of wells. To consolidate the rock and prevent the removal of mechanical impurities from the bottomhole formation zone, the polymer-based composition IPNG-Plast 2 was developed. An important factor in the effectiveness of this composition is the preservation of the reservoir properties of the bottomhole formation zone after well treatment.

This article presents the results of a study of the influence of the polymer composition of IPNG-Plast 2 on the characteristics of porous space of artificial core samples. To study the internal structure and structure of pore space, the method of computer microtomography was applied. This method allows to investigate the internal structure of objects with high accuracy and without destroying the samples. Based on the results obtained, digital models of pore space were constructed; the total porosity and absolute permeability were calculated by solving the simplified Navier Stokes equations by the finite volume method. As a result, insignificant changes were observed in the absolute values of the total porosity and the structure of the pore space. Calculation of permeability showed more significant changes after injection of the composition both in absolute values and in spatial distribution in the bulk of the sample. In general, a slight change in reservoir properties of artificial cores as a result of structuring using the IPNG-Plast 2 technology was revealed.

References

1. Tsitsorin A.I., Dem'yanovskiy V.B., Kaushanskiy D.A., Chemical methods of reduction of sand ingress in oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Georesursy. Geoenergetika. Geopolitika, 2014, no. 10.

2. Rumyantseva E.A., Kozupitsa L.M., Akimov N.I., Chemical methods for incompetent rock stabilizing (In Russ.), Interval, 2008, no. 4, pp. 2731.

3. Suvernev S.P., Chemical binding of weakly cemented formation for control sand (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2011, no. 2, pp. 101103.

4. Yakimov S.B., Specific features of underground equipment operation after carrying out some activities, limiting sand removal from a bottomhole area (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2014, no. 1, pp. 5155.

5. Patent no. 2558831 RF, Hydrocarbon production intensification method by limitation of sand production in oil and gas wells, Inventors: Kaushanskiy D.A., Tsitsorin A.I., Dem'yanovskiy V.B., Dmitrievskiy A.N.

6. Kaushanskiy D.A., Tsitsorin A.I., Dmitrievskiy A.N. et al., Study of strength and filtration properties of core samples structured by urethane pre-polymer (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 105107.

7. Kaushanskiy D.A., Dmitrievskiy A.N., Tsitsorin A.I., Dem'yanovskiy V.B., Physicochemical and rheological properties of IPNG-PLAST 2 composition for limiting the mechanical impurities washing over in the oil wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 8487.

8. Yazynina I.V., Shelyago E.V., Abrosimov A.A. et al., Novel approach to core sample MCT research for practical petrophysics problems solution (In Russ.) Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 1923.

9. Krivoshchekov S.N., Kochnev A.A., Application experience of computed tomography to study the properties of rocks (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2013, no. 6, pp. 3242.

10. Van Geet M., Swennen R., Wevers M., Quantitative analysis of reservoir rocks by microfocus X-ray computerised tomography, Sedimentary Geology, 2000, V. 132, P. 25-36.

11. Taud H. et al., Porosity estimation method by X-ray computed tomography, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2005, V. 47, pp. 209217.

12. Vandersteen K. et al., Quantitative characterization of fracture apertures using microfocus computed tomography, Geological Society, 2003, V. 215, pp. 6168.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-52-54

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276.72
L.M. Fatykhov (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engeneering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), S.V. Galkin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), M.A. Fatykhov (M. Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University, RF, Ufa)
Implementation of numerical modelling to assess efficiency electromagnetic technology of cleaning of wells from wax deposition

Keywords: production well, the oil pipeline, high-frequency and superhigh-frequency sources, wax deposition, complications while oil recovery, temperature, numerical modeling

Formation of wax deposition on the internal surface of the oilfield equipment is often an arising type of complications in oil production, which significantly decreases useful cross section of production tubing and pipeline system. Lengths of wax deposits can reach great values (more than 100 m). Intensive wax deposition could totally block well tubing, annulus or pipelines in certain areas, which would need a dewaxing workover. On the basis of the analysis of ways of cleaning wells of wax deposition it is revealed that in some cases one of the effective methods of prevention formation of wax deposition and fight against them is use of energy of high-frequency and super-high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Technological schemes of implementation of these methods are offered. In the article processes of heating and fusion of a wax deposition in a oil-well trunk are investigated by a moving source of electromagnetic radiation of super-high-frequency range. For effective melting of a plugs of wax deposition  the source of electromagnetic radiation moves along a trunk in process of movement of an interface of firm and liquid phases. For toy problem time of elimination of paraffin plugs and dependence of this time on radiated frequency are defined. It is shown that the conical shape of the melted zone can lead to corrupting of plugs before its complete melting. The efficiency of this method as the relation of the useful operation to expended for the selected parameters of an electromagnetic source and paraffin plugs reaches 60 %.

References

1. Yusupova T.N., Barskaya E.E., Ganeeva Yu.M. et al., Identification of wax deposits in the bottom-hole formation zone and wellbore in reducing of the pressure (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 3941.

2. Turbakov M.S., Ryabokon' E.P., Cleaning efficiency upgrade of oil pipeline from wax dep-osition (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, no. 17, pp. 5462, DOI:10.15593/2224-9923/2015.17.6.

3. Ust'kachkintsev E.N., Melekhin S.V., Determination of the efficiency of wax deposition prevention methods (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, V. 15, no. 18, pp. 6170, DOI:10.15593/2224-9923/2016:18.

4. Kislitsyn A.A., Numerical simulation of high-frequency electromagnetic heating of a die-lectric plug filling a pipe (In Russ.), Prikladnaya mekhanika i tekhnicheskaya fizika, 1996, V. 37, no. 3, pp. 7582.

5. Balakirev V.A., Sotnikov G.V., Tkach Yu.V., Yatsenko T.Yu., Removal of asphalt Paraf-fin deposits in oil pipelines by a moving source of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (In Russ.), Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki = Technical Physics. The Russian Journal of Applied Physics, 2001, V. 71, no. 9, pp. 18.

6. Fatykhov M.A., Fatykhov L.M., Microwave electromagnetic method of melting the paraffin plug in an open coaxial system, J. Eng. Phys. Thermophys., 2015, V. 88, no. 3, pp. 724729.

7. Kovaleva L.A., Minnigalimov R.Z., Zinnatullin R.R. et al., Study of integrated effects mi-crowave electromagnetic radiation in the field of centrifugal forces on the water-oil emulsion (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017,no. 2, pp. 100103.

8. Zlobin A.A., Study of mechanism of oil magnetic activation in order to protect production wells from wax deposition (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2017, V. 16, no. 1, pp. 4963, DOI:10.15593/2224-9923/2017:1.6.

9. Didenko A.N., Zverev B.V., SVCh-energetika (Microwave power engineering), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2000, 264 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-56-59

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622.276.6
D.N. Gulyaev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas NIU), N.E. Lazutkina (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas NIU), Yu.F. Zhuikov (Institute of Geophysical and Radiation Technologies of the International Academy of Sciences of Higher School), A.V. Ilyinskiy (Institute of Geophysical and Radiation Technologies of the International Academy of Sciences of Higher School), A.A. Rukhman (Institute of Geophysical and Radiation Technologies of the International Academy of Sciences of Higher School), A.E. Shikanov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI), E.A. Shikanov (Spetsautoengineering OOO)
Research of ultrasonic treatment of an oil reservoir

Keywords: oil, well, permeability, flow rate, ultrasonic, acoustic treatment, neutron control

The formation permeability decreases in the process of oil wells operation. Ultrasonic treatment of  the reservoir is an effective method of increasing the permeability without the risk of damage to nature. The method of acoustic treatment can be used as an additional method after applying the methods of physicochemical refining. At the same time, it should provide for increasing the effect of removal of solid particles and products of chemical treatment reactions from the treated zone by pressure drawdown. The experience of successful application of acoustic treatment at oil fields of Tatarstan and Western Siberia is analyzed. A magnetostrictive mechanical system, on which a variable voltage with a frequency of 10-20 kHz and a power of up to 5 kW was applied from the earth's surface via a geophysical cable, was used to create an ultrasonic field in the borehole. An algorithm for approximate evaluation of ultrasonic wave parameters in the reservoir is proposed. A formula for the wave damping coefficient is obtained. The effectiveness of acoustic treatment  to increase permeability is shown experimentally by the method of neutron logging. It is established that the effect of the treatment begins to appear at a density of the emitted acoustic power of 20 kW/m2, the exposure time of 412 hours and the frequency of the acoustic generator selected within 1020 kHz. It is established that the acoustic treatment has resonant behavior. An estimate of the effective zone radius for different wells under study is given.

References

1. Kuznetsov O.L., Efimova S.A., Primenenie ul'trazvuka v neftyanoy promyshlennosti (Application of ultrasound in the petroleum industry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 192 .

2. Atamanov V.V., Zhuykov Yu.F., Zilonov M.O., Popova A.V., Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost' i akusticheskoe vozdeystvie (Environmental safety and acoustic impact), Proceedings of International Scientific Conference Problemy ekologii i bezopasnosti zhiznedeyatel'nosti (Problems of ecology and life safety), Moscow, 2002, pp. 218222.

3. Afanasenkov M.I., Zhuykov Yu.F., Kul'pin L.G. et al., Multipurpose technology of complex acoustical-chemical impact & control (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2001, no. 4, pp. 4145.

4. Utility patent no. 168526 RF, Formirovatel' temperaturnogo i akusticheskogo poley v skvazhine (Former of temperature and acoustic fields in the well), Inventors: Bogdanovich B.Yu., Dmitriev M.S., Il'inskiy A.V., Kozlovskiy K.I., Kolyaskin A.D., Nesterovich A.Yu., Ponomarenko A.G., Rukhman A.A., Shikanov A.E.

5. Patent no. 2631451 RF, Method to increase oil recovery of formation with high viscosity oil, Inventors:  Bogdanovich B.Yu., Il'inskiy A.V., Nesterovich A.Yu., Ponomarenko A.G., Rukhman A.A., Shikanov A.E.

6. Zhuykov Yu.F., Mikhaylov L.V., Shikanov E.A., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie akusticheskikh voln v stokhasticheskoy srede (Mathematical modeling of acoustic waves in a stochastic medium), Proceedings  of International Conférence "Dynamical System Modeling and Stability Investigation". - Kyiv, 2003, p. 171.

7. Meyer V.A., Vaganov P.A., Osnovy yadernoy geofiziki (Fundamentals of nuclear geophysics), Leningrad:Publ. of LU, 1985, 408 p.

8. Bessarabskiy Yu.G., Bogolyubov E.P., Kurdyumov I.G. et al., Borehole neutron emitter (In Russ.), Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta =Instruments and Experimental Techniques, 1994, no. 5, pp.206207.

9. Patent no. 2517824 RF, Method for determination of productive formation status by pulsed neutron method, Inventors: Berdonosova N.V., Bogdanovich B.Yu., Voronchikhin S.Yu., Il'inskiy A.V., Nesterovich A.V., Sbrodov V.I., Khasaya D.R., Shikanov A.E., Shikanov E.A.

10. Rukovodstvo po primeneniyu promyslovo-geofizicheskikh metodov dlya kontrolya za razrabotkoy neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Guidelines on the application of production log test to control the oil fields development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, pp. 5286.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-60-63

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622.276.346
E.V. Yudin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.E. Gubanova (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), V.A. Krasnov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Method for estimating the wells interference using field performance data

Keywords: multi-well system performance, analytical methods, wells Interference, boundary elements method

Analysis and planning multi-well system performance in a heterogeneous reservoir is one of the main tasks of field development. In the paper it is shown that performance of multiwell system can be described using Multi-Well Productivity Index (MPI) concept. MPI is an extension of the Productivity Index (PI) to a multi-well case. It reflects the relation of pressure drawdown and rates of wells of a multi-well system. The diagonal coefficients of MPI correspond to the classical productivity indices of each well, and the off-diagonal elements reflect the inter-well connectivity. It is possible to calculate the MPI matrix coefficients analyticaly only in case of homogeneous reservoirs of simple form. This is why MPI approach was not widely used in practice.

The paper shows the engineering method for estimating the MPI matrix coefficients using the data of monthly technological regimes and a priori geological information for the general case of heterogeneous reservoirs. This approach is based on the solution of the filtration equations with Boundary-Element Method (BEM) and the subsequent reduction of these equations to the form of MPI matrix. It is possible to reduce BEM equations for calculation of the MPI coefficients explicitly for the case of reservoirs with no internal faults and wedging zones. For reservoirs with faults and wedging zones the numerical algorithm for estimating the MPI indices is proposed. Estimation of MPI indices for heterogeneous reservoir allows to solve various field development problems: waterflood optimization, workover and welltest planning etc.

An important advantage of the proposed algorithm over other engineering tools for determining the inter-well connectivity, including the so-called CRM-models (capacitance resistivity models), is that the proposed approach allows to take into account explicitly a priori geological information, such as the presence of impermeable faults, the shape of the reservoir boundary, the aquifer, well completion etc.

References

1. Dake L.P., Fundamentals of reservoir engineering, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1978.

2. Hansen C.E., Fanchi J.R., Producer/Injector Ratio: The key to understanding pattern flow performance and optimizing waterflooding, SPE 86574-PA, 2003.

3. Lubnin A.A., Yudin E.V., Engineering approach to solving problems of flooding of low-permeability compartmentalized reservoirs (In Russ.), SPE 166889-MS, 2013.

4. Valko P.P., Doublet L.E., Blasingame T.A., Development and application of the multiwell productivity index (MPI), SPE 51793, 2000.

5. Lu J., Ghedan S., Pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple-wells system in a sector fault reservoir, SPE 130866, 2010.

6. Lu J., Tiab D., Productivity equations for multiple wells system in anisotropic reservoirs, CIPC, 2008-099.

7. Kaviani D., Interwell connectivity evaluation from wellrate fluctuations: a waterflooding management tool: PhD thesis, Texas: A&M University, 2009.

8. Heffer K., Fox R., McGill C., Koutsabeloulis N., Novel techniques show links between reservoir flow directionality, Earth stress, fault structure and geomechanical changes in mature waterfloods, SPE 30711-PA, 1997.

9. Albertoni A., Lake L., Inferring interwell connectivity only from well-rate fluctuations in waterfloods, SPE 83381-PA, 2003.

10. Weber D., The use of capacitance-resistance models to optimize injection allocation and well location in water floods: PhD thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 2009.

11. Yousef A., Investigating statistical techniques to infer interwell connectivity from production and injection rate fluctuations: PhD thesis, Texas: University of Texas at Austin, 2006.

12. Yudin E.V., Modelirovanie fil'tratsii zhidkosti v neodnorodnykh sredakh dlya analiza i planirovaniya razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Modeling of fluid filtration in heterogeneous environments for the analysis and planning of oilfield development): candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Moscow, 2014.

13. Kikani J., Horne R.N., Pressure-transient analysis of arbitrarily shaped reservoirs with the boundary-element method, SPE 18159-PA, 1992.

14. Jongkittinarukom K., Tiab D., Development of the boundary element method for a horizontal well in multilayer reservoir, SPE 39939-MS, 1998.

15. Wang H., Zhang L., A boundary element method applied to pressure transient analysis of geometrically complex gas reservoirs, SPE 122055-MS, 2009.

16. Krasnov V., Ivanov V., Khasanov M. A., Robust Method to Quantify Reservoir Connectivity Using Field Performance Data, SPE 162053, 2012.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-64-69

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276.53
M.A. Mokhkov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), Yu.A. Sazonov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), I.T. Mishchenko (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), M.A. Frankov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), Kh.A. Tumanyan (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), K.I. Azarin (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
The development of pumping equipment for oil and gas production in abnormal operating conditions

Keywords: hydrocarbon production, oil, gas, well, reservoir, multiphase pump, pump system

In case of intensive water with sand production fr om the well during oil and gas extraction, creation of special pumping equipment for harsh operating conditions is still an important objective. The main objective of scientific studies is to develop new principles of multiphase pumping in case of high concentration of solids in a stream. Known technical solutions in the area of pumping equipment: labyrinth pumps for oil and gas production; centrifugal pumps for simultaneous operation with jet pumps; pumping equipment able to operate as a reverse pump, are analyzed in the study. The current study is based on the concept wh ere complex screw type surfaces of the circulating part of the pump can be substituted with the set of flat and cylindrical surfaces that are more technological. Moreover, there is a greater variety of construction materials available, including the hardest types. Nowadays, it has become possible to reconsider some approaches for the creation of pumping equipment and labyrinth pumps in particular due to emerged ability of practical usage of additive technologies. In the new labyrinth pump development study we focused on two additive technologies: Material Extrusion and Sheet Lamination.  In accordance with first laboratory tests it is concluded that labyrinth pump characteristics are stable, but instead of constructing more complex screw-type surface it is possible to use simpler technology of rotor and stator consisting of a set of flat discs creation. The choice of the most perspective directions for further research and construction studies in order to provide effective pumping of liquids with high concentration of solids in a stream is made in the study. Further studies are aimed at creation of new pumping equipment suitable for oil and gas production if harsh operating conditions.

References

1. Golubev A.I., Labirintno-vintovye nasosy i uplotneniya dlya agressivnykh sred (Labyrinth-screw pumps and seals for aggressive media), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1981, 112 p.

2, Sazonov Yu.A., Osnovy rascheta i konstruirovaniya nasosno-ezhektornykh ustanovok (Basics of calculation and design of pump-ejector systems), Moscow: Neft i gaz, 2012, 305 p.

3. Utility patent no. 66789 RF. MPK F04S 02/00, Nasos-dispergator (Pump-dispersant), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Baldenko F.D., Zakharov M.Yu., Zayakin V.I., Mokhov M.A.

4. Patent no. 2232301 RF, Submersible pumping unit, Inventors: Drozdov A.N, Ageev Sh.R., Den'gaev A.V. et al.

5. Zlenko M.A., Nagaytsev M.V., Dovbysh V.M., Additivnye tekhnologii v mashinostroenii (Additive technologies in mechanical engineering), Moscow: Publ. of NAMI, 2015, 220 p.

6. Utility patent no. 158649 RF, Nasos-dispergator (Pump-dispersant), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Aseev V.I.

7. Drozdov A.N., Egorov Yu.A., Telkov V.P. et al., Technology and technique of water and gas impact on oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 2, pp. 5459.

8. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Laboratory researches of the heavy oil displacement from the Russkoye fields core models at the SWAG injection and development of technological schemes of pump-ejecting systems for the water-gas mixtures delivering, SPE 157819, 2012.

9. Drozdov A.N., Stand investigations of ESP's and gas separator's characteristics on gas-liquid mixtures with different values of free-gas volume, intake pressure, foaminess and viscosity of liquid, SPE 134198, 2010.

10. Drozdov A.N., Terikov B.A., Application of submerged jet pumps systems with dual-string lift for the sticky holes operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 6, pp. 6872.

11. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Ejector system development for hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbon reserves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 110112, DOI: 10.24887/00282448201710110112.

12. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Prospects of application of two-chamber pump-compressor units for pumping of multiphase medium (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 137139, DOI: 10.24887/00282448201711137139.

13. Utility patent no. 125272 RF, Nasosnaya sistema (Pumping system), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Zayakin V.I., Dimaev T.N.

14. Utility patent no. 131818 RF, Nasosnaya sistema (Pumping system), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Kekk N.I., Babakin I.Yu., Dimaev T.N.

15. Utility patent no. 131820 RF, Nasosnaya sistema (Pumping system), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Kekk N.I., Babakin I.Yu., Dimaev T.N.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-70-74

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

622.692.23-0.3414
N.N. Gorban (Caspian Pipeline Consortium JSC, RF, Moscow), G.G. Vasiliev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), A.P. Salnikov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Accounting actual geometric shape of the tank shell when evaluating its fatigue life

Keywords: tanks, terrestrial laser scanning, fatigue life, actual geometric shape

Fatigue life is one of factors determining the safe service life of tanks under difficult conditions of continuous drain-fill operations. The methods of evaluating the fatigue life of tank shell, fixed by the current normative documentation, have several significant drawbacks. At first, the methods dont consider total actual geometric shape and spatial position of the tank shell, as well as local geometric defects (dents, bulges). Secondly, the methods have differing results of evaluating the fatigue life (the results differ by 1.5 times or more). These drawbacks reduce the reliability of results of evaluating the fatigue life of tank shell and require modernization of the methods in terms of considering the actual shell geometry during calculations.

The joint application of the technology of terrestrial laser scanning and the finite element method will help overcome these drawbacks. The technology of terrestrial laser scanning will be an effective tool for measuring and considering all deviations of the tank shell from the ideal cylindrical shape (including local geometric defects), and the finite element method will be a tool for consider these deviations at evaluating stress-strain state of the tank shell.

The effectiveness of this approach in evaluating the fatigue life of tank shell is demonstrated in this article. The tasks that need to be solved when using the proposed approach at the initial stage are formulated.

References

1. GOST 31385-2016. Vertical cylindrical steel tanks for oil and oil-products. General specifications, Moscow: Standartinform Publ., 2016, 91 p.

2. STO-0048-2005. Rezervuary vertikal'nye tsilindricheskie stal'nye dlya khraneniya zhidkikh produktov. Pravila proektirovaniya (Vertical cylindrical steel tanks for storage of liquid products. Design rules), Moscow: Publ. of TsNIIPSK, 2005, 88 p.

3. RD 153-112-017-97. Instruktsiya po diagnostike i otsenke ostatochnogo resursa vertikal'nykh stal'nykh rezervuarov (Instructions for the diagnosis and evaluation of the residual life of vertical steel tanks), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 1997, 74 p.

4. SA-03-008-08, Rezervuary vertikal'nye stal'nye svarnye dlya nefti i nefteproduktov. Tekhnicheskoe diagnostirovanie i analiz bezopasnosti (metodicheskie ukazaniya) (Vertical steel welded tanks for oil and oil products. Technical diagnostics and safety analysis), Ul'yanovsk: Ul'yanovskiy Dom pechati Publ., 2009, 288 p.

5. RD 08-95-95. Polozhenie o sisteme tekhnicheskogo diagnostirovaniya svarnykh vertikal'nykh tsilindricheskikh rezervuarov dlya nefti i nefteproduktov (Regulations on the system of technical diagnosis of welded vertical cylindrical tanks for oil and oil products), Moscow: Publ of NTTsPB, 2002, 23 p.

6. PNAE G-7-002-89, Normy rascheta na prochnost' oborudovaniya i truboprovodov atomnykh energeticheskikh ustanovok (Norms for calculating the strength of equipment and pipelines of nuclear power plants), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 525 p.

7. Vasil'ev G.G., Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V. et al., Work performance on

3-d laser scanning of the vertical stock tank with pontoon (VSTP) 20000 (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 1(17), pp. 54-59.

8. Vasil'ev G.G., Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V. et al., Analysis of the three-dimensional laser scanning application on the objects of JSC "Transneft" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 2(18), pp. 48-55.

9. Vasil'ev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Leonovich I.A., Sal'nikov A.P., Stress-strain state of tanks in operation (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport: teoriya i praktika, 2015, no. 6 (52), pp. 41-44. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-75-79

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622.692
A.M. Shammazov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.N. Aminev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.N. Pirogov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), I.A. Shammazov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), N.E. Pirogov (Neftetransservis, RF, Ufa), S.V. Petrenko (Neftetransservis, RF, Ufa), K.E. Denisov (Neftetransservis, RF, Ufa)
Solving problems of reconstruction and development optimization of a pipeline system

Keywords: oil pipeline system, mathematical model, reconstruction optimization, efficiency

Modernization and development of oil pipeline systems to increase the volume of oil pumping or the redistribution of its delivery volumes requires considerable material resources and time. The article considers the issues of optimizing the parameters of projects for reconstruction and development of an oil pipeline system of arbitrary configuration for the task of increasing the volumes of delivery and receipt of products. As development of the oil pipeline system options for building pipelines, jumper between pipelines and oil pumping stations are considered. It is necessary to find a variant of the development of the oil pipeline system or several systems up to the specified parameters, i.e. determine the number of new pump stations and their construction sites, the number, location and length of new pipelines, the number and location of new jumpers. As a selection criterion, a dependence was used that takes into account operating costs, design and construction costs, taking into account discounting. Since for each development option it is necessary to determine the optimal costs of operation, it is necessary to simultaneously solve the problem of optimal investment in capital construction and the task of optimal operation of the chosen option.

At the decision the task is divided into definition of optimum streams and a choice of optimum parameters for realization of these streams. The mathematical model of the oil pipeline system is represented by an oriented graph, where the arcs are the objects of the system, and the vertices are the places of their connection. To solve the problem of distribution of optimal flows, a genetic algorithm is used, and to solve the problem of optimal operation, the dynamic programming algorithm. Based on the above model and algorithms for solving the problem of optimizing the parameters of reconstruction and development projects and algorithms for optimizing the operating mode of the oil pipeline system, the GRANS-M software complex was developed. The software complex was put into commercial operation.

References

1. Korneenko V.P., Metody optimizatsii (Optimization methods), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2007, 664 p.

2. Shammazov A.M., Kozachuk B.A., Soshchenko A.E. et al., Optimization of the pipeline system of arbitrary configuration (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2013, no. 4, pp. 7680.

3. Certificate of official registration of the computer program no. 2011618422, Modifitsirovannyy programmnyy kompleks GRANS s dopolnitel'nym modulem dlya optimizatsii proektov razvitiya nefteprovodnykh sistem i opredeleniya rezhima ikh ekspluatatsii (Modified software complex "GRANS" with an additional module for optimizing projects for the development of oil pipeline systems and determining the mode of their operation), Authors: Shammazov A.M. et al., Moscow: Rospatent, 2011.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-80-83

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622.692.4
P.V. Vinogradov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), K.V. Litvinenko (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.I. Valiakhmetov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Bakhtegareeva (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Development of a model for ranking field pipelines based on risk assessment in exploitation

Keywords: field pipelines, ranking, prioritization model, damage, improving the reliability of pipelines

The article contains the questions of development a ranking model of field pipelines for use in the formation of reconstruction and repair programs. The previous ranking model used in PJSC Rosneft Oil Company, before start this project, was constructed by analogy with the point-rating models are widely used by oil companies abroad. The main drawbacks of previous model were wide application of expert judgment in the appointment of numerical parameters and coefficients for calculating the probability of failure, economic impact assessment, as well as the lack of unification for the widespread use of the model throughout the company's pipeline fleet.

The main requirement in the development of the model was to ensure the transparency and universality of the selection procedure in application of this model for any field pipelines (with different characteristics, conditions of laying, pumping modes, etc.).

Development a program of improving the reliability of pipelines, a prioritization model created on analogy with the models used in North American companies. The difference is a complete replacement of expert parameters values to calculated parameters. 16 parameters were selected based on statistical database processing and review of experience of Russian and foreign oil and gas companies.

Priority for repair of oilfield pipelines are based on the ranking of predisposition to failure using the matrix to prioritize the risks. In the program of improving the reliability of pipelines shall enter the pipelines with the highest values of predisposition and damage in the event of a failure.

Comparison of the calculation results showed that the forecast ability of the prioritization model with the calculated coefficients improved on 2,4 times.

References

1. Stephens M.J., PIRAMID technical reference manual no. 4.1. Prioritization of onshore pipeline systems for integrity maintenance, Alberta: Publ. of Centre for Engineering Research Inc., 1996.

2. Usmanov R.R. Chuchkalov M.V., Askarov R.M., The vision of accident-free operation and overhaul of main gas pipelines of JSC Gazprom (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2015, no. 1 (717), pp. 28 31.

3. Semi-quantitative risk assessment: Technical report template, URL: https: //www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/050/documents/57077/57077E.pdf.

4. Windhorst J.C.A., Detailed quantitative risk assessment of a proposed pipeline in western Canada, URL: https: //ru.scribd.com/document /320296694/ P48-002.

5. Kiefner J.F., A risk management tool for establishing budget priorities, NACE TechEdge Series Program, Houston, Texas, 1997, 10-12 February.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-84-86

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

622.692.4-192
I.Yu. Lisin (Caspian Pipeline Consortium-R JSC, RF, Novorossiysk), A.M. Korolenok (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), Yu.V. Kolotilov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Event-oriented approach to ensuring reliability in the design and development of energy systems

Keywords: energy system, reliability of the energy system, functioning of the system, supply of consumers, safety of pipeline transport systems

To achieve proper reliability, safety and integrity when designing and operating a power supply system, one needs to consider its configuration complexity, a huge number of items and elements that constitute the system, multiple geographically distributed consumers with different requirements to power supply reliability, required continuity of system operation and strong interrelation between its subsystems and components operation modes, supplies reliability requirements, irregularities of power consumption, probability of sequential failures, dependence of its throughput capacity on ambient conditions, systems operation modes and equipment configuration, any territorial hierarchy of subsystems and control elements as well as any temporary decision making hierarchy, various hardware to ensure reliability, and operators involvement in control processes.

The paper addresses issues related to the safety of the power supply system and its components along with methods for making relevant managerial solutions. Interrelations among the individual aspects of reliability, conditions and processes occurring in power supply systems are described too. The paper defines conceptual principles that serve as a scientific basis for making decisions to ensure power supply system operation reliability. These decisions define proportional development of the power supply system and its subsystems and result in a list of facilities to be built and upgraded, along with their key design parameters. The paper identifies some key challenges faced by those willing to secure power supply system reliability at the planning and upgrade stages. The event-oriented approach described in the paper makes it possible to ensure reliability, safety and integrity of the power supply system when planning its expansion or upgrade. The paper also contains a classification of methods and tools to ensure power supply system reliability.

References

1. Senderov S.M., Pyatkova E.V., Ryabchuk V.I., Problemy energeticheskoy bezopasnosti i osobennosti ee issledovaniya na sovremennom etape (Challenges of energy security features and its research on the present stage), Collected papers Ekologicheskaya, promyshlennaya i energeticheskaya bezopasnost' - 2017 (Environmental, industrial and energy security - 2017), Proceedings of scientific-practical conference with international participation, Sevastopol': Publ. of SSU, Sevastopol'skiy gos. universitet, 2017, pp. 1104 1110.

2. Pyatkova N.I., Senderov S.M., Pyatkova E.V., Methodological aspects of energy security investigation researches on the contemporary stage (In Russ.), Izvestiya RAN. Energetika, 2014, no. 2, pp. 8187.

3. Pyatkova N.I., Massel' L.V., Massel' A.G., Contingency management methods for studying of energy security problems (In Russ.), Izvestiya RAN. Energetika, 2016, no. 4, pp. 156163.

4. Kurbatskiy V.G., Stennikov V.A., Kler A.M. et al., Sistemnye issledovaniya v energetike (System research in power engineering), Irkutsk: Publ. of ESI SB RAS, 2016, 202 p.

5. Trukhanov V.M., Matveenko A.M., Nadezhnost' slozhnykh sistem na vsekh etapakh zhiznennogo tsikla (Reliability of complex systems at all stages of the life cycle), Moscow: Spektr Publ., 2012, 663 p.

6. Senderov S.M., Pyatkova N.I., Rabchuk V.I. et al., Metodika monitoringa sostoyaniya energeticheskoy bezopasnosti Rossii na regional'nom urovne (Methodology for monitoring the state of Russia's energy security at the regional level), Irkutsk: Publ. of ESI SB RAS, 2014, 146 p.

7. Plokhina E.E., The method of detection of unauthorized taps and sabotage on the pipelines (In Russ.), Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2011, no. 16 (135), pp. 9295.

8. Tsvyak A.V., Environmental impact unapproved inserts in the pipeline and methods of combating them (In Russ.), Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2015, no. 10 (185), pp. 445447.

9. Korableva Yu.D., Ways to deal with the unauthorized siphoning (In Russ.), Simvol nauki, 2017, V. 2, no. 1, pp. 6265.

10. Glotov M.N., Feedback as one component of managing technical processes on the case management process oil pumping (In Russ.), Nauchnyy Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo universiteta. Seriya: Student i Nauka, 2014, no. 7, pp. 7073.

11. Larionov V.I., Gryaznev Yu.D., Methodological support for monitoring system of main pipelines using geophysical logging (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2015, no. 2, pp. 208213.

12. Dudnikov V.Yu., Dudnikova S.A., The base station as a key element of the monitoring system planheight position interfield pipeline Yarega Ukhta (In Russ.), Resursy Evropeyskogo Severa. Tekhnologii i ekonomika osvoeniya, 2016, no. 4 (06), pp. 114122.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-87-91

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620.197.5:622.692.4.053
N.N. Skuridin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.S. Tyusenkov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), D.E. Bugay (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Improving the safety of main oil pipelines based on optimization of electrochemical protection parameters

Keywords: pipeline, corrosion, steel, electrochemical protection, cathode protection, cathode station, protective potential, fire risk

Corrosion is one of the main causes of failure of large structures, structures, machinery and equipment, including oil-trunk pipelines. The failure rate of any pipeline system due to corrosion damage of metal can be more than 70%. The main way to protect against corrosion of the linear part of the main oil pipelines is the use of non-metallic coatings together with electrochemical protection. Despite the simplicity of the principles of the action of passive and active corrosion protection during their implementation on main oil pipelines, a number of difficulties arise. For example, the latter are associated with the need for simultaneous application of anticorrosion coatings of various types and technical condition; the operation of cathodic protection stations with structural differences and different efficiencies; insufficient development of remote monitoring of electrochemical protection systems. Some issues with anode grounding and reference electrodes. In this regard, bringing the technical state of the anti-corrosion protection equipment to a level that meets the requirements of modern oil and gas technologies is an urgent task, the decision of which will ensure the reliability and safety of oil transport systems. The technique of ranking the sections of main oil pipelines in terms of the degree of corrosive hazard using data of in-pipe diagnostics is considered, as well as the methodology for determining the optimum operation modes of the cathodic protection stations, which reduce the specific accidents of main oil pipelines and increase the fire and industrial safety of their operation. The results of calculating the fire risks of maintenance personnel at the oil-trunk pipeline section are presented in the course of implementing measures to improve the means of electrochemical protection.

References

1. Aginey R.V., Aleksandrov Yu.V., Aktual'nye voprosy zashchity ot korrozii dlitel'no ekspluatiruemykh magistral'nykh gazonefteprovodov (Topical issues of corrosion protection for long-term using main gas and oil pipelines), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2012, 394 p.

2. Gareev A.G., Nasibullina O.A., Ibragimov I.G., Evaluation of the performance of pipes with corrosion defects (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 4 (106), pp. 126136.

3. Rizvanov R.G., Mulikov D.Sh., Karetnikov D.V. et al., Corrosion resistance of tube tubesheet weld joint obtained by friction welding, Nanotehnologii v stroitelstve = Nanotechnologies in Construction, 2017, V. 9, no. 4, pp. 97115.

4. Faritov A.T., Rozhdestvenskii Yu.G., Yamshchikova S.A. et al., Improvement of the linear polarization resistance method for testing steel corrosion inhibitors, Russian Metallurgy (Metally), 2016, V. 11, pp. 10351041.

5. Gareev A.G., Nasibullina O.A., Rizvanov R.G., Khazhiev A.G., Study of the inner surface of the oil gathering pipeline in the Northern Krasnoyarsk field (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 2 (104), pp. 5864.

6. Latypov O.R., Bugai D.E., Boev E.V., Method of controlling electrochemical parameters of oil industry processing liquids, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 2015, V. 51, no. 3, pp. 283285.

7. Skuridin N.N., Methodical approach to assessing the corrosion hazard areas of pipelines according to the trunk pipeline pigging (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2012, no. 4, pp. 99101.

8. Skuridin N.N., Korzinin V.Yu., Borodenko D.V., Testing of the statistical data processing methods of corrosion and inline inspections for the corrosion condition assessment of JSC "Transneft" trunk pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 1 (17), pp. 7479.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-92-95

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STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REGULATION

006.05:502.65
S.A. Polovkov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.E. Gonchar (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), V. N. Slepnev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Heavyweight marine booms: requirements of foreign documents and its applicability for development of a national standard

Keywords: ASTM, CFR, ISO, boom, booms, GOST R, localization and liquidation oil and oil products spill on water, trunk pipeline, national standard

Analysis of foreign documents regulating requirements for a containment boom is represented in this paper. The preservation of the environment during the oil transportation and production is one of the highest priorities for the national fuel and energy complex. The containment boom, specifically, heavy sea containment boom is one of the main equipment types used for location and elimination of oil spills. No such requirements exist at the legislative level in the Russian Federation. In condition of economic sanctions and the following import substitution program, the development of national standards of equipment for industry needs is one of the state and scientific communitys main tasks. Foreign documents regulating requirements for a containment boom are dealt with in the context of this article (ISO standards, ASTM standards, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations).The list of the main parameters for production and installation of a containment boom and attribute values were developed based on this analysis. Only a part of the requirements of the Russian Federations national standard project Trunk pipeline transport of oil and oil products. Heavyweight marine booms for localization oil and oil products spill in seas. General specifications is represented and analyzed in this paper. A more complete analysis of this document and the description of problematic issues encountered in the process of its establishment are planned to be done after Rosstandarts approval.

References

1. Grigor'ev L.M. et al., Transformation of oil export routes from Russia: stake on the East and direct deliveries (In Russ.) Energeticheskiy byulleten' no. 36: Razvitie transportirovki nefti. Analiticheskiy tsentr pri Pravitel'stve Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2016, pp. 1015, URL: http://ac.gov.ru/files/publication/a/9072.pdf

2. Duryagina E.G., Petroleum products in marine environment (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo gidrometeorologicheskogo universiteta, 2011, V. 17, pp. 122130.

3. Radionova S.G., Polovkov S.A., Slepnev V.N., Assessment of the possibility of applying modern methods for early detection and monitoring of oil and petroleum product spills in water bodies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 124128.

4. Radionova S.G. et al., Methods of early detection and monitoring of oil and oil products spills on water bodies and evaluation of their efficiency (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, V. 7, no. 5, pp. 5667.

5. Polovkov S.A. et al., Metod lokalizatsii razlivov nefti i nefteproduktov v usloviyakh shugi i bitogo l'da v akvatorii morskikh portov (Method of localization of oil and oil products spills in conditions of sludge and broken ice in the water area of seaports), Collected papers of laureates of the International competition of scientific, scientific and technical and innovative developments aimed at the development and development of the Arctic and the continental shelf, Moscow, 2017, pp. 4345.

6. Egorova N.A., Malyshkin D.A., About the modernization of oil booms constructions (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2014, V. 14, no. 2, pp. 8291.

7. Zinchenko K.A. et al., The standards development within the activity of the subcommittees SC 7 and SC 10 of the technical committee 23 "The Oil and Gas Industry" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, V. 19, no. 3, pp. 8893.

8. Revel'-Muroz P.A. et al., Standardization as a mechanism of domestic manufacturer protection: following the results of the IX international conference "Neftegazstandart-2014" and the meeting of TC 23 "Oil and Gas Industry" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2014, V. 16, no. 4, pp. 2225.

9. Ermakov A.S., Suslova K.M., Technical committee 23's contribution into national standartization for oil and oil products pipeline transportation (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2012, V. 7, no. 3, pp. 1719.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-96-99

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

622.276.012
A.M. Korkin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.A. Pavlov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), S.E. Motus (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.N. Rymshin (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), A.S. Orekhov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), N.A. Povalkovich (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), V.A. Tartynov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), S.E. Baksheev (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Automated use of standard design documentation in Rosneft Oil Company

Keywords: engineering data management, standard engineering technology, standard engineering documentation, information data volume, document application traceability

The paper describes the automation issues for the Standard Designs System application in Rosneft Oil Company using own information management system of the unified design documentation. The creation of the information system is aimed at delivery of the following: optimization of the Corporate R&D Institutes labor costs due to effective search of standard engineering and design solutions, information on equipment, tools, materials; improvement of the design documentation quality; reduction of the design work cost.

The authors represent the basic functionability of the system that enables solving the following tasks: creation of the standard solutions and unified design documentation database structured upon a unified classifier of the facilities and standard design elements, register of the prototype-projects; creation of control and analysis instruments for the standard solutions application when designing and completing the inventory; knowledge sharing, acquaintance of the design engineers with new design solutions as part of their skills improvement; organized shared access of Rosneft companies to the standard solutions; automation of design task order forming and verification process and preparation of the basic design solutions based on the variety of the standard solutions; assessment of the standard solutions efficiency while designing the facilities.

The paper specifies the importance of a comprehensive approach to monitor the usability of the unified design documentation for the existing design documentation and design documentation being developed.

The expected trial period of the information system is 2019.

References

1. Russian certificate of registration of the computer software no. 2018614304. Programma dlya upravleniya inzhenernymi dannymi i tekhnicheskoy dokumentatsiey dlya obespecheniya tekhnologii tipovogo proektirovaniya (Program for the management of engineering data and technical documentation for the technology of standard design), 2018.

2. Prototip informatsionnoy sistemy upravleniya inzhenernymi dannymi i tekhnicheskoy dokumentatsiey dlya obespecheniya TTPK (Prototype of the information system for managing engineering data and technical documentation for the provision of standard design technology for the company): Official user manual of the information system, 2018.

3. Kaverin A.A., Korkin A.M., Motus S.E. et al., The development of the standard designs system in Rosneft Oil Company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 46-48.

4. Kaverin A.A., Korkin A.M., Belyaev P.V., Assessment of effects from implementation of unified design solutions in Rosneft Oil Company OJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 60-63.  

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-100-101

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681.518:622.24
S.O. Kosenkov (SNGS, RF, Moscow), Yu.S. Chetyrin (SNGS, RF, Moscow), I.V. Kuznetsov (SNGS, RF, Moscow), V.Yu. Turchaninov (SNGS, RF, Moscow), P.V. Zuev (SNGS, RF, Moscow)
Application of industrial blockchain technology for the remote monitoring of well construction

Keywords: industrial blockchain, upstream, geophysical services, mud logging, big data, validation, authenticity

The blockchain is a state of the art technology which is directly associated with the process of mining cryptocurrencies. However, this technology can be practically applied in many areas of the national economy, including oil and gas industry. For example, the blockchain can be useful in solving problems related to the confirming the integrity of primary geological and geophysical data during remote monitoring of the well construction process by excluding the influence of human factor. This technology is referred to as the industrial blockchain and requires consistent encryption and data distribution on storage locations in peer-to-peer network.

Any modification of the primary geological and geophysical data in the blockchain system, on any of the computers/equipment in any block, will automatically detected by all participants of the blockchain network. The system of ensuring the integrity and invariability of the received and transmitted data will work as long as at least a single of the network is operated. Hacking such a system is not feasible and cost-effective because the potential attackers have to break through every block, as well as copies of the database on every computer and equipment in the network. This requires a potential attacker to have unique computing resources, which is currently not available. In practice, the reliability of blockchain platforms is confirmed by many years of experience in the bitcoin mining system based on the blockchain principles.

The implementation of the blockchain platform in the oil and gas service allowed to ensure and guarantee the reliability of primary geological and geophysical data obtained from wells in real time, to reduce the risks of unauthorized changes. The reliability of the primary data reduces the risks of erroneous management decisions, made by the processing and analysis of these primary well data.

References

1. www.osp.ru/os/2018/01/13053938

2. https://www.ibm.com/blockchain/what-is-blockchain.html

3. www.osp.ru/os/2018/2/13054178

4. https://www.openchain.org
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-102-104

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ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

502.55:622.276+631.472.74
I.. Degtyareva (Tatar Research Institute for Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, RF, Kazan), I.. Shaydullina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), .Ya. Davletshina (Tatar Research Institute for Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, RF, Kazan), T.Yu. Motina1 (Tatar Research Institute for Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, RF, Kazan), I.. Yapparov (Tatar Research Institute for Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, RF, Kazan)
Methods of oil-contaminated soils diagnostic

Keywords: oil, contamination, analytical and biological methods, diagnostics

Assessment of the soil cover, particularly, determination of pollutant concentrations and analysis of biotic community, is vital in case of soil contamination with oil and petroleum products. For extensive and reliable characterization of the contaminated soil, various diagnostic methods are available. A number of regulatory documents are recommended depending on nature, and intensity of pollution, as well as soil exploitation purposes. Various analytical methods are used worldwide for determination of total content of hydrocarbons. These are gravimetry, fluorescence (luminescence) techniques, infrared spectroscopy and chromatography (gas, high-performance liquid and thin-layer chromatography). Analytical methods rely on different measurement principles and models systems, and use various dimensions. This makes comparative analysis of the data obtained using different methods rather challenging. Biological methods reveal soil conditions, enable tracing any negative processes at early stages, and exhibit high sensitivity and responsiveness to external effects. Oil contamination affects primarily biological parameters: aggregate number of microorganisms, their qualitative composition, structure of microbiocenosis, intensity of biological processes and activity of soil enzymes. Of the various biotest batteries used to assess the condition of contaminated soil, the most common are biotesting (zoo- and phytotoxicity), determination of the intensity of soil respiration, enzyme activity, amount of microorganisms of various physiological groups and so on. Biological activity of soil is closely related to physical and chemical properties, such as humus conditions, structure, acid-base conditions, reduction-oxidation potential etc. The issue of the development of optimum methods for determination and identification of oil and petroleum products in soil remains undecided. Given the fact that contamination with oil results in significant, predominantly unfavorable changes in soil ecosystems, diagnostics of such problems requires integration of available methods to meet the requirements of standards pertaining to biological remediation and allowable concentrations of petroleum contaminants.

References

1. Degtyareva I.A., Yapparov I.A., Yapparov A.Kh. et al., Creation and application of biofertilizers based on the effective consortium destructor microorganisms for remediation of contaminated soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 5, pp. 100103.

2. Ibragimov N.G., Gareev R.M., Ismagilov I.F. et al., Regulatory support for reclamation of disturbed and oil-contaminated soils in Tatneft PJSC assets (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 5, pp. 7477.

3. Dorozhkina O.V., Shilin S.A., Tikhonova I.O., Sravnenie analiticheskikh metodov opredeleniya nefteproduktov v gorodskikh stochnykh vodakh (Comparison of analytical methods for determining petroleum products in urban wastewater), Moscow: Publ. of D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, 2013, 56 p.

4. Okolelova A.A., Rakhimova N.A., Merzlyakova A.S. et al., Determination of oil content in soil instrumental and ir spectroscopic techniques (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2014, no. 51, pp. 8992.

5. Mukhin V.V., Opredelenie soderzhaniya nefteproduktov v pochvakh metodami IK-spektrometrii i fluorimetrii (Determination of oil content in soils by IR spectrometry and fluorimetry), Collected papers Molodaya neft' (Young oil), Proceedings of II All-Russian Youth Scientific and Technical Conference of Oil and Gas Industry, Krasnoyarsk, 1719 May 2015, Krasnoyarsk, 2015, pp. 159163.

6. Mayachkina N.V., Chugunova M.I., Peculiarities of soil biotests to evaluate soil ecotoxicity (In Russ.), Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta, 2009, no. 1, pp. 8493.

7. Kireeva N.A., Markarova M.Yu., Shchemelinina T.N., Rafikova G.F., Enzymatic and microbiological activity oil-contaminated northern soils at different stages of their restoration (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2006, V. 11, no. 4, pp. 5560.

8. Shorina T.S., Misetov I.A., Novozhenin I.A., Ermakova O.Yu., Assessment of phytotoxicity of chernozem in the southern Orenburg region under different doses of oil pollution (in Russ.), Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2011, no. 12 (131), pp. 273275.

9. Selivanovskaya S.Yu., Latypova V.Z., Creation of a test system for assessing the toxicity of multicomponent formations (In Russ.), Ekologiya, 2004, no. 1, pp. 2125.

10. Novoselova E.I., Ekologicheskie aspekty transformatsii fermentativnogo pula pochvy pri neftyanom zagryaznenii i rekul'tivatsii (Environmental aspects of the transformation of the soil enzymatic pool at oil contamination and remediation): thesis of doctor of biological science, Ufa, 2007.

11. Margesin R., Zimmerbauer A., Schinner F., Soil lipase a useful indicator of oil bioremediation, Biotechnology Techniques, 1999, V. 13, pp. 859863.

12. Vershinin A.A., Petrov A.M., Yuranets-Luzhaeva R.Ch. et al., The coefficient of microbial respiration of various types of soils under conditions of oil pollution (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2017, V. 20, no. 4, pp. 103106.

13. Rogozina E.A., Kalimullina G.K., The balance aspect and dynamics of utilizing the soil oil pollution by microorganisms (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2009, V. 4, no. 2, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/7/19_2009.pdf

14. Kolesnikov S.I., Tatosyan M.L., Aznaur'yan D.K., Change in fermentative activity of ordinary chernozem during oil and oil products contamination in model experiments (In Russ.), Doklady Rossiyskoy akademii sel'skokhozyaystvennykh nauk, 2007, no. 5, pp. 3234.

15. Tazetdinova D.I., Tukhbatova R.I., Akhmetova A.I., Mikroorganizmy antropogenno narushennykh pochv Respubliki Tatarstan (Microorganisms of anthropogenically disturbed soils of the Republic of Tatarstan), Collected papers Aktual'nye aspekty sovremennoy mikrobiologii (Actual aspects of modern microbiology), Proceedings of III International Youth School-Conference, Moscow, 2223 November 2007, Moscow, 2007, pp. 106107.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-106-109

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HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-110-111

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