March 2019

- - 55 . .
- ""
03'2019 ( 1145)


A.N. Shishkin (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa), E.O. Timashev (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa), V.I. Solovykh (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa), M.G. Volkov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Kolonskikh (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Bashneft digital transformation: from concept design to implementation

Keywords: digitalization, digital transformation, industry 4.0, disruptive innovation, cyber-physical system, business process management, machine learning, digital twin, mobile device

This article gives an overview of the digital transformation key drivers including introduction of state-of-art digital technologies into production; change of a business model; technical and economic performance management based on the example/experience of Bashneft oil and gas company. Introduction of digital technologies is achieved by managing changes of the business model. An integral part of the digital transformation is to align consistent key performance indicators with continuous monitoring of the technical and economic effect as a result of newly introduced technologies. The major trends of the Digital oil field project are presented along with the current results of the first phase of the Project. The main digital technologies are identified such as digital twins, mobile and wearable devices, virtual and augmented reality, machine learning, software robots and autonomous robots. The authors identify digital twins as a basic digital technology which can be divided into different levels: digital to physical, digital to digital, physical to digital. The most prominent breakthrough is scheduled to be implemented at the digital to digital level the development of digital models of technological objects. It also presents the results of mobile and wearable technologies aimed to improve health and safety of employees. Different levels of process control centers are proposed as the change of business models including efficiency control center, integrated operations center, intelligent control room. The Digital oil field project is the foundation for further effective development in the digital economy. Based on existing experience it is planned to significantly expand the list of digital transformation areas for key business units: digital plant, transport, logistics and gas station.


1. URL:

2. URL:

3. The programme Digital Economy of the Russian Federation, approved by resolution 1632-r of the Russian government on the 28th of July 2017.

4. Repin V.V., Eliferov V.G., Protsessnyy podkhod k upravleniyu. Modelirovanie biznes-protsessov (Process approach to management. Business process modeling), Moscow: Mann, Ivanov i Ferber Publ., 2013, 544 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-7-12

More or to buy article

More or to buy article


A.S. Isakov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), E.M. Liron (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Contractor effective performance management system

Keywords: contractor, efficiency, oilfield services, rating, performance, system

Rosneft Company in its daily activity is dealing with huge number of contractors. Contractor is a company that is hired by Customer represented by Rosneft Oil Company in this case to perform certain operations in accordance with the concluded contract and for agreed payment. It is obvious that Customer is expecting the work to be performed at a certain quality level, safety level and on time. However we see in practice that for various reasons these expectations are not met. This has led to the necessity to develop a uniform system to evaluate quality of operations and contractor performance and decide on further interaction with this company. The Upstream Oil and Gas Production Department Operational Potential and Efficiency Division jointly subsidiaries has developed and implemented in the Company Contractor Effective Performance Management System (CEPM). Rosneft has received a tool allowing to compare external and internal contractors on a single scale without any reference to a region of activity. CEPM covers almost all main oilfield services: capital and current workover, hydraulic fracturing, coil tubing services, bottom-hole treatments, perforation and blasting operations, geophysical surveys of wells in cased boreholes, geophysical surveys of wells in open boreholes, tubing repair services, technological motor transport services. The purpose of CEPM is to ensure transparency of rating process, develop open system for contractor performance evaluation, and define clear interaction rules for industry partners at oilfield services market. Contractors are rated based on CEPM data. Rating process creates efficiency competition among contractors motivating them for high performance.


1. Kak Salym Petroleum povyshaet effektivnost' upravleniya kontraktami (How Salym Petroleum improves contract management), URL:

2. A pattern of constructor selection for oil and gas industries in safety approach using AND-DEMATEL in a Grey environment, URL:

3. Driving operational performance in oil and gas, Ernst & Young, 2015, URL:

4. Dubey M., Performance-based contracting improves project execution, Oil & Gas Journal, 2015, V. 113, pp. 4851.

5. Kozhevnikov A., Uilson E., Upravlenie podryadchikami v neftegazovoy otrasli Rossii kak faktor ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti (Contract management in the Russian oil and gas industry as a factor in environmental safety), Moscow: Publ. of WWF Russia, 2010.

6. Kholopova L., Perfection non-stop (In Russ.), Sibirskaya neft', 2018, V. 156.

7. Five principles of the TNK-BP contracting philosophy (In Russ.), Ekspert Sibir', 2012, no. 42, URL:

8. Zorina S., Sample efficiency (In Russ.), Sibirskaya neft', 2018, no. 156, URL:
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-18-21

More or to buy article

A.M. Mastepanov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow; Institute of Energy Strategy, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
New views of the IEA on the prospects of world energy development

Keywords: forecasts and scenarios, the world economy and energy, world's energy consumption and its structure, oil and total liquids demand, world oil and other liquids hydrocarbons production

The article describes the features of the next edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO-2018), which has a number of significant differences from previous similar publications, due to the fact that the issue of climate change is central to it. Among them - the emergence of new scenarios for the future development of the world energy sector (the main one is the Sustainable Development Scenario, and the additional one - the Future is Electric Scenario); increased attention to studying the role of electricity in meeting the world's growing energy needs and the possibilities for the further electrification of all sectors of the world economy; estimation of indirect greenhouse gas emissions associated with the functioning of the oil and gas industry. The article describes the features of the next edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO-2018), which has a number of significant differences from previous similar publications, due to the fact that the issue of climate change is central to it. Among them - the emergence of new scenarios for the future development of the world energy sector (the main one is the Sustainable Development Scenario, and the additional one - the Future is Electric Scenario); increased attention to studying the role of electricity in meeting the world's growing energy needs and the possibilities for the further electrification of all sectors of the world economy; estimation of indirect greenhouse gas emissions associated with the functioning of the oil and gas industry.


1. Mastepanov A.M., Forecasting the development of the world oil and gas complex as a reflection of global problems and trends in energy consumption (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 5, pp. 611.

2. Mastepanov A.M., IEA: unconventional gas production forecasts (In Russ.), Nauchnyy zhurnal Rossiyskogo gazovogo obshchestva, 2018, no. 34, pp. 2140.

3. Mastepanov A.M., Barinov P.S., IEA and the OPEC secretariat: Two forecasts - two perspectives on the prospects for the development of global energy (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2018, no. 6, pp. 412.

4. World Energy Outlook 2018, OECD/IEA, 2018, URL: world-energy-outlook-2018

5. World Energy Outlook 2017, OECD/IEA, 2017, URL: world-energy-outlook-2017

6. Fereidoon Sioshansi. IEA: Future is electric and increasingly renewable,

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-22-26

More or to buy article

A.M. Aslanyan (Nafta College, RF, Kazan)
Digital oilfield development experience based on interactive petrocup sessions

Keywords: digital oilfield, petroleum field development planning, online training, interactive training, petroleum simulator

The paper provides an overview of the accumulated experience in development of digital oilfields synthesized by Nafta College specialists based on complex PolyPlan asset simulator during the multi-year program of PetroCup interactive tournaments. Digital oilfields were developed by professional multidisciplinary teams of 8-10 people from various petroleum organizations in various countries over the last few years. A summary of more than 20 oil companies, more than 10 oilfield service companies and 10 academic and research institutions are presented. The PetroCup tournaments account the specifics of team structure, digital reserves structure and regional economics. Despite this fact some statistical metrics provide a clear idea of the dominant trends in oilfield development strategies, including effective and ineffective ones. The results may attract interest of petroleum asset management to assess the efficiency of corporate strategies and policies in field development planning and well & reservoir management and eventually increase the effectiveness of these strategies. The provided statistics is also useful for oil and gas companies managers to assess the range, perspectives and value of the market services. The Petrocup statistics will be also useful to training centers and universities as indicator of upstream trends and maintain the right focus of petroleum engineering curriculums.


1. Martynov V.G., Sheynbaum V.S., Sardanashvili S.A., Pyatibratov P.V., Digital field in the education (In Russ.),Tsifrovoe mestorozhdenie v obrazovanii (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 124126.

2. Akhmetov L.G., Fayzrakhmanov I.M., Training specialists for professional competition through the design of a virtual learning space (In Russ.), Kazanskiy pedagogicheskiy zhurnal, 2007, no. 6, pp. 29-32, URL:

3. D'yakonov G.S., Zhurakovskiy V.M., Ivanov V.G. et al., Podgotovka inzhenera v real'no-virtual'noy srede operezhayushchego obucheniya (Engineer training in real-world advanced learning environment), Kazan': Publ. of KSTU, 2009, URL:

4. Pilipenko D., Five digital field versions (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal, 2018, URL:

5. Digital deposits: myths and opportunities (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2017, URL:

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-28-34

More or to buy article

PJSC Giprotyumenneftegaz is 55 years old!

More or to buy article

V.P. Frayshteter (Giprotyumenneftegas PJSC, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen)
Rationing of electric reliability of oil industry facilities at the design stage

Keywords: electric reliability, categories of electric receivers, power supply sources, rationing of electric reliability

The design of oil and gas facilities in terms of the reliability of their electrical supply is carried out on the basis of the categories of reliability defined by the electrical installation standards. This classification of electric receivers according to the rationing of their electric reliability has existed for more than half a century. The article tackles the deficiencies of the existing system. It is noted that the existing system of the electric reliability rationing is mainly of the descriptive character. It does not contain any qualitative indicators, except for a number of independent power sources. The deficiencies of the current system of electric reliability rationing are shown on the example of oil production facilities. It is also exposed that some provisions of the current standards are contradictory.

It is proposed to use a special reliability requirements coding system for the purposing of power supply system design. This proposed system is based on the existing categorisation system but is enhanced with additional requirements. These additional requirements define the technical solutions for the scheme of normal power supply by backup and emergency power sources. The purpose of the proposed coding system is to fix the main requirements for the power supply system of the electric receiver or consumer of electricity in a concise and standardised form. These requirements are to be implemented during the design stage. An advanced algorithm for coding requirements for the reliability of power supply is proposed; examples of such coding are given. The purpose of the proposed coding system is to encrypt a large amount of information (requirements) in a short formula.

The analysis of the existing system of electric reliability rationing and the proposed coding algorithm are considered on the example of power supply of oil production facilities. All conclusions and recommendations are of universal character, i.e. they can be used without reference to a specific industry.


1. Allan R.N., Billinton R., Reliability evaluation of power systems, Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC, 1984.

2. Vorotnitskiy V.V., Reliability of power supply as a tool for regulating relations between suppliers and consumers of energy (In Russ.), Energiya i Menedzhment, 2009, no. 3.

3. Frayshteter V.P., On the categories of reliability of power supply on the example of oil industry facilities. Part 1 (In Russ.), Promyshlennyy elektroobogrev i elektrootoplenie, 2018, no. 1, pp. 3459.

4. Mart'yanov A.S., Frayshteter V.P., Sushkov V.V., Design of ride-through solutions for electric submersible pump with adjustable speed drive (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 109112.

5. Frayshteter V.P., On the categories of reliability of power supply on the example of oil industry facilities. Part 1 (In Russ.), Promyshlennyy elektroobogrev i elektrootoplenie, 2018, no. 2, pp. 4055.    
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-40-45

More or to buy article

M.A. Suslov (Giprotyumenneftegas PJSC, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen), M.K. Veliev (Giprotyumenneftegas PJSC, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen), P.A. Ovchinnikov (Giprotyumenneftegas PJSC, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen)
The experience of Giprotyumenneftegas PJSC in design of digital substations

Keywords: digital substation, IEC 61850 standard, combined architecture of relay protection, automatic and control system, centralized intelligent electronic devices

Under the Digitalization Program, developed by the Russian Ministry of Energy, modernization of electrical power engineering complex and transition to digital substations is expected in the period of 2018-2022. Special attention should be given to the question of digital substations designing as the hardware layout and the architecture of relay protection, automatic and control system are worked out at this stage. Nowadays there is no internal Russian standard referred to IEC 61850 as well as any normative and technical documentation. So in all digital substations projects various solutions are used for organization of relay protection, automatic and control system that makes it difficult to assess the adequacy and sufficiency of the proposed technical solutions and affects negatively to the time of project documentation development and to the terms of equipment manufacturing.

Combined architecture of digital substation was taken by the specialists of Giprotyumenneftegas and EKRA as the basis of designed 110/35/10 kV digital substation. Automatization system of projected digital substation is realized as the software and hardware complex based on digital equipment and fiber optic communications, united by unified data transfer protocol by IEC 61850 standard. The hardware and software base of designed 110/35/10 kV digital substation is represented by two dubbed cabinets of centralized intelligent electronic devices (1, 2). Every device is a block, performed on modular basis, where each module has certain functions and could be managed independently from other modules.

Combined architecture allowed to create a scalable automatic system of control, operation, protection, collection, transmission and processing of information, built on a multilevel centralized principle. The proposed approach makes it possible to simplify the schemes of secondary commutation by making closer of digital signals sources to primary equipment, reducing the number of inter-cabinet cables. Classical microprocessor terminals in combination with electromagnetic current and voltage transformers, used as the connection controllers, allowed to reduce the number of necessary DMU and AMU devices. In addition, the usage of individual terminals for each 10 kV connection allows to ensure the stability of relay protection and automatic system, while keeping the high quality properties and reliability of the classical substation.


1. Mikhaylenko O., Digital substation: The challenges of time (In Russ.), Rukovodyashchie materialy po proektirovaniyu i ekspluatatsii elektricheskikh setey, 2017, no. 5, pp. 3639.

2. Aleksinskiy S.O., Architectural solutions versions of relay protection system and automations of 110220 kW digital substation (In Russ.), Vestnik IGEU, 2011, no. 1, pp. 4247.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-46-49

More or to buy article


S.A. Ilyichv (Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC, RF, Megion), V.V. Kulchitskiy (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; Interregional Gubkin Scientific and Technical Society of Oil and Gas Experts, RF, Moscow), V.P. Spiridonov (Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC, RF, Megion), A.V. Pimonov (Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC, RF, Megion), A.V. Schebetov (Research and Development Center for Gas and Oil Technologies, RF, Moscow), A.K. Parkhomenko (Research and Development Center for Gas and Oil Technologies, RF, Moscow), D.N. Chernobay (Research and Development Center for Gas and Oil Technologies, RF, Moscow), A.D. Ivanov (Geophysmash LLC, RF, Saratov)
Drilling supervising of optimized design bore

Keywords: borehole of optimized design, geonavigation drilling systems, drilling supervising, geosupervisor

The innovative technology for constructing horizontal wells of the optimized two-column design (excluding the third column a shank of small diameter) is introduced. Geonavigation drilling systems with the continuous work resource (hundreds of hours) allow to drill wells under production casing in one case, in combination with the oil-based mud, ensuring the stability of the trunk, open the oil reservoir by extended horizontal stem, increasing the length of the well. We formulated the task of experimental-industrial tests, described structure of interaction of personnel and the separation of powers post geosupervising. The advantages of hardware-software complex of geosupervision on the basis of digital station "Kedr" are listed. The results of pilot tests are given. For the first time in the oil and gas industry integration of drilling supervision with geological and technological control was implemented on the basis of a digital station at 5 wells of the Vatinskoye field.

Integration of the drilling supervision post with the geotechnical survey party ensured control of compliance of the performed technological operations with the planned ones, reduction of the time of formation of the current and reporting documentation with the release of the supervisor's time for more responsible and highly qualified work, prompt provision of objective information on technological operations to Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC with the definition of the structure of non-productive time. The digital station of geotechnical survey allowed to reequip modules of remote interactive and production training of the educational and production ground functioning on the basis of Gubkin University, Research and Development Center for Gas and Oil Technologies and Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC since 2009. Now training of specialists, including masters, researchers and professors of the Gubkin University are performed on innovative digital technology and a new profession of Geosuperviser.


1. Kul'chitskiy V.V., Shchebetov A.V., Geo supervising of oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2016, no. 9, pp. 38-41.

2. Bilinchuk A.V., Rustamov I.F., Bulgakov E.Yu. et al., Principles of construction of integrated operations management systems by the example of the drilling operations support center of Gazprom Neft Group (In Russ.), PROneftʹ. Professionalʹno o nefti, 2018, no. 2, pp. 6570.

3. Certificate of state registration of computer programs no. 2017611562, Programmnyy kompleks ARM Geosupervayzera (Software complex Workstation of Geosupervisor), Authors: Kulʹchitskiy V.V., Parkhomenko A.K., Shchebetov A.V., Konovalov A.M. et al.

4. Shulʹev YU.V., Martynov V.G., Kulʹchitskiy V.V. et al., Innovative educational technologies of drilling supervising (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 3, pp. 1013.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-50-52

More or to buy article


622. : 550.822.3
E.V. Lozin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.M. Kuznetsov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
To the wettability of reservoir rocks containing hydrocarbon

Keywords: wettability, development of oil and gas field, re-saturation, relative phase permeability

The article is devoted to examining results of laboratory experiments concerned with re-saturation of washed porous media and second oil displacement. First experiments were carried out in the 1970s at UfNII BashNIPIneft by V.M. Berezin and V.F. Usenko. The task was to investigate in the laboratory the mechanism of science-based picture of impact on pillars of residual oil in inhomogeneous porous and permeable medium produced in waterflooding. It was believed that produced oil accumulations might be efficiently involved in the process of displacement by water during cyclic stopping-restart of waterflooding combined with changing filtration flows. Core column having been composed of sandstone sample from an oilfield and having been flooded upon primary oil displacement was saturated with oil once more and subjected to re-displacement by water. Measured residual oil saturation turned out to be higher than that after primary displacement. The cycles were reproduced by other researchers (V.G. Panteleev, G.N. Pilyakov, E.V. Lozin, A.M. Kuznetsov) also performing the same result. The same one was demonstrated on carbonate medium. The process was further investigated by B.I. Levi by means of numerical modeling. To reduce the observed negative effect, adding reagents to injected water have been investigated, not yielding considerable reduction of residual oil saturation.

A possible explanation of the described phenomenon is being considered. If the same result will be obtained when repeating the experiments on hydrophobic porous medium, the answer will consist in the process of oil capillary entrapment during re-saturation. If the picture is vice versa, the answer will follow from wettability change.


1. Yurin I.Ya., Poluyan I.G., Gaynanshina A.M., On some phenomena of oil and water movement in the Bavlinsky field during its long development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1978, no. 12, pp. 2327.

2. Burdyn' T.A., Gorbunov A.T., Lyutin L.V. et al., Metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi pri zavodnenii (Methods of enhanced oil recovery during water flooding), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 190 p.

3. Usenko V.F., Piyakov G.N., Kudashev R.I., Change in oil saturation after re-oil saturation of watered formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1982, no. 6, pp. 2529.

4. Piyakov G.N., Usenko V.F. et al., Changing the residual oil saturation with repeated oil formation waterflooding (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo i transport nefti, 1984, no. 4, pp. 56.

5. Lozin E.V., Panteleev V.G., Experimental assessment of the completeness of the extraction of oil that supplied the flooded oil reservoir (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1995, no. 6, pp. 3638.

6. Mikhaylov N.N., Gurbatova I.P., Motorova K.A., Sechina L.S., New representations of wettability of oil and gas reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 8085.

7. Lozin E.V., Piyakov G.N. et al., Physical and numerical simulation of the re-oil saturation process in the watered limestone of medium carbon (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy, 1997, no. 6, pp. 4449.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-53-55

More or to buy article

622.276.1/.4 (470.41)
R.Kh. Muslimov (Kazan (Volga Federal) Federal University, RF, Kazan), I.N. Plotnikova (Institute of Advanced Studies, the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, RF, Kazan)
Modeling the development of oil fields, considering the mature fields reforming and refill by the deep hydrocarbons

Keywords:, Keywords: formation and re-formation of oil and gas fields, Earth degassing, crystalline basement, oil replenishment channels, North-Tatar and South-Tatar arches, abnormal and normal wells, new geological and geological and hydrodynamic model

The article is devoted to the fundamental problem of petroleum geology - the hypothesis about the replenishment of reserves of oil deposits in the process of their development. The increase in recoverable reserves of oil fields due to the process of modern injection of deep oil in the sedimentary cover is an important and actual task. Also, the localization of such zones of injections is a very serious scientific and practical task. The solution of this task requires carrying out complex field-geological and geochemical studies in the monitoring mode for a long time. This is necessary to obtain quantitative parameters of the flow and injection of light hydrocarbons in the oil fields. These works will allow to sel ect the most promising areas of the reservoir to search for channels for the deep hydrocarbons degassing and recommend conducting seismic studies on new innovative technologies with the aim of mapping the channels and subsequent monitoring of the degassing processes. The newly obtained results, together with the already available information, will allow a new approach to the development of an alternative geological and hydrodynamic model, which allows determining the rate of regeneration of deposits in the development process and the volume of replenishment of hydrocarbons fr om the depths, as well as predicting the role of processes of re-formation of deposits in total production of oil. The process of injection of the light hydrocarbons into the oil reservoir needs to be studied and taken into account for planning the development of oil fields, for estimating residual oil reserves, for determining the terms of life of fields, for formation geological and hydrodynamic models of fields. The process of deep flow of fluids during mass and heat transfer is important for the formation and re-formation of hydrocarbon deposits in various geological and physical conditions. It is promising to create geological models of deposits, taking into account the processes of replenishment and the possibility of estimating the parameters of the development of such objects for a long period.


1. Petford N., McCaffrey K.J.W., Hydrocarbons in cristalline rocks, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 2003, DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.214.01.01.

2. Ashirov K.B., Borgest T.M., Karev A.L., The reasons of repeated many times gas and oil restocking at the fields being exploited in the Samara region (In Russ.), Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2000, V. 2, no. 1, pp. 166173.

3. Bochkarev V.A., Ostroukhov S.B., Sianisyan S.EH., Kontseptsiya dvukhehtapnogo formirovaniya zalezhey uglevodorodov zapadnogo borta Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny (The concept of two-stage formation of hydrocarbon deposits of the western side of the Caspian Basin), Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific Conference Uspekhi organicheskoy geokhimii (Advances in organic geochemistry),1115 October 2010, Novosibirsk: Publ. of IPGG SB RAS, 2010, pp. 6469.

4. Gavrilov V.P., Neft i gaz vozobnovlyaemye resursy (Oil and gas - renewable resources), URL: gaz%20vozobnovlyaemy.pdf

5. Proceedings of Materials of the All-Russian Conference Degazatsiya Zemli: geodinamika, geoflyuidy, neft, gaz i ikh paragenezy (Earth degassing: geodynamics, geofluids, oil, gas and their parageneses), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2008, 622 p.

6. Goryunov E.Yu., Ignatov P.A., Klementeva D.N. et al., The show of present hydrocarbon inflow into oil and gas complexes in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2015, no. 5, pp. 62-69.

7. Kasyanova N.A., Geofluidodynamic evidence of modern replenishment of oil and gas deposits (In Russ.), Geologiya, geografiya i globalnaya ehnergiya, 2010, no. 3(38), pp. 1416.

8. Muslimov R.Kh., Glumov I.F., Plotnikova I.N. et al., Oil and gas fields - self-developing and constantly renewable objects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, Special Issue, 2004, pp. 4349.

9. Muslimov R.Kh., Plotnikova I.N., Are oil reserves renewed? (In Russ.), EHKO, 2012, no. 1(145), pp. 2934.

10. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee (optimizatsiya dobychi, maksimizatsiya KIN) (Oil recovery: Past, Present, Future (production optimization, maximization of recovery factor)), Kazan: FEN Publ., 2014, 570 p.

11. Plotnikova I.N., Sovremennyy protsess vozobnovleniya zapasov uglevodorodnogo syrya: gipotezy i fakty (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2004, V. 15, no. 1, pp. 40.

12. Plotnikova I.N., Salakhidinova G.T., Geochemical criteria for the identification of undeveloped sites of oil deposits at the late stage of their development (In Russ.), Neft i gaz, 2017, no. 5, pp. 83102.

13. Kayukova G.P., Romanov G.V., Lukyanova R.G., Sharipova N.S., Organicheskaya geokhimiya osadochnoy tolshchi i fundamenta territorii Tatarstana (Organic geochemistry of sedimentary strata and basement of the territory of Tatarstan), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2009, 487 p.

14. Plotnikova I.N., Akhmetov A.N., Delev A.N. et al., Geoinformational approaches to studies of geodynamics of Romashkinsky deposit (In Russ.), Gornyy zhurnal, 2011, no. 7, pp. 6367.

15. Zakirov S.N., Zakirov E.S., Indrupskiy I.M., New concepts in 3D- geological and hydrodynamic modelling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =Oil Industry, 2006, no. 1, pp. 3441.

16. Dyachuk I.A., Reformation of oil fields and reservoirs (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2015, no. 1(60), pp. 3946.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-56-60

More or to buy article

A.E. Manasyan (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), A.A. Amirov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), N.V. Fedorenko (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.M. Vagizov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), N.D. Pozhitkov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), G.N. Agadullina (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.R. Sadretdinov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), G.F. Kavieva (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Application of lithofacies modeling for petroleum development of Bashkirian carbonates at the Borovskoye field

Keywords: multizone oil reservoir, inhomogeneity of reservoir, field development system, well logging, localization of residual recoverable reserves, carbonate reservoir, lateral drilling, multistage hydraulic fracturing

At the moment, hydrocarbons confined to carbonates are the target of increasing interest and are the drivers of oil production growth and maintenance. The involvement of carbonates into production requires the use of new approaches due to poor reservoir properties and complex geological structure. The article discusses the use of lithofacies modeling for carbonate development optimization in Borovskoye field, located in the Samara Region. Dividing reservoirs into petroclasses depending on petrophysical differences of voids is the new differentiated approach to geological modeling. The Borovskoye field is multihorizon and multi-domed. The main productive formation is Bashkirian stage (reservoir A4), which contains most of residual recoverable reserves. The reservoir A4 is defined by poor PVT characteristics and poor continuity of rocks in terms of thickness, quality and also lateral continuity. The results of the research work on creating a unified petrophysical model of Bashkir carbonates in Bashkortostan oilfields were used as a basis for refining the petrophysical dependencies and constants of A4 reservoir. As a result three petrophysical types of A4 reservoir were distinguished: fracture-porous, vugular-porous and porous. This division of A4 reservoir into petroclasses is confirmed by the differences in flow rates and cumulative oil production of wells. The choice of the optimal production case of A4 reservoir of Borovskoye field was based on reservoir simulation model adapted to the production history. Based on the concentration of the main part of residual recoverable reserves and appropriate petrophysical reservoir type the pilot area of the field was chosen for future expansion on the field.


1. Shambarova L.I., Pereschet zapasov nefti i rastvorennogo gaza Borovskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya Samarskoy oblasti (vklyuchaya Nizhnee mestorozhdenie) (Recalculation of oil and dissolved gas reserves of the Borovskoye oil field in the Samara region (including the Nizhnee field)), Samara: Publ. of SamaraNIPIneftʹ, 2018, 317 p.

2. Aleksandrova E.A., Ivanova A.Yu., Tekhnologicheskiy proekt razrabotki Borovskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya Samarskoy oblasti AO Samaraneftegaz (Technological project for the development of the Borovskoye oil field in the Samara region of Samaraneftegaz JSC), Samara: Publ. of SamaraNIPIneftʹ, 2018, 654 p.

3. Burikova T.V., Savel'eva E.N., Husainova A.M. et al., Lithological and petrophysical characterization of Middle Carboniferous carbonates (a case study from north-western oil fields of Bashkortostan) (In Russ.), Neftjanoe hozjajstvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 1821.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-62-65

More or to buy article

Yu.A. Kashnikov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), S.G. Ashikhmin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), D.V. Shustov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), S.Yu. Yakimov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), A.E. Kukhtinskii (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Increasing efficiency of hydrocarbon fields development based on complex geomechanical research

Keywords: rock formation, rock mechanics, stress-strain state, anisotropy of elastic and strength properties

Currently, solving the problems of increasing the efficiency of hydrocarbon field development is impossible without widespread introduction of rock mechanics at all stages of field development: from designing and drilling wells to optimizing the location of wells in the field and optimizing pressure maintenance system and methods of bottomhole zone treatment. Until recently, geomechanical studies in Russia were conducted mainly by foreign service companies (Schlumberger, Halliburton etc.). However, presently domestic companies create geomechanical centers which primarily carry out applied research. At the same time, geomechanical centers are created in leading universities that solve both fundamental scientific problems and carry out applied research by request of oil and gas industry. One of such centers, oriented on increasing efficiency of hydrocarbon field development, is created in Perm National Research Polytechnic University. The main areas of work of the Center are rock mechanical properties tests; calculating stress-strain state for development of hydrocarbon fields and solid mineral deposits; creating geological geomechanical models of hydrocarbon fields; wellbore stability and deformation analysis for oil and gas wells; development of theoretical and practical basics of oriented hydraulic fracturing; instrumental surveys of displacement of rock and earth surface, including GNSS and InSAR technologies and design of geodynamic monitoring systems.


1. Vashkevich A.A., Zhukov V.V., Ovcharenko Yu.V. et al., Development of integrated geomechanical modeling in Gazprom Neft PJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 1619.

2. Ganaeva M.R., Sukhodanova S.S., Khaliulin Ruslan R., Khaliulin Rustam R., Sakhalin offshore oilfield hydraulic fracturing optimization by building a 3D geomechanical model (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 108111.

3. Davletova A.R., Kireev V.V., Knutova S.R. et al., Razrabotka korporativnogo geomekhanicheskogo simulyatora dlya modelirovaniya ustoychivosti skvazhin (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 8892.

4. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Mekhanika gornykh porod pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Rock mechanics in the development of hydrocarbon deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 467 p.

5. Fjaer E. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics, Elseveir, 2008, 515 p.

6. Proceedings of the Conference on Rock Mechanics and Rock Physics at Great Depth, Pau, France, 1989, V. 2, Rotterdam: A A Balkema Publ., 1989, 1620 p.

7. Kashnikov Yu.A., Shustov D.V., Kukhtinskiy A.E, Kondratʹev S.A., Geomechanical properties of the terrigenous reservoirs in the oil fields of Western Ural (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 3235.

8. Ashikhmin S.G., Kashnikov Yu.A., Shustov D.V., Kukhtinskiy A.E., Influence of elastic and strength anisotropy on the stability of inclined borehole (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 2, pp. 5457.

9. Kashnikov Yu.A. et al., Geologo-geomekhanicheskaya modelʹ Astrakhanskogo gazokondensatnogo mestorozhdeniya (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennostʹ, 2012, no. 3, pp. 2933.

10. Shustov D.V., Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Kukhtinskiy A.E., 3D geological geomechanical reservoir modeling for the purposes of oil and gas field development optimization, Proceedings of Conference EUROCK 2018: Geomechanics And Geodynamics Of Rock Masses, 2018, V. 2, pp. 14251430.

11. Hiroki Sone, Mechanical properties of shale gas reservoir rocks and its relation to the in-situ stress variation observed in shale gas reservoirs, PhD thesis, 2012.

12. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-66-69

More or to buy article

A.M. Ilyasov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), K.R. Kadyrova (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), V.A. Baikov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.D. Latypov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Method for estimating the Young's modulus of a rock using a water hammer

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, water hammer, crack size, Young's modulus, functional minimization

The flow rate of oil after fracturing is determined by the permeable surface area of the formed crack and its width. The main geometrical parameters of fracture are height, width and length which cannot be directly measured. The only measured data for hydraulic fracturing are wellhead and bottom pressure. Another way to determine the size of the crack is to get a hydraulic fracture design. But it is necessary to know the elastic rock modules in the interval of the hydraulic fracturing operation. Experimental core studies of elastic constants can give quite high errors at least due to the unloading of core samples and the formation of cracks in the core material when lifted to the surface.

This article presents the method and algorithm of determining the size of a hydraulic fracture and the effective Young's modulus of rock within the interval of fracture development after a water hammer according to downhole gauges. The method is based on solving direct problems of the natural fluctuations of a hydraulic fracture after stopping the pump. Natural fluctuations of a hydraulic fracture are described with the use of the linearized generalized Perkins Kern Nordgren (PKN) model of a hyperbolic type. The inverse coefficient problem is solved by the least squares method. On the coefficients found it is possible to estimate the rigidity of a hydraulic fracture, its geometrical parameters, as well as the Young's modulus of the rock within the interval of fracture development. A comparison is carried out between geometrical parameters of hydraulic fractures found using the suggested method and the figures of the design test on substitution obtained with the help of the RN-GRID simulator, provided the Youngs modulus is derived from the new accepted method. Calculations showed fine precision.


1. Holzhausen C.R., Gooch, R.P., Impedance of hydraulic fracture: its measurement and use for estimating fracture closure and dimensions, SPE 13892-MS, 1985.

2. Patzek T.W., De A., Lossy transmission line model of hydrofractured well dynamics, SPE 46195-MS, 2000.

3. Wylie E.B., Streeter V.L., Fluid transients in systems, New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1993, 463 p.

4. Paige R.W., Murray L.R., Roberts J.D.M., Field application of hydraulic impedance testing for fracture measurement, SPE 26525-PA, 1995.

5. Sneddon J.N., Berry D.S., The classical theory of elasticity, Berlin: Springer, 1958.

6. Carey M.A., Mondal S., Sharma M.M., Analysis of water hammer signatures for fracture diagnostics, SPE 174866-MS, 2015.

7. Iriarte J., Merritt J., Kreyche B., Using water hammer characteristics as a fracture treatment diagnostic, SPE 185087-MS, 2017.

8. Perkins T.K., Kern L.R., Width of hydraulic fractures, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1961, V.13, no. 4, pp. 937949.

9. Nordgren R.P., Propogation of a vertical hydraulic fracture, SPE 3009-PA, 1972.

10. Il'yasov A.M., Bulgakova G.T., The quasi-one-dimensional hyperbolic model of hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Vestnik Samarskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Fiziko-matematicheskie nauki = Journal of Samara State Technical University, Ser. Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 2016, V. 20, no. 4, pp. 739754.

11. Baykov V.A., Bulgakova G.T., Il'yasov A.M., Kashapov D.V., To the evaluation of the geometric parameters of hydraulic fracturing crack (In Russ.), Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza, 2018, no. 5, pp. 64-75, DOI: 1031857/S05682810001790-0.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-70-73

More or to buy article

P.E. Morozov (Institute of Mechanics and Engineering, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan)
Pseudo-skin factor and optimal conductivity of a hydraulic fracture in a circular reservoir

Keywords: hydraulic fracture, circular reservoir, productivity, pseudo-skin factor, effective radius, optimal conductivity

One of the most effective ways to increase well productivity is hydraulic fracturing. As a result of hydraulic fracturing the high conductivity fractures in the reservoir are formed, which reduce the filtration resistance of the bottomhole zone and increase the effective wellbore radius. In the works of I.V. Krivonosov, I.A. Charny and M. Prats, it was found that an ideal fracture (infinite conductivity fracture) is equivalent to a well whose diameter is equal to half the fracture length. Earlier, a similar conclusion was made in the fundamental works of F. Forchheimer and N.E. Zhukovsky, where steady-state water flow to the slit and gallery of finite length was investigated. An important step in planning a hydraulic fracturing operation is determining the optimal fracture parameters (length, width and conductivity), which are able to provide the maximum production rate at a fixed fracture volume and known values of the reservoir thickness, drainage radius, reservoir and proppant permeabilitys.

The article presents a theoretical analysis of the pseudo-skin factor for rectangular and elliptical fractures and expressions for the optimal fracture half-length and width. It is shown that the effective radius of fracture with optimal conductivity is half the effective radius of an ideal fracture. A system of integral equations is obtained for determining the steady-state fluid flow to a finite conductivity fracture in a circular reservoir. Based on the numerical solution of a system of integral equations, graphs of flux and pressure distribution along the fracture wings were presented for different values of the dimensionless fracture conductivity, which are in good agreement with the results of M. Prats and H. Cinco-Ley. It is shown that the pseudo-skin factor is explicitly expressed through the flux distribution along the fracture.


1. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, J. Wiley Sons, 2000, 856 p.

2. Kanevskaya R.D., Matemeticheskoe modelirovanie razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza s primeneniem gidravlicheskogo razryva plasta (Mathematical modeling of the development of oil and gas using hydraulic fracturing), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 1999, 212 p.

3. Prats M., Effect of vertical fractures on reservoir behavior incompressible fluid case, SPE 1575-G, 1961.

4. Krivonosov I.V., Charnyy I.A., Calculation of flow rates of wells with fractured bottomhole formation zone (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1955, no. 4, pp. 4047.

5. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.

6. Meyer B.R., Jacot R.H., Pseudosteady-state analysis of finite-conductivity vertical fractures, SPE 95941-MS, 2005.

7. Astaf'ev V.I., Fedorchenko G.D., Simulation of fluid filtration in the presence of hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Vestnik Samarskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Ser. Fiziko-matematicheskie nauki = Journal of Samara State Technical University, Ser. Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 2007, no. 2(15), pp. 128132.

8. Riley M.F., Brigham W.E., Horne R.N., Analytic solutions for elliptical finite-conductivity fractures, SPE 22656-MS, 1991.

9. Lu Y., Chen K.P., Productivity-index optimization for hydraulically fractured vertical wells in a circular reservoir: a comparative study with analytical solutions, SPE 180929-PA, 2016.

10. Sinso-Ley N., Meng H.-Z., Pressure-transient analysis of wells with finite-conductivity vertical fractures in double porosity reservoirs, SPE 18172-MS, 1988.

11. Morozov P.E., Psevdoskin-faktor i optimal'naya provodimost' vertikal'noy treshchiny gidravlicheskogo razryva plasta (Pseudoskin factor factor and optimal conductivity of vertical induced hydraulic fracture), Proceedings of Sci International Scientific and Practical Conference Innovatsii v razvedke i razrabotke neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Innovations in exploration and development of oil and gas fields), Kazan, 2016, Part 2, pp. 53-56. (In Russ.)

12. Zazovskiy A.F., Todua G.T., About the stationary fluid inflow to the well with a large long vertical fracture (In Russ.), Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR. Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza = Fluid Dynamics, 1990, no. 4, pp. 107116.

13. CincoLey H., Samaniego V.F., Dominguez A.N., Transient pressure behavior for a well with a finiteconductivity vertical fracture, SPE 6014-PA, 1978.

14. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Teoriya nestatsionarnoy fil'tratsii zhidkosti i gaza (The theory of non-stationary filtration of liquid and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1972, 288 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-74-77

More or to buy article


More or to buy article


M.V. melyanyuk(Kuban State Technological University, RF, Armavir), I.A. akhlyan (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Armavir)
Production stimulation during well workover under conditions of lost circulation zone

Keywords: bottom hole cleaning, submersible jet unit, hydraulic rotary vibrator, permeability build-up

The well workover at the most fields of the Krasnodar region is complicated by the large water cut, the presence of absorbing layers, and the destruction of bottom-hole zones of wells. After completing geological and engineering operations wells often cannot be brought to the project flow rate. The process of washing clay-sand and proppant plugs is complicated by significant absorption, leading to layers colmatation by process fluids and mechanical particles of the plug. In some cases, the effect of the work may be zero or even negative, in this case, the well after repair is transferred to the idling or abandoned well stock.

To solve these problems during well workover the authors proposed the technology for borehole cleaning under depression by removal of clay-sand or proppant plugs and colmatants followed by vibration-wave impact on the bottomhole formation zone for the production stimulation. Vibration-wave impact can be combined with chemical reagents exosure (acids and solvents of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits). This technology was implemented using the developed source of hydrodynamic oscillations (downhole vibrator) and submersible jet pump. Models of calculation of jet devices in relation to well conditions are analyzed. Pilot implementation of the developed methods and technologies in oil wells in Krasnodar region, as well in water supply well in the Southern Federal District shows their high efficiency coupled with relatively low costs.


1. Sukovitsyn V.A., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologiy vosstanovleniya germetichnosti krepi i promyvki skvazhin v usloviyakh znachitel'nogo padeniya plastovykh davleniy (Improving the technology of restoring the tightness of lining and flushing wells in conditions of a significant reservoir pressure decline): thesis of candidate of technical science, Stavropol', 2013.

2. Drozdov A.N., Terikov B.A., Application of submerged jet pumps systems with dual-string lift for the sticky holes operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 6, pp. 6872.

3. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Prospects of development of jet pumps well operation technology in Russia (In Russ.), SPE 176676-MS, 2015.

4. Strunkin S.I., Alekseev A.V., Mukhutdinov I.A. et al., Uvelichenie effektivnosti ochistki PZP s primeneniem UPS (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya Praktika, 2015, no. 10, URL:

5. Drozdov A.N., MalyavkoE.A., AlekseevY.L., Shashel O.V., Stand research and analysis of liquid-gas jet-pumps operation characteristics for oil and gas production (In Russ.), SPE 146638-MS, 2011.

6. Drozdov A.N., Vykhodtsev D.O., Gorid'ko K.A., Verbitskiy V.S., Express method of jet pump characteristics calculation for well operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 2, pp. 7679.

7. Drozdov A.N., Stand investigations of ESP's and gas separator's characteristics on gas-liquid mixtures with different values of free-gas volume, intake pressure, foaminess and viscosity of liquid (In Russ.), SPE 134198-MS, 2010.

8. Sokolov E.Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Jet devices), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.

9. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A., Gidrodinamicheskie i kavitatsionnye struynye tekhnologii v neftegazovom dele (Hydrodynamic and cavitation jet technology in oil and gas business), Krasnodar: Publ. of CSTU, 2017, 215 p.

10. Certificate of state registration database no. 2018620362, Baza dannykh Struynye apparaty v neftegazovykh tekhnologiyakh (Database Jet Apparatus in Oil and Gas Technologies), Authors: Pakhlyan I.A., Omel'yanyuk M.V., Ivlev M.V. et al.

11. Dyblenko V.P., Kamalov R.N., Shariffulin R.Ya., Tufanov I.A., Povyshenie produktivnosti i reanimatsiya skvazhin s primeneniem vibrovolnovogo vozdeystviya (Increasing productivity and reanimation of wells using vibrowave impact), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 381 p.

12. Patent no. 2542015 C1 RF, Rotary hydraulic vibrator, Inventors: Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A., 2015.

13. Patent no. 2542016 RF, Method of well bore zone treatment for productive formation, Inventors: Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A., 2015.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-82-85

More or to buy article

E.Yu. Imamova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.A. Akchurin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.K. Yarullin (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa)
Measurement applicability analysis of well flow meters of Russian manufacturing

Keywords: horizontal well, flow meter, reverse flow, flow rate, well equipment calibration, multiphase flow

The quality analysis of flow measurements shows there are 35% of successful measurements and 65% from total are satisfactory. Separation of studies of production profile and injection profile demonstrate that the applicability of flow measurement is lower than quality of injection flow measurement. The most frequently assumed reason for the low applicability of flow measurements is high magnitude of minimum threshold flow meter or its pollution. Important parameters such as fluid composition and borehole deviation in the research interval are not taken into account but they influence on final results. Test analysis of production flow meters of Russian manufacturing for two-phase fluid (oil-water) was done using simulation pipes that may change their deviation. These tests were carried out at Innovation Campus of Technopark located at Bashkir State University in coordination with service companies. It has been found that fluid composition and borehole deviation change influence on flow meter response no mater of fluid type complexity. Also it does on quality of interpretation results. Test results in simulation pipes are demonstrated through examples of production wells (vertical and horizontal). Prospects for obtaining flow parameters in wells and improving the quality of flow measurement data are considered.


1. Ustanovka dlya avtomatizirovannoy kalibrovki skvazhinnykh raskhodomerov UAK-SR-40, UAK-SR-10 (Unit for automated calibration of downhole flow meters UAK-SR-40, UAK-SR-10), URL: http://www.

2. Valiullin R.A., Yarullin R.K. Yarullin A.R., Testing of downhole equipment on the bench as an indispensable element of testing in the development and transfer of it to production (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2012, no. 3, URL:

3. Yarullin A.R., The results of experimental studies on a two-phase flow bundle in horizontal wells with a variable-sign trajectory (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2014, V. 243, no. 9, pp. 63-71.

4. Valiullin R., Yarullin R., Yarullin A., Development of inflow profiling criteria for low-rate horizontal wells on the basis of physical laboratory experiments and field studies (In Russ.), SPE 136272-RU, 2010.

5. Valiullin R.A., Ramazanov A.Sh., Khabirov T.R. et al., Interpretation of non-isothermal testing data based on the numerical simulation (In Russ.), SPE 176589-RU, 2015.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-86-91

More or to buy article

V.A. Bondarenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), E.V. Kudin (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), M.M. Veliev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Experience of testing the hydraulic piston pumps in White Tiger wells

Keywords: oil production, operating method, artificial lift, hydraulic piston pumps, electrical submersible pumps, power fluid, prototypes, perforation interval, process parameters, submersible unit

Selection of well operating method begins with the data analysis of field geology, oil, gas and water properties, potential well samples which serve as the basis to determine the technical applicability of an operating method. Each group of determinants, expressly of implicitly, impacts the well operation method on a particular field, and may become governing for the final decision. Should the only operating method becomes possible under the current set of conditions, the analysis is complete. Should several methods become possible, the final selection of an operating method requires considering advantages and disadvantages of each and, based on technical-economic assessment, determinates the most technologically and economically reasonable operating method for a particular area. Therefore, oil production method engineering requires data on pros and cons of various operating methods, as well as the cost analysis techniques. The development of White Tiger field, having complicated physical-chemical properties of oil and poor reservoir quality of the petroleum rocks, causes difficulties during changeover from the free-flow production to the artificial lift. High content of paraffins and resins, high reservoir temperature and pour point, high gas saturation and bubble point and low PI of wells are the indicators, which dramatically narrow the implementation area of any given artificial method of oil production. In light of this, the technical-historic compilation, study and analysis of experience of testing (approbation) the hydraulic piston pumps in White Tiger wells is very important.


1. Repin N.N., Devlikamov V.V., Yusupov O.M., D'yachuk A.I., Tekhnologiya mekhanizirovannoy dobychi nefti (Technology of mechanized oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 175 p.

2. Tu Thanh Nghia, M.M. Veliev, V.A. Bondarenko et al., Historical aspects of straight gaslift implementation in Vietsovpetro JV (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 127131.

3. Printsipial'naya tekhnologicheskaya skhema sbora, podgotovki i vneshnego transporta do KPN nefti i gaza severnogo i yuzhnogo svodov mestorozhdeniya Belyy Tigr (The basic technological scheme of collection, preparation and external transport to the CIT of oil and gas of the northern and southern arches of the White Tiger field), Moscow: Publ. of VNIPImorneftegaz, 1989, 144 p.

4. Suleymanov A.B., Kuliev R.P., Sarkisov E.I., Karapetov K.A., Ekspluatatsiya morskikh neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 285 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-92-95

More or to buy article

M.G. Volkov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.S. Halfin (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.S. Topolnikov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.R. Brot (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.O. Timashev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Approaches to justification of selection of the application field for new artificial lift method

Keywords: electrical submersible pump (ESP), sucker rod pump (SRP), volumetric efficiency, mean time between failures, field of application, ranges of well operation parameters

This article focuses on selection justification of the application field of new artificial lift method in "inefficient" ranges of operating parameters of wells equipped with SRP and ESP. The deviation of the average value of the comparison parameter within a several range fr om the average value of the operation parameter is taken as a performance criterion. If the deviation exceeds average values the operation mode considers to be effective within this range of operational parameter, if the deviation is lower than average values it (operation mode) considers to be inefficient. Inefficient ranges of parameters are recommended for replacement of operation mode. The ranking of operational parameters is estimated by its influence on comparison criterion. The increase in the average mean time between failures and/or NPV comparing with mean time between failures and NPV of traditional operational methods within inefficient ranges is recommended as success criterion of operational method replacement. Regression equations are offered for evaluation of NPV growth due to the alteration of operation mode.

As comparison criteria are chosen two rates: mean time between failures and feed coefficient, herewith feed coefficient is calculated using the following formula: the actual pump output divided by its nominal value. As the influential factors we selected nine operating parameters, which are divided into ranges. The limits of ranges are selected considering maximum and minimum values of the stack of wells parameters, and prospective operational significance of the length of the ranges of parameters. The low-debit stack of well of one Rosnefts subsidiaries with constant duty is considered (the number of Failures of SRPS -12400 pcs and ECP -1500 pcs). Immature failure of pumping outfit (before 30 days) and significant failure interval (more than 1000 days) are excluded from the analysis because they do not reflect the characteristics of the system. Average values of mean time between failures and average values of the coefficient for each range of operational parameters, average values of these parameters for the entire parameter are estimated.


1. Kibirev E.A., Prediction of SNO and MRP ESP and definition of technical equipment operation lim it (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2017, no. 4.

2. Mishchenko I.T., Bravichesa T.B., Ermolaev A.I., Vybor sposoba ekspluatatsii skvazhin neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami (The choice of the method of oil fields with hard-to-recover reserves operation), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2005, 448 s.

3. Persiyantsev M.N., Dobycha nefti v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Oil production in complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 653 p.

4. Urazakov K.R., Topolnikov A.S., Abramova EH.V., The region of effective application of progressive cavity pumps for oil production (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2010, no. 2, pp. 1822.

5. Yakimov S.B., Status and prospects of use of technology exploitation of marginal wells in Rosneft (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 11, pp. 412.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-96-100

More or to buy article


A.V. Fomkin (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), A.M. Petrakov (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), R.R. Rayanov (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), E.N. Baikova (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Galushko (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow), A.K. Podolskiy (VNIINEFT JSC, RF, Moscow)
Software for the system technology of reservoir stimulation

Keywords: system-targeted approach, system technology of reservoir stimulation, software, selection of candidate wells, automatization, planning of targeted programs for geotechnical operations, water injection profile leveling, enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

The article is devoted to the current possibilities and prospects of the computer-automated algorithm of programs planning for geotechnical operations and EOR. Tendencies towards digitalization of all business processes in the oil industry predetermined the creation of software for the system technology of reservoir stimulation (STRS-software). The urgency and necessity of this software product as an effective tool to increase the efficiency of programs planning for geotechnical operations and EOR and reduce the risk of errors due to the influence of the human factor are substantiated. The results of the literary review of existing software products for the selection of candidate wells for geotechnical operations and EOR are presented. Their main advantages and disadvantages are identified, which justifies the need to develop software for the computer-automated algorithm of programs planning for geotechnical operations and EOR based on a system-targeted approach. Article contains a description of some elements of the graphical interface of STRS-software. The main algorithms of STRS-software for the selection of candidate wells are based on automated loading of initial data, search and visualization of promising areas to perform geotechnical operations and EOR on the map, multiple factor analysis and diagnostics of the current field development status, identify reasons for the decline in the effectiveness of the fields development, selection of targeted technologies and the planning of targeted programs for geotechnical operations and EOR. The main advantages of STRS-software are listed to the results of software testing on the example of the for water injection profile leveling programs planning. Reduction of labor costs amounted to 35% compared with the same work, but performed in manual mode.


1. Patent no. 2513787 RF, Method for oil deposit development based on system address action, Inventors: Kryanev D.Yu, Zhdanov S.A., Petrakov A.M.

2. RD 39-0147035-254-88R, Rukovodstvo po primeneniyu sistemnoy tekhnologii vozdeystviya na neftyanye plasty mestorozhdeniy Glavtyumenneftegaza (Guidance on the use of system technology impact on oil reservoirs of Glavtyumenneftegaz fields), Tyumen'-Nizhnevartovsk, 1988, 236 p.

3. Petrakov A.M., Nauchno-metodicheskie osnovy primeneniya tekhnologiy adresnogo vozdeystviya dlya povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti (na primere mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy Sibiri) (Scientific and methodological foundations for the application of technologies of targeted exposure to increase the efficiency of the development of hard-to-recover oil reserves (by the example of fields in Western Siberia)), Moscow, 2010.

4. Rozova A.R., Saf'yannikov I.M., Experience in the selection of enhanced oil recovery methods using the EORt module of the Petrel software package from Schlumberger for the Jurassic strata of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 4, pp. 26-31.

5. Shumilov V.A., Shumilov A.V., Naugol'nykh O.V., Software on the choice of methods for regulating the development of oil fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Gornoe Ekho, 2007, no. 4, pp. 4752.

6. Khodanovich D.A., Malkosh R.V., Rapid method for oil-field development assessing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 84-87.

7. Sultanov A.S. Latifullin A.S., Computer-aided selection of candidate wells for frac-jobs using LAZURIT workstation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2010, no. 7, pp. 4851.

8. Galyautdinov I.M., Cherepovitsyn A.E., An integrated approach to the selection of candidate wells for geological and engineering operations (using the example of the eastern section of the Orenburg oil and gas condensate field) (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 7, pp. 2333.

9. Sitnikov A.N., Pustovskikh A.A., Gil'manov R.R. et al., Digital information systems creation for optimization of complex geotechnical jobs programs formation process for Gazprom Neft JSC oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 7781.

10. Shorokhov A.N., Azamatov M.A., The introduction of rapid diagnostic software module of watering source on the oil producing wells (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2013, no. 2, pp. 1114.

11. Poplygin V.V. Galkin S.V., Forecast quick evaluation of the indices of the development of the oil deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 3, pp. 112115.

12. URL:

13. URL:

14. Chan K.S., Water control diagnostic plots, SPE 30775-MS, 1995.

15. Petrakov A.M., Baykova E.N., Rayanov R.R. et al., 10 let effektivnogo sotrudnichestva nauki i proizvodstva v sfere uvelicheniya nefteotdachi. Perspektivy novogo urovnya otraslevogo vzaimodeystviya (10 years of effective cooperation of science and production in the field of enhanced oil recovery. Prospects for a new level of industry interaction), Proceedings of XVIII Scientific Practical Conference Geologiya i razrabotka mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami (Geology and development of hard-to-recover reserves), Tyumen', 2018.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-102-106

More or to buy article


More or to buy article

N.N. Gorban (Caspian Pipeline Consortium JSC, RF, Moscow), G.G. Vasiliev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), I.A. Leonovich (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Analysis of existing approaches to modeling cyclic loading of the oil tank wall of marine terminals

Keywords: low-cycle strength, vertical steel tank, three-dimensional model, ground-based laser scanning, marine terminal

The development of the oil and gas industry of the Russian Federation requires reliable and trouble-free operation of the entire complex of facilities, but the facilities with the greatest potential damage in the event of emergency situations are of particular importance. These structures primarily include large-volume tanks located in the terminals for the shipment of oil. On the one hand, significant potential damage, on the other hand, a specific mode of operation with the presence of a significant number of drain-fill cycles throughout the life cycle makes these building structures a potential source of threat to all surrounding objects. In such a situation, the most important task is to prevent the occurrence of any defects in these structures. The development and expansion of the use of technologies of three-dimensional modeling of the real spatial position allows one to assess such potential threats that until recently remained poorly studied. Such threats primarily include the likelihood of fatigue cracks by the low-cycle load mechanism. The authors consider the current requirements (both Russian and foreign) for the accounting of these defects, shows their incompleteness and insufficiency. The article analyzes the possible locations of defects of this type, shows the potential for their implementation in local geometry defects that are not tied to welds. The authors set the tasks for further research of this problematic and tasks, the solution of which is necessary for the implementation of a full-fledged methodology for analyzing low-cycle strength of structures of vertical steel tanks.


1. Vasil'ev G.G., Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V. et al., Work performance

on 3-d laser scanning of the vertical stock tank with pontoon (VSTP) 20000

(In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 1(17), pp. 5459.

2. Vasil'ev G.G., Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V. et al., Analysis of the three-dimensional laser scanning application on the objects of JSC "Transneft" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 2(18), pp. 4855.

3. Vasil'ev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Leonovich I.A., Sal'nikov A.P., Stress-strain state of tanks in operation (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport: teoriya i praktika, 2015, no. 6 (52), pp. 4144.

4. Kotel'nikov S.I., Application of technology of laser scanning for monitoring of oil tanks (In Russ.), Marksheyderskiy vestnik, 2016, no. 2 (111), pp. 3640.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-110-113

More or to buy article

More or to buy article


A.L. Nazimov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), D.N. Lyalyushkin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.M. Minnakhmedov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), M.G. Romashin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Creation of computer-aided system for equipment health assessment of main lines

Keywords: main lines, bearing capacity, equipment health assessment, allowable operating pressure, software package

In recent years, the Russian Federation has paid increased attention to the industrial safety of hazardous production facilities. As a result, in the period 2013 to 2014, amendments were made to the Law on Industrial Safety of Hazardous Production Facilities No. 116-FZ of July 21, 1997 and a number of regulatory documents of Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service of Russia (Rostechnadzor) were updated, such as Safety rules for hazardous production facilities of main lines, order of Rostechnadzor dated November 6, 2013, No. 520; Recommendations for registration and storage of documentation confirming the safety of the maximum allowable operating pressure for hazardous production facilities of main lines, Rostechnadzor order dated June 02, 2014, No. 233; Rules for industrial safety evaluation, the order of Rostechnadzor dated November 14, 2013, No. 538.

In operation of main lines in accordance with the requirements of federal legislation and regulatory documents of Rostechnadzor, an equipment health assessment procedure is carried out. One of the basic stages of the equipment health assessment is the rating of the allowable operating pressure (hereinafter referred to as AOP), with the significant amount of calculations. In this case, the data of engineering diagnostics, test results and information from the design, as-built and operational documentation are used.

The article describes the software system functionality developed by the Pipeline Transport Institute and used by Transneft Group to automate calculations, including unified calculation methods and reporting forms; ergonomic, intuitive interface to eliminate errors associated with the "human factor"; means of forming and maintaining a database of bearing capacities and allowable working pressures. Major aspects and suggestions for further development and improvement of the software package are considered.


1. URL:

2. URL:

3. URL:

4. Lisin Yu.V., Neganov D.A., Sergaev A.A., Defining maximal working pressures for main pipelines in extended operation from the results of in-line diagnostics (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 6, pp. 3037.

5. Lisin Yu.V., Research of physical and chemical properties of steel for continuously operated pipelines and assessment of safe operational life (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov= Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 4(20), pp. 1828.

6. Certificate of state registration of computer programs no. 2016619925 RF. Programma dlya avtomatizatsii raschetov po otsenke tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya magistralʹnykh truboprovodov na sootvetstvie trebovaniyam normativno-tekhnicheskikh dokumentov (A program to automate calculations to assess the technical condition of trunk pipelines for compliance with the requirements of regulatory and technical documents), Authors: Chuzhinov S.N., Amerkhanov A.A., Ivanov A.A., Ramazanov A.N., Neganov D.A., Murashko M.G., Akulenok A.V., Minnakhmedov A.M., Lisin YU.V.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-116-121

More or to buy article

622.692.4 : 621.646.25
M.N. Kazantcev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), I.A. Flegentov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), S.N. Zozulia (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), O.Yu. Zhevelev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
New technologies of back-gate damping for oil and oil products pipelines

Keywords: inverse shutter, damper, damping shock, water hammer, leak-proof

When changing the modes of oil and oil products pumping, there are technological switches between the main pumping units. To ensure the necessary flow direction of the transported medium, to exclude its flow between the main pumping units and to protect the pipeline equipment from hydraulic shock, reverse gates of various design versions are used. The development and modernization of the Russian pipeline system poses the task of increasing the volume of oil and oil products pumping, which is achieved, among other things, through the use of pipelines of large diameters up to DN 1200 and high pressures developed by pumping units up to PN 10.0 MPa and above. Ensuring the smooth operation of the pipeline is impossible without the use of technological, highly reliable equipment, including reverse gates. At large nominal diameters and high pumping pressures, the closing of the back-gate locking element is accompanied by a blow to the contact surface of the body seat, due to the impact of the transported medium on the locking element, with a force of more than 107N. The impact of such force has a destructive effect on the parts and components of the equipment and the pipeline as well. In the event of a hydraulic shock, it is difficult to predict the closing forces of the locking element. Existing design solutions for damping are quite complex, metal-intensive and, most importantly, do not have a resource comparable to the body parts of the back gate. If the main parts of the back gate withstand operation for more than 50 years, the complex damping devices can fail after several operations, which can lead to an emergency, environmental damage and stop the transportation of oil or oil products for an indefinite period.

This article describes the technical solutions aimed at improving the environmental safety of operation, service life of equipment parts and reliability, as well as the prevention of failures in the operation of back gates operated on oil and oil products pipelines, water pipelines and heating networks. In particular, the described method of damping the impact of the contact sealing surface of the locking element on the contact surface of the body seat reduces the metal content of the equipment and increases the manufacturability. The gate Assembly that implements this method of damping simplifies the design of the equipment and eliminates the need to perform technological holes in the body parts for the shaft output, thereby eliminating the possibility of environmental damage during the failure of the damper and depressurization of the equipment.


1. Lisin Yu.V., Neganov D.A., Surikov V.I., Gumerov K.M., Research of changes of pipeline metal properties during operation: summary of results and prospective developments of Ufa scolarly tradition (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, V. 7, no. 2, pp. 2230.

2. Slepnev V.N., Maksimenko A.F., The basic principles of building a quality management system for prevention, localization and liquidation of effects of accidents at pipeline transport facilities (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 4, pp. 456468, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2018-8-4-456-467

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-122-124

More or to buy article


502.6: 622.276.5
A.Yu. Solodovnikov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Khattu (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
The influence of Bystrinskoye gas-oil-condensate field development on the surface waters

Keywords: Bystrinskoye gas-oil-condensate field, oil and accompanying gas, protection of the environment, ecological monitor

During the projecting and development of the hydrocarbon supplies fields not only the technological factors (extraction levels, shale waters, amounts of water, shale pressure etc.) are important, but the influence on the environment too. The gas and oil extraction heavily influences all the components of nature. This is important for any field despite the time of development. This is very actual for West-Siberia, that has a lot of lakes and swamps on its territory.

The Bystrinskoe oil-gas-condensate field of Surgutneftegas PJSC has been under development for more than 40 years, and the first observations of the state of the environment were carried out in 1976 and were preliminary. Surface water quality was assessed. Regular studies on the assessment of the state of natural environments air, surface water, including bottom sediments, soil cover have been conducted since 1993. The state of the surrounding landscapes is also monitored. For more than 20 years of observation, it has been established that the content of the ingredients to be determined is within the limits of quality standards or corresponds to the natural (natural) background. Moreover, the content of the main ingredients associated with oil and gas production (oil products and chlorides) is reduced, which indicates the absence of emergency situations at the oil and gas equipment.

Thus, the long-term operation of the Bystrinskoye oil-gas-condensate field did not lead to irreversible changes in the state of the environment. The transformation of the hydrochemical state of surface waters recorded over a long period of observations is local and reversible, and no accumulation of hydrocarbons in the bottom sediments of water bodies has been recorded.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-126-128

More or to buy article

Mobile applications

Read our magazine on mobile devices

  Google play

Press Releases