July 2016



  • - 60

Geology and geologo-prospecting works

553.98(470.41)
R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), V.G. Bazarevskaya, PhD, T.I. Tarasova, O.V. Mikhailova, S.N. Mikhailov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Geochemical evidence for petroleum potential of Domanic deposits in the Republic of Tatarstan

Keywords: Domanic deposits, oil generation potential, maturity, kerogen, organic matter
Detailed survey of Domanic formations in Tatarstan has been under way since 2012. To date, sufficient amount of data has been obtained and analyzed. The analysis shows that Domanic formations in Tatarstan are presented by domanikites occupying a large starved basin of the Sargaev-Domanik-Mendymskian age and having TOC of 5 20 %, and domanikoids being analogous to Upper Frasnian-Tournaisian shallow-water bioherm-carbonate deposits and having TOC of 0.5 5%. These deposits occupy the central areas of the Kama-Kinel system of starved downwarps and the total territory of Tatarstan. 
According to data analysis, domanikites are presented by nonuniform interbedding of carbonate-silica rocks with limestones and dolomites. Organic matter varies from very low to high concentrations. But, regardless of high variation range, the majority of the core samples (55%) have organic matter content over 4%. Whatever organic matter content is, domanikites exhibit HI from 300 to 600 mgHC/g, which is typical of oil generating kerogen, type 2 (sapropelic). Generally, rock maturity is rather low; according to pyrolysis data, Tmax value averages to 425oC, corresponding to protocatagenesis termination zone. Hence, domanikites are at the beginning of the main oil generation phase. However, deposits maturity within the South-Tatar uplift is higher compared to the Melekessk depression, which can obviously be attributed to specific geothermal conditions in this area, as well as to formation of deposits with high sulphur content, which affected rock maturity distribution and the type of kerogen capable of generating early pre-main-phase oils. These oils contain heavy components (resins and asphaltenes) and sulphur. Analysis of Tatarstan oil composition and density supports this idea. 
Domanikoids are presented by carbonates with varying content of organic matter which, in general, is rather low. As compared to domanikites, domanikoids have higher content of humus substance. Rock maturity is low; according to pyrolysis data, Tmax averages to 424oC, which corresponds to protocatagenesis zone. Productivity index (PI) conforms to Tmax values and corresponds to protocatagenesis zone, as well. 
So, both domanikites and domanikoids exhibit good hydrocarbon potential, being at the end of protocatagenesis and at the start of mezocatagenesis processes throughout the entire territory under consideration. However, considering the potential for early pre-main-phase oil generation and presence of confirmed oil accumulations in Domanic facies associated with natural fracture zones, we can conclude that these deposits show good promise for discovering new unconventional oil reservoirs. To produce oil from such reservoirs, optimization of thermal recovery processes, as well as acid and multi-stage fracturing methods is required.
References
1. Postnova E.V., Podgornaya E.V., Merkulov O.I., Navrotskiy O.K., Sozdanie geologo-
geokhimicheskoy modeli s tsel'yu otsenki stepeni perspektivnosti
vyyavlennykh i podgotovlennykh lokal'nykh ob"ektov na osnove programmnogo
produkta firmy Beicip-Franlab (Creation of geological and geochemical
models to assess the degree of prospects of identified and blocked
out local objects on the basis of Beicip-Franlab software product), Saratov:
Publ. of NVNIIGG, 2002, 56 .
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rezul'tatov issledovaniya kerna (11 obraztsov) s tsel'yu opredeleniya
petrofizicheskikh i geokhimicheskikh svoystv porod (Processing and interpretation
of results of core analysis (11 samples) to determine the petrophysical
and geochemical properties of rocks), Moscow: Publ. of Lomonosov
Moscow State University, 2013, 279 .
3. Gavrilov S.S., Dakhnova M.V., Panchenko I.V. et al., Provedenie petrofizicheskikh
i geokhimicheskikh issledovaniy kerna (Petrophysical and geochemical
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issledovaniya kerna (franskiy yarus) skv. no. 300 Tlyanchi-tamakskoy ploshchadi
s tsel'yu vydeleniya perspektvinykh intervalov i vozmozhnykh kollektorov
(The geochemical and petrophysical studies of core samples (Frasnian
stage) of well no. 300 of Tlyanche-Tamakskaya area in order to highlight of
prospective collectors and intervals), Moscow: Publ. of Lomonosov Moscow
State University, 2014, 439 .
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ploshchad', Zelenogorskaya ploshchad') (The study of the lithological and
petrographic and geochemical properties of the Domanik sediment on the
Romashkisnkoe field (Berezovskaya area, Aznakaevskaya area, Zelenogorskaya
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tsel'yu ustanovleniya istochnikov UV v zapadnoy chasti Yuzhno-Tatarskogo
svoda Bavlinskoe mestorozhdenie (The lithological and geochemical
studies of Domanik formation (Semiluk horizon-Famennian) to determine
the sources of hydrocarbons in the western part of the South-Tatar arch -
Bavlinskoye field), Moscow: Publ. of Lomonosov Moscow State University,
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Tatarstan example) (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesourses, 2008, no. 3 (26),
pp. 1012.
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geochemistry (In Russ.), Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye = Lithology and
Mineral Resources, 2005, no. 1, pp. 2534.


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550.832.582
R.S. Khisamov, R.Sh. Dinmukhamedov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), K.M. Musin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), T.R. Abdullin, T.V. Shipunov (NTC Tatneft OOO, RF, Bugulma)
High-field nuclear magnetic logging for evaluating viscosity of Tatarstan extra-heavy oil

Keywords: extra-heavy oil, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), viscosity, high-field nuclear magnetic logging (NML)
The purpose of this study is to determine the viscosity of heavy oil based on high-field nuclear-magnetic logging (NML) survey results. The procedure developed for the purposes of the study is based on the viscosity vs. spin-spin relaxation time T2 correlation dependence. More than 100 heavy oil samples extracted from the appraisal wells oil-wet cores through high-speed centrifugation were used for the laboratory research. Spectrometer GeoSpec 2/100 (Oxford Instruments) was used for the tests at standard conditions. Empirical relationships were derived to determine oil viscosity using data about magnetic-relaxation characteristics of heavy oil in pore space. It was found that the average logarithmic of spin-spin relaxation time correlates with oil viscosity in the best way. The accuracy of the oil viscosity estimate made 20 %. These correlations and the procedure of NMR-data interpretation were used in the pilot project aimed at evaluation of viscosity heterogeneity using the high-field NML technique. Borehole surveys were carried out jointly with OOO TNG-Group. For logging, state-of-the-art NML-tools developed by OOO TNG-Group and the Kazan Federal University were used. The results obtained are comparable with direct in-situ viscosity measurement with the oscillatory viscometer HOV-700development of Vinci Technologywith a PT measurement element to simulate reservoir pressure and temperature.
References
1. Zaripov A.T., Sozdanie i issledovanie kompleksa tekhnologiy dlya effektivnoy
razrabotki melkozalegayushchikh zalezhey tyazheloy nefti s primeneniem
termicheskogo vozdeystviya na produktivnyy plast (Creation and research
of complex of technologies for efficient development of shallow
heavy oil with application of thermal effects on the producing formation):
thesis of doctor of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2015.
2. LaTorraca G.A., Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy
oils and water-in-oil emulsions, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 1998, V. 16,
no. 5, pp. 659662.
3. Yang Z., Hirasaki G.J., NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures,
Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 2008, V. 192, no. 2, pp. 280293.
4. Musin K.M., Fomichev A.V., Sotnikov O.S. et al., Determination of the viscosity
of EHV oil at reservoir conditions using core samples data (In Russ.), Vestnik
TsKR Rosnedra, 2015, no. 4, pp. 1621.
5. Musin K.M., Abdullin T.R., Gibadullin A.A., On spatial heterogeneity of the
distribution of viscosity of EHV oil within a deposit of the Sheshminskiy horizon
(In Russ.), Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2015, no. 4, pp. 2225.
6. Zaripov T.A., Gizatullin B.I., Lozovoy A.R. et al., Study of correlation of oil flow
properties with nuclear magnetic resonance and self-diffusion characteristics
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 7477.
7. Shkalikov N.V., Skirda V.D., Archipov R.V., Solid-like component in the spinspin
NMR-relaxation of heavy oils, Magnetic Resonance in Solids. Electronic
Journal, 2006, V. 8, no. 1, pp. 3842.
8. Arkhipov R.V., Kosarev V.E., Nurgaliev D.K. et al., Features of coupling between
rheological properties of oil and natural bitumen and the self-diffusion
data obtained by NMR method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2013, no. 6, pp. 6063.
9. Chizhik V.I., Yadernaya magnitnaya relaksatsiya (Nuclear magnetic relaxation),
St. Petersburg: Publ. of Sp. SPb.: Izd-vo St. Petersburg University,
2004, 388 .
10. Deng F., Rapid determination of fluid viscosity using low field two-dimensional
NMR, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 2014, V. 247, pp. 18.
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Magnetic resonance imaging, 2007, V. 25, no. 4, pp. 521524.
12. Lin M.S., A new suspension viscosity model and its application to asphaltene
association thermodynamics and structures, Structures and Dynamics
of Asphaltenes, Springer US, 1998, pp. 267302.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

622.276.031.011.43:550.822.3
O.S. Sotnikov, M.M. Remeev, D.V. Nuriev, M.R. Khisametdinov, K.M. Musin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.K. Khairtdinov (Enterprise Kara Altyn ZAO, RF, Almetyevsk)
Effects of various chemical agents on wettability of oil-wet carbonate rocks

Keywords: wettability, imbibition, chemical agents, Amott-Harvey index, contact angle
Results of the analysis of Bashkirian core samples from the Akanskoye field suggest that these rocks are preferentially oil-wet. This interferes with the technical success of waterflood projects. It is believed that displacement efficiency in preferentially oil-wet reservoirs may be improved through wettability alteration and reduction of oil - injectant interfacial tension. The experimental research was aimed at identifying the most efficient chemical agent capable of changing the original wettability of oil-wet rocks. The research comprised two stages. At the first stage, three most promising chemical agents were selected for the production target. For various concentrations of these chemicals, contact angles and interfacial tension in the oil-aqueous chemical solution system were determined. As a result, chemical agents capable of minimizing interfacial tension and contact angle were recommended as well as optimal concentrations thereof. The second stage consisted in Amott wettability tests on the Bashkirian core sample from the Akanskoye field using the recommended chemicals. In accordance with experimental research findings, the most efficient compositions in terms of wettability alteration are 0.5% water-soluble nonionic surfactant with 2% ethylene glycol and 0.5% water-soluble complex surfactant system in formation water. Increase in concentrations of the above surfactants from 0.5 to 1% does not facilitate changes in Amott Harvey wettability index. Addition of 2% ethylene glycol to 0.5%- and 1% water-soluble nonionic surfactant solution in formation water brings about more substantial wettability changes to water-wet conditions compared to original surfactant solutions.
References
1. Edmonton W.A., Fundamentals of wettability (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe
obozrenie, 2007, V. 19, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 5775.
2. Mezentsev D.N., Tupitsyn E.V., Ledovskaya T.I. et al., Recovery of wettability
of core samples in preparation to filtration research (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 6061.
3. Kuznetsov A.M., Kuznetsov V.V., Bogdanovich N.N., On the question
of preserving natural wettability of a core taken from wells (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 1, pp. 2123.
4. Musin K.M., Gibadullin A.A., Amerkhanov I.I., Metodicheskie podkhody
po opredeleniyu parametrov sverkhvyazkikh tyazhelykh neftey
(Methodological approaches for the characterization of extra heavy
oil), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / OAO Tatneft', Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG,
2012, V. 80, pp. 5665.

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622.276.1/.4:622.243.24
N.V. Muzalevskaya, O.V. Razuvaeva, S.Yu. Ibatullina, M.A. Lifantyeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Analysis of geological and operational data related to drilling locations of horizontal wells targeting carbonate reservoirs in Tatneft-operated fields

Keywords: Key words: carbonate deposits, well, production rate, natural fracturing, water cut

The recent years have seen extensive putting on stream of wells draining carbonate reservoirs characterized by low reservoir properties. The authors analyze the available data on drilling, completion, and operation of horizontal wells and horizontal sidetracks targeting carbonate reservoirs in Tatarstans oil fields. 3D geological and reservoir models based on seismic survey results were built to find sweet spots for horizontal wells in Deposits Nos. 302, 303, and 665 of the Romashkinskoye field and the high-formation-resistivity Kizelovskian reservoirs in the Bavlinskoye oil field. Analysis of Deposit No. 302 wells performance has demonstrated that the initial production of horizontal wells is 1.44 times as high as that of deviated wells. No relationship between oil production rates and the working length of the horizontal wellbore was found. Water production starts to increase in the first months after wells have been put on stream and does not depend on the distance to OWC. It was found that one of the reasons of rapid watering is placement of horizontal wells in zones of intense fracturing with high openness of fractures. 

As for horizontal wells targeting the Tournaisian formations of the Bavlinskoye field, they produce water-free oil with initial rates 1.7 times higher than deviated wells. Horizontal sections are drilled in the Kizelovskian formation having high resistivity values. It is separated from the underlying low-resistivity water-saturated layer with a tight impermeable carbonate member. Horizontal sidetracks targeting the Dankovo-Lebedyanskian formations (Deposit No. 665 of the Romashkinskoye field) go to water in the very first months after completion. Increase of produced water does not depend on the distance to OWC. Reservoir properties are rather poor; fractures are mostly vertical or low-inclined. Initial production of horizontal sidetracks is comparable with that of deviated wells.

In-depth study of development targets and consideration of all geological and operational aspects will allow optimal placement of horizontal wells and future decrease of the number of unsuccessful wells.
References
1. Nurtdinova G.N., Rol' vtorichnykh protsessov v formirovanii pustotnogo prostranstva
karbonatnykh kollektorov zalezhey 302-303 Romashkinskogo
mestorozhdeniya (The role of secondary processes in the formation of void
space of 302-303 deposits of Romashkinskoye field), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft'/
Tatneft' OAO, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2010, V. 78, pp. 3946.
2. Agafonov S.G., Nigmadzyanova I.V., Bakirov I.I., Mukhametvaleev R.I.,
Novyy vzglyad na geologicheskoe stroenie zalezhey 302, 303 s uchetom
raspredeleniya treshchinovatosti i kavernoznosti (A new look at the geological
structure of 302, 303 deposits, taking into account the distribution of fractures
and cavity), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft'/Tatneft' OAO, Moscow: Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo Publ., 2014, V. 82, pp. 6878.

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622.276.1/.4.001.57 + 622.276.435
M.N. Khanipov, A.V. Nasybullin, Rav.Z. Sattarov, Ram.Z. Sattarov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
. Geological and reservoir modeling used to assess effect of reservoir heterogeneity on efficiency of non-stationary waterflooding

Keywords: variogram analysis, stochastic geological modeling, reservoir simulation, non-stationary waterflooding

The authors evaluated the efficiency of non-stationary waterflooding on stochastic geological and reservoir simulation models with various reservoir heterogeneity parameters and different injection modes. Prior to geological modelling, Roxars Irap RMS software solution was used to analyze the distribution of porosity variogram ranges for the Romashkinskoye oil field. The analysis showed that the variogram has a lognormal distribution and ranges from 100 to 1500 m. The range of variogram of the resultant stochastic geological models (options) was found to be within 100-1000 m with the increment of 50 m. For each option, 10 equally probable model scenarios were prepared. For each scenario, 20 injection modes were simulated. Totally, 3820 reservoir simulation models were built. The resultant models were used to analyze sensitivity of the efficiency of non-stationary waterflooding to each of the following parameters: variogram range, non-stationary waterflooding pattern, and well shutdown period.

The main conclusions from the research can be summarized as follows. Standard deviation (range of cumulative production values) increases with the increase of variogram range. Increase in number of simultaneously shutdown wells improves the efficiency of non-stationary waterflooding that can be expressed as straight line. The longer the period of injection well shutdown, the higher the efficiency of non-stationary waterflooding for the cases when 1-4 wells are shutdown simultaneously, while in the case of six simultaneously shutdown wells the efficiency of non-stationary waterflooding deteriorates. In accordance with experimental results, the best scenario for non-stationary waterflooding entails simultaneous shutdown of six wells for the period of one day.

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665.61.035.6+622.276.1/.4.001.57
R.Kh. Nizaev, R.Sh. Nazmutdinov, R.I. Khafizov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Reservoir simulation modeling of Bobric formations considering rheological properties of oil

Keywords: structural and mechanical properties, yield limit, non-Newtonian fluid, development system, oil recovery factor

Over the past decades, high-viscosity and heavy oil fields have been explored and put on stream. Generally, these oils have viscoplastic properties due to high-molecular-weight components, such as resins and asphaltenes. This paper presents some aspects of producing oils that behave like non-Newtonian fluids. Based on the analysis of crude oil rheology in Tatarstan fields, interpretation technique has been developed for the available data to be used in reservoir simulators. This paper reviews various fluid types and analyzes viscosity versus shear rate. It is concluded that in reality, fluids often demonstrate pseudo-plastic characteristics with yield limits, and require more complicated equations to characterize their flow behavior, compared to Newtonian fluids.

By the example of Bobrik horizon, the Melninsky field, pressure differential viscosity relationship has been identified wherein simulated cutoff values of these parameters yield a 5% error, compared to the case without regard to oil viscoplastic properties. Numerical studies prove the necessity of considering the structural and mechanical oil properties. When modeling oil fields where these properties are well-pronounced, pressure gradient distribution maps should be used based on isobar maps to identify the most promising areas for reservoir stimulation operations, including infill drilling, reservoir pressure maintenance, and formation heating. Optimization of reservoir pressure maintenance system and denser well spacing pattern increase sweep efficiency and maintain pressure differential required for heavy oil flowing while providing a larger radial extent of the reservoir.  Formation heating reduces the effect of viscoplastic properties in the zones with low oil mobility.
References
1. Devlikamov V.V., Khabibullin Z.A., Kabirov M.M., Anomalnye nefti (Anomalous
oil), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 168 p.
2. Khafizov R.I. Nizaev R.Kh. Burkhanov R.N., High viscosity energy sources development
features: a case study of the Urmyshlinskoye oil field (In Russ.), Vestnik
TsKR Rosnedra, 2015, no. 56, pp. 4045.
3. Khamidullin F.F. Amerkhanov, I.I., Gibadullin A.A., Reologicheskie svoystva
neftey i vodoneftyanykh emul'siy na mestorozhdeniyakh Respubliki Tatarstan:
spravochnik (The rheological properties of oil and oil-water emulsions in the
fields of the Republic of Tatarstan: Handbook), Bugul'ma, 2001, 557 p.
4. Sultanov B.N., About viscoplastic fluid filtration in porous media (In Russ.),
Izvestiya AN Azerbaydzhanskoy SSR, 1960, no. 5.
5. Nazmutdinov R.Sh., The influence of viscoplastic properties of oil on petroleum
development (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Al'met'evskogo gosudarstvennogo
neftyanogo instituta, 2015, V. 13, no. 1, pp. 60-63.
6. Nizaev R.Kh., Gus'kova I.A., Nazmutdinov R.Sh., Development of oil reservoirs
with non-Newtonian fluids (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2015,
no. 2, pp. 92-101, URL:
http://media.wix.com/ugd/2e67f9_f99d238efdec4dab98cc9e25bcb933
5b.pdf.

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622.276.61 + 622.276.031.011.43
P.N. Kybarev, M.R. Khisametdinov, A.G. Kamyshnikov, T.A. Sapugoltseva, T.Yu. Elizarova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), B.G. Ganiev (Oil and Gas Production Department Almetyevneft, RF, Almetyevsk)
Tracer studies of fluid flow processes following EOR applications

Keywords: carbonate reservoirs, flow diversion, polymer/clay composition, fluid flows, tracer studies

Waterflood operations are associated with early water breakthrough to production wells and formation of low-flow-resistance channels producing adverse effects on the development process and reducing oil recovery factors. This calls for application of conformance control solutions enabling redistribution of reservoir fluid flow paths. To handle this challenge various sweep efficiency improvement methods are developed and implemented. The most effective are the technologies capable of influencing several reservoir parameters. Tracer studies provide useful information to determine flow diverting capabilities of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This study looks at the effects produced by integrated PGK-M technology developed in TatNIPIneft Institute on reservoir fluid flow changes in the stimulated zone. This research aimed to confirm efficiency of the above flow-diverting technology and involved application of tracer fluid before and after stimulation. Two tracers were used having different chemical compositions but meeting the same tracer study requirements.

Tracer studies enabled to determine principal injectant flow directions within the reservoir before and after stimulation, to identify high-permeability fluid-flow paths in the crosswell space and demonstrated redistribution of fluid flow from the injection well following the application of this flow-diverting method. Comparison of tracer study data with the recorded changes in production performance confirmed flow diverting capabilities of PGK-M technology.

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622.276.652
A.T. Zaripov, D.K. Shaikhutdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Analysis of SAGD-wells shutdown effects

Keywords: extra-viscous oil, thermal methods, steam-assisted gravity drainage, well shut-down, return of well to production, production efficiency

Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) method of heavy oil reserves development involves continuous injection of a large volume of steam into injection horizontal wells drilled at a distance of 5-7 m above and parallel to producing wells. The injected steam forms a steam chamber in the pore space between the well pair making oil flow into the lower producing well. The method is, thus, associated with heating of formation rock and fluids, as well as heat loss in the environment.

On occasion, because of operational, economic, or environmental considerations injection wells alone, or both injection and producing wells have to be shut down. The effects of shutdown of SAGD-wells were evaluated on a model of a Sheshminskian heavy oil reservoir in the Republic of Tatarstan. The model study showed that as soon as steam injection is stopped the steam chamber diminishes in its size, the heat is dissipated in the reservoir, and the fluids are redistributed in accordance with their densityoil tends to go the reservoir top, because of a less density compared with water. If several well pairs contributed to development of a large steam chamber, oil will tend to migrate into areas with higher elevations. As a result, a large amount of condensate will accumulate in the vicinity of a producing well, which is much the same as hitting a water-saturated layer while drilling. However, the case providing for resuming the SAGD process while the formation has not cooled completely might be less expensive vs. the case providing for tapping of water-filled layer.

The results of the research may be helpful to determine operational parameters relating to shutdown of SAGD-wells. Understanding of mechanisms and processes that take place in-situ during cooling of steam chamber following shutdown of wells will help to find most effective methods to return wells to production.
References
1. Maganov N.U., Ibragimov N.G., Khisamov R.S. et al., Problems of Tatneft
OAO heavy oil project development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 2123.
2. Zakirov S.N., Shaykhutdinov D.K. Estimated and actual production
rates of horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2015, no. 1, pp. 5255.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery

622.245.1a
Sh.F. Takhautdinov, R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), G.S. Abdrakhmanov, F.F. Akhmadishin, V.E. Pronin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.M. Ismagilov (Petroleum Scientific and Production Company ECHO LLC, RF, Oktyabrsky)
Advances in well design

Keywords: expandable casing strings, well designs, horizontal lateral, expandable profile liner, expandable tubular isolator, electric valve, cableless control, production rates and water cut of individual intervals

Today, oil and gas industry is witnessing rapid evolution of deep-well drilling technique in which the initial hole size doesnt affect bottom diameter of the well. This technique relies on the use of expandable casing strings to isolate formations with different pressures, as well as caving and sloughing zones. Two principle ways to improve economic efficiency of oil and gas production using expandable technologies are the following: 1) material and time saving due to nonconventional well design using expandable casing strings; 2) oil recovery enhancement due to development of equipment for surface-controlled oil production fr om pay zones with different characteristics.

This paper reviews a conventional telescopic 10-string well design and a 10-string design of well No.18 (Tatneft-Samara ZAO) wh ere expandable profile liners were used for trouble zone isolation. Expandable technology provided significant reduction of material and energy consumption during well drilling and construction operations in complex environment; so, the authors can recommend this technology for application in marine drilling. This paper points out the potential for substantial increase of oil production rate through decreasing wellstream watercut due to controlled fluid production from several pay zones with different porosity and permeability characteristics. Development of fluid production control system comprising cableless electric valves is the most promising focus area. Capital expenditures related to development of small-area oil fields can be significantly reduced by drilling multilateral horizontal wells.
References
1. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Ibragimov N.G., Ibatullin R.R. et al., Development
of expandable technique and technology for trouble zones isolation
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 7, pp. 3438.
2. Abrakhmanov G.S., Khamityanov N.Kh., Vildanov N.N., New expandable
profile liners used in Iran, China, Tatarstan, Oil and Gas Journal,
2006, V. 104, no. 13 (3 April), pp. 4550.
3. Abdrakhmanov G.S., Kreplenie skvazhin ekspandiruemymi trubami
(Well casing with expandable tubulars), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG,
2014, 267 p.
4. Spravochnik inzhenera-neftyanika (Handbook of a petroleum engineer),
Part 2. Inzhiniring bureniya (Drilling engineering): translated from
English under the editorship of Shatrovskiy A.G., Borozdin S.O., Moscow:
Publ. of Institut komp'yuternykh issledovaniy, 2014, 1033 p.
5. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R. et al., Controllable
operation of horizontal wellbore intervals (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 7, pp. 2627.

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622.245.44
R.I. Kateev, T.M. Gabbasov, A.R. Iskhakov, I.M. Zaripov, A.M. Zaripov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.M. Minnullin (Oil and Gas Production Department Almetyevneft, RF, Almetyevsk)
Selective zonal isolation during cementing jobs using water-swellable cup packer

Keywords: well cementing quality, casing packer, zonal isolation, cementing job, swellable packer
Tatneft PJSC aims at improving the efficiency of well casing and cementing operations. Efforts are under way to improve cement quality, along with various wellbore interventions being carried out, including casing string centering, formation treatment with soluble silicate solutions, wellbore mudding off, selective zonal isolation with chemicals, application of casing packers, and others. To isolate a borehole section being cemented the authors propose using a self-sealing casing cup packer which is installed above the formation top to eliminate loss of water phase from the lead slurry into permeable zones, to prevent cement channeling during waiting-on-cement (WOC) time, and to prevent water flow into pay zones from an overlying aquifer, if any. Two cup packers can also be set in the producing reservoir, above and below the perforated interval, to protect the cement sheath from damaging during perforating jobs, or they can be used in case of planning pressure drawdown increase. The self-sealing cup packer effectively protects pay zones during well cementing, testing, and production operations, keeping various fluids from moving upward or downward the annulus in case of cement sheath integrity loss. It is a good alternative to expensive open-hole packers due to its low cost, design simplicity, and ease of use.
References
1. Gabbasov T.M., Kateev R.I., Nuriev I.A. et al., Formation isolation upgrading
with application of the full-hole cementing device (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 7, pp. 4044.
2. Patent no. 2488685 RF MPK7 E21B 33/12, Behind-casing self-sealing cup
packer, Inventors: Gabbasov T.M., Kateev R.I.

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622.276.56
V.V Slesareva (Sientific and Research Centre Oil and Gas Technologies OOO, RF, Megion), A.N. Beregovoi, O.I. Afanasyeva, O.M. Andriyanova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), K.V. Shishkin (Oil and Gas Production Department Yamashneft, Almetyevsk)
Determination of partial oil production rates of wells producing from multiple pay zones

Keywords: partial production rates, spectrophotometry, rule of additivity, statistical estimation

The purpose of the present research effort is to develop a method for determination of partial (zonal) production rates in wells penetrating several pay intervals. It is common knowledge that physical and chemical properties and oil composition vary through reservoir thickness, along the strike and in the course of production operations. This relates to such parameters as density, viscosity, fractional composition, bubble-point pressure, gas-oil ratio, content of asphaltenes, resins, sulfur etc. However, laboratory determination of these parameters, for the most part, is challenging and time-consuming. Application of a set of parameters for production monitoring relies on regular sampling and analysis of the produced oil. Besides, the method provides for creation of a database, containing the data on oil properties for each production zone associated with a particular field.

A new method for determination of partial production rates of multizone wells has evolved in TatNIPIneft. This method uses spectrophotometric analysis and has already been implemented to identify the oil recovered from 28 dually completed wells of Ersubaikinskoye, Shegurchinskoye, and Yamashinskoye fields. A satisfactory match has been found between spectrophotometry data on production rates of individual production zones and the results obtained during plunger readjustment of a single-tubing-string dual completion system, as well as available production history information.
References
1. Gadzhi-Kasumov A.S., Kartsev A.A., Neftegazopromyslovaya
geokhimiya (Oil and gas geochemistry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984,
150 p.
2. Glumov I.F., Gil'manshin A.F., The use of oil photocolorimetry for solving
specific geological-field problems (In Russ.), Tatarskaya neft', 1961,
no. 6, pp. 2325.
3. Glumov I.F., Gil'manshin A.F., Primenenie fotokolorimetrii neftey v
neftepromyslovom dele (The use of oil photocolorimetry in petroleum
engineering), Collected papers Opyt razrabotki neftyanykh i
gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Experience in oil and gas fields development),
Proceedings of Union Conference, Kiev, 1961, Moscow, 1963,
pp. 396402.
4. Glumov I.F., Gil'manshin A.F., Vremennaya instruktsiya po primeneniyu
fotokolorimetrii dobyvaemykh neftey dlya resheniya geologopro
myslo vykh zadach (Temporary Instruction on the application of
photocolorimetry of produce oil for solving geological and field problems),
Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNII, 1965, 38 p.
5. Devlikamov V.V., Markhasin I.L., Babalyan G.A., Opticheskie metody
kontrolya za razrabotkoy neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Optical methods
of monitoring the oil fields development of), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1970, 160 p.
6. Panteleev A.S., Gileva N.M., Grishin E.S., Solution of some prospecting
problems with the help of photocolorimetry on the fields of the Orenburg
region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1964, no. 4,
pp. 5256.
7. Bykov V.N., Altyntseva T.G., The use of oil photocolorimetry to solve
some geological and field problems on the deposits of the Perm region
(In Russ.), Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy, 1965, V. 1,
pp. 5361.
8. Patent no. 2082876 RF, MKI E 21 V 43/00, 47/00, Method of control of
development of oil pool, Inventors: Glumov I.F., Ibatullin R.R., Roshchektaeva
N.A.
9. Patent no. 2172403 RF, MKI E 21 V 47/10, Method of determination of
relative oil production rates of jointly operated oil objects, Inventors:
Glumov I.F., Slesareva V.V., Ibatullin R.R., Yakimov A.S.
10. Sachs L., Statistisehe Auswertungsmethoden, Springer-Verlag, Berlini-
Heidelberg-New York 1972.

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Ecological and industrial safety

502.5:622.276
N.G. Ibragimov, Dr.Sc., R.M. Gareev (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), P.N. Kubarev, O.E. Mishanina, E.V. Khisamutdinova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Results of Tatnefts 2000-2015 environmental program

Keywords: environmental program, sustainable development, ecological safety, environment components, emissions, effluents

Today, sustainability policy is an established strategy for global development. Tatneft PJSC successfully pursues this policy through consistent implementation of environmental programs. In 2015, the third Long-Term Environmental Program was completed. This Program proceeded from the previous environmental programs and was aimed at environmental conservation in the areas of Tatnefts production activities.

The third Environmental Program was designed to protect all natural environment components that are affected by oil production activities. This Program was financed from Tatnefts own funds in the amount of over 68 bln RUB. A total of 34 various actions have been implemented which were divided into three main groups according to their priority tasks, namely, Soil and Water, Subsurface Resources, and Atmospheric Air. A long-term experience in petroleum production shows that accident-free operation of oil production facilities due to systematic improvement of their service reliability is a key element for prevention of environment pollution. So, most of the implemented actions relate to the primary activity of the Company and are preventive on the whole.

Basic activities implemented under the third Environmental Program included the following:

- activities aimed at prevention of daily surface contamination, involving maintenance and repair of pipeline and tanks through application of various technologies;

- activities aimed at subsurface protection, involving cathodic protection of injectors and producers, as well as deployment of high-reliable packers and cathodically protected tubing;

- activities aimed at atmospheric air protection, involving installation of vapor recovery units and converting vehicles to LPG operation.

Industrial Environmental Monitoring system is being implemented in all Tatnefts license areas, covering water bodies, community air, and sanitary protection zones. Based on the results of Industrial Environmental Monitoring, TPH and chloride content in the rivers of Tatarstan is within the maximum allowable concentration. We can observe sustained decrease of subsurface water pollutants concentration, while air emissions are kept within the environmental discharge limits. 

Tatneft PJSC constantly sets new goals and objectives; therefore, maintenance of environmental quality in the region of the Companys activity under new conditions continues to be of primary importance. By now, the forth Environmental Program has been developed for the period of 2016-2020.


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502.55:553.98(470.41)
M.N. Mingazov, A.A Strizhenok, P.N. Kubarev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Studies of modern geodynamics of exogenous morphogenesis in the Republic of Tatarstan to ensure environmentally friendly development of heavy oil fields

Keywords: exogenous processes, neotectonics, morphostructural and space geological investigation, aerial geological survey, geomorphologic survey, zones of weakness, upward flow

To ensure environmental and occupational safety during the development of heavy oil fields desktop and field surveys were performed to understand the dynamics of exogenous surface relief formation. The surveys involved applied morphostructural studies, aerial and space geological investigations (aerial photo interpretation). The surveys provided insight into the tectonic processes in the region and allowed identifying zones of weakness that might serve as paths for breakthrough of reservoir fluids or heat carrier across vadose zones in the course of heavy oil production. Landforms and morphogenesis processes are the results of complex interactions between exogenous and endogenous activity, with the prevailing role of the latter. Studies of the dynamics and intensity of current landscape shaping processes provided geoindicators of modern relief pattern alterations.

Desktop surveys included interpretation of large-scale aerial photographs and topographic maps to study the dynamics of exogenous processes within the Cheremshano-Bastrykskaya zone. Based on the results of these research activities, areas of anomalous exogenous morphogenesis were identified, these exhibiting almost the full range of geoindicators of active geodynamic environment.   Fracture pattern of Upper Permian deposits was established.

A map of recent tectonics of the Cheremshano-Bastrykskaya zone on top of the Asselian was created to shows surface elevations and depressions in the Asselian structural plan. To reduce ecological risks, heavy-oil wells should not be located in zones of negative elevations (TVDSS) because downward movements of crustal blocks squeeze hydrocarbons and reservoir fluids out of production intervals, thereby destroying hydrocarbon accumulations.

According to research findings, the dynamics and intensity of exogenous morphogenesis in the Cheremshano-Bastrykskaya zone are sufficient for erosion and fluvial processes to take place in Upper Permian bitumen reservoirs. This may be one of the causes of breakthrough of heat carrying agents or reservoir fluids towards fresh water layer and day surface.
References
1. Mingazov M.N., Otsenka perspektiv neftenosnosti osadochnoy tolshchi
Tatarstana na osnove neotektonicheskikh issledovaniy (Prospects estimation
of oil bearing of sedimentary rocks of Tatarstan on the basis of neotectonic
studies), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2005, 160 p.
2. Mingazov M.N., Kubarev P.N., Strizhenok A.A. et al., Geoindikatsionnye
metody izucheniya aktivnosti ekzogennykh protsessov v predelakh
mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkoy nefti Cheremshano-Bastrykskoy razvedochnoy
zony (Geoindicator methods for studying the activity of exogenous
processes within the field of extra viscous oil in Cheremshano-Bastrykskaya exploration
zone), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / PAO Tatneft', 2015, V. 83,
pp. 298306.
3. Mingazov M.N., Strizhenok A.A., Fatkhullin R.R. et al., Experience on applying
indicative studies for hydrodynamic relations between Sakmarian and
Upper Permian deposits in Ashalchinsky field of heavy oil (In Russ.), Georesursy
= Georesources, 2015, no. 1, pp. 2932.

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Transport and oil preparation

622.276.8:665.622.43
N.G. Ibragimov (Tatneft PJSC, Almetyevsk), A.N. Sudykin, R.Z. Sakhabutdinov, F.R. Gubaidulin, S.N. Sudykin, I.I. Urazov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Technologies and methods for enhancing heavy oil treatment processes

Keywords: high-viscosity oil, crude oil treatment technologies, enhanced oil treatment procedures and techniques

Heavy oil emulsions are highly resistant to breakdown. This requires high heating temperatures, higher demulsifier concentrations and longer settling times for crude oil dehydration. One of the solutions to improve the performance of oil dehydration and desalting entails enhancement of mass-exchange processes using static mixer and coalescer. These are tubular elements with a dump packing where optimal emulsion flow conditions are provided to ensure adequate mixing and coalescing.

To process extra-viscous oil (2000-9000 mPas) to commercial standards hard-mode thermomechanical dehydration technology has been implemented. It provides for heating of crude oil to 85 - 90 º and high-degree dehydration using coalescing elements and electrical dehydrators. Appropriate electric-field intensity range has been determined at 1.5-2.0 kV/cm. To breakdown complex emulsions (intermediate emulsion layers, liquid oil sludge), when other dehydration techniques fail, water evaporation method has been designed. This method involves separate heating and evaporation stages. It has been found that with water mass content increase from 1 to 10%, evaporation temperature should also increase from 109 to 180 º while the pressure at the heating stage should increase from 0.14 to 1.0 mPa. Ultrasonic treatment is a promising method for breaking stable oil-water emulsions.  Ultrasonic waves induce mechanical oscillations in the emulsion, thus facilitating collisions between water droplets. With optimal process conditions, this results in coalescence and water settling. Favorable ultrasound parameters have been identified for extra-viscous oil treatment. These are frequency (100 kHz), specific acoustic output (100-200 W/dm3), treatment intensity (up to 5 W/sm2), and treatment time (less than 5 min).

Technologies for enhancement of heavy oil dehydration and desalting processes developed and implemented in Tatneft enabled to reduce oil treatment CAPEX and OPEX, improve reliability of operations and ensure recovery of marketable oil corresponding to 1st Group of Quality.
References
1. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Shatalov A.N., Garifullin R.M., Shipilov D.D., Technologies
of an oil cleaning from hydrogen sulphide (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =
Oil Industry, 2008, no. 7, pp. 8285.
2. Gubaydulin F.R., Sudykin S.N., Gumovskiy O.A., Bagamanshin R.T., Rezul'taty
vnedreniya koalestsiruyushchikh ustroystv na ustanovkakh podgotovki nefti
OAO Tatneft' (The results of the implementation of coalescing devices in Tatneft
oil treatment plant), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2013, V. 81, pp. 412420.
3. Patent no. 2471853 RF, MPK S 10 G 33/00, S 10 G 33/04, B 01 D 17/00, Heavy
oil treatment plant (Versions), Inventors: Gubaydullin F.R., Sudykin S.N.,
Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sukhova L.N., Makhmutova G.R., Akhmadullin R.R., Gafiyatullin
S.S., Kryukov V.A., Vol'tsov A.A.
4. Gubaydulin F.R., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Kosmacheva T.F. et al., Tekhnologii podgotovki
sverkhvyazkoy nefti Tatarstana (Technology of viscous oil treatment in
Tatarstan), Kazan': Publ. of Tsentr innovatsionnykh tekhnologiy, 2015, 279 p.
5. O.A. Gumovskiy, T.F. Kosmacheva, S.N. Sudykin et al., Modeling of heavy oil
electric dehydration and desalting (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya
neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2015, no. 5, pp. 3338.
6. Patent no. 2468850 RF, MPK B 01 D 17/00, Heavy oil and natural bitumen dehydration
plant, Inventors: Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sudykin A.N., Gubaydullin F.R.
et al.
7. Sudykin A.N., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Technology for heavy oil
dewatering by water evaporation (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2013,
no. 1, pp. 2831.
8. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sudykin A.N., Gubaydulin F.R., Study of ultrasonic dehydration
process for heavy oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2013, no. 10, pp. 116119.
9. Patent no. 2535793 RF, MPK S 10 G 33/02, Method of ultrasonic destruction of
oil-in-water emulsion, Inventors: Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sudykin A.N., Gubaydullin
F.R., Shageev R.Kh.
10. Patent no. 2568980 RF, MPK B 01 D 17/04, S 02 F 1/36, S 10 G 33/00, Water-inoil
emulsion separation method using ultrasonic exposure, Inventors:
Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydullin F.R., Sudykin A.N.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works

553.98(470.4)
S.V. Astarkin (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), .P. Goncharenko, (National Research Saratov State University, RF, Saratov), Yu.A. Pisarenko (Lower Volga Scientific Research Institute of Geology and Geophysics, RF, Saratov), V.P. Morozov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Type sections from the terrigenous Lower Visean oil and gas-bearing complex in the Middle Volga Region

Keywords: Bobrikovskian horizon, type sections, sedimentation settings, reservoir forecast

The Bobrikovskian horizon within the junction zone of the Ryazan-Saratov trough and the Zhiguli-Pugachev swell is peculiar for extreme variations of its thicknesses and stratigraphic completeness of the section. This is accounted for by the Early Visean regressions and transgressions. Diverse facies conditions used to contribute to formation of non-anticlinal (stratigraphic and lithologic) oil and gas traps currently associated with the major prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. Therefore, investigations aimed at specifying the structure of the Bobrikovskian horizon and reconstructing the settings of its formation is highly topical.

The major aim of the study consisted in typifying the sections from the Bobrikovskian producing horizon within the junction zone of the Ryazan-Saratov trough and the Zhiguli-Pugachev swell.

Analyses of the well log data and thorough lithological examination of the core material fromboth, the earlier described and the newly drilled wells have resulted in recognizing three principal section types in the Bobrikovskian horizon and in revealing their areal distribution regularities. Variations in distribution of the effective thicknesses, reservoir-rock porosity and permeability are accounted for by the rocks lithologic changeability both, along the well section and over the area, as well as by sedimentation settings in the paleobasin. Section typifying complies with the paleostructural plan of the area and is largely related to the paleogeomorphological features of the basin structure and of the sediment accumulation. Analysis of the peculiarities in the examined section types facies sedimentation settings - has made it possible to recognize the section intervals most promising in terms of searching for HC deposits. Sections of the second type are regarded as prospective ones; those may be associated with both, deposits of anticlinal type and traps of non-anticlinal type. The latter ones may occur in the regional zones of layer pinch-outs in the trough walls.
References
1. Avdusin P.P., Tsvetkova M.A., Kondrat'eva V.G., Litologiya i fatsii paleozoyskikh
otlozheniy Saratovskogo i Kuybyshevskogo Povolzh'ya (Lithology
and facies of Paleozoic deposits of the Kuibyshev and Saratov Volga region),
Moscow: Publ. of USSR Academy of Science, 1955, 137 p.
2. Aliev M.M., Yarikov G.M., Khachatryan R.O., Kamennougol'nye otlozheniya
Volgo-Ural'skoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Carboniferous deposits of the
Volga-Ural oil and gas province), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 262 p.
3. Allyuvial'no-del'tovye sistemy paleozoya Nizhnego Povolzh'ya (Alluvialdeltaic
system of the Paleozoic of Lower Volga): edited by Babadagly V.A.,
Saratov: Publ. of Saratov University, 1982, 156 p.
4. Astarkin S.V., Goncharenko O.P., Pimenov M.V., Depositional Environment in
Bobrikovsky time within the south-east of the Russian Plate (In Russ.), Izvestiya
Caratovskogo universiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya Nauki o Zemle, 2013, V. 13,
no. 1, pp. 5762.
5. Yatskevich S.V., Vorob'ev V.Ya., Nikitin Yu.I., Paleorivers: it is a myth, "rivermania"
or the fruit of scientific research? (In Russ.), Nedra Povolzh'ya i Prikaspiya,
2011, V. 66, pp. 1540.

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553.98.061.4
B.V. Uspensky, R.F., Vafin, V.P. Morozov (Kazan (Volga Region) University, RF, Kazan)
Characteristics of reservoir properties Ashalchinskoye member and their dependence from condition of forming

Keywords: heavy oil, bitumen, development, sedimentation conditions, reservoir properties
There were identified the regularities of changes in reservoir properties of the deposits of the three zones of sand packs Sheshminsky horizon: North, South and Central. These zones Tatneft PJSC allocated and prepared for the initial development. The authors investigated the following relationship: open porosity - bitumen saturated (weight and volume), open porosity - carbonate, open porosity - bulk density, carbonate - bulk density, bitumen saturation (weight and volume) - carbonate and bitumen saturated productive formations with their depth. The identified patterns of change in reservoir properties of rocks and bitumen saturation of sandstone in the section packs may be due not only to the changing conditions of deposition, but also the result of the influence of postsedimentary processes: resulting of calcitization or redistribution of carbonate cement in the rock under the influence of corrosive degradation products (oxidation, biodegradation) of oil deposits.
References
1. Makarevich V.N., Iskritskaya N.I., Bogoslovskiy S.A., Resource potential of
heavy oils of the Russian Federation: prospects of development (In Russ.),
Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2010, V. 5, no. 2, pp. 113.
2. Muslimov R.Kh., Voytovich E.D., Badamshin E.Z. et al., Allocation and development
of natural bitumen resources (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The
journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1995, no. 2, pp. 710.
3. Uspenskiy B.V., Valeeva I.F., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov
Tatarstana (The geology of natural bitumen deposits in Tatarstan), Kazan': PF
Gart Publ., 2008, 349 p.
4. Muslimov R.Kh., Romanov G.V., Kayukova G.P. et al., Kompleksnoe osvoenie
tyazhelykh neftey i prirodnykh bitumov permskoy sistemy Respubliki
Tatarstan (Integrated development of heavy oil and natural bitumen of Perm
system in Tatarstan), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2012, 396 p.
5. Markovskiy N.I., Paleogeograficheskie usloviya razmeshcheniya krupnykh
zalezhey nefti (Paleogeographic terms of placement of large oil deposits),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1965, 399 p.
6. Sudykin S.N., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Tatneft OAO concept of
gathering, conditioning and transportation of extra heavy oil (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 7, pp. 6164.
7. Uspenskiy B.V., Vafin R.F., Sedimentation conditions affecting structure and
reservoir properties of oil-bitumen rocks (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources,
2015, no. 3, pp. 1723.

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550.98.061.32
E.A. Rakitin (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Surgut)
The effect of clay microstratums and carbonate-anhydrite inclusions on the accuracy of the determining oil saturation coefficient

Keywords: textural and non-uniform collector, clay interlay, well logging, conductivity of a layer intersection, saturation coefficient
The author considers clastic rocks-collectors, textural heterogeneity of which is caused by a combination of lithological and sedimentation factors and manifestation postsedimentary epigenetic changes. Primary sedimentary structures in sandstones associate with the uneven distribution of the thin layers of clay with thickness from several millimeters to 20-30 cm. Secondary texture are formed by postsedimentary epigenetic processes and expressed spotted inclusions of carbonate-anhydrite material in sand and silt rock matrix. An algorithm for determining the saturation coefficient is proposed for collectors with three-textural heterogeneity according to core and well-logging data. For the first time a petrophysical model of collectors with three-textural heterogeneity (sand, clay and carbonate-anhydrite components) is offered. This model describes the relationship between the capacitive and lithological parameters. Determination of the model parameters is based on the results of core studies and photographs of the core saturated by hydrocarbons. On the basis of modern theoretical concepts of heterogeneous environments and analytical calculation electrical conductivity of multicomponent system, an algorithm is proposed and tested for calculating the true values of the coefficient of oil saturation of layer intersection with a three- texture heterogeneity. It is shown that, depending on the ratio of the contents of clay and carbonate-anhydrite layers true value of oil saturation of the formation could be either overstated or understated by well logging data. Oil saturation of sand is determined using adjusted values of the electrical resistivity of clay and carbonate-anhydrite components and petrophysical dependences of electrical parameters on the coefficients of porosity and water saturation for the textural - homogeneous samples. The validity of the oil saturation values is estimated by comparison with its direct determinations on the core.
References
1. Akin'shin A.V., Povyshenie tochnosti opredeleniya podschetnykh parametrov
teksturno-neodnorodnykh peschano-alevrito-glinistykh kollektorov
po dannym geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (na primere vikulovskikh otlozheniy
Krasnoleninskogo svoda) (Improve the accuracy of calculation parameters
of texture inhomogeneous sand-silt-clay collectors according to
well logging (for example, Vikulov sediments of Krasnoleninsk arc)): thesis of
candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2013.
2. Astashkin D.A., Razrabotka petrofizicheskoy modeli neodnorodnykh
peschano-alevritovykh porod-kollektorov s tsel'yu povysheniya dostovernosti
kolichestvennoy interpretatsii dannykh GIS (na primere nekotorykh
mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy i Vostochnoy Sibiri) (Development of petrophysical
model of inhomogeneous sand-silt reservoir rocks in order to increase the
reliability of the quantitative interpretation of log data (for example, Western
and Eastern Siberia oil fields)): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical
science, Moscow, 2005.
3. Efimov V.A., Petrofizicheskie modeli slozhno-postroennykh glinistykh kollektorov
dlya otsenki ikh neftegazonasyshcheniya po dannym elektrometrii
skvazhin (Petrophysical models of complex clay collectors for assessment of
its oil and gas saturation on wells electrometry): thesis of candidate of geological
and mineralogical science, Tyumen', 1984.

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Drilling of chinks

622.243.2
E.G. Grechin (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), S.N. Bastrikov (Siberian Scientific and Research Institute for Oil Industry JSC, RF, Tyumen)
Study of the screw downhole steering engine performance in the mode of drill string rotation

Keywords: bottom-hole assembly, screw steerable motor, curved sub; centralizer
The subject of the study is a performance of the assembly with the controlled downhole steering engine used at drilling wells completed by directional and horizontal holes. The technology applied provides for alteration of modes of drill string rotation and sliding (directional drilling). It is pointed out that to improve the quality of the borehole and the drilling performance it is necessary to increase the extent of the area of drilling in the mode of the drill string rotation which will require determining the influence of various factors upon the well path in the given mode. As a result of the theoretical study a number of regularities have been identified. When the steering engine turns within the set angle of 270-90o the assembly operates for reducing the inclination angle, the response on the drill bit does not depend on the hole diameter and very little on the drift angle of the screw downhole steering engine (SDSE) and increases approximately by 1.5 times with the inclination angle increase from 30 to 90o. Within the steering engine set angle of 90-0o, 0-270o the assembly operates for the increase of the inclination angle, the response on the drill bit depends on the hole diameter and on the drift angle of SDSE and very little on the inclination angle. The increase of the inclination angle creates the tendency towards its drop in the mode of rotation; the increase of the angle of the SDSE skewing promotes the inclination angle growing. At drilling in soft rocks a tendency to the inclination angle drop will prevail, and at drilling in hard rocks the inclination angle growing will occur. The regularities identified will permit an operator to define the path correction parameters more precisely taking into account the specific conditions, to increase the extent of the drilling area in the mode of the drill string rotation reducing by this a number of shifts to directional drilling.
References
1. Povalikhin A.S., Kalinin A.G., Bastrikov S.N., Solodkiy K.M., Burenie naklonnykh,
gorizontal'nykh i mnogozaboynykh skvazhin (Drilling of inclined, horizontal
and multilateral wells): edited by Kalinin A.G., Moscow: TsentrLit-
NefteGaz Publ., 2011, 647 p.
2. Grechin E.G., Pashkov E.V., The study of stresses and deformations occurring
during work of a drill-pipe string assembly with bottom-hole screw steerable
motor (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na
more, 2015, no. 1, pp. 29 33.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

622.276.031
N.N. Mikhailov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), I.P. Gurbatova (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), K.A. Motorova (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow), L.S. Sechina (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
New representations of wettability of oil and gas reservoirs

Keywords: microstructure, reservoir, hydrocarbons, wettability, capillary pressure, disjoining pressure
This paper discusses a wide range of physical and geological factors that determine the wettability of oil and gas reservoirs. Wettability is an important parameter in oil recovery as it affects relative permeability characteristics, capillary pressure, electrical properties and other characteristics of the reservoir. Neglecting the effects of wetting causes erroneous distribution of saturation in geological modeling and development of substandard forward-looking indicators in simulation. Existing types of wettability and their applications were analyzed: strongly water-wet, strongly oil-wet, neutrally wet and fractional wettability. The phenomenon of hydrophobic pore surface by adsorption of surfactants (polar) oil components in the natural hydrophilic mineral surfaces was considered. On the basis of modern ideas about the physics of microscopic processes in porous media and stages of the geological formation of deposits substantiates a type of fractional wettability microstructural wettability in which the oil-wet and water-wet surfaces of pores and capillaries have various wettability. Hydrophobization at pores and channels forms microstructural wettability, since pores of different size, shape and mineral composition different hydrophobized and therefore have different wettability. In the process of water repellency decreases the amount of free long oil takes a different size pores and in various forms (film, meniscus, contact), change the configuration of the pore space (in the presence of hydrocarbons configuration smoothed). These phenomena lead to the need for a detailed study of the physics of water-repellency at the micro level. There is connection between pore space structure and pores form of the rock and wettability of all pores size range. Along with the identified patterns of adsorption of hydrocarbons, depending on the shape, size and distribution of pores, they also investigated the effect of mineralogical composition (composition and particle size, the presence of clay) pore surface adsorption of water and oil phases. The conclusions from these studies are that the composition of the rock also significantly affects the adsorption processes.
References
1. Kuz'min V.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Skibitskaya N.A., Gurbatova I.P., Motorova
K.A., Results of the electron-microscopic research on the impact
of microstructural factors of reservoir space on the oil saturation
pattern (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology,
2015, no. 3, pp. 3444.
2. Mikhaylov N.N., Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabatyvaemykh
plastov (Residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992, 270 p.
3. Mileshina A.G., Kalinko M.K., Safonova G.I., Izmenenie neftey pri fil'-
tratsii cherez porody (Oil change when filtering through the rocks),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 174 p.
4. Mikhaylov N.N., Sechina L.S., Rol' adsorbirovannykh flyuidov pri otsenke
effektivnosti metodov povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Role
of adsorbed fluid in the evaluation of the effectiveness of enhanced
oil recovery), Proceedings of IV International Scientific Symposium
Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi
plastov (Theory and practice of application of enhanced oil recovery
methods ), 1819 September 2013, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft',
2013, Part 2, pp. 1417.
5. Mikhaylov N.N., Semenova N.A., Kol'chitskaya T.N., Modelling the
impact of heterogeneous wettability of reservoir to block of hydrocarbon
reserves (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2004, no. 4, pp. 18-20.
6. Mikhaylov N.N., Ermilov M.O., Sechina L.S., Eksperimental'noe issledovanie
smachivaemosti i analiz ee vliyaniya na fil 'tratsionno-emkostnye
svoystva produktivnykh kollektorov Neokomskoy zalezhi Novo-
Urengoyskogo i Yamburgskogo mestorozhdeniy (Experimental study
of the wettability and the analysis of its impact on reservoir properties
of productive collectors of Neocomian deposits of Novo-Urengoy
and Yamburg fields), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2012, 58 p.
7. Mikhaylov N.N., Sechina L.S., Savochkina K.A., Rol' glini stykh mineralov
v obrazovanii adsorbtsionno-svyazannoy nefti (The role of clay
minerals in the formation of absorbing-bonded oil), Proceedings of International
Conference Gliny, glinistye mineraly i sloistye materialy
(The clays, clay minerals and laminates), Zvenigorod, 21-25 September
2009, p. 243.
8. Mikhaylov N.N., Ermilov O.M., Sechina L.S., Physicochemical peculiarities
of absorbed oil in core samples of gas condensate deposit (In
Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016, V. 466,
no. 3, pp. 319-323.
9. Mikhaylov N.N., Dzhemesyuk A.V., Kol'chitskaya T.N., Semenova
N.A., Izuchenie ostatochnogo neftenasyshcheniya razrabatyvaemykh
plastov (The study of residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs),
Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1990, 59 p.
10. Akhmatov A.S., Molekulyarnaya fizika granichnogo sloya (Molecular
physics of the boundary layer), Moscow: Fizmatgiz Publ., 1963,
472 p.
11. Garoff S.E., Sirota B., Sinha S.K., Stanley H.B., Chem.Phys J., The effects
of substrate roughness on ultrathin water films, 1989, V. 90 (12),
pp. 7505-7515.
12. Semenova N.A., Sechina L.S., The role of microstructural wettability
in the filtration properties of productive layers changes (In Russ.),
Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2008, no. 2, pp. 44-49.
13. Al-Yousef H.Y., Lichaa P.M., Al-Kaabi A.U., Alpustun H., Wettability
Evaluation of a carbonate reservoir rock from core to pore level,
29885-MS SPE Conference Paper, 1995.
14. Mitchell A.G., Hazell L.B., Webb K.J., Wettability determination:
pore surface analysis, 20505-MS SPE Conference Paper, 1990.

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622.276.1/.4:552.54
V.Ju. Terentyev(LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), I.P. Gurbatova (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), T.F. Dyakonova (Central Geophysical Expedition, RF, Moscow), M.S. Khokhlova (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Features of the development of carbonate rocks with mixed wettability and determination of the initial oil saturation coefficient on the example of the Timan-Pechora province fields

Keywords: wettability, carbonate rocks, core cleaning, oil saturation coefficient, saturation exponent
Understanding wettability formation plays an important role in optimizing oil recovery. Incorrect assumptions about the nature of the wettability of a formation can lead to irreversible complications in the design and inaccurate estimates of the initial geological reserves. If the reservoir is hydrophobic or intermediate wettability, but experiments using cleaning cores with a hydrophilic wettability, the displacement parameters in water flooding may be overstated. The coefficients of the displacement can also be specified properly if the core has a fractional or mixed wettability. Using a standard sample preparation for petrophysical studies of carbonate rocks with altered wettability leads to an overestimation of the quantities of oil saturation on log data and, consequently, to errors in the calculation of geological and recoverable reserves of oil and ineffective choice of development options. Possible causes of the contradictions are not adequate type of wettability preparation of samples for research, the use of samples is not natural, and wettability alteration, use as saturating and displacing agents of their models, instead of natural fluids particular deposits, as well as use of small samples of standard size, which simplifies the structure of carbonate rock pore space. The results of our core research using new laboratory techniques, while that of standard size samples, virtually remove contradictions in the values of oil saturation from the core and log data. Wettability type must be determined before the petrophysical studies and experiments to conduct themselves on the samples with the natural or restored-state wettability. According to the standard procedure can be carried out petrophysical study, if it is known beforehand that the reservoir hydrophilic, or to determine the parameters on which the wettability effects do not have a significant impact, for example, the coefficients of porosity and absolute gas permeability.
References
1. Mikhaylov N.N., Semenova N.A., Sechina L.S., The influence of microstructure
wetting on the petrophysical characteristics of the reservoir rocks
(In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2011, no. 7, pp. 163172.
2. Kuz'min V.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Skibitskaya N.A. et al., Results of the electronmicroscopic
research on the impact of microstructural factors of reservoir
space on the oil saturation pattern (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal
Oil and Gas Geology, 2015, no. 3, pp. 3444.
3. Edmonton W.A., Fundamentals of wettability (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe
obozrenie, 2007, V. 19, no. 2(Summer), pp. 5775.
4. Gurbatova I.P., Kuz'min V.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Influence of pore space structure
on the scale effect in studying permeability storage capacity of complicatedly
built carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal
Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 2, pp. 7482.
5. Gudok N.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Martynov V.G., Opredelenie fizicheskikh
svoystv neftevodosoderzhashchikh porod (Determination of physical properties
of oil-and- water containing rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 592 p.
6. Tiab D., Donaldson E C., Petrophysics: theory and practice of measuring
reservoir rock and fluid transport, Elsevier Inc., 2004, 926 p.
7. Longeron D.G., Argaud M.J., Bouvier L., Resistivity index and capillary pressure
mesurements under reservoir conditions using crude oil, SPE 19589, 1989.
8. Cuiec l., Longeron D., Pacsirszky J., On the necessity of respecting reservoir
conditions in laboratory displacement studies, SPE 7785, 1979.
9. Pairoys F., Al-Zoukani, Nicot B. et al., Multi-physics approach for aging assessment
of carbonate rocks, SPE 149080, 2011.
10. Cuiec L., Rock/crude-oil interactions and wettability: an attempt to understand
their interrelation, SPE 13211, 1984.
11. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym
metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS
(Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric
method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging):
edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of
VNIGNI, 2003, 260 .
12. Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Rezvanov R.A., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya
parametrov neftegazovykh kollektorov (pri podschete zapasov i proektirovanii
razrabotki mestorozhdeniy) (Geophysical methods of determining
the parameters of oil and gas reservoirs (for calculation of reserves and reservoir
engineering))., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 318 p.
13. Cuiec L.E., Restoration of the natural state of core samples, SPE 5634, 1975.
14. Gant P.L., Anderson W.G., Core cleaning for restoration of native wettability,
SPE 14875, 1988.

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622.276.66
S.E. Zdolnik, Yu.V. Nekipelov, M.A. Gaponov (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa), A.E. Folomeev (BahNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Introduction of innovative hydro fracturing technologies on carbonate reservoirs of Bashneft PJSOC

Keywords: fracturing, acid fracturing, nitro-foam fracturing, hybrid fracturing, terrigenous collectors, carbonate collectors

The article describes the first Russian experience of foamy-nitric hydraulic fracturing with proppant and acid injecting in the fourth development stage carbonate deposits of Bashneft PJSOC. Geological peculiarities and properties of oil-bearing carbonate reservoirs are given. The experience of previously tested hydraulic fracturing technologies, already implemented at Bashneft PJSOC, is reviewed. The task of justifying the main criteria for selecting the most optimal technologies of hydraulic fracturing with reference to the specific geological and physical conditions is realized. There was developed the basic principles of choosing the optimal technology for acid fracturing depending on geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks, estimated according to Acoustic Logging. To obtain the values of geomechanical characteristics of reservoirs, the authors used the methodology based on rock brittleness ratio (Poisson's ratio vs. Young's modulus). After having estimated the geomechanical properties of reservoirs we established the feasibility of applying acid fracturing with proppant in carbonate reservoirs located in the Northern part of the region. There was chosen the most optimal facilities for experimental-industrial tests aimed at fixing hydraulic fractures and increasing the effect of geological and technical measures. In the first phase we tested and further adapted hydraulic fracturing with proppant (including horizontal wells with multistage fracturing). This successful experience allowed us implementing the technology and increasing the efficiency of acid fracturing in a number of carbonate objects. In March 2016 we tested the technologies of foamy-nitric hydraulic fracturing with the injecting proppant and acid at sites with reduced formation pressure and sensitive to water. After using this technology we received an inflow with production rate of 28 t/day compared to planned value of 17.1 t/day. According to the results it was noted that the tested technology of foam-nitric acid fracturing allows continuing profitable site development where traditional simulating methods did not give the desired effect.

References

1. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil

and gas potential of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.

2. Lozin E.V., Atlas neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, razrabatyvaemykh

PAO ANK Bashneft' (Atlas of oil and gas fields developed by Bashneft PJSC),

Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 270 p.

3. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, USA, NewYork: J.Wiley

and Sons, 2000, 862 p.

4. Rickman R., Mullen M., A practical use of shale petrophysics for stimulation

design optimization: All shale plays are not clones of the Barnett Shale,

SPE 115258-MS, 2008.


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622.276.6
.. Shagiakhmetov, D.S. Tananykhin (Saint-Petersburg Mining University, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.A. Martyushev, A.V. Lekomtsev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Investigation of the temperature influence on the gelation and the strength of water-shutoff composition based on carboxymethyl cellulose

Keywords: water shutoff treatment, carbonate reservoir, carboxymethyl cellulose
The authors consider the various types of water-shutoff agents including the advantages and disadvantages of each type. Water-shutoff composition based on carboxymethyl cellulose was developed to limit the water inflow in the fracture-porous type of the reservoir. Chromium acetate is used as a stitcher, copper sulfate is recommended as a densifier. The laboratory studies revealed the dependence of the kinetics of gelation and the strength characteristics of the developed gel-forming composition on the concentration of reagents and temperature. From these data it is possible to quickly determine the optimal concentration of reagents for specific geological conditions. The influence of the temperature during an experiment on the strength characteristics of the composition was studied. As a result, the maximum values of plastic strength are achieved at 60 ⁰. Despite a further reduction of the strength characteristics, noted that the strength values of compositions at the temperature the experiment above 60 ⁰ (up to 100 ⁰) remain high and acceptable for use on a field conditions. The dynamics of changes in plastic strength of the gel obtained versus the exposure time of polymeric composition were studied. Conducted rheological studies determined the induction period of gelation of the composition at the recommended speeds, simulating the movement of the liquid in the reservoir and the tubing. It is established that the values of induction period of gelation at a shear rate of modeling the movement of the fluid in the reservoir is sufficient for injection of the composition into the formation. Authors studied the influence of temperature on the performance of the induction period of gelation. It is revealed that the induction period of gelation decreases with increasing temperature.
References
1. Strizhnev K.V., Remontno-izolyatsionnye raboty v skvazhinakh: Teoriya i praktika
(Repair and insulation works in wells: Theory and Practice), St. Peterburg:
Nedra Publ., 2010, 560 p.
2. Blazhevich V.A., Umrikhina E.N., Umetbaev V.G., Remontno-izolyatsionnye
raboty pri ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Repair and insulation
work during oil field operation), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 236 p.
3. Bulgakov R.T., A.Sh. Gazizov, R.G. Gabdullin et al., Ogranichenie pritoka
plastovykh vod v neftyanye skvazhiny (Formation water shut-off in oil wells),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 175 p.
4. Al-Anazi M. et al., Laboratory evaluation of organic water shut-off gelling
system for carbonate formations, SPE 144082-MS, 2011.
5. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry),
Part 2 Ob"emnye i poverkhnostno-aktivnye svoystva zhidkostey (Volume
and surface-active properties of liquids), Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka
Publ., 2010.
6. Gumerov K.O., Povyshenie effektivnosti ekspluatatsii skvazhin elektrotsentrobezhnymi
nasosami v usloviyakh obrazovaniya vyazkikh vodoneftyanykh
emul'siy (Increase operational efficiency of wells with viscous oil-water emulsions
using electric submersible pumps): thesis of candidate technical science,
St. Petersburg, 2015.
7. Orlov G.A., Kendis M.Sh., Glushchenko V.N., Primenenie obratnykh emul'siy
v neftedobyche (The use of inverse emulsions in oil production), Moscow:
Nedra Publ., 1991, 250 p.

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622.276
V.V. Plotnikov, P.N. Rehachev, N.N. Barkovskij, D.V. Beloglazov (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), N.N. Mikhailov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), S.N. Popov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
The effect of acidic compounds in the elastic-strength properties of clastic reservoir rocks of Perm Region

Keywords: core, matrix acidizing, elastic-strength properties, hydraulics fracture
One of the most common and effective method production stimulation is hydraulic fracturing preceded by acid treatment of bottom-hole zone. It is known that in acidizing a rock multiphase chemical reactions occur - dissolution of the carbonate component, dissolution of silicate minerals, the particle-colmatant, adscititious during drilling, jamming, operation of wells, as well as various kinds of precipitation and re-precipitation of their dissolution. The resulting acid composition alters the internal structure of the space capacitance, which in turn leads to a change in filtration and the elastic-strength characteristics of all the treated portion of the formation. In this paper we present the features of a laboratory studying the effects of acidic formulations filtration and elastic-strength characteristics of clastic reservoir rocks. The developed method authors complex laboratory research, including the study of the interaction of acidic compositions with rock and fluid in the void volume and the filtration test core samples under simulated reservoir conditions. According to the developed technique the authors conducted a series of laboratory experiments on the effects of the mud acid terrigenous rocks reservoir of one of the deposits of the Perm region. Some results of the acid composition tests and considered the impact of elastic-strength properties of clastic rocks are the main conclusions.
References
1. Mikhaylov N.N., Izmenenie fizicheskikh svoystv gornykh porod v
okoloskvazhinnykh zonakh (Changing the physical properties of rocks in boreholes
zones), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 152 p.
2. Mikhaylov N.N., Popov S.N., Variation of permeability, porosity and physical
and mechanical properties of reservoirs under mechanical and chemical impact
(In Russ.), Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2015, no. 3, pp. 1729.
3. Popov S.N., Influence of mechanical-chemical effects on porosity, permeability
and physical-mechanical properties of reservoirs (In Russ.), Geologiya,
geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2015, no. 8,
pp. 4961.
4. Magadova L.A., Davletov Z.R., Pakhomov M.D. et al., Podbor optimal'noy
kislotnoy kompozitsii dlya provedeniya uspeshnoy obrabotki prizaboynoy
zony zaglinizirovannogo terrigennogo kollektora na osnove svedeniy o mineralogicheskom
sostave (Selection of the optimal acid composition for a successful
treatment of bottomhole zone of clogged terrigenous reservoirs on
the basis of information on the mineralogical composition), Moscow: Publ. of
Gubkin Russian State Oil and Gas University, 2012, 51 p.
5. Khismetov T.V., Bernshteyn A.M., Kriman E.I. et al., Research of influence of
kill fluids and acid solutions on muddy terrigenous reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 3, pp. 92-94.
6. Al'-Kharti S., Bastos O.A., Semyuel M., Possibilities of high-temperature wells
stimulation (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe obozrenie, 2008-2009, V. 20, no. 4,
pp. 6679.
7. Aggour M.A., Al-Muhareb M., Abu-Khamsin S.A., Al-Majed A.A., Improving
sandstone matrix stimulation of oil wells by gas preconditioning, Petroleum
science and technology, 2002, V. 20(3&4), pp. 425-434.
8. MR-P ISM-069-OLFI-2014, Metodika opredeleniya karbonatnosti s
razdel'nym soderzhaniem kal'tsita i dolomita manometricheskim metodom
(Methods of determining the carbonate content with separate calcite and
dolomite content using manometric method), Perm': Publ. of PermNIPIneft',
2014, 59 p.
9. MR-ISM-03-OFP-017-2009, Obraztsy gornykh porod. Opredelenie koeffitsienta
pronitsaemosti po zhidkosti (Samples of rocks. Determination of fluid
permeability), Perm': Publ. of PermNIPIneft', 2009, 12 p.

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Designing of arrangement of deposits

622.276.012
D.S. Pazderin (Gazpromneft Yamal LLC, RF, Salekhard)
The impact of global warming on the thermal stabilization soil base of the buried pipeline in the conditions of permafrost soils

Keywords: permafrost soils, thermostabilisation, thermotechnical calculation, vertical seasonal cooling devices (SCD)
The article presents the results of observation of air temperature in the Novoportovskoye field, which is located on the Southeast coast of the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic Circle. The harsh climatic conditions and permafrost distribution at the Novoportovskoye oil and gas condensate field due to the complexity of its arrangement. Special attention in the designing should be given to reliability grounds. Hereby heat engineering calculations is performed for predicting of thermal interaction of designed objects with the ground. The paper contains the analysis of climate change in the area of the village of Novy Port, and the assessment of its influence on the base of engineering structures, which are designed using the seasonally operating cooling devices (SCD). For backup reliability during the construction of facilities on permafrost the comparative predictive calculations of the thermal interaction of buried pipeline with permafrost soils and vertical SCD data at standard ambient temperature and under condition of global warming were conducted. The article presents the contribution of thermal stabilization in strengthening the foundation of the buried hot pipe by lowering the temperature of the soil and gives recommendations for the designing of buildings and constructions in the permafrost.
References
1. Sistemy temperaturnoy stabilizatsii gruntov osnovaniy v kriolitozone: Aktual'nye
voprosy issledovaniy, raschetov, proektirovaniya, proizvodstva,
stroitel'stva, avtorskogo nadzora i monitoringa (Systems of temperature stabilization
of foundation soils in permafrost: Topical issues of research, calculation,
design, manufacture, construction, supervision and monitoring): edited
by Dolgikh G.M., Novosibirsk: Geo Publ., 2014, 214 p.
2. Popov A.P., Technology of geotechnical monitoring in permafrost (In Russ.),
Inzhenernye izyskaniya, 2009, no. 4, pp. 2033.
3. Zavalishin S., Khlystunov M., How to build new and save old on permafrost
(In Russ.), Stroitel'naya gazeta, 2016, V. 10381, p. 12.
4. Pazderin D.S., Hot underground pipeline and soils and seasonal cooling devices:
thermal interference (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2014, no. 5, pp. 102104.
5. Pazderin D.S., Calculation of soil freezing halo near two seasonally operating
cooling devices (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014,
no. 2, pp. 2021.

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Shelf development

622.24.085.5
V.F. Shtyrlin, A.V. Fomkin, A. R. Saitgareev (VNIIneft AO, RF, Moscow)
Well tests experience at oilfields on the shelf of Sakhalin and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Keywords: Sakhalin, Vietnam, offshore (shelf), well testing, testing technology, thermohydrodynamic research, thermal profiling
The article s offshore Sakhalin and Vietnam using trialblizing technology of well testing. For conditions of Sakhalin Island and Vietnam minimum number of studies to ensure maximum reducing the time of the test objects was developed. For more informative studies in such a minimum volume, along with the deep self-contained pressure gauges, the underlying thermometers were used (i.e. the study of objects in the tests were thermohydrodynamic). According to the developed technology all exploration wells of fields of the Sakhalin and Vietnam shelf were tested in the period 19802000. The same technology has been applied Sakhalin specialists in Chukotka in the test well on the field Upper-Echinskoe and in the Caspian Sea, when well tested on the rig "Kaspmorneft" of the field named 28 of April. Experience of test wells on the shelf Sakhalin and Vietnam showed the possibility of obtaining information about the reservoir in conditions of time restriction of the works execution. As shown, the use of additional information received on the transient operation of the well, offset (compensate) the decreasing of time during well testing. The uncertainty of interpreting the results of a study on well-known techniques for granular reservoirs for offshore wells on Sakhalin was found to be 36.4%, and for the well of Vietnam 27.4 %. The resulting error of the interpretation is above of the common field (1520 %), and therefore electronic devices with high-resolution measurements of pressure and temperature should be widely used in testing of exploration wells.
References
1. Neft' i lyudi Sakhalina: OAO NK Rosneft'-Sakhalinmorneftegaz 75 let (Oil
and the people of Sakhalin: Rosneft-Sakhalinmorneftegaz OJSC 75 years),
Khabarovsk, 2003, 34 .
2. Fomkin A.V. Shtyrlin V.F., Plynin V.V., Otsenka kachestva rezul'tatov interpretatsii
kompleksnykh termogidrodinamicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin na primere
mestorozhdeniy Yugo-Vostochnogo shel'fa V'etnama (Evaluation of the quality
of the complex thermo-hydrodynamic studies interpretation on example of
deposits of the South-Eastern shelf of Vietnam), Collected papers
Tekhnologiya povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy
(Technology for improve the efficiency of oil field development), Proceedings
of VNIIneft', 2015, V. 152, pp. 127139.
3. Chekalyuk E.B., Termodinamika neftyanogo plasta (Thermodynamics of oil
reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1965, 239 .

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624.501
L.F.Aslanov (Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction, the Republic of Azerbaijan,Baku)
Reflected waves from bored or CFA piles of large section in the offshore soils

Keywords: wave processes, bored piles , rarefaction wave, elastic waves, elasto-plastic waves, offshore soils, pressure
The problems of the reflection of the waves on the surface of the pile foundation, from the most dense weakly compressible shelf base and in water are considered. The parameters of the reflected wave at the piles of large section with "hard core" are determined. The design parameters of the reflected wave of bored-bit or CFA piles of large cross section that are required for the calculation of offshore structures subjected to the dynamic effects of different types of waves are determined. The grounds of pile foundations consisting of most dense (less compressible) shelf clay soils (solid or semi-solid clays) are considered. This medium is relatively more compressible than the surface of the pile, but less compressible then ground base underlying layer of soil. Soil is taken as ternary medium consisting of air, water and solid particles. Each component is determined separately and the ratio of parameters of air in the composition of the soil to the total volume is calculated. In the presence of entrapped air in offshore soil rheological model of soil describing the non-linear properties is used. Reflection of waves from a large section constructions of the pile depending on the soil properties and shelf-pressure in the incident wave are determined by the reflection coefficient. The underlying layer or the second medium in front of the shock wave is considered as a special case. Under the shock wave this weak second layer stays fixed. The approximations method is implemented.
References
1. Gel'fand B.B., Gubin S.A., Timofeev E.I., Reflection of plane shock waves
from a solid wall in the system of gas bubbles - liquid (In Russ.), Izvestiya AN
SSSR, 1978, no. 2, pp. 174178.
2. Lyakhov G.M., Polyakova N.I., Volny v plotnykh sredakh i nagruzki na
sooruzheniya (Waves in dense media and loads on structures), Moscow:
Nedra Publ., 1967, 232 p.
3. Il'ichev V.A., Dinamicheskoe vzaimodeystvie sooruzheniy s osnovaniem i
peredacha kolebaniy cherez grunt. Spravochnik proektirovshchika. Dinamicheskiy
raschet sooruzheniy na spetsial'nye vozdeystviya (Dynamic interaction
of structures with base and transfer of vibrations through the
ground. Designer Handbook. Dynamic calculation of structures for special effects),
Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1981, pp. 144148.
4. Aslanov L.F., Kombiniron reologicheskim model za opisane na lineyno elastichno
napregnato s"stoyanie na shel'fa (A comprehensive rheological model
for description of linear-elastic stress state of the shelf), Proceedings of VI International
Scientific Conference Arkhitektura, stroitel'stvo s"vremennost (Architecture,
Building - Present), 30 May 1 June 2011, Varna, 2011, pp. 159167.
5. Aslanov L.F., Raschet pontona i vsplytiya opornogo bloka pri razlichnykh
glubinakh morya dlya osvoeniya neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Calculation
of the pontoon and surfacing of the support unit at different depths of
the sea for oil and gas field development), Proceedings of International scientific
and practical conference, Gelendzhik, 2010, pp. 6772.
6. Aslanov L.F., Process of two-dimensional waves and their impact on pile
foundations during the construction of offshore structures (In Russ.), Vestnik
Saratovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2013,
no. 3(72), pp. 163167.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery

622.276.55
S.A. Kalinin, L.M. Ruzin, O.A. Morozyk, S.M. Durkin, S.V. Nazirov, A. I. Volik (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
Research on the influence the parameters of producing wells of Yaregskoye field on their effectiveness

Keywords: oil mine, thermal methods, thermal mining recovery, Yarega oil field, analysis
At present day Yaregskoye oilfield is developing using several different systems. These systems differ by producers and injectors location, the method of steam supplying into the reservoir, as well as steam injection rate. Experience in development of the field shows that the effectiveness of these systems is different., Based on the analysis of production data the authors studied the effect of formation temperature, angle and length of the well, as well as the location of wells in the reservoir section on the wells operation parameters under the conditions of various thermal mining systems. It is shown that the wells location in the reservoir section and formation temperature significantly affects oil production. Moreover, depending on the system the effect of these factors is different.
\References
1. Ruzin L.M., Chuprov I.F., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., Tekhnologicheskie
printsipy razrabotki zalezhey anomal'no vyazkikh neftey i bitumov (Technological
principles of development of deposits of abnormally viscous oil and
bitumen), Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2015, 476 p.
2. Ruzin L.M., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., Features and innovative ways of
highly viscous oil field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2013, no. 8, pp. 5153.
3. Durkin S.M., Morozyuk O.A., Ruzin L.M., New thermal shaft procedures and
evaluation of their efficiency through numerical modeling (In Russ.), Neft'.
Gaz. Novatsii, 2013, no. 4, pp. 45-51.
4. Ruzin L.M., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., The mechanism of the recovery for
the heterogeneous heavy oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil
Industry, 2013, no. 8, pp. 5457.

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The oil-field equipment

622.692.4.076:622.998
A.V. Ryzhenkov, S.I. Pogorelov, N.A .Loginova, E.M. Shitov, S.V. Grigoriev, E.E. Lapin (National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute, RF, Moscow)
Test bench for measuring thermal conductivity of thermal-insulating structures at temperatures up to 700oC

Keywords: deep oil refining, thermal insulation, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, test bench

Deep oil refining technologies and processes are energy-intensive and require high temperatures (up to 750 C) in reservoirs and pipelines. These conditions cause the need in new construction materials to be used in industrial processes, and in thermal insulation to reduce heat transfer from hot surfaces to environment. For researching various types of thermal insulation materials and structures at temperatures up to 700C a unique test bench was created. The test bench consists of the measuring section, measuring automation system, vacuum system, which consists of a temperature-controlled vacuum chamber system, vacuum chamber automation system and vacuum pumps.

The test bench allows to research the materials thermal properties at temperatures up to 700 C and the effect of the thermal insulation structure on thermal conductivity.
References
1. Kondrat'ev G.M., Opredelenie koeffitsienta teploprovodnosti izolyatsionnykh
i stroitel'nykh materialov i zavisimost' ego ot temperatury (Determination
of the thermal conductivity coefficient of insulation and building materials
and its dependence on temperature), Proceedings of Leningrad Regional Institute
of Thermal Engineering, 1939.
2. Mikheev M.A., Osnovy teploperedachi (Basics of heat transfer), Moscow
Leningrad, Gosudarstvennoe energeticheskoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1949, 396 p.
3. ISO 8302. Thermal insulation Determination of steady state thermal resistance
and related properties Guarded hot plate apparatus, 1991.
4. ISO 8497. Thermal insulation, determination of steady thermal transmission
properties of thermal insulation for circular pipes, 1994.
5. Tsvetkov F.F., Grigor'ev B.A., Teplomassoobmen (Heat and mass transfer),
Moscow: Publ. of MEI, 2005, 550 p.
6. Yaryshev N.A., Teoreticheskie osnovy izmereniya nestatsionarnoy temperatury
(Theoretical basis of non-stationary temperature measurement),
Leningrad: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1990, 256 p.
7. Detlaf A.A., Yavorskiy B.M., Kurs Fiziki (Physics). Part 1. Mekhanika. Osnovy
molekulyarnoy fiziki i termodinamiki (Mechanics. Basics of molecular physics
and thermodynamics), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1973, 384 p.

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Power supply

621.3:621.651
A.V. Veinblat (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Bespalov (Khanty-Mansiysk Branch of the RF Main State Expert Review Board, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), G.V. Malgin (Nizhnevartovsk State University, RF, Nizhnevartovsk)
Energy saving potential in the electric part of electrical submersible pump unit

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy conservation, electric centrifugal pump, loss of electric power, electric power supply
This article shows average data for the losses in the electric parts of the electric centrifugal pump units applied in course of the artificial oil lift. The loss level distribution for the groups of the submersible electric motors as well as for the composite elements of the electric submersible pump (ESP) units is given: low voltage cable, step-up transformer, submersible high voltage cable, submersible electric motor. The potential application possibilities of the energy conservation measures for the electric centrifugal pump units of various capacity and the separate elements of such units have been determined. Almost half of the total loss volume belongs to the medium power motors (35-70 kW). Around 20% of losses are identified in low power units and large ESP units. In general, loss distribution corresponds to the distribution of the total nominal capacity with a little over-distribution towards the low power electric centrifugal pump units. Loss analysis in the separate elements of the electric part of the electric centrifugal pump units indicates that the larger part of losses belongs to the motors, a quarter of losses to the high voltage cable, and the submersible equipment in general is responsible for almost 90% of losses. The article shows the results of the numerical experiments using the data set of the actual equipment. The main point of the experiment is as follows: two operating modes have been numerically modelled, one of which represents use of the optimal equipment, and the second use of equipment with improved characteristics. The experiment results analysis has shown that evident conservation can be achieved in the electric part of the unit with the pump retained in the efficient operation mode, and the best general effect of the consumed power decrease is achieved for the group of electric motors largest in terms of consumed power. As a rule, those are the medium power motors from 35 to 70 kW. An individual calculation with consideration of the actual load and used equipment is necessary for achieving the best effect of a single unit. It is noted that the use of the improved equipment is not always economically justified.
References
1. Russian Federation Government Resolution no. 1225, 31.12.09 O trebovaniyakh
k regional'nym i munitsipal'nym programmam v oblasti energosberezheniya
i povysheniya energeticheskoy effektivnosti (About requirements
to regional and municipal programs in the field of energy saving and
energy efficiency improvement).
2. Kaverin M.N., Kuryaev S.V., Methodology of planning and analyzing of oil
production energy efficiency (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya
neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2012, no. 3, pp. 5862.
3. Federal Law no. 261-FZ, 23.11.09 Ob energosberezhenii i povyshenii energeticheskoy
effektivnosti i o vnesenii izmeneniy v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye
akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii (On energy saving and improvement of energy efficiency
and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Russia).
4. Resolution of the Government of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous
Okrug Yugra no. 237-p, 23.06.11 Energosberezhenie i povyshenie energeticheskoy
effektivnosti v Khanty-Mansiyskom avtonomnom okruge
Yugre na 20112015 gody i na perspektivu do 2020 goda (Energy saving and
energy efficiency in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug Yugra for
20112015 and until 2020).
5. Sushkov V.V., Veliev M.K., Gladkikh T.D., Mal'gin G.V., Ekonomiya elektroenergii
i snizhenie poter' v elektrotekhnicheskikh kompleksakh neftegazodobychi:
monografiya (Energy saving and reducing losses in oil and gas
electrical complexes), Nizhnevartovsk: Publ. of Nizhnevartovsk State University,
2015, 219 p.
6. State program of the Russian Federation approved by the Russian Federation
Government no. 2446-r, 27.12.10 Energosberezhenie i povyshenie energeticheskoy
effektivnosti na period do 2020 goda (Energy savings and energy
efficiency for the period until 2020).
7. Pravila ustroystva elektroustanovok (Rules for electric installation): 7th edition,
20012004.
8. Frayshteter V.P., Mart'yanov A.S., The choice of economically sound section
of wires and cable conductors of power lines during the design (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 4, pp. 117121.
9. Yakimov S.B., Kaverin M.N., Tarasov V.P., Optimization of cable cross-section
of electrical centrifugal pumping units is simple and efficient technology of
energy saving (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo
kompleksa, 2012, no. 3, pp. 5356.

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