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August 2020



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08'2020 ( 1162 )


MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW

338.45:622.276
E.S. Boldyrev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.A. Nikulochkina (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), L.K. Hafizova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.R. Gareev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Management of oil and gas field development using tax incentives

Keywords: encouraging unprofitable fields development, tax incentives, mineral extraction tax, economic efficiency
On the background of structural problems in the oil and gas industry, unstable exchange rates and fluctuations in world oil prices, the issue of evaluating the profitability of field development and offering incentives to increase the level of profitable oil reserves is acute. The results of the inventory of hydrocarbon reserves showed that the state balance sheet data on the number of economically recoverable reserves is significantly higher than the amount of oil that can be extracted from the subsurface under current macroeconomic conditions and existing technologies. The task is to maintain the current levels of oil production and reproduction of crude oil reserves in order to ensure the stability of tax revenues to the budgets of the Russian Federation. The problem of reproduction of oil and gas reserves actualizes the issue of analyzing the impact of various factors, including financial and tax mechanisms, on reproduction processes. The subject of the study is the current system of tax benefits and tax deductions of companies for the tax on the extraction of minerals in the oil sector. The article presents the results of technical and economic assessment of oil and gas fields of the Republic of Bashkortostan (on the example of project documents), which showed the unprofitability of further development in the current tax conditions, structural analysis of the elements of costs of the subsurface user. This assessment showed that the existing system of tax incentives does not sufficiently stimulate the exploitation of Mature and low-efficiency deposits, taking away the incentives for the subsoil user to continue it. The authors proposed an algorithm for stimulating low-efficiency deposits with the use of tax incentives, which allows avoiding their conservation, encouraging the subsoil user to further develop the fields, which would provide the state budget with additional tax revenues.
References
1. Inventarizatsiya zapasov: neobkhodimost' sistemnykh izmeneniy (Inventory inventory: the need for systemic changes), URL: https://vygon.consulting/products/issue-1701
2. Tax code of the Russian Federation (part two) of 05.08.2000 No. 117-FZ.
3. Nizamov A.N., Boldyrev E.S., Analiz metodov ucheta riskov v neftegazovykh proektakh (Analysis of risk accounting methods in oil and gas projects), Proceedings of International Scientific and Technical Conference Neft' i gaz Zapadnoy Sibiri (Oil and gas of Western Siberia), 2017, pp. 137139.
4. Boldyrev E.S., Metody ekonomicheskoy otsenki proektnykh resheniy (Methods for the economic evaluation of design solutions), Proceedings of International scientific and practical conference Novye tekhnologii neftegazovomu regionu (New technologies for the oil and gas region), 2016, pp. 242244.
5. Boldyrev E.S., Zakharova I.M., Tasmukhanova A.E., Economic criteria for choosing the recommended option for oil field development at different stages of the life cycle (In Russ.), Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2019, no. 12 (139), pp. 382385.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-6-10

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

553.98
S.V. Dobryden (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
The influence of post-magmatic transformations on filtration and capacitive properties and distribution of radioactive elements in volcanogenic rocks

Keywords: volcanogenic rocks, filtration and capacitive properties, hydrothermal-metasomatic processes, natural radioactive elements, spectral X-ray logging
The article considers the influence of post-magmatic processes on the filtration and capacitive properties and distribution of natural radioactive elements in volcanogenic rocks. It is shown that the secondary transformations of volcanogenic rocks are determined by the primary texture features, mineral composition and type of thermal solutions. Volcanogenic rocks of the basic composition with a high content of dark-colored minerals are prone to calcification and hloritization of dark-colored minerals. In acidic volcanogenic rocks with a low content of mafic minerals, these processes are less developed. Chloritization covers phenocrysts and volcanic glass of the bulk, calcification appears in the void space. Under the influence of high-temperature thermal solutions, alkaline plagioclases are albitized. The impact of low-temperature hydrothermal solutions leads to leaching of feldspars and quartz, chlorination, microclinization, calcification of phenocrysts , the bulk and void space of volcanogenic rocks. Under the influence of hydrothermal-metasomatic processes, the filtration and capacitive properties of volcanogenic rocks change. Leaching of mineral grains of rocks improves filtration and capacity parameters; albitization and silicification lead to the filling of the void space with post-magmatic minerals; pelitization-hydromiclization significantly reduces permeability, while chloritization weakly affects the change in filtration and capacitive parameters; carbonation, mixed-layer formations, and microclinization reduce the filtration-capacitive parameters to varying degrees. Volcanogenic rocks of intermediate and basic composition, as well as sedimentary deposits are characterized by low filtration and capacitive parameters. As a result of hydrothermal-metasomatic processes, a redistribution of the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in the rocks of the volcanic-sedimentary sequence occurs. The radioactivity of volcanogenic rocks of acidic composition increases from albitized, silicified, carbonated differences to chloritized, mixed-layer formations, pelitized-hydromiclised and further to microclinized differences. The processes of albitization, silicification, and carbonation form a single group in terms of the content of natural radioactive elements and have the highest ratios Th / K and U / K. The values of the Th / K and U / K ratios decrease from chloritized to mixed-layer formations, pelitized-hydromicled, to microclinized rocks.
An example of a petrological separation of a volcanic-sedimentary sequence by a complex of geophysical methods using data from the spectral modification of the gamma ray is given. It is shown that the use of spectral gamma-ray logging data in the complex of logging methods allows to increase the reliability of the petrological separation of a volcanic-sedimentary sequence and the allocation of productive intervals of the volcanic-sedimentary sequence.
References
1. Korovina T.A., Kropotova E.P., Romanov E.A., Shadrina S.V., Geologiya i neftenasyshchenie v porodakh triasa Rogozhnikovskogo LU. Regional'nye seysmologicheskie i metodicheskie predposylki uvelicheniya resursnoy bazy nefti, gaza i kondensata, povyshenie izvlekaemosti nefti v Zapadno-Sibirskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Geology and oil saturation in the Triassic rocks of the Rogozhnikovsky license area. Regional seismological and methodological prerequisites for increasing the resource base of oil, gas and condensate, increasing oil recoverability in the West Siberian oil and gas province), Collected papers Sostoyanie, tendentsii i problemy razvitiya neftegazovogo potentsiala Zapadnoy Sibiri (The state, trends and problems of the development of oil and gas potential of Western Siberia), Proceedings of mezhdunarodnoy akademicheskoy konferentsii, Tyumen, 2006, pp. 138142.
2. Kropotova E.P., Korovina T.A., Romanov E.A., Fedortsov I.V., Sostoyanie izuchennosti i sovremennye vzglyady na stroenie, sostav i perspektivy doyurskikh otlozheniy zapadnoy chasti Surgutskogo rayona (Rogozhnikovskiy litsenzionnyy uchastok) (The state of knowledge and modern views on the structure, composition and prospects of pre-Jurassic deposits of the western part of the Surgut region (Rogozhnikovsky license area)),Proceedings of IX scientific and practical conference Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2006, pp. 133146.
3. Shadrina S.V., Kondakov A.P., New data on the basement of the north-eastern framing of Krasnoleninskiy arch (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 9499.
4. Shadrina S.V., Kritskiy I.L., The formation of volcanogenic reservoir by hydrothermal fluid (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 8, pp. 1821.
5. Titaeva N.A., Yadernaya geokhimiya (Nuclear geochemistry), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2000, 336 p.
6. Chirkov V.L., Gorbunov I.N., Shadrina S.V. et al., Geochemical and thermogeodynamic criteria for prediction of Western Siberia basement oil and gas content (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 4, pp. 4145.
7. Kuzovatov N.I., Utkin Yu.V., Chernyshov A.I. et al., Sistematika i klassifikatsiya magmaticheskikh porod (Systematics and classification of igneous rocks), Tomsk: TSU, 2013, 97 p.
8. Dobrynin V.M., Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 368 p.
9. Andreev V.I., Raspredelenie estestvennykh radioaktivnykh elementov v tverdykh vulkanitakh i radiogennykh gazakh iz vulkanov i gidroterm Kamchatki i Kuril (Distribution of natural radioactive elements in solid volcanics and radiogenic gases from volcanoes and hydrotherms of Kamchatka and the Kuriles), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy: Publ. of Vitus Bering Kamchatka State University, 2013, 158 p.
10. Radiogeokhimicheskie issledovaniya. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii (Radiogeochemical research. Guidelines): edited by Smyslov A.A., Titov V.K., Savinov I.B., Tomsk: Publ. of TPI, 1974, 144 p.
11. Smyslov A.A., Uran i toriy v zemnoy kore (Uranium and thorium in the earth's crust), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1974, 231 p.
12. Arbuzov S.I., Rikhvanov L.P., Geokhimiya radioaktivnykh elementov (Geochemistry of radioactive elements), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2011, 300 p.
13. Fomin Yu.A., Distribution of uranium and thorium in volcanogenic-intrusive rocks of the North Minusinsk depression (on the example of one of the central-type paleovolcanoes) (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo instituta, 1976, V. 260: Geologiya, pp. 5558.
14. Fomin Yu.A., Some features of the behavior of uranium and thorium in volcanogenic formations in the northeastern mountain frame of the Minusinsk Basin (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo instituta, 1976, V. 289: Geologiya, pp 101106.
15. Turyshev V.V., Peculiarities of radioactive elements distribution in the igneous rocks as a basis for their lithological typing (on example of PreJurassic sedimentary complex in West Siberia) (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2019, no. 3 (297), pp. 317.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-12-17

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551.7.02
I.S. Gutman (IPNE LLC, RF, Moscow; Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University, RF, Moscow), S.V. Arefyev (LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym), A.I. Mitina (IPNE LLC, RF, Moscow)
Methods of detailed correlation of well sections in the study of the geological structure of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rock complexes on the example of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoye oil field of the Surgut arch Part 1. Substantiating the formation features of the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov formation proper and its anomalous sections

Keywords: methodological techniques, correlation of well sections, sequential paleoprofeling, Bazhenov formation, its anomalous sections, compensatory Achimov pack, oil-producing formation
We have developed methodological techniques for studying the structure of intervals field on the basis of detailed correlation of well sections: selection of the most informative complex of well-log curves applied to geological conditions at each geological features; an initial allocation of solid intervals of the profile used as main and auxiliary markers, as if the grip is located between the pervious seams and streaks; tension and compression well-log curves; rendering reference intervals, limited to one or two well-log curves; sequential paleoprofeling repeated change of line of settlement, to ascertain the presence of specific changes in the context between the two adjacent lines of the comparison;
The first part explains the nature of formation of the upper Jurassic anomalous sections of the Bazhenov formation as the result of the accumulation of precipitation upon immersion of the individual blocks in considerationem faults with subsequent widespread precipitation accumulation actually Bazhenov formation, after which dip was involved previously stationary adjacent blocks with an offsetting limits on the accumulation of precipitation of the lower Cretaceous Achimov sequence, resulting in rocks of the Bazhenov formation actually are "upturned" over the anomalous sections, whereas the thickness of the Achimov bundle over the Bazhen proper is minimal.
In the second part, well sections of the lower Cretaceous Sortym formation were correlated between two parallel markers: the Georgievskaya formation and the Urievskaya unit; wells were grouped by section types in order to identify the block structure of the studied deposits; and correlation schemes were combined with seismic data.
Based on the developed methodological techniques for studying lower Cretaceous deposits, it is concluded that during their formation, vertical sinking of blocks along consedimentation faults and equal-speed deflection in the same time intervals caused the clinoform occurrence of rocks; the complex of studies allows us to assume the presence of oil-producing formations in the sedimentary column.

1Gutman I.S., Saakyan M.I., Ursegov S.O. et al., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii k korrelyatsii razrezov skvazhin (Methodological recommendations for the correlation of well sections): edited by Gutman I.S., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2013, 112 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-18-21

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553.98
R.Kh. Masagutov (Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, RF, Ufa), J.U. Komilov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.A. Krylova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.B. Dyakonova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Mikhailovsky deposits of the Okskian suprahorizon: a new oil-bearing horizon of the Bym-Kungur depression

Keywords: oil, deposit, thin rock section, layer, formation, limestone, anhydrite, dolomite, X-ray fluorescence analysis, reservoir, overlying seal, prospects for oil and gas potential
The discovery of a new oil-bearing formation in the area of the conventional contact between the Mikhailovsky horizon and the Okskian suprahorizons Venevsky horizon at Sukhoyazskoye oilfield in the southern part of the East European platforms Bym-Kungur depression has revealed the need to perform a material composition study, as well as to clarify its stratigraphy and enclosing rocks. The results of the lithologic and faunistic studies carried out jointly with well logging data is being research for the first time in this article. The uppermost layer of anhydrite in the transition zone, clearly visible in the well logs, is called the upper anhydrite log marker. It was specified the location of the border between the above mentioned horizons based on anhydrite formation replacement with limestones. The anhydrite formation clearly outlining the top of the Mikhailovsky horizon in well logs is called the upper anhydrite benchmark. Together with the underlying anhydrite and dolomite formations, it forms a 10-12-meter rock unit, under which a 4-6.5-meter 1mh limestone productive formation is. Voids of productive layer are represented by small open pores and interform caverns formed as the result of cementing material re-crystallization and desalination, more seldom by intraform ones formed due to desalination of bioclasts. The deterioration of the reservoir properties is due to micrite filling the intraform and interform voids, as well as sulfate that basically fills the intraform voids. The discovery of favorable conditions for the formation of oil deposits in the Mykhailovsky horizon of Sukhoyazskoye oilfield allows giving a positive evaluation for the oil-and-gas-bearing capacity of the remaining part of the Bym-Kungur depression territory, including the boundaries of Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. Provided the presence of the evaporite facie in the Mikhailovsky horizon rock section is confirmed, other tectonic regions of the platform Bashkortostan territory might also be promising in terms of discovering new deposits in the Mikhailovsky horizon.
References
1. Vissarionova A.Ya., Stratigrafiya i fatsii sredne- i nizhnekamennougol'nykh otlozheniy Bashkirii i ikh neftenosnost' (Stratigraphy and facies of the Middle and Lower Carboniferous deposits of Bashkiria and its oil content), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1969, 222 p.
2. Masagutov R.Kh., Belyalova A.S., Geologicheskie predposylki izucheniya neftenosnosti okskogo nadgorizonta (Geological prerequisites for studying the oil-bearing capacity of the Oka superhorizon), Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 1997, V. 93, pp. 181187.
3. Aliev M.M., Yarikov G.M., Khachatryan R.O. et al., Kamennougol'nye otlozheniya. Volgo-Ural'skaya neftegazonosnaya provintsiya (Coal deposits. Volga-Ural oil and gas province), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 263 p.
4. Yunusov M.A., Arkhipova V.V., Yunusova G.M., Litologo-stratigraficheskie repery v razreze paleozoya Bashkortostana (Lithological and stratigraphic rappers in the Paleozoic section of Bashkortostan), Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 2000, V. 100, pp. 2241.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-22-26

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553.98(2/.9)
A.G. Chvertkov (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), T.S. Baranov (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), G.D. Fedorchenko (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Conceptual model to highlight oil reserves of different quality by area: the case of Vietnams offshore greenfield study

Keywords: conceptual model, Vietnam offshore, properties trend, static model, lateral reserves distribution, netpay forecast, erosion processes, tectonics, Oligocene, seismic interpretation
Beluga oilfield locates in southern-eastern part of Cuulong basin Vietnam offshore. Main reservoir is terregionious deposits of upper Oligocene. Initially, when designing the development of the field, a geological model was built based on the results of drilling two exploratory wells. Based on this model, geological reserves were calculated, well placement was planned, and a field production profile was built. However, when drilling with production wells, a number of problems were identified, such as the lack of confirmation of effective thicknesses, as a result, lower initial parameters compared to the plan and high rates of their decline.
Based on re-processing and re-interpretation of seismic data, a new concept of the geological structure of the Beluga field is proposed. In accordance with the new concept, the change in effective oil-saturated thicknesses is due to a change in the total thickness, which is associated with a degradation of upper part of the productive complex due to the high tectonic activity of this region. New conceptual depo-tectonic and static model developed through new seismic reprocessing and geological interpretation explains drastically netpay and reservoir properties lateral changing. That is also confirmed by different starting well rates. Zones of various geological structures are distinguished, which differ in characteristic thicknesses and reservoir properties. Separately, reserves were calculated for each zone and the zones were ranked depending on the quality of the collector. The allocation of zones with reserves of different quality is the basis for choosing the optimal development systems for each field site.
References
1. Galimova A.F., Afanas'ev I.S., Baranov T.S. et al., Miocene and Oligocene under conditions of geological underdevelopment, the Beluga field, Vietnam (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 9, pp. 3439.
2. Shoup R.C., Morley R.J., Swiecicki T., Clark S., Tectono-stratigraphic framework and tertiary paleogeography of southeast Asia: Gulf of Thailand to South Vietnam shelf, URL: http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/pdfz/documents/2012/30246shoup/ndx_shoup.pdf.html
3. Obobshchenie i analiz geologo-geofizicheskikh materialov severnoy i severo-vostochnoy chastey mestorozhdeniya Belyy Tigr s tsel'yu vyyavleniya nestrukturnykh lovushek UV (Generalization and analysis of geological and geophysical materials of the northern and northeastern parts of the White Tiger field in order to identify non-structural hydrocarbon traps), Hanoi: Publ. of VPI, 2014.
4. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 449 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-27-29

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553.98
R.R. Haliulin (RN-SakhalinNIPImorneft LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), S.N. Zakirov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), G.S. Sun (RN-SakhalinNIPImorneft LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), U.L. Enikeev (RN-Sakhalinmorneftegas LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), P.V. Zelenin (RN-Sakhalinmorneftegas LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)
Features of the Mongi oil-gas-condensate field development (Sakhalin Island)

Keywords: Mongi field, Sakhalin, faults, fluid migration, infiltration system
The article presents unique geological conditions of the largest field on Sakhalin Island - Mongi. The field has 10 main tectonic blocks that contain the main development objects and are limited by a series of high-amplitude normal faults. The dynamics of reservoir pressures in the deposits of the Mongi field is closely related to the presence and capacity of the aquifer. The Mongi water horizon is presented by an infiltration system, which determines the state of the field development system and characterizes the operation modes of deposits. The Mongi water horizon has a constant supply of infiltration surface water, as evidenced by seismo-geological data, dynamics of well operation modes and changes in reservoir water mineralization during 42 years of development. Properties of water-driven horizons for productive deposits of the sedimentary cover of Sakhalin depend on belonging to three types of fluid systems: infiltration, elision, and geodynamical. The presence of hydrogeological windows along the fault planes has a significant influence. Contribution to the creation of a modern image of deposits made normal faults having consediment character. Faults in the field determined the presence of vertical and lateral fluid flows. These faults are not perceived as a plane, since these dislocations are independent three-dimensional bodies. Dislocations of the Mongi field play a major role in the migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons. The features of the various modes for Sakhalin deposits are described in detail by hydrogeologists of RN-Sakhalinnipimorneft LLC in previous works and are of high practical significance when conducting geological exploration. The authors of the article confirmed the main characteristics of the water drive belonging to the infiltration system and developed a method for calibration of the aquifer operating mode with actual well data: operating modes, logs, well testing, and seismic information. A detailed study of the geological situation of the Mongi deposit allowed us to choose an effective way to develop deposits and reasonably plan geological and technological measures.
References
1. Vakhterov G.P., Gidrodinamicheskie predposylki otkrytiya novykh zalezhey nefti na litsenzionnykh ploshchadyakh OAO "Rosneft'-Sakhalinmorneftegaz" (Hydrodynamic prerequisites for the discovery of new oil deposits in the licensed areas of Rosneft-Sakhalinmorneftegaz JSC), Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk: Publ. of RN-SakhalinNIPImorneft', 2002, 61 .
2. OOO RN-Sakhalinmorneftegaz. Otchet po trassernym issledovaniyam produktivnykh plastov mestorozhdeniya Mongi (Mongi reservoir tracer report), Tomsk, 2014, pp. 3964.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-30-33

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550.8.023
I.V. Yazynina (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), E.V. Shelyago (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Novel approaches to core analysis

Keywords: ore, soft rocks, carbonate rocks, classification, extraction, aging
Standardization and methodological support of rock sample studies is an urgent task. Great part of industrial laboratory research standards was written in the last century. Current paper examines a number of methodological aspects of core studies starting with sample preparation. We should consider that the reliability of determining the reservoir properties of fractured, cavernous, unconsolidated and soft rocks is significantly lower than that of sandstone rocks due to great heterogeneity. Measurement of the porosity (static property) can be solved by increasing the accuracy of the experimental equipment, but the permeability measurement (dynamic property) requires taking into account a set of additional factors. Nowadays, laboratory specialists use a modern X-ray tomography method to assess reservoir rock properties, which allows not only to obtain initial information for heterogeneous reservoirs, but also to establish various lithological types in the petrophysical plots. It is proposed to calculate characteristics of rock heterogeneity at the scale of a single core sample. The new technique was tested for core samples from eight Russian oil fields. It is possible to classify formations with different types of pore space using only the heterogeneity characteristics, which opens up new possibilities in predicting of the oil field development.
The basic task of core studies is the picking of a representative sample collection. Statistical analysis of the X-ray tomography data performed for a number of oil deposits shows it makes no sense to standardize a collection with the same number of samples. Another issue of the core preparation process is the extraction stage. Some proposals for soft extraction in order to preserve the original wettability do not take into account the processes taking place in oil-saturated rock during well drilling and coring. The most correct way to simulate the initial natural state of the reservoir rock is the saturation of the extracted core sample with reservoir water and oil in the laboratory. However, this brings additional question about the sufficient aging time of the oil-saturated sample before flooding tests. Here we propose to determine aging time experimentally by measuring the electrical resistance dynamics of the core at reservoir conditions.
References
1. Yazynina I.V., Shelyago E.V., Abrosimov A.A. et al., Testing a new approach to petrophysical trend determination from X-Ray tomography (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 3640.
2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003. 261 p.
3. Yazynina I.V., Shelyago E.V., Abrosimov A.A., Veremko N.A., Grachev N.E., Senin D.S., Novel approach to core sample MCT research for practical petrophysics problems solution (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 1923.
4. Bagrintseva K.I., Usloviya formirovaniya i svoystva karbonatnykh kollektorov nefti i gaza (Conditions for formation and properties of carbonate reservoirs of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. RGGU, 1999, 285 p.
5. Gurbatova I.P., Kostin N.G., The scale effect in determining the reservoir properties of the reservoir in complex carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 5, pp. 2125.
6. Abrosimov A.A., Shelyago E.V., Yazynina I.V., Quantitative evaluation of reservoir rock heterogeneity based on X-ray computer tomography (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2017, no. 12(282), pp. 8798.
7. Abrosimov A.A., Shelyago E.V., Yazynina I.V., Substantiation of a representative volume of reservoir properties data to obtain statistically reliable petrophysical relationships (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2018, V. 233, pp. 487491.
8. Khizhnyak, G.P., Amirov A.M., Mosheva A.M. et al., Influence of wettability on oil displacement efficiency (In Russ.), Vestnik PNIPU. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2013, no. 6, pp. 5463.
9. Kovalev K., Fomkin A., Grishin P. et al., Aged carbonate cores wettability verification, SPE-182064-MS, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2118/182064-MS.
10. Gudok N.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Martynov V.G., Opredelenie fizicheskikh svoystv neftevodosoderzhashchikh porod (Determination of the physical properties of oil-and-water-containing rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 592 p.
11. Kuznetsov A.M., Kuznetsov V.V., Bogdanovich N.N., On the question of preserving natural wettability of a core taken from wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 1, pp. 2123.
12. Kokorev V.I., Karpov V.B., Akhmadeysin V.I. et al., Hysteresis of relative permeabilities in water-gas stimulation of oil reservoirs (In Russ.),
SPE-171224-MS, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/171224-MS.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-34-37

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WELL DRILLING

622.24.085
E.G. Kurbasov (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen; Messoyakhaneftegas JSC, RF, Tyumen), S.N. Bastrikov (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), S.N. Lavrinov (Messoyakhaneftegas JSC, RF, Tyumen)
Innovations and risks in the technology of opening isolated layers from the main horizontal wellbore (on the example of the Messoyakha group of fields)

Keywords: hard-to-recover reserves, lithologically shielded geological object, innovations in drilling, fishbone technology, well profile, horizontal wellbore, side branch, problems and risks during drilling
The article deals with the experience of developing the Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field with lithologically shielded hydrocarbon deposits using innovative technical and technological solutions for opening them with multilateral segments from the main horizontal one using the fishbone technology. Both the standard design of wells with a horizontal wellbore of 800 m and with 8 branches in the zones of isolated layers in order to cover reserves in dissected geological objects with low filtration and reservoir properties are presented. The attention is focused on the presence of intervals of permafrost. These intervals must be passed using special technological modes of drilling, and during casing well they should be isolated by special casing thermocases. Termocases allow eliminating the influence fluid temperature on permafrost: to prevent thawing during well operation, and to reverse freezing and breaking the columns during well shutoff. Technical and technological solutions for implementing the designed profile in the productive part of the formation, the layout of the bottom of the drill string, and the parameters of the drilling fluid are presented. Special attention is paid to the problems and risks when drilling both the main and side holes in difficult geological conditions (drilling mud loss, cavings, collapses of well walls, showing oil and gas, keyseating, difficult descent of the liner into the main hole). In 2019 Messoyakhaneftegas JSC drilled 33 wells using regarded technology with an average number of branches of 7 pieces up to 400 m long. This made it possible to increase the efficiency of the development of hard-to-recover reserves of the Messoyakha group of fields, to determine new directions for their development and the development of well construction technology. References 1. Kutuzova M., Northern points of growth. Production at fields in the arctic climate zone (In Russ.), Neftegaz.Ru, 2017, no. 3, pp. 1418. 2. FISHBONE: Technologies of the future at Messoyakha (In Russ.), Neftegaz.Ru, 2017, no. 3, pp. 3738. 3. Kulakov K.V., Wells in the form (In Russ.), Sibirskaya neft', 2016, no. 8(135), pp. 4849.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-38-41

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.66.004.58
S.V. Tulenkov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.S. Shirokov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), D.V. Grandov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.A. Volkov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), Ya.V Utusikov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.N. Arkhipov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), K.A. Galstyan (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Osipenko (RN-Vankor LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk)
Determination of bottomhole excess pressure limits for preventing formation fracturing and propagation fractur in NH-I formation of Suzunskoye field

Keywords: waterflood-induced hydraulic fracturing, fracture, fracturing treatment, well testing, pressure propagation, hydraulic fracturing pressure, pressure build-up curve, down hole pressure gauges, reservoir pressure, production well logging, well control, water injection
Waterflooding is a process of maintenance the energy of the oil reservoir by pumping water in injection wells. It requires optimizing production and injection wells operation parameters to provide oil production. High bottomhole pressure in an injection well can stimulate formation fracturing and as a result rapid increase of water production. That is why operation parameters of injection wells must be "safe". Injection well operation "safe" parameters mean that bottomhole pressure should be lower than the fracturing pressure, fracture opening and propagation pressure. Understanding the processes of fracture formation and propagation is necessary to determine well operation "safe" parameters. Also the analysis of the geological, geophysical and stress-related characteristics of the reservoir is important. The paper presents the results of core analysis and well test analysis of horizontal wells in Suzunskoye field during the pilot production period. The results were the basis of the hypothesis of formation fracturing due to excess pressure in bottomhole area caused by water injection. Well tests (inflow performance relationship curves) and production logging of horizontal injection wells analysis allowed to form the statistical correlation between fracture opening pressure and reservoir pressure. The correlation can be used to determine fracture opening pressure in injection wells with fracture and recommend "safe" parameters for injection wells.
References
1. Ipatov A.I., Kremenetskiy M.I., Geofizicheskiy i gidrodinamicheskiy kontrol' razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Geophysical and hydrodynamic control of development of hydrocarbon deposits), Moscow Izhevsk: RKhD Publ., 2005, 780 p.
2. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Usmanov T.S., Stepanova Z.Yu., Special well tests to fractured water injection wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 6575, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Baikov/Baikov_1.pdf
3. Salimov O.V., Girfanov I.I., Kochetkov A.V. et al., The influence of thermoelastic effect on cracks of automatic hydraulic fracturing in injection wells (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2016, no. 1, pp. 4650.
4. Jarrell P.M., Stein M.H., Maximizing injection rates in wells recently converted to injection using hearn and hall plots, SPE-21724-MS, 1991.
5. Hagoort J., Weatheril B.D., Settari A., Modeling the propagation of waterflood-induced hydraulic fractures, SPE-7412-PA, 1980.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-42-46

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622.276.1/.4
V.V. Vasilev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), Yu.G. Zenkova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), D.V. Ponomareva (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Permyakov (Kynsko-Chaselskoe neftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen), R.R. Shakirov (Kynsko-Chaselskoe neftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Accounting for paleo-channel sediments in the formation of a gas reservoir development system for the Novo-Chaselskoye oil-gas-condensate field

Keywords: Cenomanian deposits, paleochannels, seismic-geological analysis, development system, water-flooding of wells
The choice of the optimal location of wells is an urgent task in the development of oil and gas deposits. It is known that one of the reasons affecting the efficiency of newly drilled wells is their proximity or remoteness to paleochannel deposits. The article shows how accounting for paleochannels affects the efficiency of reservoir development as a whole when placing planned wells. The object of study was the Cenomanian deposits of the Kynsko-Chaselsky license area, namely the PK1 reservoir of the Novo-Chaselskoye oil-gas-condensate field. The selected horizon is characterized by high rock permeability and the content of a significant volume of formation water - factors that entail early watering of gas wells. Researching the influence of paleochannels on the efficiency of reservoir development was carried out using the built hydrodynamic model. Two options were designed: 1) placement of wells excluding paleochannels; 2) placement of wells, taking into account the paleochannels. Optimization of the location of the project well stock in the option taking into account the paleochannels obeyed the following logic: in the pure-gas zone, paleochannels have a positive effect on gas production, in the water-gas zone - negative, the rate of wells flooding increases. Consequently, to improve the development efficiency, the design well stock shifted towards the paleo-channels in the pure-gas zone and moved away from the paleo-channels in the water-gas zone. Analysis of the calculations showed a decrease in water cut and an increase in gas production in the option taking into account paleochannels. The result is of practical importance, and is taken into account in the further design of the development of the investigated object.
References
1. Shakirov R.R., Vasil'ev V.V., Zenkova Yu.G., Ponomareva D.V., Influence of paleochannel sediments of gas deposits on well water-flooding dynamics (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 11 (611), pp. 3235.
2. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-47-49

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622.276.66.001.24
V.O. Polezhaev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), B.O. Mikhailov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.V. Logachev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), K.R. Ibragimov (Slavneft-Megionneftegas PJSC, RF, Megion), A.F. Mingazov (Slavneft-Megionneftegas PJSC, RF, Megion), V.R. Tuygunov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Method for selecting the optimal fracture geometry to improve the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing at a field in Western Siberia

Keywords: hydraulic fracture treatment, Youngs modulus, proppant, fracture width, fracture permeability, proppant embedment, proppant damage
The productivity of each fracturing well decreases over time, and this can lead to economic inefficiency in the development of low permeability reservoirs. The reason may be a suboptimal design of the hydraulic fracturing, in which the width of the fracture is too narrow. After hydraulic fracturing, each fracture begins to degrade under the action of a closing stress: proppant is pressed and destroyed, particles are removed, and the proppant pack is re-compacted, which negatively affects the conductivity and permeability of the hydraulic fracture. To solve this problem, methods proposed by M. Economides in the book Unified fracture design have been taken as a basis. To the calculations described in this book, a change in the crack width due to the above effects was added and the optimal crack width for low-permeability reservoirs was calculated. By creating a wider fracture, it is possible to significantly increase its life, reduce the rate of decline in cumulative production, and also save on re-stimulation of the reservoir. Ultimately, a formula was derived (based on calculations by M. Economides) for calculating the optimal crack width, which takes into account the proppant indentation into the rock, fracture and re-compaction of the proppant pack under the pressure of the fracture closure. The change in permeability under the influence of the previously mentioned parameters is calculated.
It can be stated with confidence that the methodology of M. Economides does not work in real conditions in low-permeability reservoirs, and with the help of an improved method, it is possible to carry out rapid selection of the optimal fracture geometry, as well as increase the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing in reservoirs of this type.
References
1. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.
2. Zhang Junjing, Zhu Ding, Hill A.D., A new theoretical method to calculate shale fracture conductivity based on the population balance equation, Elsevier, 2015, 21 p.
3. McPhee C., Reed J., Zubizarreta I., Core analysis: A best practice guide, Elsevier, 2015, 852 p.
4. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, 449 p.
5. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 3540.
6. Ochirov B.B., Obosnovanie tekhnologii gidravlicheskogo razryva plasta na primere Priobskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (KhMAO) (Justification of hydraulic fracturing technology on the example of the Priobskoye oil field (KhMAO)): Master's dissertation, Tomsk, 2019.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-50-53

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622.276.66.002.34
Gen.G. Gilaev (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), M.Ya. Khabibullin (Branch of Ufa State Petroleum Technological University in Oktyabrsky, RF, Oktyabrsky), G.G. Gilaev (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Krasnodar)
Prospects for the use of acid gel for proppant fracturing of carbonate reservoirs in the Samara region

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, acid gel, cross-linked acid, carbonate reservoirs fracturing, effect of the carbonates fracturing, proppant fracture acidizing, acid fracturing
Oil and gas reserves of the Samara region are dispersed in a wide range of oil and gas deposits with different lithology and age: from the Early Devonian to the Late Permian. According to the lithological composition the reservoirs are represented by terrigenous, carbonate and carbonate-siliceous sediments. In connection with the reduction of the resource base of terrigenous reservoirs and in order to maintain high levels of oil production, for many producing enterprises the urgent task is to increase the efficiency of acid stimulation of carbonate and carbonate-siliceous reservoirs. Conventional acidizing of the near-wellbore area, as well as acid fracturing, often do not lead to the expected increase in production and the duration of the effect. Often, the effect of proppant fracturing is several times longer than under acid fracturing. The reason is, presumably, large fracture half-length. The fracturing fluid (guar crosslinked water-based gel) for proppant hydraulic fracturing is more effective due to its high viscosity and less fluid leakage into the formation. As a result, the fracture is kept open longer. A larger drainage area is obtained, both laterally and vertically, thereby involving in the development the interlayer that were not previously involved before. It is considered that when combining proppant and acid fracturing, the drainage area also increases due to involve of natural fracturing zones with acid fracturing around the fracture created during proppant fracturing. Therefore, the development and industrial implementation of new technologies and methods for stimulating carbonate reservoirs is an important task for oil producing enterprises. One of these technologies is discussed in the article.
References
1. Parfenov A.N., Shashel' V.A., Sitdikov S.S., Features and experience of proppant hydrofracturing application at Samaraneftegaz OAO (In Russ.) Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 11, pp. 3841.
2. Gilaev G.G., Manasyan A.E., Letichevskiy A.E. et al., Hydraulic fracturing as field development instrument in Samara region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp.6569.
3. Khabibullin M.Ya., Systematization of methods of water injection in wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2019, V. 17, no. 3, pp. 8086, DOI: 10.17122/ngdelo-2019-3-80-86.
4. Patent RU 2507389 C1, Method of formation hydraulic fracturing, Inventors: Zaporozhets E.P., Shostak N.A., Antoniadi D.G., Savenok O.V.
5. Gilaev G.G., Manasyan A.E., Fedorchenko G.D. et al., Oil-bearing reservoirs in carbonate reefs of Famennian stage on the territory of samara region: discovery history and exploration prospects (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 3840.
6. Gilaev G.G., Ismagilov A.F., Manasyan A.E. et al., Razrabotka mestorozhdeniy Samarskoy oblasti (ot praktiki k strategii) (Development of deposits in the Samara region (from practice to strategy)), Samara: Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, 368 p.
7. Burshteyn M.A., Koshelev A.T., Vartumyan A.G., Gilaev G.G., Problems of predicting the condition of filters in sand-producing wells (In Russ.), Proceedings of KubGTU, 2003, V. XIX, no. 3, pp. 236242.
8. Oliveir H.A., Li W., Maxey J.E., Invert emulsion acid for simultaneous acid and proppant fracturing, OTC 24332, 2013.
9. Khabibullin M.Ya., Development of the design of the sucker-rod pump for sandy wells, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. S. 012065, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/560/1/012065.
10. Gilaev G.G., T.V. Khismetov, A.M. Bernshteyn, V.L. Zavorotnyy et al., Application of heat-resistant killing fluids on the basis of oil emulsions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2009, no. 8, pp. 6467.
11. Bale A., Smith M.B., Klein H.H., Stimulation of carbonates combining acid fracturing with proppant (CAPF): A revolutionary approach for enhancement of sustained fracture conductivity and effective fracture half-length, SPE-134307-MS, 2010.
12. Khabibullin M.Ya., Research of processes in a pipe string at a wellhead pulse injection of liquid to a well (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2018, V. 16, no. 6, pp. 34 39, DOI:10.17122 / ngdelo2018-6-34-39.
13. Rickman R., Mullen M., A practical use of shale petrophysics for stimulation design optimization: All shale plays are not clones of the Barnett Shale, SPE-115258-MS, 2008.
14. Khabibullin M.Ya., Increasing efficiency of liquid systems separation for formation fluid gathering (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 6471, DOI:10.17122/ngdelo-2020-2-64-71.
15. Gilaev G.G., Gorbunov V.V., Kuznetsov A.M. et al., Increasing the efficiency of chemicals in Rosneft oil company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 2224.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-54-57

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622.276.2.038
S.V. Bukhmastova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.R. Fakhreeva (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), Yu.A. Pityuk (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.Ya. Davletbaev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), T.P. Azarova (Bashneft PJSC, RF, Ufa), D.V. Farger (Bashneft PJSC, RF, Ufa), R.F. Yakupov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa)
Approbation of MLR and CRMIP methods in research of well interference

Keywords: well interference, capacitance-resistance model injector-producer pair based representation (CRMIP), multivariate linear regression (MLR), numerical modelling
Results of implementation and approbation of well interference methods using field data based on several approach for well interference analysis have been discussed. The software RN-GDIS contains implemented prototypes of software modules including a capacitance-resistance model injector-producer pair based representation (CRMIP) and a multivariate linear regression method (MLR). Field data is required as input data for the software modules. Further, in order to quantify the well interference, the optimization problem is solved and the interaction coefficients are calculated. Coefficients obtained from implemented methods are converted into a single response space. The calculated answers are generalized in a summary table. Using this summary table the decision about the presence or absence of interaction between wells is made. The accuracy of the decision depends on the results of combining field and calculated data.
The developed models were approbated on synthetic data obtained using reservoir simulation model in corporate hydrodynamic simulation tool
RN-KIM. Data preprocessing is conducted before field data analysis. It includes algorithms for initial data reduction to a unifying time array, taking into account the discreteness of measurements and the data type. The CRMIP and MLR methods displayed satisfactory convergence with the results of reservoir simulation, and a good agreement was obtained between the results of field data well interference analysis and the expert assessments of well test specialists.
The results of well interference can be used for setting up reservoir simulation models, interpreting well test taking into account the surrounding wells, it will improve the efficiency of well operation management and reduce the risks of gas, oil and water shows during side-tracking of wells.
References
1. Davletbaev A., Zhilko E., Islamov R. et al., Features of gas well testing in reservoir with low permeability (In Russ.), SPE-176704-RU, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/176704-RU
2. Mal'tsev V.V., Asmandiyarov R.N., Baykov V.A. et al., Testing of auto hydraulic-fracturing growth of the linear oilfield development system of Priobskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 5, pp. 7073.
3. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.Ya., Khabibullin I.L., Akhmetova R.R., On the selection of suitable operate durations for injection tests in low permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2020, no. 1 (21), pp. 135149, DOI: 10.21684/2411-7978-2020-6-1-135-149
4. Asalkhuzina G.F., Bikkinina A.G., Davletbaev A.Ya., Kostrigin I.V., Implementation of well test business processes automation in RN-KIN software by the example of RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 9498, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-2-94-98
5. Dinh A., Tiab D., Inferring interwell connectivity from well bottomhole-pressure fluctuations in waterfloods, SPE-106881-PA, 2008.
6. Sayyafzadeh M., Pourafshary P., Haghighi M., Rashidi F., Application of transfer functions to model water injection in hydrocarbon reservoir, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2011, V. 78, no. 1, pp. 139148.
7. De Holanda R.W., Capacitance resistance model in a control systems framework: a tool for describing and controlling waterflooding reservoirs: Master's thesis, Texas A & M University, 2015. 156 p.
8. Yousef A.A., Gentil P.H., Jensen J.L., Lake L.W., A capacitance model to infer interwell connectivity from production and injection rate fluctuations, SPE-95322-PA, 2006.
9. Sayarpour M., Development and application of capacitance-resistive models to water/CO2 floods, Texas: University of Texas, 2008, 218 p.
10. Pichugin O.N., Sannikov I.N., Nikiforov S.V., The forecast of hydraulic fracturing on the basis of the problem-oriented approach (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 5, pp. 8891.
11. Bukhmastova S.V., Fakhreeva R.R., Pityuk Yu.A., Development of an approach for the numerical analysis of well interference (In Russ.), SPE-196848-RU, 2019.
12. Jensen J.L., Lake L.W., Corbett P.W.M., Goggin D.J., Statistics for petroleum engineers and geoscientists, Upper Saddle River, 1997, 390 p.
13. Bunday B., Basic optimization methods, Edward Arnold, London, 1994, 136 p.
14. Bakhrushin V.E., Methods for evaluating the characteristics of nonlinear statistical relationships (In Russ.), Sistemnye tekhnologii, 2011, V. 73, no. 2, pp. 914.
15. Baykov V.A., Badykov I.Kh., Borshchuk O.S., Digital experimentation reservoir laboratory (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2012, no. 3, pp. 4347.
16. Aslanyan A., Ganiev B., Lutfullin A. et al., Assessing efficiency of multiwell retrospective testing MRT in analysis of cross-well interference and prediction of formation and bottom-hole pressure dynamics, SPE-196839-MS, 2019, https://doi.org/10.2118/196839-RU.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-58-62

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

681.518:622.24
A.I. Arkhipov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.N. Dmitrievsky (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), N.A. Eremin (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.D. Chernikov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.O. Borozdin (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), E.A. Safarova (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), M.R. Seinaroev (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Data quality analysis of the station of geological and technological researches in recognizing losses and kicks to improve the prediction accuracy of neural network algorithms

Keywords: data quality, geological and technological studies, losses, kicks, neural network algorithms, prevention of accidents and troubles, artificial intelligence, automated system, well construction
The article summarizes and analyzes the quality of data received during the construction of wells. High quality and completeness of real-time drilling data have become key factors for improving the efficiency of data mining for decision-making. A combined architecture has been created that supports the latest computing technologies with high-frequency real-time data for creating intelligent alerts, as well as for remote monitoring of real-time data status for a large number of drilling rigs in the drilling control center. The quality of data is characterized by such metrics as completeness, accuracy, objectivity, timeliness of provision, source of origin, uniqueness, availability, format, and value. Of greatest interest for drilling are metrics such as completeness and accuracy. The classification of low-quality data is given. Examples of low-quality data from a geological and technological research station are considered. Criteria for the recognition of losses and kiks are formulated taking into account the quality of data for their further use in an automated system for preventing troubles and emergencies during the construction of oil and gas wells based on the use of artificial intelligence technologies and machine learning. When creating a high-performance automated system for preventing troubless and emergencies during the construction of oil and gas wells using artificial intelligence technology, the WITSML 2.0 data transfer protocol and the WITSML server are used. With a very large number of operations on the rig, transmitting up to 60,000 records in real time every second every day, it becomes necessary to use BigGeoData to predict drilling problems and discover hidden patterns. The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning models requires continuous improvement as drilling data changes. When using the WITSML big data transfer protocol, the task of monitoring the performance of artificial intelligence models becomes difficult due to the increase in the number of wells with real-time data, types of artificial intelligence models and types of data storage for drilling. The neural network methods described in this article for recognizing errors in the data of geological and technological measurement stations made it possible to achieve recognition of low-quality data in an automatic mode and increase the accuracy of forecasting complications.
References
1. Larionov A.S., Arkhipov A.I., Rodionov S.B., Well information is a growth point for the oil and gas business (In Russ.), Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov, 2015, no. 1, pp. 3138.
2. Eremin N.A., Chernikov A.D., Sardanashvili O.N. et al., Digital technologies for well construction. Creation of a high-performance automated system for preventing complications and emergencies during the construction of oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Delovoy zhurnal Neftegaz.Ru, 2020, no. 4 (100), pp. 3850.
3. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Duplyakin V.O., Eremin N.A., Kapranov V.V., Algorithm for creating a neural network model for classification in systems for preventing complications and emergencies in construction of oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Datchiki i sistemy, 2019, no. 12(243), pp. 310, DOI: 10.25728/datsys.2019.12.1
4. Ivlev A.P., Eremin N.A., Petrobotics: robotic drilling systems (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2018, no. 2, pp. 813.
5. Dmitrievsky A.D., Eremin N.A., Stolyarov E.V., Digital transformation of gas production, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), 2019, V. 700, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899x/700/1/012052.
6. Abukova L.A., Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Digital modernization of Russian oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 5458, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-10-54-58.
7. Chen D.C.-K., Gaynor T., Comeaux B., Glass K., Hole quality: Gateway to efficient drilling, Proceedings of Offshore Technology Conference, 2002, January 1, DOI: 10.4043/14277-MS.
8. Svensson I., Wooley M., Halland T., Improving data quality in WITSML data, SPE-181038-MS, 2016, DOI:10.2118/181038-MS.
9. Nugraha B., Nair R., Muhammad K., Smart real time data transfer surveillance with edge computing and centralized remote monitoring system, Proceedings of International Petroleum Technology Conference, 2020, January 13, DOI: 10.2523/IPTC-19588-MS.
10. Mayani M.G., Baybolov T., Rommetveit R. et al., Optimizing drilling wells and increasing the operation efficiency using digital twin technology, SPE-199566-MS, 2020, DOI: 10.2118/199566-MS.
11. Alotaibi B., Aman B., Nefai M., Real-time drilling models monitoring using artificial intelligence, SPE-194807-MS, 2019, DOI: 10.2118/194807-MS.
12. Djamaluddin B., Prabhakar P., James B. et al., Real-time drilling operation activity analysis data modelling with multidimensional approach and column-oriented storage, SPE-194701-MS, 2019, DOI: 10.2118/194701-MS.
13. Singh K., Yalamarty S.S., Kamyab M., Cheatham C., Cloud-based ROP prediction and optimization in real time using supervised machine learning, Proceedings of Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, 2019, July 31, DOI: 10.15530/urtec-2019-343.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-63-67

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681.518:622.276
Ya.E. Malkova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), M.A. Tyutrina (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), Yu.A. Evlanova (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.A. Vakhrusheva (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), T.E. Guryeva (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
RN-LAB information system digital tool of pricing in laboratory research

Keywords: laboratory research, pricing, methods of pricing, digital tool for calculating and approving prices
Saving employees' time and business process automation are among the priorities for developing companies. The RN-Lab information system, developed at Tyumen Petroleum Research Center of Rosneft Oil Company, is a modular tool for automation of all business processes related to laboratory research, as well as the unification of these processes in all laboratory centers of the Company.
This article presents one of the modules designed to calculate and approve prices for laboratory research. Calculate the cost of laboratory research is a time-consuming process. It is necessary to take into account a large number of parameters, such as employees salaries, depreciation of laboratory equipment, maintenance costs of laboratory centers, depending on the standards of the study. Moreover, developed Price Lists must undergo a process of verification and approval in several structural units. During calculating with Microsoft Excel, a high probability of a violation of the settlement algorithms arises. It was necessary to consolidate and verify the data manually during the approving process. There was a need to form support files to preserve the history of reconciliation. The RN-Lab information system provides: packet load/unload of lab databases; form a consolidated database of settlement data; discount the possibility of the calculated algorithms breach; access to all settlement data in single digital space, without scrolling individual files; history of approving prices in structural units, displaying all the comments. This tool has already been developed and implemented in the Core Research Center of Tyumen Petroleum Research Center and 7 other research centers of Rosneft Oil Company, which has provided laboratory centers with a unified database, the identical method of determining the price of laboratory research, the ability to compare and analyze data in a single digital space.
References
1. Liptsis I.V., Tsenoobrazovanie (Pricing), Moscow: Yurayt Publ., 2016, 368 p.
2. Otsenka intellektual'noy sobstvennosti (Intellectual property valuation): edited by Smirnova S.A., Moscow: Finansy i statistika Publ., 2003, 352 p.
3. Belkina E.Yu., Khasanov I.Sh., Methodological recommendations for calculating the cost of laboratory research (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2011, no. 1, pp. 59.
4. Kuzenkov V.Z., Kashirskikh D.V., Ramazanov Yu.A. et al., IS RN-LAB - Kompleksnoe reshenie dlya laboratornykh issledovaniy kerna i plastovykh flyuidov (RN-LAB - Complex solution for laboratory studies of core and formation fluids), Collected papers Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo i rudnogo potentsiala KhMAO Yugry (Ways of realization of oil and gas and ore potential of KhMAO-Ugra), Proceedings of XXII scientific-practical conference, Part 1, Khanty-Mansiysk, 2019, pp. 256261.
5. Kuzenkov V.Z., Kashirskikh D.V., Paromov S.V. et al., Development and implementation of RN-Lab information system for core and reservoir fluid laboratory study (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 98101.
6. Kashirskikh D.V., Cheskidov R.N., Vakhrusheva I.A., Kuzenkov V.Z., Concept of computer-aided planning of lab equipment and man loading based on "RN-LAB" is platform to optimize workflow (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2019, no. 3(19), pp. 212223.
7. Sharp J., Microsoft Visual C# Step by Step, URL: https://www.microsoftpressstore.com/store/microsoft-visual-c-sharp-step-by-step-9781509301041
8. Vasil'kov Yu.V., Vasil'kova N.N., Komp'yuternye tekhnologii vychisleniy v matematicheskom modelirovanii (Computer technologies of computation in mathematical modeling), Moscow: Finansy i statistika Publ., 2002, 256 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-68-71

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276.53:65.011.4
A.A. Makeev (Oil and Gas Production Department Bystrinskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), D.V. Shelokov (Oil and Gas Production Department Bystrinskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), E.L. Shay (Oil and Gas Production Department Bystrinskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut), M.V. Chirkov (Oil and Gas Production Department Bystrinskneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Surgut)
Efficiency of electric centrifugal pumps application for oil production from wells of pre-Jurassic formations

Keywords: pump, saline deposits, igneous rock, temperature
The article discusses the period of formation of the Triassic deposits. An example of the formation of pre-Jurassic deposits in Western Siberia is the Krasnoleninsky arch, formed during the period of volcanic activity. The revealed productivity of the Triassic sediments determined further prospects for the development of hydrocarbon reserves in the fields of the Krasnoleninsky arch. Deposits of pre-Jurassic strata are represented mainly by volcanic formations with interlayers of terrigenous rocks, characterized by significant changes in reservoir properties over the area and section. When operating wells drilled on Triassic sediments using electric centrifugal pump installations, special approach is necessary to the selection of equipment, taking into account the variety of complicating factors and the peculiarities of the geological structure of the reservoirs. The complicating factors in the fields of the Krasnoleninsky arch include the following: 1) high temperature of the formation fluid; 2) a significant amount of free gas contained in the well product at the pump intake; 3) a significant change in the production characteristics of wells after geological and technical measures. The abovementioned complicates the choice of equipment for oil production and reduces its reliability. Mineralogical studies have shown that the deposits mainly contain corrosion products with inclusions of calcite. Under high-temperature conditions, the period of growth of calcite crystals is significant. Calcite crystals in the form of mechanical impurities enter the pump. To reduce the negative effect of solid calcite formations in the pump, it is proposed to use a complete inlet filter with a bypass valve and a gas dispergation module. This configuration made it possible to protect the pump working channels from solid calcite deposits formed at the bottomhole.
References
1. Yakovleva N.P., Myasnikova G.P., Tugareva A.V., Chernova G.A., Litologicheskie osobennosti vulkanicheskogo triasovogo NGK na territorii KhMAO (Zapadnaya Sibir') (The lithological features of Triassic volcanic OGC on the territory of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous (Western Siberia)), Collected papers Osadochnye basseyny, sedimentatsionnye i postsedimentatsionnye protsessy v geologicheskoy istorii (Sedimentary basins, sedimentary and postsedimentary processes in geological history), Proceedings of VII All-Russia lithological meeting, Novosibirsk: Publ. of Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics of SB RAS, 2013, Part 3, pp. 326330.
2. Makeev A.A., Methods for increasing the service life of the ESP on the complicated well stock of the Oktyabrsky district (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2017, no. 5, pp. 7073.
3. Makeev A.A., Shchelokov D.V., Shay E.L., Complications during the operation of wells of high-temperature deposits in the Oktyabrsky region (Krasnolensky arch) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 4244.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-74-76

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622.276.72
D.S. Derkach (ANHK JSC, RF, Angarsk), E.E. Shvalev (ANHK JSC, RF, Angarsk), I.E. Kuzora (ANHK JSC, RF, Angarsk), I.A. Semenov (Angarsk State Technical University, RF, Angarsk), O.B. Dogadin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Using mathematical model to create a composition solvents for asphalt-resins-paraffin sediments

Keywords: asphalt-resins-paraffin sediments, oil production, solvents, mathematical model
There are serious problems associated with asphalt-resins-paraffin sediments (ARPS) precipitated in subsurface pumping equipment at oil production enterprises, these problems leads to an increase in the cost of underground well repair, loss oil production. Among frequently used methods of disposal ARPS in industry the most effective method is using chemicals solvents. At the same time efficiency of solvents some ARPS can varies widely because structure, composition and properties are different. Create the universal high-effective solvent for various ARPS almost impossible.
The purpose of that article is creating a universal approach to the selection of composition of high-effective solvent for various ARPS. During the researches we used the samples ARPS from the real oil production companies of Eastern Siberia (ARPS No. 1, ARPS No. 2, ARPS No. 3) and the sediments from ANHKs oil tanks (ARPS No. 4). Composition and physical-chemical properties of the samples ARPS differ significantly. Different refined petroleum by-products of ANHK and AZP companies the enterprises included in the perimeter Rosneft Oil Company have been studied products as components for creating compositions of solvents. Dissolving, detergent and dispersive powers of investigated individual components and their compositions in various ratios have been rated by the common method. Based on the results of the research with used methods of statistical processing and mathematical modeling the composition of solvent for discussed ARPS were offered, their effectiveness has been proven under laboratory conditions. An algorithm have been created for minimize the number of experiments by which select the optimal composition of solvent for various ARPS is possible.
References
1. Rogachev M.K., Fiziko-khimicheskie metody sovershenstvovaniya protsessov dobychi nefti v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Physicochemical methods of improving oil production processes in difficult conditions): thesis of doctor of economical science, Ufa, 2002.
2. Oblezov A.V., Novyy perspektivnyy uglevodorodnyy rastvoritel' dlya protsessov stimulyatsii skvazhin (A promising new hydrocarbon solvent for well stimulation processes), URL: http://www.tatnipi.ru/upload/sms/2014/bur/007.pdf
3. Saginaev A.T., Gilazhov E.G., Serikov T.P., Utilization of asphalt-resinous-paraffin deposits (In Russ.), Vestnik Atyrauskogo instituta nefti i gaza, 2017, no. 2 (42), pp. 4045.
4. Mar'in V.I., Akchurin V.A., Demakhin A.G., Khimicheskie metody udaleniya i predotvrashcheniya obrazovaniya ASPO pri dobyche nefti (Chemical methods of removing and preventing the formation of paraffin in oil), Saratov: Kolledzh Publ., 2001, 156 p.
5. Persiyantsev M.N., Dobycha nefti v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Oil production in complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 653 p.
6. Mukhametova E.M., Musavirova G.A., Influence of complex agents containing sur factants on asphalt-resin-paraphin deposits (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2007, no. 8, pp. 1417.
7. Patent RU2388785C1, Composition for preventing asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits, Inventor: Pavlov M.L.
8. Turukalov M.B., Kriterii vybora effektivnykh uglevodorodnykh rastvoriteley dlya udaleniya asfal'tosmoloparafinovykh otlozheniy (Selection criteria for effective hydrocarbon solvents for removing asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Krasnodar, 2007.
9. Walas S.M., Phase equilibria in chemical engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013, 688 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-77-81

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622.276.72
D.I. Varlamov (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), E.N. Grishenko (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), S.S. Zakharov (Research and Engineering Institute, Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Methods of removing and preventing the scale deposition in the wells of White Hare field, Vietsovpetro JV

Keywords: reservoir water composition, scaling conditions, scaling treatments, bottomhole treatment, acid solution, inhibitor, downhole equipment, bottomhole area
White Hare field has been developed since 2016 at Block 09-1 of Vietnam. Main producing zones are classic deposits of the Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene. The wells are operated by the compressed gaslift method with multi-packer assembly for dual production from the Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene. The complicating factor, driven by increased watering over time, is the formation of non-organic scale deposits at the inner surface of the downhole equipment. Scaling negatively effects the well operation. Resistance to a fluid flow increases and results in deterioration of lifting, power consumption increases and fluid rate decreases.
The article covers the results of reservoir water lab tests and highlights the dependencies of scaling intensity on reservoir and well P-T (pressure-and-temperature) conditions. Compatibility assessment for reservoir and injecting water has been performed. The main method of scaling control is the scaling treatment. The article describes the results of applying scaling treatment with acid compositions. Frequent treatments have been observed, as well as their negative impact on the downhole equipment and increased oil underrates. It is considered the Scale Squeeze technology application, which consists of pumping the inhibitor in the bottomhole area following its adsorption at the rock surface and inhibiting the associated water. The paper describes the pilot tests results of inhibitor bottom-hole batching technology, and pinpoints the factors that influence the technology efficiency. The article identifies the strategic pathway for scaling control efficiency in wells of White Hare field for 20202021.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-82-86

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276.53:65.011.4
A.N. Drozdov (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), K.I. Chernishov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), N.I. Shinkov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), Ya.A. Gorbyleva (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), E.I. Gorelkina (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), I.M. Narozhnyy (RUDN University, RF, Moscow)
Effect of working fluid temperature on the production of high-viscosity oil by hydro-jet-pump units

Keywords: hard-to-recover reserves, very high viscosity index oil, water-in-oil emulsion, hydro-jet-pump unit, jet apparatus
The article discusses an alternative method of production high viscosity oil using hydro-jet-pump units with injection of the high temperature working fluid.
This method allows using earlier spent energy for heating water. It will reduce the viscosity of the producing liquid along from the bottomhole to the wellhead. This is a preventive method to fight against salt deposition, asphalt, resin, and paraffin deposition and to plug the inner surface of pipes and the annular space of the well. The description of the proposed technology of well operation using a jet pump at the bottom and two rows of tubing is provided. The analytical model was created to evaluate the effect of the working fluid temperature on production of high-viscosity oil by hydro-jet-pump units. This model takes into account the properties of the produced fluid based on the results of laboratory studies of the viscosity dependence of an oil-water emulsion on water cut and temperature; the distribution of pressure and temperature along the tubing rows; the operating mode of the well and downhole equipment. The paper presents calculations of power consumption of surface equipment during well operation for high-viscosity oil fields using the example of the Arkhangelskoye and Alshachinskoye fields. The main stages and the methods used for the calculation are described. The model allows us to select the optimal temperature, flow rate and pressure of the working fluid for the effective operation of the system "well- hydro-jet-pump installation". The calculations of power consumption at the wells of the Arkhangelskoye and Ashalchinskoye fields show that the power consumption of the water heater significantly exceeds the decrease in ESP power consumption. It is shown that this technology used for the production of high-viscosity oil with heated water injection is most effective and power efficient if there is a permanent source of hot water at the field.
References
1. Bozrov A.R., Application of modern technologies of hard-to-recover oil as the main factor of production growth in the Russian Federation (In Russ.), Innovatsii i investitsii, 2020, no. 1, pp. 277280.
2. Khafizov R.I., Razvitie teplovykh metodov razrabotki mestorozhdeniy vysokovyazkoy nefti Tatarstana (Evolution of thermal methods for the development of high-viscosity oil fields in Tatarstan), Collected papers Aktual'nye problemy nauki i tekhniki (Actual problems of science and technology), Proceedings of VIII International Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientist, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2015, V. 1, pp. 1316.
3. Khasanov I.I., Shakirov R.A., Leont'ev A.Yu. et al., Review of modern methods of influence on the rheological properties of heavy highly viscos oils (In Russ.), NefteGazoKhimiya, 2018, no. 3, pp. 4954.
4. Timashev E.O., Urazakov K.R., Volkov M.G. et al., Method of calculation for installations with electrical submersible reciprocating pump for oil production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 3, pp. 7276.
5. Loskutova Yu.V., Yudina N.V., Volkova G.I., Anufriev R.V., Study of viscosity and temperature behavior of water-oil emulsions in phase inversion point (In Russ.), Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal prikladnykh i fundamental'nykh issledovaniy, 2017, no. 10, pp. 221225.
6. Sakharov V.A., Mokhov M.A., Gidrodinamika gazozhidkostnykh smesey v vertikal'nykh trubakh i promyslovykh pod"emnikakh (Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes and field hoists), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2004, 398 p.
7. Mishchenko I.T., Gumerskiy Kh.Kh., Mar'enko V.P., Struynye nasosy dlya dobychi nefti (Jet pumps for oil production), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 1996, 150 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-87-91

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622.276.53:001.24
A.N. Drozdov (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), S.T. Zakenov (Yessenov University, Kazakhstan, Aktau), S.D. Karabaev (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), N.P. Olmaskhanov (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), N.A. Drozdov (Innovative Oil and Gas Solutions LLC, RF, Moscow), D.G. Yesniyazov (Reservoir Surveillance Services, Kazakhstan, Atyrau), A.A. Koszhanov (Reservoir Surveillance Services, Kazakhstan, Atyrau)
Effect of nozzle-to-throat spacing on water-jet gas pump performance

Keywords: jet apparatus, water-jet gas pump (WGJP), simultaneous water alternating gas injection (SWAG), pump-ejector system (PES)
Implementation of water alternating gas (WAG) injection on a reservoir, with simultaneous water and gas injection, provided with liquid-jet gas (LJG) pumps utilization. These devices are designed to prepare a water-gas mixture by mixing the active liquid phase with high pressure and a passive gas medium. Several unsolved problems remain in the LJG pumps performance, including the optimal distances from the edge of the nozzle to the entrance to the mixing throat (nozzle-to-throat spacing). According to the analysis of previous studies, it was identified that the results were obtained chiefly for low-head LJG pumps, conical nozzles were used in the investigations, gas pressures at the LJG pumps gas intake were near to atmospheric, and there was a wide variation in the recommended nozzle-to-throat spacing. However, the implementation of the WAG injection under field conditions is meant to be used associated petroleum gas with excess pressure, high-pressure LJG pumps, and the diaphragm nozzles. Due to this, the aim of this paper was a comprehensive study of the nozzle-to-throat spacing effect on LJG pumps performance, with diaphragm nozzles application. As well as, excess gas pressure at the intake of LJG pump was necessary to approach the oil and gas field conditions. The studies were carried out on the test-bench, which is designed to investigate LJG pumps performance. Water was used as an operating fluid, and air was used as a gas phase. The test-bench has cyclic system of operation which made it possible to obtain stable excess gas pressures at the LJG pumps intake. To evaluate the performance of the jet apparatus, the pressure-energy characteristics were used. As a result of experimental studies, it was identified that the ratios of mixing throat diameter dthroat to the nozzle diameter dnozzle range from 1.26 to 2.21, the nozzle-to-throat spacing varies in the range of (0.75-1.53)dthroat, and the greatest value of 1.53dthroat is achieved with the dthroat/dnozzle = 1,55. As well as, optimization of nozzle-to-throat spacing leads to enhance the pressure-energy characteristics and the injection coefficient by an average of 10%.
References
1. Drozdov A.N., Investigations of the submersible pumps characteristics when gas-liquid mixtures delivering and application of the results for SWAG technologies development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 108111.
2. Drozdov A.N., Utilization of associated petroleum gas with using of existing field infrastructure (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 7477.
3. Pestov V.M., Yanovskiy A.V., Drozdov A.N., Improving the technology for water-gas mixtures pumping into the reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 4, pp. 8486.
4. Cunningham R.G., Dopkin R.J., Jet breakup and mixing throat lengths for the liquid jet gas pump, ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, 1974, V. 96, no. 3, V. 1, pp. 216226.
5. Dem'yanova L.A., Influence of the distance from the working nozzle to the mixing chamber on the characteristics of the jet apparatus when pumping out gas-liquid mixtures (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1998, no. 9, pp. 8485.
6. Dolgov D.V., Influence of the nozzle distance on the characteristics of the liquid-gas ejector (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo,2007, URL: http://www.ogbus.ru/ authors/Dolgov/ Dolgov_l.pdf.
7. Wang L. et al., Gasliquid numerical simulation on micro‐bubble generator and optimization on the nozzle‐to‐throat spacing, Asia‐Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015, V. 10, no. 6, pp. 893903.
8. Sokolov E. Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Inkjet devices), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.
9. Temnov, V.K., Spiridonov E.K., Raschet i proektirovanie zhidkostnykh ezhektorov (Calculation and design of liquid ejectors), Chelyabinsk: Publ. of Chelyabinsk Polytechnic Institute named by Lenins Komsomol, 1984, 43 p.
10. Drozdov A.N. Tekhnologiia i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennykh usloviiakh (The technology and technique of oil production by submergible pumps in the complicated conditions: teaching aid for universities), Moscow: MAKS press, 2008, 312 p.
11. Drozdov A.N., Karabaev S.D., Olmaskhanov N.P. et al., Study of the characteristics of ejectors for oil and gas and mining technologies (In Russ.), Neftegaz. RU, 2020, no. 3, 5, pp. 3542.
12. Drozdov A.N., Problems in WAG implementation and prospects of their solutions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 100104.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-92-95

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622.276.53.054.23:621.67-83
A.N. Drozdov (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), S.T. Zakenov (Yessenov University, Kazakhstan, Aktau), N.P. Olmaskhanov (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), S.D. Karabaev (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), N.A. Drozdov (Innovative Oil and Gas Solutions LLC, RF, Moscow), E.I. Gorelkina (RUDN University, RF, Moscow), D.G. Yesniyazov (Reservoir Surveillance Services, Kazakhstan, Atyrau), A.A. Koszhanov (Reservoir Surveillance Services, Kazakhstan, Atyrau)
The bench studies of the effect of free gas on the characteristics multistage centrifugal pump during pumping out of water-gas mixtures

Keywords: pump-ejector system (PES), multistage centrifugal pump, liquid-gas mixture (LGM), liquid-gas ejector (LGE)
One of the effective solutions for increasing oil and gas reservoirs is the method of simultaneous water alternating gas (SWAG) on a reservoir by pump-ejector systems. In this system are using the multistage centrifugal pump for injection water-gas mixtures, which prepared by ejector. Previous studies have shown that the strong influence of free gas on the characteristics of pressure and pressure in the aquatic environment cannot using to determine the characteristics and the rational using of these devices in the well at higher pressures. In field conditions, at the Samodurovskoye field, when gas flows, at the heights of the Samoerovskoye, Efremo-Zykovskoye and Spasskoye fields, under pressure until 0.2 to 0.4 MPa. The water-gas mixture at the inlet of the booster pump, as well as at the gas pipeline at the inlet to pump ejector installation by a low-pressure compressor system also supplies associated petroleum gas from the neighboring Ponomarevskoye field. Thus, it is necessary to conduct a study of the characteristics of a multistage centrifugal pump at elevated pressures during operation of the jet apparatus. Research conducted on a mock-up of a pump-ejector system. As a result, of experimental studies, it found that with decreased inlet pressure, and the influence of gas on the characteristics of the booster pump in water-gas mixtures. This leads to a significant reduction in the harmful effects of gas on the working pump of the pump. The difficulty of the combining gas bubbles into cavities with increasing pressure in the flow of a finely dispersed mixture can be describe by the increase in this stable mixture. The modernization of laboratory bench, it was possible to provide a gas supply at an overpressure of 0.2 to 0.37 MPa, similar to field conditions.
References
1. Ivanishin V.S., Liskevich E.I., Mishchuk I.N., Improving the efficiency of water and gas repression at the Bitkovskoe field (In Russ.), Neftyanaya i gazovaya promyshlennost', 1973, no. 6, pp. 2022.
2. Lozin E.V., Shuvalov A.V., Garifullin A.Sh. et al., Methods for increasing the efficiency of oil field development in the final stage (In Russ.), Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2008, no. 4, pp. 1928.
3. Drozdov A.N., Problems in WAG implementation and prospects of their solutions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 100-104.
4. Drozdov N.A., Pump-ejector systems for the water-alternating gas process, Lambert Academic Publishing, 2014, 172 p.
5. Drozdov A.N., APG utilization at the Samodurovskoye field: a long and winding road to implementation (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2015, no. 6, pp. 5255.
6. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Bunkin N.F., Kozlov V.A., Study of suppression of gas bubbles coalescence in the liquid for use in technologies of oil production and associated gas utilization, SPE-187741-MS, 2017.
7. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A. Uvelichenie KIN: vodogazovoe vozdeystvie na plast. Opyt ekspluatatsii nasosno-ezhektornoy sistemy i puti sovershenstvovaniya tekhnologii VGV (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2017, no. 7, pp. 7077.
8. Drozdov A.N., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Technology and engineering of oil production using submersible pumps under complicated conditions), Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2008, 312 p.
9. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Simple solutions of complex swag injection problems (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2017, no. 3, pp. 4346.
10. Drozdov A.N, Karabaev S.D, Olmaskhanov N.P. [et al.] Investigation of the characteristics of ejectors for oil and gas and mining technologies, Business magazine Neftegaz.RU, 2020, no. 3, pp. 3542.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-96-99

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

620.193:622.276.012.05
A.K. Sakhibgareev (RN- BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), G.F. Shaykhulova (RN- BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), T.A. Sataeva (RN- BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.V. Kostitsyna (RN- BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), P.V. Vinogradov (RN- BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.M. Khusnullin (RN- BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Hydrodynamic modeling as an instrument of selecting places of installing corrosion control units

Keywords: corrosion monitoring, hydraulic modeling, flow regime, water accumulations, corrosion control unit, test specimen, multiphase flow, flow velocity
One of the reasons for failure of pipelines due to internal corrosion is an incorrect and untimely assessment of the degree of aggressiveness of the transported medium and, as a result, the selection and application of ineffective methods of corrosion protection. The main approach of corrosion monitoring to assess the corrosiveness of the environment is to introduce witness samples into the stream of the transported fluid, followed by monitoring their condition. A key step in organizing corrosion monitoring is to select a site for the installation of a test specimen. Existing methods for determining the installation locations of corrosion control nodes do not allow a comprehensive assessment of all influencing factors and take into account the particular operating conditions of the pipeline.
In the framework of the work, a new approach to the choice of the installation site of the corrosion control unit is proposed, including the following steps: 1) hydrodynamic modeling; 2) comparison of simulation results, actual data on failures and results of in-line diagnostics; 3) assessment of compliance of the recommended installation sites of the corrosion control unit with the requirements specified in state standards and regulatory documents of the company. This approach allows to take into account such factors as the flow rate of the gas-liquid mixture, the presence of stagnant zones of water accumulations and the flow regime, as a result of which the reliability and quality of the results of measurements of the corrosion rate during corrosion monitoring are increased. As a result of this work, it was revealed that hydrodynamic modeling under unsteady flow conditions is an effective tool for determining the sections of the pipeline that are most corrosive. The described approach is applicable both in the design of corrosion monitoring systems in new fields, and in optimizing the location of corrosion control unit already installed in the oil gathering system.
References
1. RD 39-0147103-362-86. Rukovodstvo po primeneniyu antikorrozionnykh meropriyatiy pri sostavlenii proektov obustroystva i rekonstruktsii ob"ektov neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Guidelines for the application of anti-corrosion measures in the preparation of projects for the development and reconstruction of oil field facilities), Moscow: Publ. of VNIISPTneft, 1987, 110 p.
2. NACE RP0497. Field corrosion evaluation using metallic test specimens, NACE International, 2004, 27 p.
3. NACE SP0775. Preparation, installation, analysis and interpretaion corrosion coupons in oilfield operations, NACE International, 2013, 24 p.
4. Nizamov K.R., Povyshenie ekspluatatsionnoy nadezhnosti neftepromyslovykh truboprovodov (Improving the operational reliability of oil field pipelines): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ufa, 2001.
5. RD 39-0147323-339-89-R. Instruktsiya po proektirovaniyu i ekspluatatsii antikorrozionnoy zashchity truboprovodov sistem neftesbora na mestorozhdeniyakh zapadnoy Sibiri (Instructions for the design and operation of anticorrosion protection of pipelines of oil gathering systems in the fields of Western Siberia), Tyumen': Publ. of Giprotyumenneftegaz, 1989, 40 p.
6. Alferov A.V., Valiakhmetov R.I., Vinogradov P.V. et al., Improving the approach to determining period between two intratubal cleanings for field pipelines in the conditions of water accumulations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 1, pp. 8285.
7. Bochkarev S.A., Lekomtsev S.V., Numerical simulation of an elastic tube containing a flowing fluid (In Russ.), Vestnik PGTU. Mekhanika = Perm State Technical University Mechanics Bulletin, 2011, no. 3, pp. 514.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-100-102

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622.276.8 + 546.13
.S. Tatyanina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), F.R. Gubaidulin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), S.N. Sudykin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), L.. Abdrakhmanova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Peculiar aspects of removal of chlororganic compounds from crude oil

Keywords: crude oil, naphtha, removal, chlororganic compounds, sodium hydroxide
Treatment of naphtha contaminated with highly volatile chlororganic compounds using aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide at high temperatures enables considerable reduction of organic chlorine content. Chromatography-mass spectrometry studies have demonstrated that alkyl halides degrade firstly. Efficiency of the removal of organic chlorine depends directly on naphtha treatment temperature: efficiency of reaction between chlororganic compounds and alkali improves with temperature increase. Degree of reduction in highly volatile chlororganic compounds depends on initial concentration and the composition of such compounds. The fullest extent of removal of highly volatile chlororganic compounds is achieved when chlorine is present in alkanes and alkenes: chloroform, dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachlorethylene. Based on the results of the studies, a technology for extraction of highly volatile chlororganic compounds from crude oil was proposed to enable efficient removal of chlorinated alkenes and alkanes. Considering future practical implementation of the technology, the optimal treatment temperature should be at least 180. To prevent boiling of reaction mixture the process should be conducted at excess pressure of at least 2 MPa. Treatment time at constant stirring at least 6 hours. Loading and concentration of alkaline aqueous solution should be at least 25% and 10%, respectively. After the treatment, the main volume of aqueous phase is removed and crude oil can be directed to further processing.
Reaction of sodium hydroxide with chlorine-containing aromatic compounds requires harder conditions: temperatures in the range of 300 to 350 and high pressures. Therefore, looking for new methods for removal of chlorinated aromatic compounds from crude oil is of current concern. Solution to this challenge is of great practical importance for all oil production companies because despite current prohibition to use chemicals containing chlororganic compounds, highly volatile chlororganic compounds can form as a result of reactions between chlorides-containing chemicals and interactions with petroleum hydrocarbons.
References
1. Nadirov N.K., Kotova A.V., Kam'yanov V.F. et al., Novye nefti Kazakhstana i ikh ispol'zovanie. Metally v neftyakh (New Kazakh oil and their use. Metals in oils), Alma-Ata: Nauka Publ., 1984, 448 p.
2. Germash V.M., Lyalin V.A., Shreyder A.V. et al., Sources of formation of hydrogen chloride in oil refining (In Russ.), Neftepererabotka i neftekhimiya, 1974, no. 8, pp. 810.
3. Patent RU2605601C1, Method of reducing content of organic chlorides in oil, Inventors: Tat'yanina O.S., Sudykin S.N., Gubaydulin F.R., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Sannikova A.L., Mukhametgaleev R.R., Nosov S.K.
4. Hiraoka et al., Japan Kokai 74,822,570, Chemical Abstracts, 8988831 K, 1975, V. 82.
5. Patent US4639309A, Process for the dehalogenation of polyhalogenated hydrocarbon containing fluids, Inventors: Lalancette J.-M., Belanger G.
6. Patent US4337368A, Reagent and method for decomposing halogenated organic compounds, Inven-tors: Pytlewski L.L., Krevitz K., Smith A.B.
7. Patent US4353793A, Method for removing polyhalogenated hydrocarbons from nonpolar organic sol-vent solution, Inventor: Brunelle D.J.
8. Patent RU2191768C2, Method for utilizing chlorine-containing poisonous products, Inventors: Gormay V.V., Alimov N.I., Medvetskiy I.V., Frolov V.N., Savostin V.S.
9. Patent US4532028A, Method for reducing content of halogenated aromatics in hydrocarbon solutions, Inventor: Peterson R.L.
10. Patent US4284516A, Process for the removal of low level (ppm) halogenated contaminants, Inventors: Parker D.K., Steichen R.J.
11. Patent US4761221A, Process for the decomposition of halogenated organic compounds, Inventors: Rossi C.A., Nelis Ph.
12. Patent RU2221837C1, Method of processing of gasoline fractions containing organochlorine com-pounds on reforming installations, Inventors: Tomin V.P., Mikishev V.A., Elshin A.I., Kuzora I.E., Kolotov V.Yu.
13. Patent US4618686A, Process for of aryl and alpha-araliphatic halides, Inventors: Boyer St.K., Hills F.
14. Patent US5490919A, Process for the dehalogenation of organic compounds, Inventors: Pri-Bar I., Azoulay D., Buchman O.
15. Patent US3539653A, Method of removing alkyl halides from a hydrocarbon stream with an alkanol amine, Inventors: Frevel L.K., Kressley L.J.
16. Patent RU2672263C1, Method of reducing content of organic chlorides in oil, Inventors: Abdrakh-manova L.M., Tat'yanina O.S., Sudykin S.N.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-103-105

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

622.692.4.07(211)
U.S. Poverenniy (NK Rosneft-NTC, RF, Krasnodar), A.D. Dubrov (NK Rosneft-NTC, RF, Krasnodar), N.G. Gilev (NK Rosneft-NTC, RF, Krasnodar), E.V. Zenkov (NK Rosneft-NTC, RF, Krasnodar), A.S. Melentev (NK Rosneft-NTC, RF, Krasnodar), D.Yu. Shestakov (NK Rosneft-NTC, RF, Krasnodar), D.A. Kuzmin (NK Rosneft-NTC, RF, Krasnodar), V.A. Pavlov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), N.N. Berdnikov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow
Application of a digital model of a linear object for the design of pipelines in the conditions of construction on permafrost soils

Keywords: digital model of a linear object, design of foundations on permafrost, optimization of costs during construction on permafrost, automation of design
The article describes an innovative method for automating the design process of pile foundations of linear aboveground pipelines using a digital model of a linear object (DMLO). The proposed method of automating the design process, with individual calculations and selection of optimal solutions for each support, rather than for groups of supports with similar loads, heights, geological and geocryological conditions, allows you to save capital costs for the construction of aboveground pipelines up to 20% of the cost of piling. The specified cost optimization does not reduce the reliability of the designed objects. Due to automation with the use of DMLO, the complexity and timing of design are reduced, and the risk of errors when performing a large number of calculations is reduced. All decisions in the preparation of DMLO are made taking into account the technical and economic comparison of options for pile foundations: with or without soil thermal stabilization systems, with the use of reinforced concrete or metal piles, piles of a larger diameter with a shorter length or a smaller diameter with a longer length, etc. DMLO is developed for the entire life cycle of the object and can be used at the construction stage and geotechnical monitoring of the object for the ability to recalculate the bearing capacity of piles based on current measurements of soil temperatures. The technology was developed by subsidiary company of Rosneft Oil Company NK Rosneft-NTC LLC as part of Rosnefts strategy to optimize capital costs by 10% of the cost of linear facilities in 20202022.
References
1. Gilev N.G., Zenkov E.V., Poverennyy Yu.S. et al., Optimization of capital costs for pile foundations during construction of oil and gas production facilities on permafrost soils (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 4649.
2. Spravochnik bazovykh tsen na proektnye raboty dlya stroitel'stva "Obekty neftedobyvayushchey promyshlennosti" (Reference book of basic prices for design work for construction "Objects of the oil industry"), Moscow: Publ. of Rosstroy, 2006.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-106-109

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622.692:621.22
M.I. Valiev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Korshak (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
The use of the generalized formula of L.S. Leibenzon in the hydraulic calculation of pumping oil and petroleum products with small additives of polymers

Keywords: hydraulic resistance, polymer solutions, empirical dependences, polymer concentration, structure of the calculation formula, generalized formula of L.S. Leibenzon
The Darcy - Weisbach formula is traditionally used in the calculation of pipelines through which oil and petroleum products with small additives of polymers are pumped. To calculate the coefficient of hydraulic resistance, it offers a large number of computational dependencies. The article provides a critical analysis of them. The formulas that were obtained as a result of experiments on water are not suitable for solving the problems of pipeline transportation of oil and oil products. All the others are not fully theoretical, because they contain empirical coefficients, which either have to be refined for each pair of "liquid-additive" according to experimental data, or calculated from the approximation dependencies obtained for the conditions of the performed experiments. In principle, most of the described formulas can be used equally. However, some of them are not convenient for solving theoretical problems of pipeline transport of oil and oil products, because they are transcendental. Therefore, according to the authors, the most preferred formula, in which the coefficient of hydraulic resistance when pumping oil and petroleum products with small additives of polymers is presented as a product of a similar coefficient when pumping without polymers in the form of L.S. Leibenzon and correction function, taking into account the concentration of the polymer and the degree of its impact on the resistance of the pipeline. This record of the calculation formula allowed us to show that for the hydraulic calculation of pipelines for pumping oil and petroleum products with small additives of polymers, the generalized formula of L.S. Leibenzon can be used. Moreover, the coefficient β in it is equal to the product of a similar coefficient when pumping oil and oil products without polymer additives by a correction function that takes into account the polymer concentration, the degree of turbulence development and other factors. Since the other has not yet been established, the value of another L.S. Leibenson coefficient m and the methods for calculating the transition Reynolds numbers when using small polymer additives can be considered the same as in the case of pumping without them.
References
1. Bulina I.G., Dinaburg L.S., Magomedov A.D., Bakaradzhieva V.I., Possible ways to reduce the hydrodynamic resistance during flow in turbulent pipes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1971, no. 6, pp. 2730.
2. Walsh M., Theory of drag reduction in dilute high polymer flows, Trans. Soc. Rheal., 1978, V. 27, pp. 134137.
3. Barenblatt G.I., Bulina I.G., Zel'dovich Ya.B. et al., One possible mechanism of the effect of small additions of high-molecular composition on turbulence (In Russ.), PMTF, 1965, no. 5, pp. 147148.
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5. Amfilokhiev V.B., Artyushkov L.S., Similarity criteria for turbulent flows of dilute polymer solutions and generalized dependence for the coefficient of friction (In Russ.), Izvestiya RAN. Ser. Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza, 1998, no. 4, pp. 191196.
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7. Lur'e M.V., Golunov N.N., Application of bench test results of small antiturbulent additives for industrial pipeline hydraulic analysis (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 4, pp. 3237.
8. Eroshkina I.I., Povyshenie propusknoy sposobnosti magistral'nykh nefteproduktoprovodov na osnove primeneniya protivoturbulentnykh prisadok (Increasing the throughput of main oil product pipelines based on the use of anti-turbulent additives): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2003.
9. Khusseyn M.N., Uluchshenie parametrov raboty nefteprovodov putem primeneniya protivoturbulentnykh prisadok (Improving the parameters of oil pipelines by using anti-turbulent additives): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2009.
10. Muratova V.I., Nechval' A.M., The choice of the formula for calculating the coefficient of hydraulic resistance when using anti-turbulent additives (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov, 2008, no. 2, pp. 1113.
11. Lowe R., The turbulent shear flow of dilute polymer solution a long chain polymers: A thesis presented for the degree of Master of Engineering at University of Liverpool, 1969, no. 7, 115 p.
12. Sedov L.I., Vasetskaya V.A., Ioselevich V.A., Pilipenko V.N., O snizhenii gidrodinamicheskogo soprotivleniya dobavkami polimerov (On the reduction of hydrodynamic resistance by polymer additives), In: Mekhanika turbulentnykh potokov (Mechanics of turbulent flows), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1980, pp. 729.
13. Gorin Ya., Norberi D., Turbulent flow of dilute polymer solutions (In Russ.), Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal, 1995, V. 27, no. 5, pp. 830838.
14. Corless R.M., Connet G.H., Hare D.E. et al., On the Lambert W function, Advance Computational Maths, 1996, V. 5, pp. 329359.
15. Gol'yanov A.I., Gol'yanov A.A., Mikhaylov D.A. et al., Trunk oil pipeline work specifics with anti-turbulent additive application (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2013, no. 2, pp. 3643.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-110-112

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