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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
551.351.2 : 553.381/982
The variations of hydrogen index pH in the bottom sediments of North-Eastern outskirts of the Black Sea in the region of the Gudauta uplift are studied. Here the potentially oil- and gas-bearing structures and carbonaceous reef-forming buildings are singled out by seismic data. The sampling of bottom sediments was carried out in the course of the maritime science-research expedition in the August of 2010. The sampling stations were placed at 7 profiles oriented perpendicular to the coast line, 1500 m further on. The profiles were placed at the distance 3000 m from each other. In all, 260 samples were picked out. The pH measurement was carried out by potentiometric method using the analyzer Expert-001, measuring electrode and chlorine-silver comparison electrode. The established pH values are in the interval of 7.68–9.3. The median value makes 8.16, modal – 8.1, mean arithmetical – 8.26, at inaccuracy of average estimation – 0.037. The planar interpolation of pH values of bottom sediments was carried out in the environment ArcGis 9.1 with use of function kriging. It was established that marine sediments in the limits of Gudauta uplift are characterized by increased values of pH (7.86–9.27), in comparison with sediments of other sections of continental outskirts of Black Sea (7.55 – 8.4 at the Crimean shelf, 7.14 – 8.7 at the South-Eastern continental slope), i.e. are more alkaline. For all that, anomalous values of pH do not depend on the composition of sediments and coincide with the shelf zone and leveled parts of continental slope. It is established that the anomalous pH values of bottom sediments, according to published data, can be tied with the flows of carbohydrate fluids, ascending from industrial deposits. These fluids are oxidized at the interaction with oxygen of the seawater bicarbonate and also with methane-oxidizing bacteria. Therefore, the established by us spatial coincidence of areas of anomalously increased pH indices of bottom sediments of Gudauta uplift with areas of development of potentially oil- and gas-bearing geological structures, revealed earlier by seismic data, is connected with possible existence of carbohydrate deposits in them.
1. Matishov G.G., Matishov D.G., Berdnikov S.V. et al., The risks of geological survey and oil-and-gas production projects realization in conditions of hydrogen-sulphidous zone of the Black Sea (In Russ.), Vestnik Yuzhnogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2011, V. 7, no. 1, pp. 59–63.
2. Timofeev V.A., Timofeev A.A., Parada S.G., The theoretical premises of oil and gas capacity of Cis-Caucasian Paleozoic complexes (In Russ.), Vestnik Yuzhnogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2009, V. 5, no. 4, pp. 50–61.
3. Matishov G.G., Parada S.G., Davydenko D.B., The technologies of forecasting carbohydrate fields and mineral deposits of the future Russia (on example of the Southern Region) (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika yuga Rossii, 2011, no. 1, pp. 20–31.
4. Davydenko D.B., Davydenko E.D., Isaev V.S. et al., An attempt of detection and study of the zones of endogenous fluidization with the set of remote and gas-geochemical methods (In Russ.), Vestnik Yuzhnogo nauchnogo tsentra, 2014, V. 10, no. 1, pp. 25–34.
5. Parada S.G., Kholod Yu.V., Shishkalov I.Yu., Geochemistry of secondary dispersion halos of the Malka-Musht ore deposit block (the Northern Caucasus) (In Russ.), Nauka Yuga Rossii, 2011, V. 7, no. 3, pp. 55–60.
6. Parada S.G., Alekseenko V.S., Vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya velichiny rN donnykh osadkov dlya otsenki neftegazonosnosti shel'fa Chernogo morya (Possibilities of using the pH value of bottom sediments to assess the oil and gas potential of the Black Sea shelf), Collected papers “Okruzhayushchaya sreda i chelovek. Sovremennye problemy genetiki, selektsii i biotekhnologii” (Environment and people. Modern problems of genetics, selection and biotechnology), Proceedings of International scientific conference and youth scientific conference in memory of the corresponding member of the RAS D.G. Matishov, Rostov-na-Donu, 2016, pp. 221–223.
7. Serebrennikova O.V., Geokhimicheskie metody pri poiske i razvedke mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Geochemical methods in the search and exploration of oil and gas fields), Khanty-Mansiysk: Publ. of YuSU, 2008, 172 p.
8. Kondratov L.S., Fokina L.M., New opportunities for searching oil and gas fields by adsorbed form of gas of rocks and bottom deposits of water areas (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki, 2010, no. 2(5), pp. 124–134.
9. Lein A.Yu., Bogdanova O.Yu., Bogdanov Yu.A., Magazina L.O., Mineralogical and geochemical features of authigenic carbonates on seepings and hydrothermal fields (By the examples of the Black Sea reefs and the mounds of the lost city field) (In Russ.), Okeanologiya, 2007, V. 47, no. 4, pp. 577–593.
10. Afanasenkov A.P., Nikishin A.M., Obukhov A.N., Geologicheskoe stroenie i uglevodorodnyy potentsial Vostochno-Chernomorskogo regiona (Geological structure and hydrocarbon potential of the East Black Sea region), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007, 172 p.
11. Geologiya SSSR (Geology of the USSR), Part Kh, Moscow, 1964, 656 p.
12. Esina L.A., Khvoroshch A.B., Structural plan and prospective petroleum potential of the Jurassic sediments of the Gudauty Rise in the Black Sea (In Russ.), Okeanologiya, 2014, V. 54, no. 1, pp. 89–96.
13. Kiryukhina L.N., Gubasaryan L.A., Biogeochemical characters of Crimean shelf’s bottom sediments from the Black Sea (In Russ.), Ekologiya morya, 2000, V. 50, pp. 18–21.14. URL: http://www.chernomorneftegazcompany.com/reports/EcologicalStudiesSouth WestBlackSeaArea.
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Previously published studies revealed diapirs in the American Chukchi Sea sedimentary cover. Similar diapirs were identified within the rifted margin in the Russian Chukchi Sea during exploration activity of the Rosneft Oil Company across the “Severo-Vrangelevsky-1” license block. Several stratigraphic intervals of the growth strata adjacent to the diapirs and normal faults converging to diapirs were observed on seismic. Density modeling reveals that diapirs require low densities. The Wrangel Island field studies encounter outcropping in-situ Lower Carboniferous gypsum rocks serving as an important argument to the diapirs’ evaporitic composition. The Sverdrup basin containing known Carboniferous evaporates is the paleogeographically closest basin to the modern Chukchi Sea. Numerous oil and gas discoveries in the Sverdrup basin are associated with salt diapirs underline the need for detailed examination of the Chukchi Sea salt tectonics and related plays. The sub-salt, lateral and supra-salt plays were distinguished. The lateral play may be the most promising as it likely contains numerous carbonate and terrigenous reservoirs and source rocks intervals in a wide stratigraphic range, analogues to prolific hydrocarbon-bearing strata in the Alaska North Slope basins. Results of the current study reveal new plays, contribute toward resources growth and decrease risks in the frontier region exploration held by the Rosneft Oil Company.
1. Harrison J.C., St-Onge M.R., O.V. Petrov et al., Geological map of the Arctic, Geological Survey of Canada, 2011.
2. Grantz A.M., Holmes M.L., Kososki B.A., Geological framework of the Alaskan continental terrace in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Canada's continental margins and offshore petroleum exploration, Canadien Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 4, 1975, pp. 669–700.
3. Thurston D.K., Lathamer R.T., Seismic evidence of evaporite diapirs in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, Geology, 1991, V. 19, pp. 477–480.
4. Sokolov S.D., Tuchkova M.I., Moiseeva A.V. et al., Tectonic zoning of Wrangel Island, Arctic region (In Russ.), Geotektonika = Geotectonics, 2017, no. 1, pp. 3–18.
5. Jakobsson M., Cherkis N.Z., Woodward J. et al., A new grid of Arctic bathynmetry: a significant resource for scientists and mapmakers, EOS Transactions AGU, 2000, 89 p.
6. Tuchkova M.I., Sokolov S.D., Isakova T.N. et al., Carboniferous carbonate rocks of the Chukotka fold belt: Tectnostratigraphy, depositional environments and paleogeography, Journal of Geodynamics, 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.jog.2018.05.006.
7. Malyshev N.A., Obmetko V.V., Borodulin A.A., Hydrocarbon potential of the Eastern Arctic sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2010, no. 1, pp. 20–28.
8. Nikishin A.M., Malyshev N.A., Petrov E.I., Geological structure and history of the Arctic Ocean, EAGE Publications bv, 2014, 88 ð.
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10. Golionko B.G., Vatrushkina E.V., Verzhbitskiy V.E. et al., Deformations and Structural Evolution of Mesozoic Complexes in Western Chukotka (In Russ.), Geotektonika = Geotectonics, 2018, no. 1, pp. 63–78.
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550.832 : 551.31
The target object of the research is the industrial oil and gas interval of the second Verkhnechonsky horizon of the Lower Nepa sub-suite of the Nepa suite. The results of the work are presented in order to demonstrate the diversity of the material composition and forms of manifestation of evaporites in the section of the Vendian terrigenous sediments of the Nepa arch of Eastern Siberia. First of all, evaporites are understood to mean chemogenic formations, groups of sulphates and chlorides, commonly manifested at different levels of the productive horizon. Of course, processes of secondary rock transformation play a significant role in the formation of these deposits. However, it seems that evaporite strata could also have been formed in Vendian time. This is indicated by the results of a complex of laboratory studies of cores of a number of wells in the study area. First, anhydrite-dolomitic seams, relatively matured in thickness, were recorded, lying above the basal layer. From the average 25-m thickness of the target horizon at the site, the thickness of the layer of high content of anhydrite and dolomite can reach 5 m. Secondly, the observed vertical sequence of evaporites is compared with mineral associations of lagoon origin in arid climate conditions. Thirdly, the group of chlorides, halite and sylvite, is found both in association with sulphates and locally along the section. Relatively high content is observed in the near-gravel, and in the covering of fine-medium-grained sandstones. The variety of salts represented suggests various formation models.
1. Konoval'tseva E.S., Usloviya formirovaniya i zakonomernosti rasprostraneniya porod-kollektorov nizhnevendskikh neftegazonosnykh otlozheniy tsentral'noy chasti nepsko-botuobinskoy anteklizy (Formation conditions and distribution patterns of reservoir rocks of the Lower Vendian oil and gas deposits in the central part of the Nepa-Botuobinsky anteclise): candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2014, 158 ð.2. Kuznetsov V.G., Litologiya. Osadochnye gornye porody i ikh izuchenie (Lithology. Sedimentary rocks and their study), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 511 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The state and problems of hydrocarbon resource development in salinized reservoirs of the Pripyat Trough and the south of the Siberian Platform are considered. The role of hydrochemical monitoring to determine the nature of the water taken along with it, to assess the proportion of injected water in the associated brines, is shown by the development of the intersalt deposit within Ostashkovichskoye oilfield; for determining the direction and speed of filtration flows within the reservoir, as well as the allocation of areas most cleaned from halite. Using proprietary methods and programs based on interpretation of data on the composition and densities of injected and simultaneously recoverable water, a quantitative assessment of the desalination process and its effect on the filtration and capacity properties of rocks is carried out. The balance of sodium chloride in the produced, injected and produced water was calculated for the entire period of development of the watered production wells of the Ostashkovichskoye oilfield. During the development 1.6 million m3 were removed from the intersalt deposit during the operation of more than one hundred wells. In the injection water remaining in the deposit up to 7 mln m3 of halite was dissolved. As a result, a new system of filtration channels was formed that influenced the change in the spatial structure of filtration flows. The change in porosity reaches 1.5–2 %, the filtration flow rates increased by an order of magnitude and amounted to 5–47 m/day. Only taking into account the influence of the process of desalination of the rocks on the change in their reservoir properties and on the OWC allowed reproducing the history of the operation of production wells on the geological and hydrodynamic model of the Ostashkovichskoye oilfield.
The methods and technologies of creating geological and hydrodynamic models and hydrochemical methods for monitoring the development of oil deposits in salinized reservoirs proposed by the authors and tested at Belarusian fields can be successfully applied to similar Russian fields.
1. Poroshin V.D., Ionno-solevoy sostav vod evaporitsoderzhashchikh osadochnykh basseynov v svyazi s poiskami, razvedkoy i razrabotkoy neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Ion-salt composition of evaporite-containing sedimentary basins in connection with the search, exploration and development of oil and gas fields): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 1997.
2. Grigor'ev B.A., Ryzhov E.A., Orlov D.M. et al., Peculiar features of the filtration flow through nonstationary dispersed media presented by salinated clastic reservoir rocks (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki, 2014, no. 2, pp. 90–97.
3. Grinchenko V.A., Vinogradov I.A., Timchuk A.S., Gordeev Ya.I., Numerical studies of dissolution processes in waterflooding of salty clastic reservoirs with fresh water (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 8, pp. 85–89.
4. Polyakov E.E., Ryzhov E.A., Ivchenko A.V. et al., Scientific tasks solved at calculating hydrocarbon reserves of Chayanda oil-gascondensate field (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki, 2017, no. 3 (31), pp. 172–186.
5. Savchenko S.I., Sabanchin I.V., Afrakov A.N. et al., Petrophysical justification for the interpretation of well log data for the Danilovskoye field (In Russ.), Gornye vedomosti, 2013, no. 6, pp. 36–49.
6. Cheremisin A.N., Gorlanov A.A., Romanova D.D. et al., Mapping of scaling zones, influence of a productive reservoir dissolution on the development of Yaraktinsky oil-gas-condensate deposit (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 12, pp. 66–72.
7. Chirgun A., Livanov A., Gordeev Ya. et al., A case study of the Verkhnechonskoye field: Theory and practice of Eastern Siberia complex reservoirs development (In Russ.), SPE-189301-RU, 2017.
8. Shchetinina N.V., Gil'manov Ya.I., Anur'ev D.A., Busuek E.S., History of petrophysical model evolution, Verkhnechonsky horizon (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2015, no. 3, pp. 30–38.
9. Mukhidinov Sh.V., Vorob'ev V.S., Methodical features of petrophysical study salinization clastic rocks of oil and gas fields Chong Group (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2017, no. 1, pp. 32–37.
10. Zhoglo V.G., Grimus S.I., Geologo-gidrodinamicheskie usloviya razrabotki zalezhey nefti v zasolonennykh karbonatnykh kollektorakh (na primere Zolotukhinskogo i Ostashkovichskogo mestorozhdeniya Pripyatskogo progiba (Geological and hydrodynamic conditions for the development of oil deposits in salted carbonate reservoirs (on the example of the Zolotukhinsky and Ostashkovichsky deposits of the Pripyat trough), Gomel': Publ. of Sukhoi State Technical University of Gomel, 2017, 170 p.
11. Poroshin V.D., Mulyak V.V., Metody obrabotki i interpretatsii gidrokhimicheskikh dannykh pri kontrole razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Methods of processing and interpretation of hydrochemical data in monitoring of oil field development), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2004, 220 p.
12. Povzhik P.P., Poroshin V.D., Zhoglo V.G., Budnik N.I., The problems of development of oil deposits in saline collectors (on the example of Pripyat Trough and Siberian Platform) (In Russ.), Litasfera, 2018, no. 1 (48), pp. 3–14.
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Current development trends of Russian oil industry are characterized by an increase in share of hard-to-recover reserves and the late stage of development of most existing fields. Solving the problem of maintaining oil production levels requires the search for effective and profitable technologies for enhancing oil recovery. One of the cheapest to implement technology related to hydrodynamic methods of enhanced oil recovery is cyclic waterflooding. Analysis of practical application results shows that cyclic waterflooding technology allows to increase oil production over the billing period by 3-6% compared with permanent waterflooding.
To date, a large number of theoretical and laboratory studies have been carried out aimed at determining applicability and planning technology use in field conditions. However, in modern conditions of large-scale hydrodynamic modeling of oilfield development processes as a way to develop recommendations for targeted impact on production facilities (formations, deposits and their sections), cyclic waterflooding modeling is unsystematic: approaches to selecting promising regions for applying the technology and substantiation of well operation modes have not been formalized. The earlier article provides an algorithm for constructing a map of the applicability of cyclic waterflooding, which shows promising objects and areas for implementing the technology, as well as wells for switching to a cyclic mode of operation. This article provides an algorithm to justify half-cycle duration of injection wells taking into account specific geological and physical characteristics of reservoir and field-technological features of wells operation.
1. Surguchev M.L., Cyclic (pulsed) impact on the reservoir as a method of increasing oil recovery during flooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1965, no. 3, pp. 52–57.
2. Surguchev M.L., Tsynkova O.E., Sharbatova I.N. et al., Tsiklicheskoe zavodnenie neftyanykh plastov (Cyclical flooding of oil reservoirs), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1977, 65 ð.
3. Sharbatova I.N., Surguchev M.L., Tsiklicheskoye vozdeystviye na neodnorodnyye neftyanyye plasty (Cyclical effects on heterogeneous oil layers), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 121 p.
4. Chertenkov M.V., Chuyko A.I., Aubakirov A.R., Pyatibratov P.V., Zones and regions selecting for cyclic waterflooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 60–64.
5. Pyatibratov P.V., Gidrodinamicheskoe modelirovanie razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Hydrodynamic modeling of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin State University, 2015, 167 p.
6. Buzinov S.N., Umrikhin I.D., Issledovanie neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin i plastov (The study of oil and gas wells and reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 269 p.7. Vasilevskiy V.N., Petrov A.I., Issledovaniya neftyanykh plastov i skvazhin (Researches of oil reservoirs and wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1973, 344 p.
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For effective monitoring of oil production wells and operational monitoring of field development, it is necessary to constantly receive and update information on the parameters of the reservoir and wells. One of the sources of such information is the results of interpretation and analysis of well tests. To obtain and process well dynamic data in real time at the pilot site in the framework of Digital Field project of Bashneft PJSOC, all production wells with an electric centrifugal pump were equipped with a thermomanometers.
Nowadays, the authors of the present work have developed a functional module «Online well test», which is part of the corporate high-tech software line, to automate buildup tests in real time. Since May 2019, the module «Online well test» has been brought into pilot production and is being tested on field data for mechanized wells. In real time, the automated system identifies shutdowns of production wells and processes well dynamic data. Then, on the basis of data analysis algorithms, the system gives the estimated duration of well test, planned oil losses, as well as recommendations on expediency and inexpediency of well test conducting with the indicating the reasons. Based on the received information, the user of the module «Online well test» makes a decision on the feasibility of well test conducting at a stopped well. After the well test is completed, the field data is automatically loaded into the «RN-KIN» system for the final interpretation.
The implemented tool allows you to optimize and/or expand the annual program of well tests by including unplanned controlled shutdowns of the wells with expediency, and to increase the number and coverage of well tests. Automatic search for unplanned technological shutdowns of mechanized wells can reduce losses in oil production due to well test conducting in these wells. Real-time notifications for expediency of well test conducting allow you to quickly make management decisions for wells with technological stops, while users of the module «Online well test» do not require knowledge of the theory and interpretation skills of well tests. This allows you to make reasonable decisions in the shortest possible time in real time.
1. Afanas'ev I.S., Sergeychev A.V., Asmandiyarov R.N. et al., Automatic well test data processing: a time series wavelet analysis approach (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 34–37.
2. Liu Y., Interpreting pressure and flow rate data from permanent downhole gauges using data mining approaches: Dissertation for the degree of doctor of philosophy, 2013, 243 p.
3. Grigor'ev I.M., Effektivnye algoritmy dlya avtomatizatsii analiza i interpretatsii gidrodinamicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Effective algorithms for automating the analysis and interpretation of well tests): thesis of candidate of technical science, Izhevsk, 2014.
4. Rochev A.N., Povyshenie informativnosti gidrodinamicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Improving the informativeness of hydrodynamic studies of wells): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ukhta, 2004.
5. Chuan T., Machine learning approaches for permanent downhole gauge data interpretation: Dissertation for the degree of doctor of philosophy, 2018.
6. Athichanagorn S., Home R.N., Automatic parameter estimation from well test data using artificial neural network, SPE-30556-MS, 1995.
7. Kotezhekov V., Margarit A., Pustovskikh A., Sitnikov A., Development of automatic system for decline analysis (In Russ.), SPE-187755-RU, 2017.
8. Abbaszadeh M., Kamal M.M., Automatic type-curve matching for well test analysis, SPE-16443-PA, 1988.
9. Pashali A.A., Aleksandrov M.A., Kliment'ev A.G. et al., Automatization of collecting and preparation of telemetry data for well testing using ''virtual flowmeter'' (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 60–63.
10. Morozovskiy N., Mel'nikov S., Krichevskiy V., Feoktistov R., Pressure depletion optimization and increase of oil production by well test and decline analysis (In Russ.), SPE-176565-RU, 2015.
11. Ishkin D.Z., Nuriev R.I., Davletbaev A.Ya. et al., Decline-analysis/short build-up welltest analysis of low permeability gas reservoir (In Russ.), SPE-181974-RU, 2016.12. Earlougher R.C. Jr., Advances in well test analysis, SPE Monograph Series, 1977, V. 5, 264 p.
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Waterflooding is considered as the secondary oil recovery method. This method allows recovering additional oil volumes after the primary production, and as such gradually spread-out to all oil-producing regions. Water injection process is to maintain the reservoir pressure, allowing prolonging the production life in comparison to the period without the reservoir pressure maintenance regime. Global experience of applying seawater for injection into formation shows, that its treatment includes filtration, oxygen removal, microbiological processing, treatment with corrosion and scaling inhibitors.
The article covers the methods of creating the reservoir pressure maintenance system at White Tiger field until 1995, as well as technical specifications for equipment and chemicals required to perform seawater treatment and injection into formation. The performed test on determining the suspended particles and hydrocarbons in seawater within its sampling area proved that the seawater in such area has little to no suspended particles and oil-products, and can be applied without additional treatment. The first experience of injecting seawater at White Tiger field showed that electric submersible pumps (ESP) possess the best efficiency and produceability. However, the applied typical sizes of those pumps in no corrosion-resistant version did not provide for the designed parameters of injection and running time. The pilot water injection at White Tiger field confirmed the absence of water inflow in the neighbouring wells and reduction of pressure drop around the injection well.
1. Tekhnologicheskaya skhema razrabotki i obustroystva mestorozhdeniya nefti i gaza “Belyy Tigr”: Otchet NIPImorneftegaz SP “V'etsovpetro” (Technological scheme for the development and of the White Tiger oil and gas field: Report of NIPimorneftegaz Vietsovpetro JV), Vungtau, 1993, V. 2, 140 p.
2. Ngia T.T., Veliev M.M., Le V'et Khay, Ivanov A.N., Razrabotka shel'fovykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy SP “V'etsovpetro” (Development of offshore oil fields of Vietsovpetro JV), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2017, 386 p.
3. Razrabotka tekhnologicheskogo reglamenta khimicheskoy obrabotki vody dlya sistemy podderzhaniya plastovogo davleniya na mestorozhdenii Belyy Tigr (Development of technological regulations for chemical treatment of water for a system for maintaining reservoir pressure at the White Tiger field), Ufa, 1993, 102 p.
4. Willhite G.P., Waterflooding, Richardson, TX: SPE, 1986, 326 p.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
The article considers the urgent issue of predicting the process of salt deposits formation during the operation of electric submersible equipment in wells. The physicochemical properties of produced waters of high-temperature deposits in the Oktyabrsky district of the Krasnoleninsky arch are given. The process of calcite precipitation is described when the thermobaric equilibrium in the formation fluid changes. In the formation waters of igneous rock the presence of ferrous ions was detected, which contributes to the formation of iron carbonate deposits. At present, predicting the iron carbonate precipitation in wells with an isothermal anomaly is difficult because of the heterogeneous structure of volcanic rocks and requires additional research.
To assess the risk of calcium carbonate precipitation by the value of the saturation index, we adapted the Oddo – Thomson’s method in r to the conditions of deposits of the Krasnoleninsky arch. In the Oddo – Thomson’s method reservoir temperature is used for calculating the saturation index. We propose to use temperature of pump. When operating wells with a high content of free gas at suction of a pump, the rate of heat generation increases, while the cooling rate of the pump decreases. This is leads to pump overheating. Increasing the temperature of the pump in this case significantly affects the process of salt formation. We made comparative analysis of the results of prediction of the salt deposits formation before and after adaptation of Oddo – Thomson’s method to the conditions of the deposits of the Oktyabrsky region. It is shown that the adaptation of the method allows more accurately determine the levels of danger of salt deposition depending on the saturation index.
1. Kashchavtsev V.E., Mishchenko I.T., Soleobrazovanie pri dobyche nefti (Salt formation in oil production), Moscow: Orbita-M Publ., 2004, 432 p.
2. Oddo J.E., Tomson M.B., Scale control, prediction and treatment or how companies evaluate a scaling problem and what they do wrong, CORROSION'92, Houston, TX: NACE International, 1992, paper no. 34.3. Gareev A.A., On the temperature regime and the thermal shock phenomenon in an electric centrifugal pump (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 3, pp. 122–126.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The transition to the late stages of development at a significant number of large oil fields, as well as the need to develop hard-to-recover reserves, made necessitate the search for the optimal method of oil production. At the same time, despite the large number of works in this direction, the problems of the scientific and methodological substantiation for the choice of the optimal method of artificial lift remain relevant. Earlier, the author proposed criteria for assessing the operating efficiency of downhole pumping equipment and the success criteria for the application of new methods of artificial lift, as well as regression equations for determining the ranges of inefficient operation of sucker rod pump (SRP) units and electric submersible pump (ESP) units. At the same time, the classification of statistical data was made with assumptions about the independence and homogeneity of samples for the ranges of operating parameters. As a result of the conducted research, these assumptions were confirmed, as well as the stability of statistical conclusions when changing the boundaries of the ranges of operational parameters of downhole pumping equipment.
It has been established that for lowering depths of more than 1500 m low failure times, and the low values of flow coefficient for pumping rate is under 20 m3/day for the considered oil company are characteristic. These ranges correspond to the suboptimal range of operating parameters SRP and ESP. The combination of the optimal ranges method, taking into account economic efficiency, and statistical methods will allow to improve the existing methods of analysis of field data for their implementation in software products of monitoring and management of the wells.
The following statistical methods were used in the research: exploratory data analysis, Student test, Mann – Whitney test, single-factor analysis of variance, multiple linear regression analysis, generalized regression models, Kendall rank correlation, Spearman rank correlation, gamma rank correlation, permutation test.
1. Medvedev A.V., Povyshenie bezopasnosti i nadezhnosti ekspluatatsii oborudovaniya neftedobychi (Improving the safety and reliability of oil production equipment): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ufa, 2009.
2. Slepchenko S.D., Otsenka nadezhnosti UETsN i ikh otdel'nykh uzlov po rezul'tatam promyslovoy ekspluatatsii (Evaluation of the ESP reliability and their individual nodes according to the exploitation results of oil fields): thesis of candidate of technical science, Perm', 2011.
3. Mel'nichenko V.E., Otsenka vliyaniya osnovnykh tekhnologicheskikh kharakteristik dobyvayushchikh skvazhin na resurs pogruzhnykh elektrotsentrobezhnykh nasosov (Assessment of the impact of the main technological characteristics of producing wells on the resource of submersible electric centrifugal pumps): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2017.
4. Kuchumov R.Ya., Uzbekov R.B., Optimizatsiya glubinnonasosnoy neftedobychi v usloviyakh Bashkirii (Optimization of bottomhole pumping in the conditions of Bashkiria), Ufa: Bashkirskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo Publ., 1986, 160 p.
5. Shakirov A.M., Kompleksnyy podkhod k vyboru ratsional'nogo sposoba mekhanizirovannoy dobychi na neftyanom mestorozhdenii pri neopredelennosti vkhodnykh dannykh (An integrated approach to the choice of a rational method of machine mining in oil field with uncertainty of input data): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2012.
6. Volkov M.G., Khalfin R.S., Topol'nikov A.S. et al., Approaches to justification of selection of the application field for new artificial lift method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 3, pp. 96–100.
7. Lemeshko B.Yu., Lemeshko S.B., Postovalov S.N., Chimitova E.V., Statisticheskiy analiz dannykh, modelirovanie i issledovanie veroyatnostnykh zakonomernostey. Komp'yuternyy podkhod (Statistical data analysis, modeling and investigation of probability laws. Computer approach), Novosibirsk: Publ. of NSTU, 2011, 888 p.
8. Trevor H., Tibshirani R., Friedman J., The elements of statistical learning. Data mining, inference, and prediction, New York: Springer, 2009, 764 p.
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This paper describes dependence of the energy consumption characteristics of the sucker-rod pump on the use of various asynchronous electric drive control technique. To analyze the profile of the power consumption of the pumping unit drive during the swing cycle, the simulation of system components was used: the electric drive control in conjunction with the autonomous voltage inverter, the kinematics of the four-link pumping mechanism, and the polished rod load. When simulating the dynamic load on a polished rod, which determines the force at the suspension point of the rod string, the influence of the additional stress caused by wave processes in the rod string was taken into account, which was calculated according to the model proposed by A.S. Virnovsky. When calculating the torque on the pumping jack crank, the procedure for calculating the maximum torque of the rotary counterweight is proposed, this ensures equalization of the maximum torques when the plunger moves up and down. The developed complex model of the sucker-rod pumping unit together with the models of the electric drive control system and the induction motor drive allows the calculation of the energy efficiency of the installation under various operating conditions. In this case, the model of the electric drive control system can be used not only to analyze the efficiency of the control technique (scalar or vector), but also to test the control algorithms for the sucker-rod pumping unit prime mover electric drive. The main regularities in the consumption of active power were revealed depending on the control technique, as well as the possibility of optimizing the electric power consumption of the electric drive control system over the swing cycle. Methodological approaches to the solution of the control system synthesis problem that provide a significant increase in the energy efficiency of the pumping unit electric drive with frequency control common for all types of balanced pumping jacks are proposed.
1. Virnovskiy A.S., Teoriya i praktika glubinnonasosnoy dobychi nefti (Theory and practice of bottomhole pumping), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971, 184 p.
2. Tarasov V.I., Kaverin M.N., Yakimov S.B., Comparison of energy consumption for various mechanized production methods for a number of enterprises of Rosneft (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2014, no. 3, pp. 5–11.
3. Takacs G., Sucker rod pumping manual, PennWell Corp., 2003, 395 r.
4. Galimov P.C., Khamitov P.A., Takhautdinov R.Sh. et al., Automated selection management of mechanized oil and gas production wells (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsii v promyshlennosti, 2004, no. 3, pp. 3–7.
5. Patent no. US6414455B1, System and method for variable drive pump control, Inventor: Watson A.J.
6. Solodkiy E.M., Dadenkov D.A., Kazantsev V.P., Sensorless energy-efficient control system of the sucker-rod pump, Proceedings of X International Conference on Electrical Power Drive Systems (ICEPDS 2018), Russia, Novocherkassk, 3–6 October 2018, New York: IEEE Publ., 2018.
7. Gibbs S.G., Rod pumping. Modern methods of design, diagnosis and surveillance, Ashland, OH: BookMasters Inc., 2012, 682 p.
8. Solodkiy E.M., Dadenkov D.A., Modelling of voltage source inverter based on IGBT using space vector Pulse-width modulation technique (In Russ.), Informatsionno-izmeritel'nye i upravlyayushchie sistemy, 2014, V. 12, no. 9, pp. 45–51.
9. Virnovskiy A.S., Gutenmakher L.I., Korol'kov N.V., Electrical simulation of a deep pump installation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1951, no. 11, pp. 30–34.
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The article presents the results of experimental study of the influence of operating fluid pressure on the ejector characteristics for subsequent use in perfecting the technique of selecting the most suitable flow part of a jet apparatus during well operation with electrical submersible pump unit (ESP) units and pumping gas from the annulus to the tubing. The characteristics of the jet apparatus were studied on an experimental stand, on the basis of which pressure distribution curves were constructed along the length of the flowing part (mixing chamber and diffuser) of a liquid-gas ejector at various pressures of the working fluid in front of the nozzle. The dependences of the relative dimensionless pressure drop and the efficiency of the ejector on the pressure of the working fluid in front of the nozzle to assess the efficiency of the ejector at various operating pressures were also represented. The dependence of the optimal operating mode of a liquid-gas ejector on the magnitude of the working pressure is revealed. In the experiments, the pressure distribution curves along the length of the ejector were measured and the characteristics of the jet apparatus were obtained when gas was evacuated by a liquid jet with accuracy suitable for practical purposes. It is shown that with a decrease in the working pressure, the character of the pressure distribution along the length of the ejector dramatically changes. The provision is added that the most optimal mode for a liquid-gas ejector is the mode in which the process of mixing flows is completed directly in front of the diffuser - the optimal mode also depends on the magnitude of the working pressure. The results of experimental studies expand the possibilities of optimizing the flow part of ejectors for use in various pump and ejector technologies for SWAG in order to utilize associated petroleum gas and increase oil recovery. Based on the results of experimental studies presented in the article, the most suitable for the characteristics of the flow part of the ejector can be selected, including the length of its mixing chamber during operation with ESP units and pumping gas from the annulus into the tubing.
1. Fleshman R., Lekic O.H., Artificial lift for high-volume production, Oilfield Review, 2000, V. 12, no. 1, pp. 49–63.
2. Carvalho P.M., Podio A.L., Sepehrnoori K., An electrical submersible jet pump for gassy oil well, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1999, V. 51, no. 5, pp. 34–36.
3. Mishchenko I.T., Gumerskiy Kh.Kh., Mar'enko V.P., Struynye nasosy dlya dobychi nefti (Jet pumps for oil production), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 1996, 150 p.
4. Drozdov A.N., Influence of free gas on submerged pumps characteristics (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 1, pp. 68–70.
5. Lyamaev B.F., Gidrostruynye nasosy i ustanovki (Hydrojet pumps and units), Leningrad, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1988, 256 p.
6. Drozdov A.N., Rational using of pump-ejector systems may eliminate many disadvantages adherent to blade and stream pumps (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2012, no. 3, pp. 26–28.
7. Drozdov A.N., Wells operation technologies with immersible pumps at low bottom-hole pressures (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 6, pp. 86–89.
8. Drozdov A.N., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Technology and engineering of oil production using submersible pumps under complicated conditions), Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2008, 312 p.
9. Topol'nikov A.S., Urazakov K.R., Vakhitova R.I., Saracheva D.A., The method of calculation of parameters of jet pump attached to joint operation with submersible electric pump (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 3, pp. 134–146.
10. Saracheva D.A., Sovershenstvovanie elektrotsentrobezhnykh nasosnykh ustanovok dlya skvazhin, oslozhnennykh vysokim gazovym faktorom (Improving electric centrifugal pumping units for wells complicated by high gas factor): thesis of candidate of technical, Ufa, 2016.
11. Urazakov K.R., Mukhin I.A., Vakhitova R.I., Modeling the characteristics of jet pump (In Russ.), Elektrotekhnicheskie i informatsionnye kompleksy i sistemy, 2015, V. 11, no. 4, pp. 41–50.
12. Sokolov E.Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Jet devices), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.
13. Tsegel'skiy V.G., Dvukhfaznye struynye apparaty (Two-phase jet devices), Moscow: Publ. of Moscow State Technical Bauman University, 2003, 408 p.
14. Spiridonov E.K., Constructions of liquid-gas jet pumps. State and prospects (In Russ.), Vestnik YuUrGU, 2005, no. 1, pp. 94–104.
15. Kuz'michev N.D., Short-term operation of wells and prospects for the development of oil-producing equipment (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2005, no. 6, pp. 22–36.
16. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Laboratory researches of the heavy oil displacement from the Russkoye field’s core models at the SWAG injection and development of technological schemes of pump-ejecting systems for the water-gas mixtures delivering, SPE-157819-MS, 2012.
17. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Bunkin N.F., Kozlov V.A., Study of suppression of gas bubbles coalescence in the liquid for use in technologies of oil production and associated gas utilization, SPE-187741-MS, 2017.
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The fundamental possibility of the joint operation of a ground-based jet pump under the conditions of a sinusoidal change in the working flow created by a sucker rod pump is considered. A mathematical model of the workflow of a ground-based jet metering pump with a power drive in the form of a borehole plunger pump is proposed based on the classical method of determining the operating point of a plant by jointly solving the equations of the characteristics of the pump and its hydraulic system. The methodology for determining the characteristics of the hydraulic system of a jet pump provides for the determination of pressures in characteristic sections of the ejection system with their subsequent presentation in relative form. Modeling the hydraulic connections of the ejection system made it possible to confirm the operability of the layout of the jet and plunger pumps and to establish the presence of special operating modes of the installation: boundary pressure mode corresponding to zero values of the ejection coefficient and the maximum value of the working flow of the jet pump; mode of maximum efficiency of the jet pump; cavitation mode of operation of the jet pump. The regularities of the relationship between the special points of the pressure characteristics of the jet pump and the characteristic angles of rotation of the crank of the ground rod pump drive are established. The diagrams of changes in the flow of the jet metering pump were obtained, the integration of which allows to determine the necessary concentration of the process fluid in the oil flow coming from the well.
The obtained results can be used in predicting the operation parameters of jet pumps in the surface and borehole design with a drive in the form of a sucker rod pump. The conducted studies are the theoretical justification for the use in a single layout of the positive qualities of hydro-jet and sucker-rod operation of oil wells.
1. Shkitsa L.E., Yatsyshyn T.M., Popov A.A., Artemchuk V.A., The development of mathematical tools for ecological safe of atmosphere on the drilling well area (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo=Oil industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 136–140.
2. Sazonov Ya.A., Yudin I.S., Marakaev T.Ya., Zayakin V.I., Development of jet metering pumps (In Russ.), Khimicheskoe i neftyanoe mashinostroenie= Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 1996, no. 2, pp. 66.
3. Polyakov A.V., Issledovanie i razrabotka ustroystv dlya podachi reagenta v truboprovod pri davlenii reagenta nizhe davleniya v truboprovode (Research and development of devices for supplying reagent to the pipeline at a reagent pressure below the pressure in the pipeline): thesis of candidate of technical science, Krasnodar, 2012.
4. Kryzhanivskyi Ye.I., Panevnyk D.O., The study of the flows kinematics in the jet pump’s mixing chamber (In Ukrainian), Naukovyi Visnyk NHU=Scientific bulletin of NMU, 2019, no. 1, pp. 62–68.
5. Syed M.P., Najam B., Sacha S., Surface jet pumps enhance production and processing, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 2014, V.66, no. 11, pp. 134–136.
6. Molchanova V.A., Topolnikov A.S., The study of the effectiveness of the device for pumping gas from the annulus (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo = Oilfield business, 2007, no. 10, pp. 34–40.
7. Eliseev V.N., Razrabotka i issledovanie zhidkostruynoy kompressornoy ustanovki s reguliruemym privodom (Development and research of a liquid-jet compressor unit with an adjustable drive): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1997.
8. Drozdov A.N., Investigations of the submersible pumps characteristics when gas-liquid mixtures delivering and application of the results for SWAG technologies development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 108–111.
9. Drozdov A.N., Stand investigations of ESP's and gas separator's characteristics on gas-liquid mixtures with different values of free-gas volume, intake pressure, foaminess and viscosity of liquid, SPE-134198-MS, 2010.
10. Drozdov A.N., Malyavko E.A., Alekseev Y.L., Shashel O.V., Stand research and analysis of liquid-gas jet-pump’s operation characteristics for oil and gas production, SPE-146638-MS, 2011.
11. Spiridonov V.K., Durasov A.A., Simulation of non-stationary ejection (In Russ.), Vestnik yuzhno ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta= Bulletin of the South Ural State University, 2009, no.11, pp. 28–36.
12. Panevnik A.V., Kontsur I.F.,Panevnik D.A., Determination of operating parameters of near-bit ejector assembly (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo=Oil industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 70–73.
13. Sokolov E. Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Inkjet devices), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.
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Energy consumption reducing in oil production is one of the key directions for increasing its efficiency. Improving and simplifying oil and gas gathering and transport systems plays an important role both to reduce costs and expenses, and to shorten the time of installation and commissioning of new oilfields. One-pipe (oil is piped to the central collection point in a gas-saturated condition) system for collecting multiphase production of wells is the most demanded in the oil industry. This system creates conditions for the centralization and rowing of oilfield facilities, excluding the use of compressor equipment, the construction of an additional infrastructure with separation facilities and gas pipelines, which, unlike traditional methods of collecting, reduces the production cost and the development of remote hard-to-reach oilfields with extended system of pipelines. The use of such a collection system allows to increase the level of oil production by lowering the pressure on the well head and increasing drawdown in the reservoir .In addition, the one-pipe collection system solves the problem of prohibiting the flaring of associated petroleum gas. Cavity and axial multiphase pumps are the most frequently used. However, the cavity pump can`t tolerate increased content of abrasive particles in oil, due to increasing rotor and stator wear, which reduces the flow rate and causes the pump to fail completely as a result of overheating of the elastomer, its melting and adherence to the rotor. So the multiphase axial pump is more sophisticated device for surface transfer of gas-liquid mixture. A pressure which is created by the multiphase axial pump will make it possible to work without compressors, burning flares, venting gas into the atmosphere, and separated commercial pipelines. The multiphase axial pump is able to create a pressure boost, pumping gas-liquid fluid over the surface to centralized oil and gas collection points, and also to work under low pressures at the pump inlet. These advantages make multiphase axial pump one of the best tools for oilfields exploitation with a large amount of associated gas. However, the currently existing designs of multiphase axial pumps which are capable to transport gas-liquid mixture with an input gas content of at least 90% can work only for flow rate above 3000 m3/day.
The main goal of this work is to select the design of a multiphase axial pump, which will pump the gas-liquid mixture with β in at least 90 % at flow rates of less than 3000 m3/day, and ensure reliable operation of the pump within 2 years. Achieving the set goal will solve the problem of irrational use of associated petroleum gas, as well as resume the operation of depleting and remote wells by developing more sophisticated equipment.
1. Patent no. 2531090 RF, Method to test gas separators on gas-liquid mixtures and method for its realisation, Inventors: Ostrovskiy V.G., Perel'man M.O., Peshcherenko S.N.
2. Patent no. 2428588 RF, Submerged multi-phase pump, Inventors: Peshcherenko M.P., Peshcherenko S.N., Kobyakov A.E. et al.
3. Drozdov A.N., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Technology and engineering of oil production using submersible pumps under complicated conditions), Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2008, 312 p.
4. Peshcherenko M.P., Perel'man M.O., Peshcherenko S.N., Multiphase gas handler (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 136–139.
5. Peshcherenko M.P., Perel'man O.M., Rabinovich A.I., Kaplan A.L., Increase of ESP efficiency. multiphase pumps application (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 4, pp. 56–60.
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The formation of solid deposits of paraffin contained in oil on the inner surface of tubing is one of the adverse factors that significantly complicate the operation of oil wells. Existing methods of cleaning of pipes from paraffin deposits are considered. The scheme and design of the hydro-mechanical device used for cleaning inner surfaces of tubing from paraffin deposits have been developed. Laboratory and practical tests of the developed device are conducted. According to the test results, we can say that hydro-mechanical methods of purification from paraffin deposits are the one of most effective. Setting of drive allows to promote automation of cleaning of tubing, that is provided by absence of necessity of creation of axleloading on stem - from action of expense and pressure of liquid a device independently moves in the cavity of tubing. Also it should be noted that a drive promotes efficiency of process of destruction of paraffin due to creation of oscillation influence. Experimental laboratory researches of drive of cleansing device proved his capacity at the expense of liquid from 0,15 to 0,63 l/s. At the indicated range of expense of liquid the drive of cleansing device provides his steady vibromoving. It is set that high speed of vibromoving of cleansing device is arrived at the expense of liquid from 0,55 to 0,63 l/s. During realization of commercial tests of an experience construction of hydro-mechanical device a cleaning process took place in the automatic mode at the observance of the same values of parameters of temperature and pressure of festering of the heated water in cleansing device, that were set for standard technology of cleaning of tubing in oil and gas mining companies. The conducted laboratory and experimental experiments of the worked out device allow to recommend it for the use in field practice.
1. Ibragimov N.G., Povyshenie effektivnosti dobychi nefti na mestorozhdeniyakh Tatarstana (Improving the efficiency of oil production in the fields of Tatarstan), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2005, 316 p.
2. Zaripova L.M., Gabdrakhimov M.S., Minnivaleev A.N., Vasil'eva E.R., Vibratsionnye ustroystva dlya ochistki vnutrenney poverkhnosti neftepromyslovykh trub (Vibration device for cleaning the internal surface of oilfield pipes), Collected papers “Perspektivnye innovatsii v nauke, obrazovanii, proizvodstve i transporte” (Perspective innovations in science, education, production and transport 2013: collection of scientific works), 2013, V. 14, no. 4, pp. 30–37.
3. Utility patent no. 113181 RF, MPK V 08 V 9/055, Ustroystvo dlya ochistki vnutrenney poverkhnosti truboprovodov (Device for cleaning the internal surface of pipelines), Inventors: Gabdrakhimov M.S., Zaripova L.M., Davydov A.Yu., Minnivaleev A.N.
4. Minnivaleev A.N., Zaripova L.M., Sovershenstvovanie ochistki nasosno-kompressornykh trub (Improving cleaning of pump-compressor pipes), Proceedings of 39th all-Russian scientific-technical conference of young scientists, postgraduates and students, Pert 3, Ufa: USPTU, 2012, pp. 211–215.
5. Zaripova L.M., Razrabotka nizkochastotnogo gidrodinamicheskogo pul'satora dlya povysheniya effektivnosti ochistki ot asfal'tosmoloparafinovykh otlozheniy neftepromyslovykh truboprovodov (Development of a low-frequency hydrodynamic pulsator to improve the efficiency of purification from asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits of oilfield pipelines): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2009, 22 p.
6. Prozorova K.V., Loskutova Yu.V., Yudina N.V., Rikkonen S.V., Vibration method and integrating additives for removal of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2000, no. 5, pp. 13–16.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
Within preparation for introduction of Technical regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union of TR EEU 045/2017 on providing a mass fraction of hydrogen sulfide, marked - and ethylmercaptans in commodity oil no more than 20 and 40 mln-1 respectively assessment work and to admission to industrial use of converter of hydrogen sulfide for oil treatment facilities "Kiyengop", "Mishkino", “Gremikha” and "Elnikovskaya" is carried out to Udmurtneft JSC. It is described admitted to Rosneft Oil Company the step-by-step procedure of testing of oil-field chemical reagents — laboratory and experienced and trade tests. To achieve the maximum effect the dosing was carried out at a maximum temperature of a subject to preparation and time of processing of oil to a commercial node of delivery in the trunk pipeline. At laboratory tests time and temperature were selected according to real values of subjects to preparation. Address approach to the choice of optimum points for supply of hydrogen sulphide converter and control points for determination of content of hydrogen sulphid, ethyl-, and methylmercaptans in oil taking into account features of each object is shown. Tests results of confirmed a possibility to decrease a content of hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans in commodity oil lower than 20 mln for facilities of Udmurtneft JSC by means of use of converter of hydrogen sulphide; account coefficients of reagent are set. The direct dependence of a dosage of converter on hydrogen sulphide content is revealed; substantially the value of a dosage and account coefficient is influenced by contents methyl — and ethylmercaptans; so it is necessary to predict high dosages of reagents for nefty with their high content. The lack of a negative impact of the examinee of reagent on process of preparation of oil and directly on figures of merit of commodity oil is set. It is noted that, despite the aminoformaldehyde nature, the converter of hydrogen sulphide does not lead to increase ‘perceived’ chloride salts.
1. Ayuyan G.A., Pisarenko T.A., About corrosion of equipment for stabilization and secondary fractional distillation of petrols (In Russ.), Korroziya: materialy, zashchita, 2006, no. 10, pp. 17–21.
2. Shatalov A.N., Shipilov D.D., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Garifullin R.M. et al., Osobennosti tekhnologiy ochistki nefti ot serovodoroda na ob"ektakh NGDU “Elkhovneft'” (Features of technologies for cleaning oil from hydrogen sulfide at the facilities of Elkhovneft), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2011.
3. Shatalov A.N., Garifullin R.M., Shipilov D.D., Sakhabutdinov R.Z. et al., Opyt ispol'zovaniya khimicheskikh metodov ochistki nefti ot serovodoroda na ob"ektakh OAO “Tatneft'” (Experience in using chemical methods for hydrogen sulfide stripping on Tatneft’s facilities), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2009.
4. Shatalov A.N., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Shipilov D.D. et al., Issledovanie vliyaniya neytralizatorov serovodoroda na protsessy obezvozhivaniya i obessolivaniya nefti (Study of the effect of hydrogen sulfide neutralizers on oil dehydration and desalination processes), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2012.
5. Shipilov D.D., Shatalov A.N., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Garifullin R.M., Differentsirovannyy podkhod k resheniyu problemy ochistki nefti ot serovodoroda na ob"ektakh OAO “Tatneft'” (A differentiated approach to solving the problem of hydrogen sulfide stripping on Tatneft’s facilities), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2012.
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Ground-based laser scanning is a modern technology that allows you to obtain automatically information about the spatial position of a large number of points belonging to the surface of the object being shot. In the oil and gas industry, ground-based laser scanning has shown its high efficiency in the process of measuring the geometric parameters of reservoirs for storing oil and oil products. For the full use of this technology today a number of laser scanning techniques for tanks have been developed and indicated in the regulatory documentation of the Russian Federation. At the same time, these methods have some drawbacks that lead to problem situations when it is necessary to conduct laser scanning of tanks in difficult and / or cramped conditions, which are especially typical for tank parks of marine terminals. In addition, these methods do not allow a flexible search for the optimal layout of scanner stations in the presence of requirements for the error of the measurement results. To eliminate the disadvantages inherent in current methods, the authors developed a simple mathematical apparatus that allows to develop a layout of the scanner stations and determine the appropriate boundaries of the scanned sections of the tank surface within the presence of a significant number of structures that impede the direct visibility of the scanned surface of the tank, and when performing work in cramped conditions without the need for complex calculations. In addition mathematical apparatus makes possible to conduct a flexible search for the optimal layout of the scanner stations in the presence of specific requirements for the permissible measurement error during laser scanning of the tank and to determine the measurement error for the selected layout of the scanner stations.
1. GOST R 58622-2019. Magistral'nyy truboprovodnyy transport nefti i nefteproduktov. Metodika otsenki prochnosti, ustoychivosti i dolgovechnosti rezervuara vertikal'nogo stal'nogo (Trunk pipeline transport of oil and oK products. Methods of assessing the strength, stability and durability of vertical sleei tank), http://docs.cntd.ru/document/437243880
2. RD-23.020.00-KTN-017-15. Magistral'nyy truboprovodnyy transport nefti i nefteproduktov. Lazernoe skanirovanie rezervuarov. Obshchie polozheniya (The main pipeline transport of oil and oil products. Laser scanning of tanks. General Provisions).
3. Seredovich V.A., Komissarov A.V., Shirokova D.V., Nazemnoe lazernoe skanirovanie (Ground laser scanning), Novosibirsk: SSUGT Publ., 2009, 261 p.
4. Bol'shakov V.D., Markuze Yu.I., Praktikum po teorii matematicheskoy obrabotki geodezicheskikh izmereniy (Workshop on the theory of mathematical processing of geodetic measurements), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 345 p.
5. Gorban' N.N., Vasil'ev G.G., Sal'nikov A.P., Accounting actual geometric shape of the tank shell when evaluating its fatigue life (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 8, pp. 75–79.
6. Vasil'ev G.G., Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V. et al., Work performance on 3-d laser scanning of the vertical stock tank with pontoon (VSTP) 20000 (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 1 (17), pp. 54–59.
7. Vasil'ev G.G., Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V. et al., Analysis of the three-dimensional laser scanning application on the objects of JSC "Transneft" (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2015, no. 2 (18), pp. 48–55.
8. Vasil'ev G.G., Leonovich I.A., Sal'nikov A.P., Use of terrestrial laser scanning for assessment of tank aluminum roofs stress-strain state (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' truda v promyshlennosti, 2017, no. 10, pp. 11–17.
9. Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V., Bushnev D.A., An evaluation of additional criteria for assessing the condition of oil terminal tanks with the AIM of extending safe service life, Part 1, Pipeline science and technology, 2018, no. 3, pp. 233–235.
10. Katanov A.A., Likhovtsev M.V., Bushnev D.A., An evaluation of additional criteria for assessing the condition of oil terminal tanks with the AIM of extending safe service life, Part 2, Pipeline science and technology, 2018, no. 4, pp. 295–302.
11. Safety Guide "Recommendations for the technical diagnosis of welded vertical cylindrical tanks for oil and oil products", URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200133803
12. Sal'nikov A.P., Otsenka napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya rezervuarov po rezul'tatam nazemnogo lazernogo skanirovaniya (Estimation of stress-strain state of reservoirs based on the results of ground-based laser scanning): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2016.
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Digitalization is an important aspect of the development of contemporary society and production. The key aspect for its effective implementation is the understanding the difference between digitalization and automatization, main characteristics concerning digitalization and development trends that lead automatization to digitalization. Taking into account the systems theory, as well as the analytical and prognostic requirements for digitalization, we can conclude that it must necessarily include: single information space of a digitalized object; mathematical model of a digitalized object that allows to simulate fully the behavior of the object in various conditions; opportunity to manage the entire set of data about the object throughout their life cycle; opportunity of feed-forward control; advanced cooperation of all users of a digitalized object within a single information space.
Using the example of the RN-LAB information system in Rosneft Oil Company to automatization of laboratory research of core and reservoir fluids, we examined ways to transit the automatization of laboratory centers of oil and gas companies to their digitalization. Considering the distinctive properties of digitalization, its achievement should: expand the information space of the Laboratory center for the integration achievement of all the used information systems within a single data base; detail the mathematical model describing the business processes of the Laboratory center, to create an "electronic twin", providing advanced production management; ensure the continuous control of all the pooled data of the Laboratory center; widen the interaction of all the staff within the information space, minimizing the informational tensions and leading to an increase in the effectiveness of interaction and management decisions.
The experience of application of information system RN-LAB in Rosneft Oil Company can conclude that the direct effect concerning work reduction and acceleration of executive decision-making can reach 0.5-1.5% of total sum in a specific institute. Moreover the transit to a whole new level of digitalization in comparison to automatization opens new strategic science–based growth prospects.
1. Eksperty VShE: tsifrovizatsiya ekonomiki mozhet obespechit' 30 % rosta VVP Rossii k 2030 godu (HSE experts: digitalization of the economy can provide 30% of Russia's GDP growth by 2030), URL: http://tass.ru/ekonomika/5345987
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The article considers the possibility of applying time series analysis in the oil industry. A model of Seasonal Auto Regression Integrated Moving Average with external variables (SARIMAX) for medium-term forecasting (up to 1 year) of integrated oil production in oil fields is built. As a training sample, monthly data on oil production for 10 years of development of several fields of Rosneft PJSC have been studied; monthly data on the number of producing wells were used as an exogenous variable. As a result of the consistent application of the extended Dickey-Fuller test to the time series, the first order of integration of the random process was substantiated. The correctness of the inclusion of an exogenous variable in the model was confirmed by testing the hypothesis of the presence of co-integration between the variables of oil production and the number of producing wells. The analysis of the autocorrelation and private autocorrelation functions of the studied time series for oil production, as well as the selection of models based on the Akayke and Schwartz information criteria, made it possible to determine the best specification of the SARIMAX model. The obtained forecast values were checked against the actual values of oil production at the field. Based on the predicted and actual values, the model quality metrics have been calculated: the average approximation error (MAPE) was 0.78%. The application of the methodology for predicting oil production proposed in the article and the use of the accumulated volume of data in a structured form led to a qualitative forecast. This, in turn, will allow in the future making more informed business decisions, since a high-quality medium-term forecast allows you to save company resources.
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One of the main ways to improve production efficiency and product quality in oil refining is to improve the processes management, what is provided by using of automated systems of control and optimization. The article explores the global market of production optimization systems – global dynamic optimization systems and real-time optimization systems – as of mid-2019. The importance of the study is caused by challenges facing the economy and oil refining to perform a digital transformation, designed to improve economic efficiency. The goal of the study was to analyze the current market situation and clear opportunities of using such digital technologies in oil refining.
A detailed analysis of optimization systems is given; their differences and features are considered. The criteria for selecting the systems that can guide to implement such solutions at oil refineries are specified. Technical, methodological and economic criteria for selecting systems are presented. It is noted that real-time optimization systems are more applicable to control steady state processes which are more typical for petrochemical enterprises, while global dynamic optimization systems are worth to apply in highly dynamic processes at oil refineries, especially when optimizing the operation of plant chains. Conclusions are drawn about the need in initial studying of the economic feasibility of such systems for each enterprise. It is recommended to have approved methods for calculating the potential and actual effectiveness of automated optimization systems, as well as a tool for continuous efficiency monitoring of the optimization system while operating.
1. Rylov M.A. Informatsionnaya sistema kontrolya kachestva produktsii na ustanovke kataliticheskogo riforminga benzina (Information system for product quality control at a gasoline catalytic reforming unit): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2015, 352 ð.
2. Engell S., Feedback control for optimal process operation, J. Proc. Control, 2007, no. 17, pp. 203–219.
3. Aske E.M.B., Status on real-time optimization as seen both from an industrial and academic point of view, 2009, URL: https://folk.ntnu.no/skoge/publications/thesis/2009_aske/lecture/TrialLecture.pdf
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The paper discusses approaches and current results of Well Test Subsystem realization for the RN-KIN corporation software. The Subsystem facilities cover processes of well test planning, monitoring, analysis and interpretation. The paper presents and describes examples of performance for several modules of well test subsystem: “Well test schedule selection”, “Well test schedule approval”, “Monthly Well test program”, “Request for well test”, “Well test monitoring”, “Automated well test contractor workplace”, “Well test interpretation”. Some of annual well test planning and performing modules successfully completed commercial approbation in the fields of RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC, some of the other modules are being developed. The annual well test planning modules provide for consolidation of various specialists’ work in a common information space. For example, one can trace the current status of well test program forming both for a group of fields and for a single candidate well. The “Request for well test” module provides for automation of information selection for welltest design, duration calculation, costs, and work plan. The “Well test monitoring” module allows one to trace the current well testing status. When implemented, the “Automated well test contractor workplace” module provided for unification of procedures of pressure recalculation, data interpretation, results validation, estimation of possible reasons of interpretation quality decrease.
Implementation of the Well Test Subsystem into the RN-KIN software is aimed at maximal automation of well test business processes, reduction of labor costs for daily quality control of input data and preliminary interpretation, and increasing in well testing efficiency due to digitization of well test monitoring process.
1. Kostrigin I.V., Zagurenko T.G., Khatmullin I.F., History of the creation and deploying of software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2014, no. 2, pp. 4–7.
2. Nuriev R.I., Asmandiyarov R.N., Nazargalin E.R. et al., The strategy for planning the well grid of well logs for the fields of RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2012, no. 8, pp. 18–20.
3. Lee J., Rollins J., Spivey J., Pressure transient testing, Richardson, Texas: Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, 2003, 357 p.
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6. Yulmukhametov D.R., Yamalov I.R., Optimization of welltesting schedule for pressure mapping (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 98–101.
7. Khasanov M.M., Krasnov V.A., Pashali A.A, Habibullin R.A., The application of the unified technique of multiphase hydraulic calculations for monitoring and optimization of operating modes of wells in Rosneft NK OAO (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 9, pp. 48–52.
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|STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REGULATION|
According to the legislation of the Russian Federation in industrial safety, companies operating hazardous production facilities of oil pipeline transport have to ensure the safety of operated engineering devices and equipment. At the same time, technical regulations limit the range of equipment and materials that must be certified (have a declaration) to confirm the required safety level; the same technical regulations say that legal persons are entitled to implement voluntary conformity assessment systems for such equipment, appoint team members and introduce rules for carrying out such conformity assessments.
Following the above provisions, national oil and gas companies ensure quality control of equipment and materials requiring vendors to submit equipment certificates (declarations) and other permits obtained after mandatory conformity assessment procedures; moreover the companies actively use in-house systems of voluntary conformity assessment, set various corporate requirements to purchased equipment and to its producers. Oil and gas industry is committed to the idea of having a wide range of fair-trading, trusted counterparts able to ensure supplies of high-quality equipment. At that, equipment conformity assessment scope, rules and criteria may be substantially different across the oil and gas industry. Inconsistent requirements to equipment conformity assessment procedures (moreover, redundancy thereof) have a negative impact on business activity of the industry, both for equipment manufacturers and operators. In this regard, there is a need to establish harmonized approaches to conformity assessment of equipment, meeting the requirements of both oil and gas companies, and equipment manufacturers. Hence, it is important to define a set of certain vendor assessment and equipment quality control procedures. But it is equally important to create the best environment for operating equipment conformity assessment system, given the intrinsic specifics of oil pipeline transport activities. Such conformity assessment system will rely on the industry regulatory environment and will allow conducting the ongoing monitoring and accounting of equipment status, identifying gaps and assessing the expedience of measures taken to eliminate the cases of use of low-quality equipment at hazardous production facilities.
In this paper, the authors propose for consideration a mechanism for improving the effectiveness of equipment conformity assessment procedures matching them up with the quality management provisions and industry approaches derived from vast equipment quality control practice at oil pipeline transport facilities.
1. Aralov O.V., Industry conformity assessment system for equipment and materials used by OJSC Transneft (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 2(22), pp. 24–27.
2. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., V'yunov S.I., Rublev A.A., Automatic control of processes for products conformity assessment applied in Transneft (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, no. 8(4), pp. 426–435.
3. Miller G.A., The magical number of seven, plus or minus two, In: The psychology of communication: Seven essays, New York: Basic Books, 1967.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
The Tyan license area in Khanty-Mansiisk autonomous district – Yugra was the first object of Surgutneftegas PJSC business activity that attracted the attention of local community – indigenous peoples of the north, regional and municipal government. The early 1990th, the business activities of Surgutneftegas were denounced by the locals that were unsatisfied by the actions of the company on their territory. This negativism was formed by different ecological activists including some international companies wanted to get the rights for resource extraction in Middle Ob region, including the Tyanskoye oilfield. In following 3 years this oilfield was divided in three autonomous oilfields.
To get the rights on resources extraction Surgutneftegas implemented the new technologies of resources extraction. From the start of the project local community had right to participate in different technological object placing according to the ecological and economic interest. Moreover, the most innovative ecological and technical technologies were introduced, protective measures were performed.
The 25 year experience of Tyan license area exploitation showed the efficiency of the performed management. The ecological situation didn’t change and is stable. The local community continue to perform their activities as usual.
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2. Solodovnikov A.Yu., Ivachev I.V., Soromotin A.M., Khattu A.A., Ethnic-social and ecological-technological peculiarities of the Tjanskoye field development of the Surgutneftegaz OAO (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2002, no. 8, pp. 125–129.
3. Danilenko L.A., Vodnyy Kodeks Rossii i prirodnye usloviya Srednego Priob'ya (Water Code of Russia and the natural conditions of the Middle Ob), Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti v Sibiri i na Kraynem Severe” (Life safety in Siberia and the Far North), Tyumen, 2001, pp. 12–22.
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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