|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
The article presents methodical approach to form a strategy of human resources effective management for an oil company. We propose to choose a strategy according to the level of efficiency of human resource involvement and level of companyТs long-term stability.
The efficiency of human resources involvement is estimated based on integrated index. The article provides a description of six stages of integrated index calculation. We propose an equation to calculate integrated index as weighed mean of simple indexes with use of the procedure of standardization. Simple indexes are selected by the method of step-by-step regression.
We also propose using integrated index to estimate a level of a companyТs long-term stability. The following spheres of long-term stability are pointed: production and technology, market, finance and economy, investment. Within each sphere the system of simple indexes of long-term stability is formed and the direction of positive dynamics of indexes is shown. We offer a scoring model for calculating an oil companyТs long-term stability based on deviation of simple indexes from reference values.
The authors present grading scales to estimate a level of efficiency of human resources involvement and a level of an oil companyТs long-term stability. The choice of strategy of human resources effective management for an oil company is developed using strategy offered by M. Amstrong.
On the example of the Bashneft Company experimental approbation of the offered approach is carried out. The system of simple index of human resources involvement efficiency is created. The integrated index of efficiency of human resources involvement and integrated index of the CompanyТs long-term stability are calculated. By results of calculations the average efficiency of human resources involvement and the average level of long-term stability are established. The strategy focused on achievement of high rates of development is recommended to the Company.
1. Lopez M., Guerra O., Castro S., Development and implementation of an intellectual capital model from a balanced scorecard: Practical experience from ECOPETROL SA, Proceedings of the 8th international conference on intellectual capital, knowledge management and organizational learning, 2011, V. S1 and 2, pp. 859-872.
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3. Duzelbaeva G., Economic aspect of personnel management in oil & gas companies of Kazakhstan, Actual problems of economics, 2012, pp. 343Ц350.
4. Meaad R. Bushra, Samer Eid D., Nick B., Intellectual capital, knowledge management and social capital within the ICT sector in Jordan, Journal of intellectual capital, 2017, V. 18, pp. 437Ц462,
5. Johnsen S., Kilskar S., Fossum K., Missing focus on Human Factors - organizational and cognitive ergonomics Ц in the safety management for the petroleum industry, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O Ц Journal of Risk and Reliability, 2017, V. 231, pp. 400Ц410,
6. Qiu S., Zhang L., Liu M., HSE training matrices templates for grassroots posts in petroleum and petrochemical enterprises, Petroleum Science, 2017, V. 14, pp. 560Ц569.
7. Lenz S., Pinhanez M., Luis E., Jacobs C., Open innovation and the challenges of human resource management, International journal of innovation management, 2016, V. 20, no. 7, pp. 1Ц26.
8. Abrosimova E.B., Application of multifactorial regression analysis to improve the efficiency of human resource management (In Russ.), Tekhnologicheskiy audit i rezervy proizvodstva, 2015, V. 6, no. 5 (26), pp. 53Ц58.
9. Burenina I., Evtushenko E., Kotov D. et al., Integral assessment of the development of RussiaТs chemical industry, Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 2017, V. 8, no. 5, pp. 1075-1085.
10. Gajfullina M.M., Nizamova G.Z., Musina D.R., Alexandrova O.A., Formation of strategy of effective management of fixed production assets of oil company, Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 2017, V. 38, pp. 185Ц190.
11. Sharko V., Andrusenko N., Algorithm for estimating factors influencing intensification of production of industrial enterprises, Economic annals-XXI, 2017, V. 162, pp. 68Ц72.
12. Wood D.A., Characterization of gas and oil portfolios of exploration and production assets using a methodology that integrates value, risk and time, Journal of natural gas science and engineering, 2016, V. 30, pp. 305Ц321.
13. Armstrong M., Strategic human resource management: A guide to action, Kogan page, 2008, 256 p.вБ
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Russia is one of the world leading countries actively producing and supplying hydrocarbon crude. Accordingly, the oil and gas industry plays an important role in the formation of budgets of the Russian Federation budget system, providing a flow of a large part of their income. In the conditions of instability of the market commodity of the raw markets and uncertainty of the prices of hydrocarbon crude such dependence of budgets on an oil and gas complex increases risks of non-execution expense commitments of public-legal entities in case of reduction prices mined minerals. As a rule, budgetary risks associated with oil and gas complex in Russia consider only applied to federal budget. This is due to the fact that oil and gas revenues to which, according to the current budgetary legislation, receipts from a severance tax in the form of hydrocarbon crude belong the export customs duties on oil, gas and the goods developed from oil are enlisted only in the federal budget. However an article analysis suggests that the impact of budgetary risks associated with the development of oil and gas complex not only is subject to federal, but also regional and municipal budgets. At the same time the level of fiscal risk varies for different subjects of the Russian Federation and municipal entities and depends on oil and gas sector enterprises existence in these regions. It is shown necessity of establishing reserve funds of the Russian Federation subjects and creation in Russia of special body whose functions would include the forecasting of potential threats to the Russian economy.вБDOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-4-12-15
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
We present the results of assessment for petroleum occurrence in the Jurassic-Cretaceous deposits of Yamal Peninsula based on the water Ц gas equilibrium. It was identified that the water Ц gas system within the study area is complex. Reservoirs were assumed to present "relicts" of the previous hydrogeological epoch, and water being the most mobile component of this system, resulting in the slow forward reservoir shift to the equilibrium that corresponds to the qualitatively new condition of geochemical system.
Most of the studied territory has favorable conditions for preservation of petroleum pools. The northern and central Yamal (south-east of Kara megasyncline, south-west of South-Kara megasaddle, Bovanenkovo-Nurminka inclined ridge, southern Pai Khoi-Novaya Zemlya megamonocline, southern and central East Pai Khoi monocline) are notable for a small shift of the phase equilibrium in the water-gas system, suggesting discovery of large hydrocarbon reserves in them. The analysis of the obtained results confirmed the already discovered pools on the studied fields and allowed to predict 13 lost pools. In contrast, the available hydrogeochemical data reduce the opportunity to reveal new hydrocarbon deposits in the Yarudeika megahigh. One can also talk on the low probability of preserving oil and gas condensate accumulations in this area, even if they were formed at the previous stages of the water-driven system development.
1. Davydova E.S., Kananykhina O.G., Kovaleva E.D., Largest, gigantic and unique fields of free gas in the Western Siberia: the results of explorations, surveying and development, the perspectives of new discoveries (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki: problemy resursnogo obespecheniya gazodobyvayushchikh regionov Rossii, 2014, no. 3 (19), pp. 77Ц81.
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5. Kontorovich A.E., Surkov V.S., Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Rossii (Geology and minerals of Russia), Part 2: Zapadnaya Sibir' (Western Siberia): edited by Orlov V.P., St. Petersburg: Publ. of VSEGEI, 2000, 477 p.
6. Kontorovich V.A., Belyaev S.Yu., Kontorovich A.E. et al., Tectonic structure and history of development of the West Siberian geosyneclise in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2001, V. 42, no. 11Ц12, pp. 1832Ц1845.
7. Ermilov O.M., Karagodin Yu.N., Kontorovich A.E., Osobennosti geologicheskogo stroeniya i razrabotki unikal'nykh zalezhey gaza Kraynego Severa Zapadnoy Sibiri (Features of the geological structure and development of unique gas deposits of the Far North of Western Siberia), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2004, 141 p.
8. Matusevich V.M., Ryl'kov A.V., Ushatinskiy I.N., Geoflyuidal'nye sistemy i problemy neftegazonosnosti Zapadno-Sibirskogo megabasseyna (Geofloidal systems and oil and gas potential problems of the West Siberian megabasin), Tyumen': TSPTU, 2005, 225 p.
9. Shvartsev S.L., Novikov D.A., The nature of vertical hydrogeochemical zoning of petroleum deposits (on the example of the Nadym-Taz interfluve, West Siberia) (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2004, V. 45, no. 8, pp. 1008Ц1020.
10. Novikov D.A., Sukhorukova A.F., Hydrogeology of petroleum deposits in the northwestern margin of the West Siberian Artesian Basin, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2015, V. 8, no. 10, pp. 8703Ц8719.
11. Novikov D.A., Hydrogeochemistry of the Arctic areas of Siberian petroleum basins, Petroleum Exploration and Development, 2017, V. 44, no. 5, pp. 780Ц788.
12. Shemin G.G., The model of the structure, the conditions for the formation and prospects of the oil and gas potential of the Upper Jurassic deposits of the North of the West Siberian oil and gas province and the adjacent water area of the Kara Sea (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2004, no. 10, pp. 29Ц43.
13. Mkrtchyan O.M., Varushchenko A.I., Potemkina S.V., Some aspects of regional geological model of Upper Jurassic deposits of West Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2005, no. 1, pp. 30Ц35.
14. Kislukhin V.I., Brekhuntsova E.A., Shreyner A.A., Features of the geological structure of the Upper Jurassic sedimentary formations on the Yamal peninsula (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2003, no. 4Ц5, pp. 30Ц34.
15. Novikov D.A., Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the Paleozoic basement of the Novoportovskoye oil and gas condensate field (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2005, no. 5, pp. 14Ц20.
16. Novikov D.A., Possibilities of oil-and-gas content in Middle-Jurassic deposits of Yamal peninsula by hydrogeological data (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology , 2013, no. 6, pp. 65Ц74.
17. Novikov D.A., The degree of gas saturation of groundwater in the productive part of the Jurassic hydrogeological complex of the Kharampur megaval (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2000, no. 3, pp. 51Ц56.
18. Novikov D.A., Assessment of current petroleum system based on the water-gas equilibrium study results (as exemplified on the Paleozoic sediments of the southeastern West Siberia) (In Russ.), Otechestvennaya geologiya, 2015, no. 3, pp. 7Ц32.
19. Shvartsev S.L., Obshchaya gidrogeologiya (General hydrogeology), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1996, 423 p.
20. Nemchenko N.N., Rovenskaya A.S., Shoell M., The origin of natural gases of giant gas deposits in the north of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology , 1999, no. 1 Ц 2, pp. 45Ц56.вБ
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The aim of the authors was to create a database of reference petrophysical information for the sediments of terrigenous strata of Devonian, ranked by areas of petroleum-geological regionalization and productive formations. This database is necessary for reliable estimating the parameters of mature and new fields. Such a database of petrophysical information provide an information on petrophysical heterogeneity, using a single approach, such as in research and analysis of data and will be useful in the justification for using data on deposits-analogues in case of small fields as well as objects without their petrophysical dependencies when creating petrophysical models of oil fields. Additionally, this work is designed to bring together the geological processes involved in the formation of rocks and show how these processes are involved in the formation of the hollow space and heterogeneity of the reservoir properties of the reservoir. The work is based on the sequential study of complex data, including core information, highlighting lithological typing, laboratory core studies, a comparison of selected lithotypes and petrophysical heterogeneity, study of the factors affecting the void space of the reservoir. The work also shows the algorithm of transfer of this ranking petrophysical core data to the division by the well logging data.
1. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftenosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil content of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.
2. Rykus M.V., Rykus N.G., Sedimentologiya terrigennykh rezervuarov uglevodorodov (Sedimentology of terrigenous hydrocarbon reservoirs), Ufa: Mir pechati Publ., 2014, 324 p.
3. Tiab D., Donaldson E C., Petrophysics: theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport, Elsevier Inc., 2004, 926 p.
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5. Ivanov V.N., Frolov V.T., Sergeeva E.I. et al., Sistematika i klassifikatsiya osadochnykh porod i ikh analogov (Systematics and classification of sedimentary rocks and their analogs), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 1998, 345 p.
6. Dakhnov V.N., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya kollektorskikh svoystv i neftegazonasyshcheniya gornykh porod (Geophysical methods for the determination of reservoir properties and oil and gas saturation of rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 343 p.
7. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obТemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by PetersilТe V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow ЦTver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003. 259 p.
8. Latyshova M.G., Martynov V.G., Sokolova T.F., Prakticheskoe rkukovodstvo po interpretatsii dannykh GIS (Practical guidance on the interpretation of well logging data), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 327 p.9. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu podschetnykh parametrov zalezhey nefti i gaza po materialam geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin s privlecheniem rezul'tatov analizov kerna, oprobovaniy i ispytaniy produktivnykh plastov (Guidelines to determine the calculation parameters of oil and gas using well logging data with the involvement the results of core analysis, sampling and testing of productive formations): edited by Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Kozyar V.F., Yatsenko G.G., Kalinin: Soyuzpromgeofizika Publ., 1990, 260 p.вБ
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The paper reviews the results of the analysis of textural features in productive sediments of the Pashian horizon in Kitayamskoye field. One of the main problems considered in this paper is a findings of structural reservoirs features which are the compacted terrigenous deposits on the studied area. The sandstone reservoirs are studied as a part of routine laboratory analysis of core and thin sections including lithological descriptions and special methods such as CT scanning and SEM. The findings proved post-diagenetic deformations of the rock fabric. Detailed lithological and petrographic characterization of the target formation revealed the presence of slaty foliation in the sandstones in the zones of maximum compaction with intense concentration of stylolites. It is shown that such zones are associated with well developed fracture networks. The described peculiarities of the productive sandstones of the Kitayamskoye deposit show that rock compaction at the post-diagenetic metamorphism stage have decreased the reservoir properties of productive sandstones of the Pashian horizon. We have suggested that the rock compaction was developed inhomogeneous in the studied section. There are the homogeneous compacted zones as well as the zones of the maximum compaction (places where stylolite seams are frequent). We have studied many bore core samples by different methods including lithology, petrophysics, SEM, X-ray tomography and inferred that the fractured reservoir type takes place in the local places together with an ordinary pore reservoir type.
1. Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' Orenburgskoy oblasti (Geological structure and oil and gas potential of the Orenburg region), Orenburg: Orenburgskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1997, 272 p.
2. Goncharov M.A., Talitskiy V.G., Frolova N.S., Vvedenie v tektonofiziku (Introduction to tectonophysics), Moscow: Publ. of KDU, 2005, 496 p.
3. Logvinenko H.V., Orlova L.V. Obrazovanie i izmenenie osadochnykh porod na kontinente i v okeane (Formation and alteration of sedimentary rocks on the continent and in the ocean), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1987, 237 p.4. Mugatabarova A.A., Lozin E.V., Murinov K.Yu. et al., The study of lithology and reservoir rocks properties on D1 horizon of Kitayamskoye deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 92Ц94.вБ
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The complex seismic-geological model of the East Siberian Shelf was constructed on the basis of the analysis of the geological and geophysical material and 2D seismic data interpretation. The justification of the sedimentary cover age was made according to the geological data fr om the adjacent mainland, islands and wells, which are located on the island of Aion, the Lomonosov Ridge and in the offshore area of the US sector of the Chukchi Sea. Seismic stratigraphic tie of reflective horizons and transfer of correlation of main unconformities to the sedimentary cover of the East Siberian Shelf were performed. The regularities of the geological structure of the East Siberian Sea basins have been studied in order to assess the oil and gas potential. It is established that the sedimentary cover is composed mainly of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrigenous formations and the older (supposedly Upper Paleozoic?) complex of rocks is developed only in limited areas. Two clinoformal complexes of different age are distinguished in the Cenozoic part of the sedimentary section. It was established that their formation was controlled by the multi-stage evolution of the passive continental margin of the Eastern Arctic in relation with the development of deep ocean basins in the central part of the Arctic Ocean, sea level fluctuations and the Cenozoic uplift phases of the adjacent Arctic onshore. Based on the complex data interpretation, the history of the tectonic development of the studied region was restored. A two-phase rifting process in the Cretaceous-Cenozoic time is assumed. Only during the Oligocene-Pliocene (post-rift) stage the tectonic regime of the territory has been stabilized and the shelf edge close to the current one was formed. The main structural elements of the region were identified. The conclusions on the high prospectivity of the studied offshore area for the petroleum exploration were made. The oil and gas potential is mainly associated with Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences. The region of the study is characterized by a large volume of sedimentary rocks, which entered the main zone of oil and gas generation.
1. Slobodin V.Ya., Kim B.I., Stepanova G.V., Kovalenko F.Ya., Raschlenenie razreza ayonskoy skvazhiny po novym biostratigraficheskim dannym (The sectional layering of the Aion well with new biostratigraphic data), Collected papers УStratigrafiya i paleontologiya mezo-kaynozoya Sovetskoy ArktikiФ (Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic of the Soviet Arctic), Leningrad: Publ. of Sevmorgeologiya, 1990, pp. 43Ц58.
2. Backman J., Moran K., McInroy D.B. et al., Sites M0001ЦM0004, Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, 2006, V. 302, DOI:10.2204/iodp.proc.302.104.2006
3. Poirier A., Hillaire-Marcel C., Improved Os-isotope stratigraphy of the Arctic Ocean, Geophysical research letters, 2011, V. 38, L14607, DOI:10.1029/2011GL047953.
4. Sherwood K.W., Johnson P.P., Craig J.D., Structure and stratigraphy of the Hanna Trough, U.S. Chukcui Shelf, In УTectonic evolution of the Bering Shelf-Chukchi Sea-Arctic margin and adjacent landmassesФ: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, 2002, Special Paper 360, pp. 39Ц66.
5. Mickey M.B., Haga H., Micropaleontology of selected wells and seismic shotholes, Northern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2006-1055.
6. Dpachev C.C., Elistratov A.V., Cavoctin L.A., Structure and seismostratigraphy of the East Siberian Sea shelf along the Indigirka Bay-Jannetta Island seismic profile (In Russ.), Doklady RAN = Doklady Earth Sciences, 2001, V. 377, no. 4, pp. 521Ц525.
7. Kuzmichev A.B., Wh ere does the South Anyui suture go in the New Siberian islands and Laptev Sea: Implications for the Amerasia basin origin, Tectonophysics, 2009, V. 463, pp. 86Ц108.
8. Katkov S.M., Strickland A., Miller E.L., Toro J., Age of granite batholiths in the Anyui-Chukotka foldbelt (In Russ.), Doklady RAN = Doklady Earth Sciences, 2007, V. 414, no. 2, pp. 219Ц222.
9. Miller E.L., Verzhbitsky V.E., Structural studies near Pevek, Russia: Implications for formation of the East Siberian Shelf and Makarov Basin of the Arctic Ocean, Geology, geophysics and tectonics of Northeastern Russia: a tribute to Leonid Parfenov, EGU Stephan Mueller Publication Series, 2009, V. 4, pp. 223Ц241, URL: www.stephan-mueller-spec-publ-ser.net/4/223/2009/
10. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.Ye., Layer P.W., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R., South Anyui suture: tectono-stratigraphy, deformations, and principal tectonic events, Geology, geophysics and tectonics of Northeastern Russia: a tribute to Leonid Parfenov, European Geosciences Union, Stephan Mueller Publication Series, 2009, V. 4, pp. 201Ц221.
11. Verzhbitsky V.E., Sokolov S.D., Frantzen E.M. et al., The South Chukchi Sedimentary Basin (Chukchi Sea, Russian Arctic): Age, structural pattern, and hydrocarbon potential, Tectonics and sedimentation: Implications for petroleum systems: AAPG Memoir 100, 2012, pp. 267Ц290.
12. Kuz'michev A.B., Solov'ev A.V., Gonikberg V.E. et al., Mesozoic syncollision siliciclastic sediments of the Bols'shoi Lyakhov Island (New Siberian Islands) (In Russ.), Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya korrelyatsiya = Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 2006, V. 14, no. 1, pp. 33Ц53.13. Drachev S.S., Malyshev N.A., Nikishin A.M., Tectonic history and petroleum geology of the Russian Arctic Shelves: an overview, In УPetroleum Geology: From Mature Basins to New FrontiersФ, Proceedings of the 7th Petroleum Geology Conference: Geological Society London, 2010, V. 7, pp. 591Ц619, DOI: 10.1144/0070591.вБ
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The article considers the main types of vertical seismic profiling (VSP). Vertical profiling, the location of the source located directly at the wellhead location and Offset profiling Ц the source point is located some distance from the borehole. Various schemes for working out offset vertical seismic profiling (OVSP) are described, which depend on the geological tasks: the source points (SP) located beyond the fault boundaries for their mapping; offset SPs are located in the given direction (1-2 way) to clarify the geological structure; offset SPs are located at the ends of mutually perpendicular ways to study the geological structure for cluster drilling; offset SP with a variable step intervals are located along the horizontal projection of the deviated well; profiling in the azimuth of the deviated well with a constant SPs step for studying the geological structure at large distances; 4D VSP for monitoring the exploitable deposits. The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the considered techniques for each case is given. The geological and technical prerequisites for using the OVSP in exploratory drilling are listed. Geological preconditions are the small size of structures, the dependence on the structure type (fault-closure or limited by faults), and the Ђfault shadowї presence, which in turn gives uncertainties in the construction of structures geological model. Technical preconditions are directional drilling, used for exploration fault-closure structures; the need to reduce the matching log data and seismic data errors Ц as an example, the result of using a standard VSP in a deviated well is presented. To solve the problem of qualitative matching seismic and log data in deviated wells, a special case of OVSP is vertical incidence vertical seismic profiling (VIVSP) is considered. This method is effective for deviated wells with angles > 15-20 degree and bottom hole location offset > 500 m. It is a combination of standard VSP (zero offset) and OVSP. The technique, results, advantages and disadvantages of this method are described in the article. The results of practical application of the VIVSP technique in the deviated well are shown. One of the examples of using the VSP survey modeling is also given, which results in the selection of the optimal method for solving the geological and technical tasks. Recommendations are given on the use of modeling for qualitative work planning and the use of OVSP in exploratory drilling.
1. Gal'perin E.I., Vertikal'noe seysmicheskoe profilirovanie (Vertical seismic profiling), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 344 p.
2. Lenskiy V.A., Adiev R.Ya. et al., Effektivnost' primeneniya NVSP na neftyanykh ob"ektakh zapadnogo Orenburzh'ya (Efficacy of offset vertical profiling for oil facilities of Western Orenburg region), Proccedings of УGal'perinskie chteniya-2008Ф, VIII Annual International Conference УVSP i trekhmernye sistemy nablyudeniy v seysmorazvedkeФ (Vertical seismic profiling and three-dimensional recording system in seismic surveys), Moscow, 2008.
3. Bayanov A.S., Merkulov V.P., Stepanov D.Yu., Vertikal'noe seysmicheskoe profilirovanie neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Vertical seismic profiling of oil and gas wells), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2009, 100 p.вБ
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The development condition of the offshore oil fields operated by Vietsovpetro JV (hereinafter as VSP) is characterized as the declining production stage. At the current stage, the challenging issue for VSP is to maintain the declining production by composing and implementing the well intervention activities. Well intervention planning process for offshore fields has a number of principle peculiarities, which considered at every phase of decision-making process Ц from analysis of geological criteria for well-candidate selection to implementation of activities. Such peculiarities may include methods and technologies of well workover and drilling, as well as seasonal operation under offshore conditions.
To allocate the wellheads and process equipment, VSP uses offshore fixed platforms (MSP) and miniMSP Ц wellhead platforms (BK). Well drilling on BK is done by the jack-up rigs, while MSP operations require drilling facilities and Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU). MODU specification does not provide for well drilling and side tracking.
Based on the technical capability analysis of the drilling rigs, implemented for well intervention, all offshore facilities and wells are divided into groups in dependence to well operation methods.
The process of selecting the well intervention activity for the offshore fields, considers well ranking, preliminary prior to the detailed justification, depending on two key factors: availability/incapability of recompletion and operations method. Implementation of such approach during well intervention planning allows avoiding the wells with incapability to recomplete or side tracking, resulting in improved efficiency of selecting the well candidates.The article indicates, that important components of implementing the well intervention program for the offshore fields, is their organization by offshore facilities and planning depending on number and schedule of OperatorТs jack-up rigs movement.вБ
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Important criterion for correct selection of scale inhibition protection and methods for treatment of oil equipment is chemical composition of formation water and mineral deposits. The aim of this paper was to study a composition of produced and sea waters as well as deposits drawn fr om various technological points of the oil-producing equipment. The samples were taken from platform MOLIQPAK of the Astokhskoye area of Piltun-Astokhskoye oilfield located on the northeast part of shelf of Sakhalin Island. Samples were analyzed with various physical and chemical methods including IC HPLC, GLC and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Produced waters of the studied oilfield have typical composition for oilfield waters. Total mineralization of studied water samples was 28 g/l in average Major dissolved components of the salt matrix are sodium and potassium chlorides. Concentration of sulfate-ions for different wells varied within 200-1900 mg/l, alkalinity (as HCO3-) - 450-870 mg/l. Acetic acid was major component among volatile fatty acids. Units of equipment wh ere the concentration of carboxylic acids was highest contained iron sulfide in the sediment. It may indicate to occurrence of sulfate reduction processes. According to SulinТs classification formation waters belong to types: sulfate-sodium, chloride-calcium, hydro carbonate-sodium, to groups - chlorides and hydrocarbonate, to subgroups - calcium and magnesium.
Inorganic part of the studied deposits consists of sand, clay, insoluble sulfates and carbonates of alkaline-earth metals, corrosion products of pipes and equipment (compounds of Fe and salts of transition metals - Cr, Mo, Zr, etc.). Comparison of water and deposit composition gives information on deposit formation at different technological parts of oil-producing equipment, allows creating chemical models for studying of mechanisms of formation and removal of salt deposits.
1. Markin A.N., Nizamov R.E., Sukhoverkhov S.V., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya: prakticheskoe rukovodstvo (Oilfield chemistry: a practical guide), Vladivostok: Dal'nauka Publ., 2011, 288 p.
2. Crabtree M., Eslinger D., Fletcher F. et al., Fighting scale Ц removal and prevention, Oilfield Review, 1999, Autumn, URL: http://www.slb.com/~/ media/Files/resources/oilfield_review/ors99/aut99/fighting.pdf
3. Baykov N.M., Sayfutdinova Kh.Kh., Avdeeva G.N., Laboratornyy kontrol' pri dobyche nefti i gaza (Laboratory control in oil and gas production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 128 p.
4. Handbook of water analysis: edited by Nollet L.M.L., De Gelder L.S.P., CRC Press, 2013.
5. Tarabarina K.Yu., Sukhoverkhov S.V., Markin A.N. et al., Formation of solid sediments in the heat exchanger of "Piltun-Astokhskaya-B" platform (Sakhalin island) and its removal (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 8, pp. 51Ц55.
6. Pupyshev A.A., Atomno-absorbtsionnyy spektral'nyy analiz (Atomic absorption spectral analysis), Moscow: Tekhnosfera Publ., 2009, 345 p.
7. PND F 14.1:2:4.262Ц10. Kolichestvennyy khimicheskiy analiz vod. Metodika izmereniy massovoy kontsentratsii ionov ammoniya v pit'evykh, poverkhnostnykh (v tom chisle morskikh) i stochnykh vodakh fotometricheskim metodom s reaktivom Nesslera (Quantitative chemical analysis of waters. Method for measuring the mass concentration of ammonium ions in drinking, surface (including marine) and waste water photometric method with Nessler reagent), Moscow, 2010, 26 p.
8. Trukhin I.S., Polyakova N.V., Zadorozhnyy P.A. et al., Modeling of scaling in the system of maintaining reservoir pressure on the Piltun-Astokhskaya-A platform (УSakhalin-2Ф project) (In Russ.), Vestnik Dal'nevostochnogo otdeleniya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk = Bulletin of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2017, no. 6, pp. 106Ц112.
9. Singh R.P., Abbas N.M., Smesko S.A., Suppressed ion chromatographic analysis of anions in environmental waters containing high salt concentrations, Journal of Chromatography A, 1996, no. 733(1Ц2), pp. 73Ц91.
10. Sangadzhieva L.Kh., Samtanova D.E., Chemical composition of formation waters and their influence on contamination of soils (In Russ.), Geologiya, geografiya i global'naya energiya, 2013, no. 3 (50), pp. 168Ц178.
11. Bernat M., Church T., Allegre C.J., Barium and strontium concentrations in Pacific and Mediterranean sea water profiles by direct isotope dilution mass spectrometry, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 1972, V. 16 (1), pp. 75Ц80
12. Enning D., Garrelfs J., Corrosion of iron by sulfate-reducing bacteria: new views of an old problem, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2014, V. 80 (4), pp. 1226Ц1236.
13. Mendibaev A.M., Ragulin V.V., Scaling in the production system and oil recovery of the Uzen field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2011, no. 11, pp. 39Ц42.
14. Musaev M.V. Magnitodinamicheskaya koagulyatsiya mekhanicheskikh primesey pri podgotovke vody dlya sistemy podderzhaniya plastovogo davleniya (Magnetodynamic coagulation of mechanical impurities in the water treatment for reservoir pressure maintenance system): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2011.вБ
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вБ Water-based systems which are traditionally used worldwide occur as clay suspensions stabilized by anionic-nonionic polymers. For many scientists the improvement of this systems basically means substitution of one component to another or proportion variation of reactants and for a long time it was too hard to develop highly effective drilling fluid systems by using of such improvement methods.
With a new approach to a problem, specialists of Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC were able to develop new drilling fluid systems named Catburr. These systems were already used in (construction) drilling of wells No. 939 and 1082 on the Astrakhanskoye gas-condensate field in comparison with traditional drilling muds, Catburr has many advantages such as high inhibiting and fastening properties; simplicity of preparing and regulation of properties while drilling, back of depending of structural, rheological and filtration properties on the pH; high thermal, salt, hydrogen sulfide; carbon dioxide and enzymatic resistance; compatibility of freshwater and saltwater systems; small number of components. But despite positive results of Catburr use, there was identified shortcoming such as complexity in regulation of structural-rheological properties.
In other to solve this problem we conducted many lab and field tests, trying a wide range of structurants and its various combinations. According to research it is found that application of biopolymer and hydroxides of magnesium and aluminium helps to eliminate appeared shortcoming and allows to regulate Catburr properties much more effectually.
The received results indicate a need for further research of polycathionic systems and its various modifications that should be probated drilling subsequent wells.
1. Gaydarov A.M., Some aspects drilling mud use (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2016, no. 5, pp. 36Ц39.
2. Glinka N.L., Obshchaya khimiya (General chemistry): edited by Rabinovich V.A., Leningrad: Khimiya Publ., 1981, 720 p.
3. Angelopulo O.K., Podgornov V.M., Avakov V.E., Burovye rastvory dlyaoslozhnennykh usloviy (Drilling fluids for complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 135 p.
4. Angelopulo O.K., Khakhaev B.N., Sidorov N.A., Burovye rastvory, ispol'zuemye pri razburivanii solevykh otlozheniy v glubokikh skvazhinakh (Drilling fluids used to drill salt deposits in deep wells), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG 1978, 71 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The analysis of height of GOR shows that along with intrastratal gas liberation in a bottom hole and in horizontal wells, equipped by centrifugal pump at the decline of coalface pressure below of bubble point the reason of receipt of gas a cut in the obtained water. According to executed estimation, depending on PT-terms at a frequent contact with oil in water it can be dissolved from 1 to 2.5-2.7 м3/м3 gas, that at water cut to 90-93% appears a substantial size from the point of view of the taken away volumes of gas. Thus, as the prepared begun to swing water is gas-free before beginning to swing, then in the process of circulation in a reservoir, diffusive of components of hydrocarbon (especially methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) is marked to the achievement of the state of saturation with the decline of mobility of remaining oil.
1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po kompleksnomu izucheniyu mestorozhdeniy i podschetu zapasov poputnykh poleznykh iskopaemykh i komponentov (Guidelines for the integrated study of the deposits and associated reserves and components), Moscow: Publ. of SRC, 2007, 15 p.
2. Gul'tyaeva N.A., Issledovanie prichin postupleniya gaza v dobyvayushchie neftyanye skvazhiny i razrabotki metodov identifikatsii ego istochnikov (Investigation of the causes of breakthrough of gas and development of methods for identifying its sources): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen', 2015.
3. Amerkhanov I.M., Reym G.A., Grebneva S.T., Kataeva M.R., Effect of injected water on oil -in-situ parameters (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1976, no. 6, pp. 16-18.
4. Sheykh-Ali (Tynyshpaev) D.M., Yulbarisov E.M., Valeev M.D., Method for remaining gas resources estimation while developing oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 11, pp. 32-33.
5. Ignatov I.S., Lozin E.V., Imashev R.N., Fedorov V.N., Field studies on gas-oil ratios for target production zones of Bashneft JSOC oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 4, pp. 48-50.
6. Gul'tyaeva N.A., Toshchev E.N., Mass exchange in the oil-gas-water and its effect on the production of associated gas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 100-103.
7. Gul'tyaeva N.A., Krikunov V.V., Effect of gas reserves dissolved in formation water on the current distribution of the components volumes in oil wells production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 8, pp. 40-43.
8. Fominykh O.V., Issledovanie fazovykh ravnovesiy uglevodorodov i razrabotka metoda ikh rascheta dlya snizheniya poter' nefti pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy (Research of hydrocarbon phase equilibria and development of a method for calculating its to reduce oil losses during field development): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen', 2011.
9. Dodson C.B., Standing M.B., Pressure Ц Volume Ц temperature solubility relation for natural gas Ц water mixtures, Drilling and Products Practice, API, 1944.
10. Namiot A.Yu., Fazovye ravnovesiya v dobyche nefti (Phase equilibria in oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 183 p.
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The aim of the work was the solution to the problem of evaluating the representativeness of core network of wells for field monitoring of gas factor with predetermined maximum allowable error of measurement. The question of the justification of the minimum required number of wells for core network is associated with the fact that a number of objective reasons do not allow monitoring gas-oil ratio in all wells. The proposed approach to the evaluating the representativeness of core network is based on statistical methods that can be applied to solve other control problems of field development, for example, the monitoring reservoir pressure profile, because it is general in nature. We considered the evaluation of the representativeness of core network for measurement of the gas-oil ratio on the example of one of the fields in the western part of the Republic of Bashkortostan. For this field, it is shown that the core network of wells should be at least 70% of the all producing wells on the examined object of development. It is noted that the value of the coverage of the core network of wells 70% applies to this particular case. At lower magnitude of the range of gas factor values for individual wells minimum required core network of wells can be much smaller.
1. Ignatov I.S., Lozin E.V., Imashev R.N., Fedorov V.N., Field studies on gas-oil ratios for target production zones of Bashneft JSOC oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 4, pp. 48Ц50.
2. Romanovskiy V.I., Matematicheskaya statistika (Math statistics), Moscow: Publ. of GONTI, 1938, 528 p.
3. Kvesko N.G., Chubik P.S.,Metody i sredstva issledovaniy (Research methods and instrument), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2010, 112 .
4. Kassandrova O.N., Lebedev V.V., Obrabotka rezul'tatov nablyudeniy (Analysis of observations), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1970, 104 p.
5. Imashev R.N., Fedorov V.N., Zaripov A.M., On the gas factor change in the
process of Arlanskoye field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =
Oil Industry, 2016, no. 8, pp. 122-125.вБ
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The main reserves of large oil fields discovered in the last century have already been worked out. Much smaller deposits are involved in development to maintain oil production. The calculation of the recoverable reserves of such deposits and the compilation of development documents requires conducting, among other things, studies to determine the oil displacement efficiency that is normally performed in laboratory on the formation models. These works are labor-intensive and time-consuming, require the attraction of significant technical and material resources, and their results are relevant only for specific geological and physical conditions. Moreover, this method of determining the displacement efficiency is impossible, for example, in the absence of a sufficient core, which is relevant for new and relatively small deposits.
Estimation of the displacement efficiency by analogy with other deposits or with use analytical dependencies is alternative method. The author's work is devoted to obtaining these dependencies.
The article presents the main results of studies on the problem of estimating the oil displacement efficiency using the example of the Visean terrigenous deposits of the Solikamsk depression of the Perm Region. Correlation, regression and discriminant analyzes were used to process laboratory data on the oil displacement efficiency. Dependences are obtained that allow us to estimate the displacement efficiency, using, along with the viscosity of oil, the parameters of porosity, permeability, residual water saturation and bulk density of the rock, determined by standard core analysis.
Multidimensional equations are applicated to estimate the oil displacement efficiency in the Visean productive sediments of a number of Solikamsk depression deposits, for which the coefficient value is determined in laboratory conditions. The results showed a high convergence of the model values of the displacement efficiency with the results of special flow studies.
1. Mikhnevich V.G., Tul'bovich B.I., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu koeffitsienta vytesneniya nefti raschetnym sposobom(Methodical recommendations for determining the oil displacement coefficient by calculation method), Perm': Publ. of PermNIPIneft', 1980, 12 p.
2. Tul'bovich B.I., Mikhnevich V.G., Mitrofanov V.P. et al., Primenenie obobshchennykh petrofizicheskikh zavisimostey pri podschete balansovykh i izvlekaemykh zapasov (Application of generalized petrophysical dependencies in the calculation of balance and recoverable reserves), Collected papers УProblemy geologii i razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v rayonakh s istoshchayushchimisya resursamiФ (Problems of geology and development of oil fields in areas with depleting resources), Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 1989, V. 79, pp. 117Ц123.
3. Mikhnevich V.G., Tul'bovich B.I., Khizhnyak G.P., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu koeffitsienta vytesneniya nefti vodoy raschetnym sposobom(Methodical recommendations for determining the coefficient of displacement of oil by water using calculation), Perm': Publ. of PermNIPIneft', 1988, 12 p.
4. Repina V.A., How to consider rock density in fluid flow model of oil fields during permeability modelling (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2017, V. 16, no. 2, pp. 104Ц112, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2017.2.1
5. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Repina V.A., Study of oil recovery from reservoirs of different void types with use of multidimensional statistical analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, V. 15, no. 19, pp. 145Ц154, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.19.5.
6. Patent application no. 2017116297 RF, kl. MPK G01N 15/08, Sposob opredeleniya koeffitsienta vytesneniya nefti bashkirskikh karbonatnykh otlozheniy Bashkirskogo svoda (The method for determining the oil displacement coefficient of the Bashkir carbonate deposits of the Bashkir Arch), Inventors: Galkin V.I., Gladkikh E.A., Khizhnyak G.P.
7. Patent application no. 2017116296 RF, kl. MPK G01N 15/08, Sposob opredeleniya koeffitsienta vytesneniya nefti bashkirskikh karbonatnykh otlozheniy Solikamskoy depressii (Method for determining the oil displacement coefficient of Bashkir carbonate deposits of the Solikamsk depression), Inventors: Galkin V.I., Gladkikh E.A., Khizhnyak G.P.
8. Gladkikh E.A., Khizhnyak G.P., Galkin V.I., Popov N.A., Method for evaluation of oil displacement coefficient based on conventional core analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2017, V. 16, no. 3, pp. 225Ц237, DOI:10.15593/2224-9923/2017.3.3.
9. Gladkikh E.A., Khizhniak G.P., Galkin V.I., Estimation method of oil displacement efficiency based on standard core analysis, Advances in Engineering Research: Proceedings of the International Conference УActual Issues of Mechanical EngineeringФ 2017 (AIME 2017), 27-29 July, 2017, Tomsk, Russia, 2017, V. 133, pp. 240Ц247, DOI: 10.2991/aime-17.2017.40.
10. Gladkikh E.A., Khizhnyak G.P., Development of a model applied to estimate the oil displacement factor (on the example of Bashkir carbonate deposits) (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 5, pp. 9Ц14.
11. Gladkikh E.A., Khizhnyak G.P., Galkin V.I., The method for estimating the oil displacement coefficient based on standard core analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 90Ц93, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-8-90-93.
12. Kolychev I.Yu., Study of zones of wettability distribution based on lateral logging for oil-bearing Visean reservoirs of the Solikamsk depression (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2017, V. 16, no. 4, pp. 331Ц341, DOI:10.15593/2224-9923/2017.4.4
13. Galkin S.V., Accounting methods of geological risks on the stage of oil fields exploration (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, V. 11, no. 4, pp. 23Ц32.
14. Lyadova N.A., Yakovlev Yu.A., Raspopov A.V., Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Permskogo kraya (Geology and development of oil deposits of the Perm region), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2010, 335 p.
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Development of oilfields characterized by low permeability and porosity, and a low rate of fluid filtration in the reservoir results in an increase in the well test duration (over 1000 hours) to determine reservoir pressure, productivity index and hydraulic conductivity of the layer. In such cases, there is the problem of providing the necessary comprehensive exploration while minimizing losses of oil production.
The authors considered model examples of well tests of reservoirs of low-permeability, lateral heterogeneity and for different boundary conditions. Simulation of the lateral inhomogeneous layer showed that for the formation pressure control under the reservoir development it is sufficient to define the reservoir pressure at the boundary of the change of filtration properties. Analysis of simulation results revealed that the Horner method has higher accuracy in the case of homogeneous infinite reservoir. In the case of laterally inhomogeneous layer, the presence of impermeable boundaries or limits of the constant pressure differential method allows to estimate the formation pressure with minimal error and with less duration build up.
Obtained in the course of numerical experiments the results are recommended to be used for the rapid assessment of the duration of the build up at the research planning stage and in monitoring the recovery process the bottom-hole pressure in real-time to predict the duration of the stop producing well.
1. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Gidrodinamicheskie i promyslovo-tekhnologicheskie issledovaniya skvazhin (Hydrodynamic and oil field and technological research of wells), Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 2008, 476 p.
2. Mishchenko I.T., Skvazhinnaya dobycha nefti (Oil production), Moscow: NeftТ i gaz Publ., 2007, 826 p.
3. Fedorov V.N., Gizatullin D.R., The solution of direct and inverse problems of hydrodynamics, when changing filtration-capacitive properties oil reservoir in the vicinity of the wellbore (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 52Ц55. вБ
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The article considers the principles of key well network development at R.Trebsa oil field for controlling the reservoir pressure profile, which is characterized by of filtration and productive properties heterogeneity. For that type of reservoirs development of key well network faces a problem caused by lateral heterogeneity and block structure of reservoir. Actual-to-date regulatory documents and procedures, which are dedicated to well tests, donТt take into account aspects mentioned above. It is shown that these failures lead to loss of information and unability of effective reservoir development. The authors propose an algorithm of key well network development taking into account lateral heterogeneity. One of the principles is based on the identification of hydrodynamically connected parts of oil reservoir on the basis of reservoir pressure profile and field data. It is shown that in case of intensive reservoir pressure decline the frequency of pressure measurement is crucial. Proposed frequency of well tests (once a year quarter) within one hydrodynamically connected zone showed its effectiveness in monitoring the oil reservoir development, in particular, when determining the effect of reservoir pressure maintenance and faultТs conductivity. The article presents calculations of minimum required number of key wells based on heterogeneity coefficient. The recommended number of well tests in order to determine current reservoir pressure is 25% of producing well stock. A block diagram of the algorithm for development of key well network is given taking into consideration the input of new wells.
1. Guidance УOptimal'nyy kompleks i periodichnost' gidrodinamicheskikh metodov kontrolya za razrabotkoy neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniya OAO УANK УBashneft'Ф s uchetom geologicheskikh osobennostey i stadiy razrabotki mestorozhdeniyФ (Optimal complex and periodicity of hydrodynamic methods for controlling the development of oil and gas fields of ANK Bashneft OJSC, taking into account geological features and stages of field development), Ufa: Publ. of Bashneft, 2007, 36 p.
2. Fedorov V.N., Salimgareeva E.M. E.M., Akberova A.Sh. et al., Determination of reservoir filtration system model of R. Trebs field using dynamic well tests (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 60Ц63.
3. Lysenko V.D., Innovatsionnaya razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The innovative development of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 516 p.вБ
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The results of successful work to intensify the flow of oil from the potentially productive intervals of the Bazhenov suite are described. Actual issues, in addition to the technology of development of the formation, remain such as: the creation and adaptation of the technology of opening, completion of wells, the intensification of the oil flow and other. In the article some of the modern technologies of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing are considered.
Oil of Bazhenov formation is still not taxed on mining by the state of the Russian Federation, and high quality makes its geological reserves attractive to leading oil companies. To this day, experts are in search of an effective industrial technology for Bazhenov formation development, by some estimates the hydrocarbons resources and reserves of this suit exceed billions of tons.
Initially, after drilling, the well is brought by hydraulic fracturing, initial production rate was 3.6 m3/day. Due to technical reasons the well starting process took a long time, resulting in a partial destruction of the hydraulic fracturing crosslinked gel. After the decline of the well production rate to zero there were works for intensification of oil inflow with the acid treatment in the bottomhole formation zone. The components of the acid composition were selected based on the mineral composition of Bazhenov formation, reservoir temperature UK0, modern requirements for intensifying reagents and modeling the treating process on filtration unit in conditions close to the reservoir. The paper also shows the results of additional core analysis after filtration research using X-ray computed tomography.
1. Kontorovich A.E., Burshteyn L.M., Kazanenkov V.A., Kontorovich V.A., Kostyreva E.A., Ponomareva E.V., Ryzhkova S.V., Yan P.A., The Bazhenov suite is the main reserve of unconventional oil in Russia (In Russ.), Georesursy, Geoenergetika, Geopolitika, 2014, no. 2, URL: http://oilgasjournal.ru/ vol_10/kontorovich.html
2. Litvin V.T., Ryazanov A.A., Farmanzade A.R., Theoretical aspects and experience of the stimulation of oil inflow to the reservoirs of bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 24-29.
3. Litvin V.T., Farmanzade Anar Rabil ogly, Orlov M.S., Selection of components acid composition for the low-permeability clay layers high Bazhenov Formation (part 1) (In Russ.), Naukovedenie, 2015, V. 7, no. 5, URL: http://naukovedenie.ru/PDF/214TVN515.pdf
4. Litvin V.T., Strizhnev K.V., Roshchin P.V., Features of geological structure and stimulation of complex oil reservoirs of Bazhenov formation, Palyanovsk oil field (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2015, V. 10, no. 3, pp. 12.
5. Orlov M.S., Roschin P.V., Struchkov I.A., Litvin V.T., The Application of X-ray micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) of core sample for estimation of physicochemical treatment efficiency (In Russ.), SPE 176600-MS, 2015.
6. Litvin V.T., Obosnovanie tekhnologii intensifikatsii pritoka nefti dlya kollektorov bazhenovskoy svity s primeneniem kislotnoy obrabotki (Substantiation of the technology of intensification of oil inflow for the collectors of the Bazhenov suite with the use of acid treatment): thesis of candidate of technical science, St. Petersburg, 2016.вБ
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Different enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are implemented during the entire period of an oil field operation in order to increase the economic efficiency of the hydrocarbon development, reduce direct investments and provide optimal conditions for the capital reinvestment. Currently the development and industrial application of EOR methods are the essential direction to increase the oil recovery factor. Today all known EOR methods are divided into: thermal, physical-chemical, gas, microbiological, and combined.
Currently thermal EOR methods are one of the most widely used. More often thermal EOR methods are implemented for high viscosity oilfield. Among thermal EOR steam EOR methods have a greater number of implemented projects compared to others. There are several types of the steam EOR methods such as: continuous steam injection, cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). During the implementation of thermal EOR methods using steam flooding, one of the most important processes is the steam generation process. The equipment for steam generation at a high viscosity oil field consists of a steam generator, surface pipelines (pipelines, thermal strain compensators), wellhead and downhole equipment. Steam generator is the major part of the technological scheme to produce steam at required parameters. Steam generation is performed due to combustion of the fuel in the combustion chamber. Usually liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon fuels are used in the steam generation process. The fuel cost for the steam generation very often becomes a significant part of the EOR project economics as in case of the Boca de Jaruco field, the Republic of Cuba. Cyclic Steam Stimulation is implemented on the Boca de Jaruco field for high oil viscosity production. Currently the fuel gas at the Republic of Cuba is very expensive that is why the problem of looking for alternative energy source for steam generation is very urgent. The geographic location of the Boca de Jaruco field is very promising for the use of solar energy as a heat source for the steam generation process. In this article the key aspects of the parabolic trough implementation for steam generation at the Boca de Jaruco oil field have been studied.
1. Yudin E.V., Petrashov O.V., Osipov A.V., Results of pilot work on extraction of natural bitumens from oil-wet fractured carbonate rocks: Boca De Jaruco field case (In Russ.), SPE 187683-RU, 2017.
2. Solar Thermal Electricity Global Outlook 2016. Ц http://www.solarpaces.org/ new-web-nasertic/images/pdfs/GP-ESTELA-SolarPACES_Solar-Thermal-Electricity-Global-Outlook-2016_Executive-Summary.pdf3. URL: https://openei.org/wiki/InformationвБ
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
In many oil and gas enterprises there is a problem of qualitative selection of geological and engineering operations for stabilization of oil production. The paper suggests a methodical approach to solving the problem of preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of planned geological and engineering operations using decision trees. The standard method for constructing decision trees involves a recursive algorithm for selecting the most influential factor and searching for a better separation of the original sample of data into two new ones, depending on the value of this factor. The problem of the technique is the deterioration of the possibility of assessing the impact on the efficiency of geological and engineering operations for each of the factors, in addition, the complexity of algorithms for building decision trees requires the availability of special software or programming skills, as well as a certain level of engineer training. Due to the specific nature of the initial data, it is possible to simplify the algorithms for constructing decision trees to analyze the influence of factors on the efficiency of the geological and engineering operations. The proposed simplified methodology has a transparent mechanism of operation, the implementation of which does not cause much difficulty in common spreadsheet editors. As a result of effective analysis using a simplified technique for constructing trees quantitative selection criteria for processing wells are appeared. As a demonstration of this statement, an analysis of the effectiveness of acidic hydraulic fracturing of the formation was carried out, quantitative criteria were determined for further selection of wells for this technology. A method for ranking wells based on the predicted processing efficiency is proposed depending on the values of the influencing factors, whereas the calculated well rank is a sufficient factor for selection of the well, because it contains the values of the other factors. An example of a map of favorable and unfavorable zones for carrying out geological and engineering operations is shown.
1. Pichugin O.N., Prokof'eva Yu.Z., Aleksandrov D.M., Application of decision trees as an efficient method of analysis and prediction (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 11, pp. 69 Ц75.
2. Pichugin O.N., Solyanoy P.N., Fatikhova Yu.Z., From Уmistakes correctedФ to effective treatment prediction (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2012, no. 3, pp. 28Ц31.
3. URL: http://statsoft.ru/home/ textbook/modules/stclatre.html.
4. Kaftannikov I.L., Parasich A.V., Decision treeТs features of application in classification problems (In Russ.), Vestnik YuUrGU. Seriya УKomp'yuternye tekhnologii, upravlenie, radioelektronikaФ = Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Ser. Computer Technologies, Automatic Control, Radio Electronics, 2015, V. 15, no. 3, pp. 26 Ц32.
5. Mel'nikov G.A., Gubarev V.V., Method for regression tree induction based on the ant algorithms (In Russ.), Doklady TUSUR, 2014, no. 4(34), pp. 72Ц78.вБ
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The primary method for extraction of the residual oil of the AB4-5 formation in the Samotlorskoye field has been drilling of horizontal sidetrack wells. In this article, the possibility of using inflow control devices (ICDs) in such wells is considered. This technology is aimed at prevention of premature shut-in of wells due to high water-cut, as well as at increase of cumulative oil production due to extraction of reserves that otherwise cannot be extracted with traditional completion methods. Based on ICDsТ design features, ICDs of a passive type are considered for the geological conditions of the formation. Evaluation of the effectiveness of their application was carried out on the basis of a sector simulation model. A detailed model of the area of interest allowed incorporating thin shale baffles affecting the flow of water fr om injection wells to production wells and thus influencing the distribution of residual oil reserves in the formation. A feasibility study showed a potential efficiency of the ICD installation in a number of wells. Using the example of the Samotlorskoye field wells, it is shown that successful application of ICDs requires an individual approach to the selection of a formation section where wells with ICDs will be drilled, and to the trajectory tracking of such wells. Application of ICDs involves high capital expenditures, thus it must be justified by a sufficient number of various simulation cases on a sector simulation model. The article presents the main aspects of a successful application of ICDs at the Samotlorskoye field wh ere specific features of the AB4-5 formation are taken into account, and a sequence of steps for justifying the feasibility of applying the technology.
1. Mathiesen V. et al., A game changer of inflow control in horizontal wells, SPE 145737-MS, 2011.
2. Grebenkin I.M. et al., Effect of operation reliability on efficiency of smart BHA (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, no. 12, pp. 54-59.
3. Delia S.V. et al., Test of new generation of flow control unit able to prevent the gas breakthrough in oil wells (In Russ,), SPE 178417-MS, 2015.
4. Semenov A.A., Islamov R.A., Nukhaev M.T., Design of inflow control devices in the Vankor field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 11, pp. 20Ц23.вБ
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The paper describes the issue of combating the intensive precipitation of asphalt-resin-paraffin (ARP) in the conditions of the R. Trebs oil field. The characteristic features of this problem in the oil field are singled out and described. As a research task, the authors determined the assessment of the effectiveness of the anti-ARP technologies used and the attempt to increase the efficiency of the technology without negatively affecting the oil production process. The idea is substantiated that the application of the technology of heating the well products with a heating cable to prevent the formation of paraffin deposits is more effective than the technology of removing deposits by scrapers. The authors focus on the use of a comprehensive solution to improve the efficiency of technology, based on the relationship between the analysis of oil field information and the formation of a mathematical model. The authors propose an approach to modeling the temperature of the produced oil with the heating cable inside the tubing. The resulting model is the key to determining the edge conditions for the application of technology. We generalized practical experience in testing technologies for removing paraffin deposits by scrapers and heating products with cable in the conditions of the R. Trebs oil field. Based on the conducted study, the operating modes of producing wells are determined, in which the intensity of the ARP precipitation is minimal and maximal. In conclusion, the authors proposed a method for increasing the efficiency of the heating liquid cable technology by reducing energy consumption for various well operation parameters. A nomogram was created for prompt decision making in the conditions of changing well operation modes. The main advantage of the new model is the use of a minimum number of input parameters for the operating mode of the well for accurate and operative evaluation of the operating mode of the heating cable. The resulted economic estimation of technology shows double increase in economy without loss of technological efficiency.
1. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Gerin Yu.G., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry), Part 5, Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2009, 475 p.
2. Ibragimov N.G., Tronov V.P., Gus'kova I.A., Teoriya i praktika metodov bor'by s organicheskimi otlozheniyami na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Theory and practice of methods of struggle with organic varnish in the late stage of development of oil fields), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2010, 240 p.
3. Kovrigin L.A., Makienko G.P., Akmalov I.M., Heating cables and temperature control of oil wells (In Russ.), Inzhener, 2000, no. 3, pp. 18-20.
4. Venkatesan R., Creek J.L., Wax deposition and rheology: progress and problems from an operator, SPE 20668-MS, 2010.вБ
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Multiple various pipeline networks have become an essential and rather influential part of economic infrastructure in the world, including Russia where production areas are far from locations of energy resource consumption. It is difficult to underestimate the role of pipelines in the national economy. Of late one may see the increasing scope of pipeline construction made from various materials. In view of this there is the growing interest towards technical status and safety aspects in these pipeline networks as well as to designing new universal service maintenance procedures for the integrity rehabilitation at pipeline transportation facilities.
Transportation facility may use simultaneously the pipelines manufactured from various materials, like metals, fiber-glass plastic, polyethylene, flexible reinforced pipe. Maintaining the state of pipeline serviceability and safety presents another complicated technical and economic objective that is resolved depending on the features, operating conditions and pipeline materials in each specific case, and the complexity in resolving these problems for the provided further example is increasing over and over again. One of the conditions to maintain pipeline networks in a safe and serviceable status is achieved through the performance of timely and high-quality measures in repairing the pipelines made of various materials. The performance of pipeline service operations is an important step in ensuring the oil-field pipeline safe operation. These service maintenance operations should be conducted in the most effective ways. There are many ways in pipeline maintenance depending upon the situation, resolved objective and pipeline materials.The article presents the pipeline maintenance procedure tested at Samaraneftegas JSC. This procedure is applicable for rehabilitation of pipelines made of various materials. The basic difference from other procedures lies in the installation of a service structure not coinciding with pipeline material, the use of flanged connections and service maintenance devices with rubber seals, i.e. sealants. The integrity effect in service maintenance jobs is achieved by the force that presses the rubber seal to the walls of the pipeline while tightening the flanged connection.вБ
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
With the existing traditional technological schemes of production systems, data collection, preparation and transportation of oil and gas wells to production facilities of enterprises inevitable loss of low molecular weight hydrocarbons (—1Ц—5), as well as leakage of acidic components Ц volatile organic sulfur (CH3SH, C2H5SH Ц methyl- and ethylmercaptan) and non-hydrocarbon (H2S, —ќ2) compounds, which the associated petroleum gas contain. In order to reduce entrainment of gas vehicles to Tatneft PJSC objects made of technical-technological and organizational measures: installation of flow distributor for even load separators, gas-liquid mixture; mounting devices for gas pre-selection and commissioning of the gas space of the separator; installation of end divider phases and pipe of gas coalescences pre-selection of gas before by the separators; introduction of drift eliminators and collect drop of oil in the tank. The article examines the main sources and types of technological losses of associated gas, which are safety valves that require periodic inspection; technological devices, the operation of which provides for the passage of the survey; wastewater. The standards of technological losses of associated petroleum and hydrocarbon gases are required for use in the calculation of gross oil production at an establishment of payments for use of natural resources and mineral wealth as well as to avoid environmental contamination. In this regard, for an objective assessment of unintentional entrainment of hydrocarbon components there is a need for periodic determination of technological losses of associated gas at oil facilities. The authors developed and proposed for use in the oil field facilities a new method of performing calculations and development of standard process losses of associated gas to the Republic of Tatarstan fields, which was approved by the Kazan branch Association Rostehekspertiza and is recommended for use in losses calculations in the oil and gas companies.
1. GOST R 8.615-2005. Izmereniya kolichestva izvlekaemoy iz nedr nefti i neftyanogo gaza. Obshchie metrologicheskie i tekhnicheskie trebovaniya (The measuring of quantity of taken from bowels oil and oil gas), Moscow, 2005.
2. GOST R 8.647-2008. Metrologicheskoe obespechenie opredeleniya kolichestva nefti i neftyanogo gaza, dobytykh na uchastke nedr (Metrological maintenance of quantity definition of taken from site of bowels crude oil and oil gas), Moscow, 2009.
3. Khamidullina F.F., Gazizov A.A., Investigations of the influence of residual gas content in oil on the readings of flowmeters at the collection facilities, receiving-delivery at BPS-6A of Sheshmaoyl OAO (In Russ.), Vestnik Tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2012, no. 12, pp. 185Ц189.
4. Khamidullina F.F., Khamidullin R.F., Fatkhutdinova R.M., Valiev R.F., Drafting an operator''s manual on initial formation water separation and liquid-gas mixture pumping at Tumutuk oilfield (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2012, no. 6, pp. 45Ц52.
5. Khamidullina F.F., Khamidullin R.F., Study of the influence of residual content of gas in oil on the flow meter readouts at oil gathering and delivery-acceptance facilities (In Russ.), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Neft' i gaz, 2013, no. 2, pp. 64Ц69.вБ
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The article presents a generalization of the TransneftТs experience in increasing the volumes of oil products transportation by substitution excess capacity of oil pipelines by oil-products pipelines. To implement this program, the Pipeline Transport Institute has developed and implemented a number of technical solutions including the procedure for cleaning the internal surface of the linear part of oil pipelines and oil pumping stations technological pipelines form oil residues and asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits; selection of effective chemical solvents for asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits according to the results of experimental studies; methodology for assessing the readiness of pipelines to petroleum products transport by analyzing the changes in quality characteristics of reference petroleum products. When pipelines did not undergo special treatment the main reason of the change in oil products quality during transportation is their interaction with oil residues and asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits on the internal surfaces of pipelines. To ensure the cleaning tube walls from the deposits for each section of the oil pipeline we carried out an analysis of the composition and structure of deposits. According to this analysis result chemical solvents were selected and tested in laboratory conditions for the development of well-founded technical solutions. Technical decisions on treatment of the linear part of the pipelines and oil pumping stations technological pipelines provided complex approaches depending on operations conditions. For cleaning the linear part of pipelines along with chemical reagents pigs were applied. In case of itechnological pipelines usage of chemical reagents was combined with equipment steaming. As a results 2450 km of pipelines, 10 oil pumping stations and 2 oil depots of seaports were prepared to transportation of oil products.
2. Sapsay A.N., Projects "North" and "South" are no less significant than the TS "ESPO" (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport nefti, 2015, no. 12, pp. 10Ц11.
3. Shcherbanin Yu.A., Export deliveries of oil and petroleum products: flows, routs, transport mode''s competition (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2017, no. 1, pp. 22Ц27.
4. Nazarov V., Transneft optimistic on russian oil products export, Nefte Compass, 2016, URL:http://www.energyintel.com/pages/login.aspx?fid=art&DocId=929185.
5. Timofeev F.V., Lyapin A.Yu., Kuznetsov A.A., Podgotovka nefteprovodov k transportirovke tovarnykh topliv (Preparation of oil pipelines for transportation of commodity fuels), Collected papers УTruboprovodnyy transport Ц 2016Ф (Pipeline transportation - 2016), Proceedings of XI International educational and scientific-practical conference, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2016, pp. 179Ц181.
6. Timofeev F.V., Kuznetsov A.A., Oludina Yu.N., Chemmotological aspects of using solvents to remove asphaltene sediments from the internal surface of oil pipeline (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 5, pp. 90Ц97.
7. First-hand. Interview (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport nefti, 2016, no. 2, pp. 4Ц9.
8. Chentsov A.N., Timofeev F.V., Mukhametshin R.R., Zamalaev S.N., Experience of experimental and practical arrangements regarding preparation of the linear part of oil pipeline for transportation of diesel fuel of ecological class 5 according to the technical regulation of transportation facility 013/2011 (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 3, pp. 32Ц38.
9. Oludina Yu.N., Timofeev F.V., Otsenka effektivnosti sredstv udaleniya ASPO, primenyaemykh pri podgotovke nefteprovodov k transportirovke svetlykh nefteproduktov (Evaluation of the effectiveness of the removal of asphalt, resin, and paraffin deposition used in the preparation of pipelines for transportation of light oil products), Collected papers УTruboprovodnyy transport Ц 2017Ф (Pipeline transportation - 2017), Proceedings of XII International educational and scientific-practical conference, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2017, pp. 150Ц152.
10. Lisin Yu.V., Mastobaev B.N., Shammazov A.M., Movsum-zade E.M., Khimicheskie reagenty v truboprovodnom transporte nefti i nefteproduktov (The chemicals in the pipeline transport of oil and oil products), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2012, 358 p.
11. Khasanova K.I., Dmitriev M.E., Mastobaev B.N., More effective use of poverty and methods asphaltene deposition in the transport process of oil through pipelines (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2013, no. 3, pp. 7Ц12.
12. Revel'-Muroz P.A., Polyakov A.A., Fridlyand Ya.M., Switch to the transportation of diesel oil of the oil pipeline and equipment, applied on the facilities of JSC "Transneft" (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 2, pp. 16Ц20.
13. Kazantsev M.N., Timofeev F.V., Zamalaev S.N., Gil'manov M.R., Methods of detection, elemination and formation prevention of asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits in main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 3, pp. 50Ц56.
14. Kauk V.V., Privalenko A.N. et al., Analiz kachestva goryuchego (Fuel quality analysis), Moscow: Ul'yanovskiy Dom pechati, 2008, 695 p.вБ
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
In order to maintain the volume of oil and gas supplies, the number of oil and gas wells is being increased every year, the construction of drilling platforms is built up and thus the amount of sludge and waste drilling mud, which has to be recycled, is increased proportionally. The research is dedicated to actualization of the danger of introducing chemical substances into various natural environments from industrial and anthropogenic sources on an example of drill cuttings from oil fields of Tomsk Oblast (Parabelsky and Kargasoksky regions). More than half of all wastes from the oil and gas industry are drilling wastes, which are type of mining waste (enclosing rocks and the like). Ecologists wage a fight for toughening Russian legislation by model experience of other countries.
The paper considers four directions for ensuring environmental safety during the deployment of the sludge. Now, methods of biotesting can be applied in the implementation of state and industrial environmental quality control of natural and waste water. These methods set forth in ruling document RD 118-02-90 "Guidance for determining biotesting of water toxicity, bottom sediments, pollutants and drilling muds". Using of biotesting with physical-chemical methods is established as regulatory requirements for water quality and is intended for Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, territorial and subordinate organizations, also in scientific-research, design department and production organizations authorized to carry out works on biotesting.
In support of the importance of regarded work, two methods of biotesting are presented with the results allowing to classify the waste as 4-th class of hazard. It is allow to introduce changes in the Russian legislation to preserve the quality of the natural environment.
1. Bulatov A.I., Makarenko P.P., Proselkov Yu.M., Burovye promyvochnye i tamponazhnye rastvory (Drill mud and cement slurry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1999, 424 p.
2. Pikovskiy Yu.I., Ismailov N.M., Dorokhova M.F., Osnovy neftegazovoy geoekologii (Fundamentals of oil and gas geoecology): edited by Gennadiev A.N., Moscow: INFRA-M Publ., 2015, 400 p.
3. Belyakov A.Yu., Otsenka toksichnosti burovykh shlamov i ekologo-funktsional'nye osobennosti vydelennykh iz nikh mikroorganizmov (Estimation of toxicity of drilling muds and ecology-functional features of microorganisms isolated from them): thesis of candidate of biological science, Saratov, 2014, 173 р.
4. Yagafarova G.G., Barakhnina V.B., Utilization of environmentally hazardous drilling waste (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business , 2006, no. 1, pp. 48Ц61.
5. Kryuchkov V.N., Kurapov A.A., Assessment of the impact of drilling waste on hydrobionts (In Russ.), Vestnik Astrakhanskogo gos. tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Ser. Rybnoe khozyaystvo, 2012, no. 1, pp. 61Ц65.
6. BenkaCoker M.O., Olumagin A., Waste drilling fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location, Bioresource Technol., 1995, no. 53, pp. 211Ц215.
7. Okpokwasili G.C., Nnubia C., Effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a Nigerian offshore oilfield, Environ. Intern., 1995, V. 19, no. 6, pp. 923Ц929.
8. Halla S., Update on Directive 050: Drilling Waste Management, 2007.
9. Veil J.A., Evolution of slurry injection for management of drilling wastes, Environ. Protect., 2003, no. 1, pp. 20.
10. Garanina S.N., Deystvie otkhodov bureniya na fitoplankton (The effect of drilling wastes on phytoplankton), Proceedings of 1st congress of ichthyologists of Russia, Moscow: Publ. of VNIRO, 1997, 412 p.
11. Ryadinskiy V.Yu., Deneko Yu.V., Methods of disposal of drilling waste (In Russ.), Gornye vedomosti, 2004, no.4, pp. 82Ц90.
12. Azarova S.V., Yazikov E.G., Il'inskikh N.N., Assessment of the ecological hazard of wastes of mining enterprises in the Republic of Khakassia using the biotesting method (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2004, no. 4, pp. 55-59.вБ
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Pollution of waters that appears as a result of oil spills in the ice seas of the Arctic region inevitably leads to considerable violations in vulnerable ecosystems of the Arctic and also leads to negative social, economic and geopolitical consequences. The problem of effective elimination of emergency spills in the Arctic shelf acquires the increasing relevance for Russian oil and gas enterprises that realize the Strategy of the Arctic Zone Development and Ensuring National Security until 2020.
The most perspective method of oil spills emergency elimination in Arctic conditions since the end of the last century has considered is an application of dispersants Ц the surfactants accelerating process of natural dispersion of oil in the thickness of seawater due to weakening of an interphase tension on border of phases Ђoil-waterї. Under the influence of the energy of mixing arising from the waves movement, dispersants influence on an oil membrane, dividing it into globule from 1 to 5 micron which are absorbed by bacteria or are besieged on a bottom.
At the same time, the unique feature of dispersants is their Ђdotї applicability. The efficiency of a dispersant of the same structure substantially differs while using it in different weather conditions or because of the change of salinity of seawater. It also can be different for various oils and even for viscosity of oil of one brand at her cooling or aeration. This feature demands from producers of dispersants and from interested in it gas and oil enterprises considerable volume of pilot studies for determination of efficiency of dispersants at their use in specific conditions.
This work includes the analysis of methods of determination of dispersants efficiency from the point of applicability of such surfactants for elimination of emergency oil spills in the ice seas of the Arctic region. Requirements to methods of determination of dispersants efficiency in the ice seas are formulated and the concept of development of methods and means of determination of dispersants efficiency for elimination of oil spills emergency in the Arctic water areas which can become base for development and introduction of such domestic developments in the import substitution tendencies is offered.
1. Mansurov M.N., Surkov G.A., Zhuravel' V.I. et al., Likvidatsiya avariynykh razlivov nefti v ledovykh moryakh (Oil spill response in icy seas), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom, 2004, 423 p.
2. Colcomb K., Salt D., Peddar M., Lewis A., Determination of the limiting oil viscosity for chemical dispersion at sea, International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings, 2005, pp. 53Ц58.
3. Bonner J., Page C., Fuller C., Meso-scale testing and development of test procedures to maintain mass balance, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2003,
V. 47(9-12), pp. 406Ц414.
4. Fingas M., Decola E., Oil spill dispersant effectiveness testing in OHMSETT, Report submitted to Prince William Sound Regional CitizensТ Advisory Council (PWSRCAC), Anchorage, Alaska, 2006, 47p.
5. Brandvik P.J., Johansen Ø., Leirvik F. et al., Droplet breakup in subsurface oil releases, Part 1. Experimental study of droplet breakup and effectiveness of dispersant injection, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2013, V. 73(1), pp. 319Ц326.
6. Becker K.W., Coker L.G., Walsh M.A., A method for evaluating oil spill dispersants Ц Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness Test (EXDET), Ocean Technologies and Opportunities in the Pacific for the 90Тs Conference Proceedings, 1991, pp. 1486Ц1490.
7. Kaku V.J., Boufadel M.C., Venosa A.D., Weaver J., Flow dynamics in eccentrically rotating flasks used for dispersant effectiveness testing, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 2006, V. 6(4), pp. 385Ц406.
8. Bocard C., Castaing G., Dispersant effectiveness evaluation in a dynamic flow-through system: The IFP dilution test, Oil and Chemical Pollution, 1986, V. 3, pp. 433Ц444.
9. Brandvik P.J., Resby J.L.M., Daling P.S. et al., Oil in ice Ц JIP Report no. 19: Meso-scale weathering of oil as a function of ice conditions, Oil Properties, Dispersibility and In Situ Burnability of Weathered Oil as a Function of Time, 2010, no. 19.
10. Brandvik P.J., Knudsen O.O., Modestad M.O., Daling P.S., Laboratory testing of dispersants under arctic conditions, The Use of Chemicals in Oil Spill Response, 1995.
11. Mackay D., Szeto F., Effectiveness of oil spill dispersants Ц Development of a laboratory method and results for selected commercial products, Institute of Environmental Studies: University of Toronto, 1984.
12. Daling P.S., Lichtenthaler R.G., Chemical dispersion of oil, comparison of the effectiveness results obtained in laboratory and small-scale field tests, Oil and Chemical Pollution, 1986, V. 3, pp. 19Ц35.
13. Cox G.C., Schultz L.A., Dispersant effectiveness under Arctic conditions, including ice, Proceedings of the Forth Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program (AMOP), Technical Seminar, Edmonton, Alberta, Environment Canada, Ottawa, 1981.вБ
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