|OIL & GAS COMPANIES|
Abilities of data mining technology discover new ways to overcome technological challenges oil companies are facing. In order to obtain maximum effect thoughtful strategy for integrating these technologies in existing business processes is obligatory. This paper presents priority of cognitive technologies integration in the Upstream Division of Gazprom Neft PJSC. The article outlines the key steps from searching of relevant technologies for business challenges to solutions. In this paper noted that the most effective way to search for new relevant technologies in the artificial intelligence field is to cooperate with leaders in the digital technologies area such as leading Russian and international universities and research centers. For the formation of internal competencies in cognitive technologies the oil companies need to develop active cooperation with the innovative environment: participation in forums, specialized conferences, organization of seminars, technology sessions and roundtable discussion. The article also mentioned that the greatest effect of the cognitive technologies introduction could be achieved only when they are organic supplement of traditional knowledge and tools of petroleum engineering. It is noted that intellectualization changes the paradigm of field evolution: from digital based on partial automation to intellectual, not requiting human intervention in the most of decision-making processes. The digitalization of the oil and gas industry determines the course of petroleum engineer evolution: perform stream operations to the system integrated analysis with support of artificial intelligence.
1. Khasanov M.M., Prokof'ev D.O., Ushmaev O.S. et al., Promising Big Data technologies in petroleum engineering: the experience of the Gazprom Neft PJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 76–79.
2. Yakovlev V.V., Khasanov M.M., Prokof'ev D.O., Shushkov A.V., Technological development in Upstream Division of Gazprom Neft PJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 6–10.
3. Zaid Rawi, Machinery predictive analytics, SPE 128559, 2010.
4. Akande Kabiru O., Comparative analysis of feature selection-based machine learning techniques in reservoir characterization, SPE 178006-MS, 2015.
5. Gaganis V., Machine learning methods to speed up compositional reservoir simulation, SPE 154505-MS, 2012.6. The most important Big Data concepts and what they mean, URL: http://datafloq.com/read/important-big-data-concepts-what-they-mean/2988
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Portfolio analysis is an investment optimization tool and it is successfully used in various organizations and companies. While basics and principles of analysis have been known for a long time, its application in oil industry is limited. Exploration projects typically are described by high degree of uncertainty of the reservoir which defines usability of following methodology for selecting optimal set of projects for achieving certain aims. It is important to understand that portfolio analysis creates base for selecting various scenarios of Company development and balanced risk diversification, however, final portfolio is yet to be formed. Resulting scenarios are adjusted by including projects in crucial for Company regions of presence, or projects that are mandatory for implementation. Similarly, projects may be implemented which are shown as highly promising by results of scoring ranging, but are not included in portfolio. This work focuses on approbation of portfolio analysis methodology for creating flexible base for decision making in exploration. Perimeter of work includes 45 exploration projects in several subsidiary companies of Gazprom Neft. All of projects are described in terms of probabilistic approach, which allows estimation of range of key project parameters (oil initially in place, production profile, economic parameters, etc.). Theoretical base for methodology is described, and resulting portfolio is formed on base of suggested limits and aims.
1. Back M., Guercio C., Portfolio management for strategic planning and operational optimization, SPE 134339-MS, 2010.
2. Wang Z., Guo X., Zhai G. et al., Portfolio optimization and restructuring strategies for NOC under the declining oil price environment, SPE 176236-MS, 2015.
3. Hdadou H., McVay D.A., The value of assessing uncertainty in oil and gas portfolio optimization, SPE 169836-MS, 2014.
4. Simpson G.S., Lamb F.E., Finch J.H., Dinnie N.C., The application of probabilistic and qualitative methods to asset management decision making, SPE 59455, 2000.
5. Rose P.R., Risk analysis and management of petroleum exploration ventures, AAPG, 2012.
6. Willigers B.J.A., Majou F., Creating efficient portfolios that match competing corporate strategies, SPE 129259-MS, 2010.
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One of the main goals of an upstream company is the efficient reserves involvement into production. Year after year long-term and mid-term drilling program development is complicated by a few negative factors, in particular, decreasing reservoir quality. The major goal of this project is the formulation and application of multifaceted approach in mid-term drilling investment program development process. The need in business process optimization is fueled by a large amount of participants and the requirements in results’ expertize and consolidation, while work is distributed between contracting organizations and research centers. Despite the comprehensive communication pattern, investment program development is complicated by a certain issues, such as: the creation of qualitative and updated geological basis within the areas with high uncertainty degree; increasing fraction of hard to recover reserves; implementation of multivariate calculations; consolidation and processing of constantly increasing amount of data. This article is dedicated to the question of improvement and modernization of business process for long-term and mid-term investment programs development. Developed approach in investment program planning provided increasing efficiency of participant communication, and the principle of continuous improvement increased project results quality. Principle part of the project was concentrated within three major stages: geological basis creation and actualization, development plan optimization stage and the drilling program development. The main ideas, key issues and decisions aimed at business process optimization, are also presented in this article and described in details. Along with communication coordination between participants and information consolidation, optimized business process simplified the approval procedures at each stage. In parallel, there is a description of Gazpromneft NTC products, which were used in order to fulfill the project. Improved business process is one of the key achievements of this project, its competitive gain is the ability to adapt drilling investment program in a very short time due to the changing external factors, despite the amount of participants. This is of particular importance in the period of oil prices volatility. Developed in this way drilling investment program is optimal in term of both: technological land economical parameters, but also it takes into account all possible geological risks.
1. Kuznetsov M.A., Staritsyn M.F., Voronin Yu.G. et al., Conceptual geological modeling Upper Jurassic objects on the example of Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC (In Russ.), PRONEFT'', 2017, no. 1, pp. 38–42.
2. Kuznetsov M.A., Staritsyn M.F., Sitnikov A.N. et al., The practice of conceptual geological models development for the BV3-5 reservoirs of the Ob River’s left bank within the territory of the Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC activity (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 10, pp. 42–45.
3. Kurmanov O.E., Glavnov N.G., Balenko P.S., Bochkov A.S., Galiullin M.M., Application of conceptual geological modeling in the development of oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 58–61.
4. Bilinchuk A.V., Sitnikov A.N., Asmandiyarov R.N. et al., The geological well drilling rating as the basis for the comprehensive asset development planning (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 10–12.5. Sitnikov A., Asmandiyarov R., Pustovskikh A. et al., Well interventions program preparation by means of digital information systems at the southern Priobskoye field (In Russ.), SPE 182124-RU, 2016.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The common practice for the oil companies nowadays is to be involved into researches of oil and gas in folded regions. Problem of geological researches in such areas lie in complexity of structures and inaccessibility of these areas. By this work authors tried to show the main problems which were tackled by Gazprom Neft oil company during its practice in such regions. Non-seismic methods and their contribution into interpretation are shown. It is mentioned that the most conclusive method among non-seismic researches is geological survey calibrated against satellite photos. This method is efficient both in combination with seismic survey and as independent method of studying. The reason why dynamical interpretation is limited (or impossible) in high folded zones is considered. The importance of controlling the migration stage is noted and uncertainties that may arise at the migration stage when working with steeply falling borders are fixed. It was estimated influence of migration on final result in terms of ray-tracing modeling. Typical errors in the interpretation of migration artifacts are noted. Restrictions of 2D seismic were showed, represented a wave pattern on 2D profiles which are oriented not optimally. In the article was considered advantages of depth migration and was given proves of necessity of interpretational supporting of all stages of project.
1. Litvichenko D.A., Ray modeling results - the basis of acquisition system optimal parameters selection (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2016, no. 4, pp. 77–83.
2. Litvichenko D.A., Sorokin A.S., Nazyrov D.D., Primenenie tekhnologii luchevogo modelirovaniya pri proektirovanii sistemy seysmicheskikh nablyudeniy 3D v seysmogeologicheskikh usloviyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Application of the raypath modeling technology in the design of the 3D seismic surveillance system in the seismogeological conditions of Western Siberia), Proceedings of 18th Scientific and Practical Conference on the Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas Fields “EAGE-Geomodel’ 2016”, 12-15 September 2016, Gelendzhik.
3. Vermeer G.J.O., 3-D seismic survey design, Geophysical References Series, 2002, no. 12, p. 205.
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Currently many prospective areas within Western Siberia still remain understudied and potentially promising, despite the huge amount of exploration works. These areas are mostly tending to be located at the side parts of the basin. Because of significant distance from main infrastructure centers of the province, new projects are characterized by marginal economics. Therefore, the successful identification and implementation of such projects become possible only if there is complex approach for options revealing, optimization of project economics by early integrated concept of project development, licensing management, and modern technologies and approaches application.
Real case of one the Gazprom Neft Company assets is analyzed in the frameworks of current paper. Regional study had started several years before license was obtained. Project team prepared regional geological investigation and retrospective analysis of initial exploration activities, which allowed to reveal and estimate key geological features and potential risks. At the next step, when license area had become a part of Company project portfolio, the most prospective zones were identified and ranked in order to start exploration works. As a result license territory was split into two phases with relatively independent technical and investment decisions. One the key results of this work became complex optimal exploration program which could be applied to other assets of the company.
1. Reshenie VI Mezhvedomstvennogo stratigraficheskogo soveshchaniya porassmotreniyu i prinyatiyu utochnennykh stratigraficheskikh skhem mezozoyskikhotlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Decision VI of the interdepartmentalstratigraphic meeting on the review and adoption of refined stratigraphic schemes of the mesozoic deposits of Western Siberia), ovosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 2004, 114 p.
2. Kontorovich A.E., Kontorovich V.A., Ryzhkova S.V. et al., Jurassic paleogeographyof the West Siberian sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Geologiya I geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2013, V. 54, no. 8, pp. 972–1012.
3. Neyman V.B., Teoriya i metodika paleotektonicheskogo analiza (Theory and methodology of paleotectonic analysis), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 80 p.
4. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel – litologicheskikhlovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies -lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.5. Ampilov Yu.P., Ot seysmicheskoy interpretatsii k modelirovaniyu i otsenkemestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (From seismic interpretation to modeling and evaluation of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Spektr Publ., 2008, 384 p.
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In the current work the problem of natural fractures differentiation on the base of geomechanical and tectonophysical modelling and simulation is considered on the example of the naturally fractured carbonate reservoir of the East Siberia. It is established that the system of natural tectonic fractures is the main factor which controls productivity of the described reservoir. The fractures are characterized by high lateral discontinuity in terms of its kinematics and density even in the same tectonic blocks. As result wells productivities are highly volatile and poorly predictable. The main sources of information about fractures characteristics and distribution are seismic data and special geophysical methods, such as microimager and broadband acoustic logging. Initially, it was assumed that all natural fractures are permeable, but results of field geophysical surveys (PLT) and well production data revealed that productive zones do not correlate with the maximum fractured zones and these productive zones are distributed independently from the fractures trends. This fact led to the development of improved approach of fluidodynamic fracture assessment that considers static/morphological characteristics of the fracture, as well as their genesis, mechanism of loading, regional stress distribution and exact stress field around the fractures modified during the drilling process, exploration and wells production.
Such integration of the geological, geodynamical and geomechanical analyses allows to determine the state of stress in fractures and its contribution to fluid filtration possibility. This approach allows to improve the quality of the wells productivity forecast in case of the naturally fractured reservoir.
1. Bagrintseva K.I., Treshchinovatost' osadochnykh porod (Fracturing of sedimentary rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982.
2. Gzovskiy M.V., Osnovy tektonofiziki (Fundamentals of tectonophysics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975.3. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Standford University: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
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Professional community of petroleum engineers and geoscientists is facing strong intervention form artificial intelligence methods; although there is still no common understanding on how exactly these methods will be integrated in exploration and production workflows. Geoscience domain is very sensitive to expert knowledge and experience. Therefore the main challenge of artificial intelligence solutions is to accumulate and assimilate expert opinions in order to reproduce decision making process. Incorporation of such a priori information into machine learning models is still a relevant research task.
Intelligent interpretation of well logs data is presented in this paper using expert knowledge of Gazpromneft NTC engineers. In particular analysis is presented for two brownfields: Muravlenkovskoye and Priobskoye using clustering and classification hierarchical approach. Accuracy of forecast using this methodology is increased due to incorporation of sedimentological maps based on geological concepts of the fields. Comparison of different machine learning algorithms is discussed and crucial role of a priori knowledge is focused.
High importance within the workflow belongs to iterative process of validation of sand fraction forecast in wells. Therefore, new thin beds, initially left out of scope, can be distinguished and spatial trend of effective thickness can be evaluated. Involving data from other oilfields would allow creating artificial digital technician which would be trained by expert in order to help in intellectual data interpretation.
1. Wickham H., Tidy data, The Journal of Statistical Software, 2014, Issue 10.
2. Borazjani O., Ghiasi-Freez J., Hatampour A., Two intelligent pattern recognition models for automatic identification of textural and pore space characteristics of the carbonate reservoir rocks using thin section images, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2016, V. 35, Part A, pp. 944-955.
3. Hall M., Hall B., Distributed collaborative prediction: Results of the machine learning contest, The Leading Edge, 2016, V. 36 (3), pp. 267–269.4. Tengelidi D. et al., Fourier spectrums clustering for automated facies recognition of Field Y, Proceedings of 7th EAGE Saint Petersburg International Conference and Exhibition, 2016, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201600253.
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Planning geological prospecting occurs in terms of high uncertainty, i.e. lack and inaccuracy of information about the object of research. Concerning the geological exploration process is very risky, and it is necessary to estimate risks and systematically manage them. The key tool for decreasing geological uncertainties and managing risks is the compilation of a rational complex of prospecting works. Gazpromneft NTC LLC developed a new approach to the compilation of a rational complex of prospecting works. It is based on the probabilistic estimation of reserves, production profiles and economic indicators, as well as the calculation of the value of information (VOI).
As the result of this approach application the decision tree was built based on the value of information from the implementation of geological prospecting activities. The application of the approach provides to compile rational complex of geological prospecting activities at the early stages of appraisal as quick and efficient as possible, to assess the prospects and economic attractiveness of the project.
The approach was successfully applied in the Zapadno-Zimnya area, located in the Kondinsky district of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District. This area is characterized by a low degree of study. Its main prospects are associated with terrestrial and coastal-marine Jurassic deposits and clinoform deposits of the Cretaceous complex.
1. Trushkova L.Ya., Igoshkin V.P., Khafizov F.Z., Klinoformy neokoma – unikal’nyy tip neftegazonosnykh rezervuarov Zapadnoy Sibiri (Clinoform of the Neocomian - a unique type of oil and gas reservoirs in Western Siberia), St. Petersburg: Renome Publ., 2011.
2. Atlas “Geologiya i neftegazonosnost’ Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga” (Geology and oil and gas bearing of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug): Khanty-Mansiysk: Publ. of V.I. Shpielman Scientific and Analytical Center of Rational Subsurface Management AU, 2004, 149 p.
3. Rubtsov E.V., Dymochkina M.G., Obosnovanie veroyatnosti geologicheskogo uspekha (Substantiation of the probability of geological success), Collected papers ”Metodika otsenki novykh aktivov razvedki i dobychi uglevodorodov” (Methodology for assessing new exploration and production assets of hydrocarbons), St. Petersburg, Publ. of Gazpromneft'-NTC, 2016.4. Sizykh A.V., Vashevnik A.M., Goncharov A.S. et al., Estimating efficiency of exploration program based on value of information approach (In Russ.), PRO Neft', 2016, no. 1, pp. 46-52.
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Oil-rim reservoirs contain 13% of all oil reserves in the Russian Federation and refer to hard-to-recover oil reserves. Low initial saturation and features of the geological structure make it difficult to use traditional methods of maintaining reservoir pressure. The work with sweep efficiency takes now the first place and drilling multilateral wells plays a key role at this area. The main oil reservoirs of Novoportovskoye oil and gas condensate field refer to oil-rim reservoirs of subjacent and flanking types. The ratio of Gas Cap Pore Volume to Oil Rim Pore Volume is 1:1. Based on the development experience of Novoportovskoye oilfield it is observed a continuous dynamics of the increasing horizontal part of wells from 1000 to 1500 and 2000 meters. The developing of simple and reliable domestic technology gave impetus to increasing of total horizontal part of wells to 4000 meters, which was successfully realized at well No.2116. The drilling of multilateral wells at oil-rim reservoirs allows increasing of sweep efficiency. Adaptation and application of Russian technologies with cost lower than their foreign analogues leads to well productivity increasing by 50% and NPV increasing by 45%.
New perspectives of application of development systems with multilateral wells open up. And it will allow developing even more complex low permeability oil reservoirs with gas cap.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Modeling of hydraulic fracturing (HF) is the complex problem, which includes the description of many physical processes, including: the fluid flow in the fracture, deformation of the rock, fracture of the rock, proppant flow, etc. An effective solution of this problem requires a considerable number of simplifications and assumptions, which leads to various models of hydraulic fracturing. Presented article is devoted to the analysis and systematization of hydraulic fracturing models. A general system of equations for the fracturing problem is presented, and the aspects of transition from the initial equations to concrete models are considered. In this paper, we analyze both models that are traditionally used in industrial simulators (Lumped Pseudo3D, Cell-based Pseudo3D, Planar3D), and prospective models (Semi-analytical Pseudo3D, UFM Pseudo3D, Planar3D Bio, Full 3D), the implementation of which in the oil industry began recently. The basic approximations in the modeling of fracturing are considered, such as approximations of the effective continuous medium, the approximation of the small width, the incompressibility of the fracturing fluid, the approximation of small deformations and elastic mechanics, the approximation of the planar fracture shape, the approximation of the piecewise homogeneity of the formation along the vertical, the presence or absence of natural fractures network, the poroelastic effects, effects of proppant transport. It is indicated which approximations are used by each of the above-described fracture models. On this basis, conclusions about the range of applicability of certain models or fracturing simulators are drawn.
To summarize the results of analysis of the considered HF models, the systematization and hierarchy of HF models based on assumptions and limitations is proposed. The article also discusses possible directions for further development of hydraulic fracturing models.
1. Meyer B.R., Design formulae for 2-D and 3-D vertical hydraulic fractures: Model comparison and parametric studies, SPE 15240, 1986.
2. Meyer B.R., Cooper G.D., Nelson S.G., Real-time 3-D hydraulic fracturing simulation: Theory and field case studies, SPE 20658, 1990.
3. Clifton R.J., Brown U., Wang J-J., Multiple fluids, proppant transport, and thermal effects in three-dimensional simulation of hydraulic fracturing, SPE 18198, 1988.
4. Kurashlga Mlchlo, Clifton R.J., Integral equations for the problem of a 3d crack in an infinite, fluidfilled, poroelastic solid, SPE 19386, 1989.
5. Barree R.D., A practical numerical simulator for three-dimensional fracture propagation in heterogeneous media, SPE 12273, 1983.
6. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 35-40.
7. Pitakbunkate T., Yang M., Valko P.P., Economides M.J., Hydraulic fracture optimisation with a p-3D model, SPE 142303, 2011.
8. Paderin G.V., Modified approach to incorporating hydraulic fracture width profile in unified fracture design model, SPE 182034, 2016.
9. Weng X., Kresse O., Cohen C.-E. et al., Modeling of hydraulic-fracture-network propagation in a naturally fractured formation, SPE 140253-PA, 2011.
10. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Desroches J., Displacement of yield-stress fluids in a fracture, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2015, V. 76, pp. 47–63.
11. Golovin S.V., Baykin A.N., Stationary dipole at the fracture tip in a poroelastic medium, International Journal of Solids Structures, 2015, V. 69–70, pp. 305–310.
12. Clifton R.J., Wang J.J., Modeling of poroelastic effects in hydraulic fracturing, SPE 21871-MS, 1991.
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Calculation of incremental oil production by the application of a certain method of enhanced oil recovery for a particular development object remains complex, time-consuming task, requiring deep specialized knowledge in various areas. However, at an early stage, technology assessment, its elaboration, forecast its effectiveness, especially for a group of objects or fields often used so-called express methods: analytical approximations, statistical results of analogue deposits, as well as the typical oil production curves. Each of the above methods has drawbacks, some very coarse, others cover a narrow range of properties and cannot be applied simultaneously to a large number of different objects (by properties) to guarantee a unified approach and the rightness of the further analysis.
This work is devoted to the effectiveness assessment of the miscible displacement application based on using type curves. The article suggests the way to obtain the library type curves of incremental oil production from the implementation method based on compositional reservoir simulation. The approach is expensive only at the stage of creating type curves (definition of varied parameters, pitch their sampling, execution and processing of calculations), which is easily compensated by ease of use, scale, flexibility and scalability in the future. The analysis identified the main parameters for determining the effectiveness of the technology and proposed the boundaries of their variation, covering the range of changes in the properties of the fields studied. Their discretization was performed depending on the impact of the factor on the development forecasts, the oil miscible displacement by carbon dioxide or WAG. On the basis of type curve set some factors were identified (geological and technological) that affect the amount of incremental oil production and its behavior over time.
The generated library covers the entire range of geological and physical characteristics of the company object Gazprom Neft PJSC and efficiency can be applied to any development object.
1. Koottungal Leena, 2014 Worldwide EOR survey, Oil & Gas Journal, 2014, no. 4, pp. 79–91.
2. Denbury corporate presentation, 2017, April, URL: http://s1.q4cdn.com/ 594864049/files/doc_presentations/2017/April_2017-Corporate-Presentation_FINAL.pdf
3. Lake L.W., Walsh M.P., Technical report. Enhanced oil recovery, field data, literature search, Austin. 2008, 119 p.
4. Wood D.J., Lake L.W., Johns R.T., A screening model for CO2 Flooding and storage in Gulf coast reservoirs based on dimensionless groups, SPE 100021, 2006.
5. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.
6. Aladasani Ahmad, Bai Baojun, Recent development and updated screening criteria of enhanced oil recovery techniques, SPE 130726, 2010.
7. Stepanova G.S., Tolokonskaya L.D., Nenartovich T.L., Matasova O.A., Enhanced oil recovery from oil rim of East area of Orenburg gas condensate field (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost’ = GAS Industry of Russia, 2007, no. 3, pp. 38–41.
8. Khasanov M.M., Babin V.M., Melchaeva O.U. et al., Application of mathematical optimization techniques for well pattern selection, SPE 171163-MS, 2014.
9. Babin V.M., Vashevnik A.M., Ushmaev O.S. et al., A methodology for the refinement of well locations during operational drilling in presence of geological uncertainty (In Russ.), SPE 181992-MS, 2016.10. Surguchev M.L., Gorbunov A.T., Zabrodin D.P., Metody izvlecheniya ostatochnoy nefti (Methods of the residual oil extraction), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 308 p.
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Each year, new wells are drilled in reservoirs with poorer properties, in particular low permeability and low reservoir saturation. A need has been arising to create technologies that would allow developing hard-to-recover reserves that cannot be economically produced by traditional methods. For this purpose, new technologies and engineering solutions have been applied; new high-tech horizontal wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing (MSHF HW) have been designed and drilled. Thanks to its design features, a MSHF HW may have several times larger drainage area and, respectively, productive potential. It can be easily explained keeping in mind that, unlike a regular directional well, a MSHF HW has an up to 1.5 km long horizontal part drilled trough the reservoir where up to 30 hydrofrac stages may be performed with different designs, different technologies and hydrofrac equipment, and the hydraulic fractures may be directed along and across the strike.
Productivity of a MSHF HW is affected by many parameters, and as the active well count will be changing dynamically it is very important to identify the best technology solutions to improve operations efficiency based on both theoretical calculations and actual production results.As of early 2017, the most advanced MSHF HW technologies were tested at the Priobskoye field (Southern License Area). After the first year of operation of wells with different completion designs and MSHF technologies at about 50 pilot sites the leading technologies and engineering solutions have been identified that are proven to ensure the highest well productivity in terms of cumulative production
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Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field is a multi-layer reservoir fr om geological viewpoint. Main target – continental genesis pokurskaya formation – is characterized by heterogeneity high level. Significant part of reserves (over 50%) is located in delta facies, which is the discrete part of section. The most common way to develop discontinuous reservoir – horizontal wells with multifrac – was not realized because of 2 reasons: high risk of fracturing beyond the borders of oil-saturated zone; mechanical singularity of pokurskaya formation.
Multilateral wells wh ere approached to develop discontinuous reservoir. Two types of MLL were subdivided: two lateral cased horizontal parts with comparable length (TAML-2); one cased horizontal part with several uncased parts, which are much shorter than the main part (fishbone). For over 9 months of MLL wells performance with PLT running follow points were concluded: MLL wells productivity is higher than horizontal wells in the same geological conditions up to 60%; MLL wells decline is 25% higher than horizontal one, the most valuable reason – finishing of production in uncased parts.
Current estimation of NPV increase for MLL wells in compare with horizontal is up to 45%. Positive dynamic in well construction date and cost allows to increase number of lateral parts and reach the whole cased fishbone type wells, with keeping the economic efficiency level and increasing the production level of wells.
1. Zagrebel'nyy E.V., Martynov M.E., Kuznetsov S.V., Kovalenko I.V., Nartymov V.S., Ovcharenko Yu.V., Determination of the optimum type of completion and method of outputting horizontal well on the regime on the example of the layer Pk1-3 of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 5, pp. 40–43.
2. Zaikin I.P., Kempf K.V., Shkarin D.V., Experience in constructing a multilateral well in Zarubezhneft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 21–24.
3. Lyadova N.A., Il'yasov S.E., Okromelidze G.V. et al., The experience of design and construction of a multihole wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 3, pp. 58–60.
4. Voronin A.E. et al., An analysis of rotary steerable systems for sidetracking in open hole fishbone multilateral wells in Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), SPE 187702-RU, 2017.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
The article describes the special aspects of the well-kill operations in the complicated technological, geological and physical conditions of the Eastern part of the Orenburgskoye oil-gas-condensate field. The objective of this work is to increase the well-kill efficiency of the Orenburg Field on the basis of examination of the mechanisms that take place near the well hole during this operation. The application of multivariate analysis of well control processes, which were conducted from 2015 to 2016, allowed highlighting the underlying causes for low efficiency of the considered operations. Geological and technical factors that lead to unsuccessful operations were singled out. The significance of geomechanical approach coupled with the kill fluid rheology and filtration laboratory researches is considered in the context of the increase of well kill operation efficiency. The key tool of geomechanical approach is a wellbore stress state computation. The calculation results show that stress state near the wellbore crucially differs from regional stress state and varies depending on well pressure. Hence, the stress rearrangement affects the fracture flow deliverability near the borehole. Knowing the active zones in the fracture allows determination of regions and patterns of penetration of blocking compounds. Thus, the correct quantitative estimation of fracture deliverability can be considered as well kill success criterion. The revealed results of near wellbore process analysis and the laboratory tests of kill fluids can be applied in order to improve the well control processes on the Eastern part of the Orenburgskoye oil-gas-condensate field. The revealed mechanisms that take place near the wellbore coupled with the laboratory and pilot tests of the kill fluids, can be applied in order to improve the well control processes on the Eastern part of the Orenburgskoye oil-gas-condensate field.
1. Zhelonin P.V., Mukhametshin D.M., Archikov A.B. et al., Obosnovanie algoritma vybora tekhnologiy glusheniya skvazhin (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO "NK "Rosneft'", 2015, no. 2, pp. 76–81.
2. Orlov G.A., Kendis M.Sh., Glushchenko V.N., Primenenie obratnykh emul’siy v neftedobyche (Application of inverse emulsions in oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 225 p.
3. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, UK, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 505 p.
4. Al'chibaev D.V., Glazyrina A.E., Ovcharenko Yu.V. et al., Application of 3D and near-wellbore geomechanical models for well trajectories optimization (In Russ.), SPE 187830-RU, 2017.
5. Bazyrov I., Glazyrina A., Lukin S. et al., Time-dependent hydro-geomechanical reservoir simulation of field production, Procedia Structural Integrity, 2017, v. 6, p. 228–235, https://doi/10.1016/j.prostr.2017.11.035
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
622.692 + 532.542
The paper analyses multiphase flow induced vibration on gathering pipeline on Novoportovskoe field. At high gas and liquid flow rates, a slug flow regime is formed in the pipeline, in which areas with a high liquid content (slug) and low liquid content (bubbles) alternate in the flow. The slug with high liquid content is pushed by the gas flow and its velocity can reach significant values exceeding the gas and liquid velocities as a mixture. Due to the high velocity (up to 25 m / sec on the object under consideration), this flow regime can have a significant mechanical impact on the pipeline during the passage of the
U-shaped expansion units. When the plug passes through the expansion units, the forces acting on the turns of the pipeline (knee) are unbalanced; this can cause the appearance of a short but significant force trying to move the pipeline. Under certain conditions, these forces can significantly exceed the frictional forces holding the pipeline and cause pipeline displacements, and increase the risk of mechanical damage to the pipeline (for example, when it falls from the supports). An important factor affecting slug dynamics is the terrain relief under pipeline - in the upward flow parts, it is possible to form severe slugs that can travel long distances and has a high influence.
The paper consider a model of multiphase flow taking into account the hydrodynamic and terrain slugging, propose a model of flow influence on a pipeline, describe graphical tools for estimating the degree of influence of the flow on the pipeline. Model proposed compared with field measurements. Recommendations are given to reduce the negative effect of the slug flow on the pipeline.
1. Povyishev K., Vershinin S., Vernikovskaya O., Specifics of development, infrastructure construction and production of oil-gas-condensate fields. Integrated model application experience, SPE 187857, 2017.
2. Sugaipov D.A., Bazhenov D.Yu., Devyat'yarov S.S. et al., Integrated approach to oil rim development in terms of Novoportovskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 60–63.
3. Bratland O., Pipe Flow 2. Multiphase flow assurance, 2013, URL: http://www.drbratland.com/
4. Hou D., Tijsseling A., Borkus Z., Dynamic force on an elbow caused by a traveling liquid slug, ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 2014, V. 136, no. 3, pp. 031302-1/11.
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The history of the development of projects related to the strategy of the company intellectual field development & production (ERA) began in 2013 with the information systems ERA.Mechfond and Electronic Shahmatka. To date, the platform ERA is composed of over 30 modules associated with oil production for the automation of business processes, report generation, engineering calculations and monitoring of deviations fr om preset modes. The system was put into commercial operation in seven subsidiaries of Gazprom Neft, as the system is deployed in the STC and the Corporate center. Currently, there are already over 1800 unique registered users. The company has received 12 certificates of registration of computer programs and in the development attended 6 different structural units. During the operation of the information modules ERA has allowed a 60% reduction in non-productive time of technical staff, improve data quality, efficiency of management decision-making, increase MTBF and to produce additional volume of hydrocarbons.
In the article methodical approaches are considered for a comprehensive assessment of the profitability of the fund and optimization of oil production processes implemented in a common IT platform that is able to consolidate continuously incoming large volumes of updated data in order to determine the optimal parameters and operating modes. The analysis is carried out taking into account the linkage of the calculation of the technological lim it to achieve the minimum bottomhole pressure existing on the market pump equipment, the dynamics of residual recoverable oil reserves, the forecast of the production of the well for failure, the consumption of electricity from the operating mode of the well, the impact on the optimization of infrastructure, complicating and other factors. Continuous self-adaptation of the model for forecasting NPVs for individual objects with the definition of an economic extremum is taken into account. The main result should be on-line formation of optimal well operation scenarios in order to increase profitability. The developed approaches open up new opportunities for increasing operational efficiency of oil field exploitation.
1. Khasanov M.M., Prokof'ev D.O., Ushmaev O.S., Belozerov B.V. et al., Promising Big Data technologies in petroleum engineering: the experience of the Gazprom Neft PJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 76–79
2. Doktor S.A., Korolev D.M. et al., Organising artificial lifting management: example of Electronic Fields Development project (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 70–72.
3. Jacobs T., Automated drilling technologies showing promise, JPT, 2015, V. 67, no. 6 (June).
4. Rawi Zaid, Machinery predictive analytics, SPE 128559, 2010.
5. Stone P., Introducing predictive analytics: Opportunities, SPE 106865, 2007.
6. Makarov A.V., Ekonomicheskie voprosy proektirovaniya i razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Economic issues of design and development of oil fields), St. Peterburg: Nedra Publ., 2010, 196 p.7. Khasanov M.M., Maksimov Yu.V., Skudar' O.O. et al., Cost engineering in Gazprom Neft PJSC: current situation and future development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 30–33.
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Decision making in the field of oil engineering is characterized with a high level of uncertainty in geology and economics. Information technologies systems are significant instruments implemented to reduce the uncertainty and improve the quality of decisions. This article is dedicated to the problem of the surface facilities design. The classical approach of the fixed production profile does not consider the risks in the uncertainties of geology and production systems. Gazprom Neft is applying the method of 3-variants production profiles during conceptual design. However, this method does not guarantee to get the optimal decision.
To find the optimal condition of surface facility, considering the variance in initial production data, new approach has been developed. This approach includes the probabilistic production profiles and was developed on the base of integrated conceptual design system ERA:ISKRA. The case of regional strategy for the group of oil deposits is described and step-by-step calculations are provided using ERA:ISKRA. The method has been tested during conceptual project: determination of optimal external transport system configuration. As a result, the aforementioned approach has been implemented in ERA:ISKRA. This method allows determining the optimal and persistent recommended variant, with minimal costs or maximal economy efficiency. Due to automatization of technical characteristics and economic parameters calculations, the analysis of surface facilities schemes has been performed, which would not be possible without information system ERA:ISKRA.
1. Technical Report: Guidance for decision quality for multicompany upstream projects, SPE 181246, 2016.
2. Ismagilov R.R., Maksimov Yu.V., Ushmaev O.S. et al., Integrated model for complex management of reservoir engineering and field construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 71–73.
3. Ismagilov R.R., Panov R.A., Gil'mutdinova N.Z. et al., Economic-mathematical modelling of optimal pipeline configuration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 60–63.
4. Mozhchil A.F.,Tret'yakov S.V., Dmitriev D.E., Gil'mutdinova N.Z. et al., Technical and economic optimization of well pads calculation at the stage of integrated conceptual design (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 4, pp. 126–129.
5. Batrashkin V.P., Ismagilov R.R., Panov R.A. et al., The integrated conceptual design as a tool of systematic engineering (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 80–83.
6. Alekseev A., Intelligent acceleration (In Russ.), Sibirskaya neft', 2017, no. 6/143, pp. 22–27.
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A large amount of data accumulates during the process of any oilfield development, which leads to waste of time and resources for data processing and systematization that precedes the stage of decision-making for optimization of wells work. This leads to the fact that the reservoir engineers most of the time do not spend on field development analysis, but for data preparation for this analysis, which significantly reduces the efficiency of the human resource. This article presents the way of releasing human resources / reservoir engineers from the data processing and systematization with usage of specific software product that automates the process of data preparation from the database. The development of this software product was done in the development environment MS Visual Basic for Application. On a daily basis this software independently makes the request and upload from the database all the latest information about the wells, conducts preliminary processing on the basic algorithms, and prepares the information in a convenient form for analysis to reservoir engineers that without preliminary preparation of the data immediately spend their working time on analysis of field development.
In the future it is also seen the option of automated recommendations making for reservoir engineers for wells management, affecting the change operation modes of wells, wells shifting, etc., which will also lead to additional reduction of human resources of reservoir engineers and improve their efficiency. Presented in this article approach allows to not only reduce right now the quantity of reservoir engineers for analysis of the oilfield development, but also significantly improve the efficiency of their work. The developed program will be included in the platform Era.Grad in order to unify solutions and replication for use in other fields of Gazprom Neft PJSC.
1. About queries and subqueries, URL: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/B10501_01/ server.920/a96540/queries2a.htm.
2. URL: https://habrahabr.ru/post/43955/
3. Knuth D., The art of computer programming, Vol. 1. Fundamental algorithms, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 2011.
4. Sitnikov A.N., Pustovskikh A.A. et al., Proactive block-factor analysis of oil field development (In Russ.), SPE 176572-RU, 2015.
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Production logging and well testing are a source of key information for the design and control of field development. The relevance, reliability and completeness of these researches depend on how effective decisions are made at all stages of field development. Reliable results of field researches: production logging and well testing are important source of information on well and reservoir characteristics, bottom-hole area, inter-well interaction etc.
Within the framework of continuous improvement of the efficiency of process control and optimization, Gazprom Neft develops a number of projects in the field of production logging and well testing to develop tools and technologies aimed at solving the number of challenges. Increasing the complexity of the resource base, the development of low-permeability reservoirs, oil rims and fractured reservoirs requires the development of new approaches in the planning and processing of field researches. An increase in the number of oil assets and an increase in the number of wells with high-precision downhole telemetry lead to an increase in the number of field researches. This circumstance, coupled with the current preservation of the volume of labor resources at the current level, leads to the need to create automated systems for preparing and processing data. High resource consumption of well operations and complex geological structure of new assets of the Company raises the price of a possible error, which is associated with incorrect decisions, based on incomplete or unreliable results of field research. In this regard, comprehensive measures are needed to increase the reliability of the results of processing production logging and well testing, as well as assessing the reliability of all estimated parameters.The article briefly describes completed and ongoing projects aimed at developing technologies and tools for production logging and well testing researches in the following areas: centralization and verification of field research data, automation of well-testing interpretation, development of a methodological and software system for optimal well testing planning, optimal well planning based on the value of information (VOI), generating of reservoir pressure maps based on proxy modeling, implemented of new production logging technologies and the development of a temperature simulator.
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Operation well data is a foundation of effective analysis. Unfortunately, some parts of data are not always correct, so it is difficult to perform meaningful analysis. The following problems are often encountered: the lack of information for some time intervals, measurements do not always correspond to a physical model or do not coordinate with each other. Similar problems can be associated with both malfunction of gauge devises and human factor.
Results of production solutions directly depend on the quality of initial geological and production data. Solutions based on inaccurate information can lead to negative consequences, therefore it is necessary to verify data operatively for accuracy and consistency. Currently, the amount of incoming information increases and requirements for data quality rise; therefore it is impossible to verify data manually. As a result it becomes an urgent task to develop algorithms for automated analysis of field data.
This paper presents an overview of hierarchy of approaches to data management in production and development. The most promising areas for development are mentioned in the paper. Three approaches to verify data are considered in details. Also a practical example is given for each approach. The first is based on conventional statistical methods, the second relies on physical models and the last one uses algorithms for processing large amount of information - machine learning methods. Considering constant growth of incoming information quantity, it seems most promising to develop the area of Data Science (in collaboration with analytical models), which focuses on integrated approach for analyzing large amounts of information using machine learning methods.
1. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Modelirovanie protsessov neftegazodobychi. Nelineynost', neravnovesnost', neopredelennost' (Modelling of oil and gas production processes. Nonlinearity, disequilibrium, uncertainty), Moscow-Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2004, 368 p.
2. Shulenin V.P., Matematicheskaya statistika (Math statistics), Part 2: Neparametricheskaya statistika (Nonparametric statistics), Tomsk: NTL Publ., 2012, 388 p.
3. El-Khatib N.A., Waterflooding performance of communicating stratified reservoirs with log-normal permeability distribution, SPE 37696-MS, 1997.
4. Brooks R.H., Corey A.T., Hydraulic properties of porous media, Colorado State Univ. Hydrol. Paper, 1964, no. 3, 27 p.5. Breunig M.M., Kriegel H.-P., Ng R.T., Sander J., Identifying density-based local outliers, Proceedings of the 2000 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, SIGMOD, 2000, pp. 93–104.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The article provides the information about special features of structure, lithology, stratigraphy and conditions of formation of Upper Devonian sediments of Lyzha-Kyrtael arch (LKV) and Pechorogorodskaya step (PS) of Pechora-Kolva aulakogen (PKA). Upper Devonian complex within Timan-Pechora province is one of the main complex considering the predicted resources and hydrocarbon potential. Upper Devonian complex has a complicated structure, dramatic facies variation and instability of facies zones through geological time. The paper provides the range of the main cross-section types and shows stratigraphically completed and uncompleted cross-sections of Upper Devonian sediments within LKV and PS. It was observed that completeness of cross-section of Upper Devonian complex depends on paleotectonic elements association (main trough, adjacent trough or tectonic steps). It was considered that the types of cross sections are connected to difficult paleorelief, which covered the area in Frasnian time. The detailed correlation scheme of the area is compiled; the main markers and formations are defined. It was noted that in addition to depression Domanic sediments the shallow shelf sediments of frasnian age were defined within the area. The following facies complexes were determined within LKV and PS: facies of starved basin and paleoelevations in there, facies of carbonate blocks and lagoon facies. Upper Devonian complex development in Timan-Pechora province took place during four deposition stages: Semiluki, Don, Sosnovski and Ust-Pechora-Dzhebol. Optimum conditions for good reservoir properties formation are associated with upper Frasnian terrigenous-carbonates, organogenic-hemogenic and organogenic massif and their flanks, and also related to adjacent trough of PKA. Also good conditions for reservoir formation are associated with separate intervals in Famenian age.
1. Valeev R.N., Avlakogeny Vostochno-Evropeyskoy platformy (The Aulacogenes of the East European Platform), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 388 p.
2. Parmuzina L.V., Verkhnedevonskiy kompleks Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii (stroenie, usloviya obrazovaniya, zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya kollektorov i neftegazonosnost’) (Upper Devonian a complex of the Timan-Pechora province (the structure, conditions of formation, placement patterns of collectors and oil and gas bearing)), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2007, 152 p.3. Kochetov S.V., Parmuzina L.V., Stroenie, usloviya formirovaniya otlozheniy, zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya kollektorov i neftegazonosnost’ verkhnedevonskogo kompleksa Pechoro-Kozhvinskogo megavala i Srednepechorskogo poperechnogo podnyatiya (The structure, conditions of formation of deposits, placing patterns of collectors and oil and gas bearing of the Upper Devonian complex of Pechoro-Kozhvinskiy megaswell and Srednepechorskoye cross raising), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2013, 144 p.
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In recent times there are an active investigations and exploration of natural bitumen and high-viscosity oils. Reservoirs of high-viscosity oil are characterized by high lithological and structural heterogeneity. According to knowledge of heterogeneity new tasks arise for lithological and petrophysical studies of such reservoirs: development of interpretation technique of geophysical well logging data which is suitable for investigating structures; analysis of the obtained information on the geological structure, petrophysical properties and estimation of the reserves of the investigated object based on the results of interpretation and laboratory studies of the core.
The article describes the influence of sand complex types on estimation of reserves of high-viscosity oil by the example of two terrigenous uplifts of the Sheshhminskiy horizont of Ufimian stage on the south-east of the Republic of Tatarstan. The results of the research showed that the deposits of high-viscosity oil of Nizhniy-Karmal and Melnichniy uplifts have a block structure and are subdivided into three types of sand complexes, each type having different values wavelet-GK extremes. Complexes of the type 1 are the most promising in terms of reservoir development by the steam-thermal methods of extracting high-viscosity oil, since they contain a minimum amount of clay material filling the inter-grain space, which is largely filled with fluid. Complexes of the type 2 are promising in terms of development of a reservoir in the contact zone with complexes of the type 1. With the predominance of complexes of the type 3, the reservoir porosity and permeability decrease and as a result decrease reserves estimates.
1. Uspenskiy B.V., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': Gart Publ., 2008, 348 p.
2. Grunis E.G., Primenenie novykh podkhodov k interpretatsii materialov GIS pri podschete zapasov sverkhvyazkoy nefti i proektirovanii gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (The application of new approaches to the interpretation of well logging in the calculation of super-viscous oil reserves and the design of horizontal wells), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference “Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny i GRP v povyshenii effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy” (Horizontal wells and fracturing in increasing the efficiency of development of oil fields), Kazan': Slovo Publ., 2017, 320 p.
3. Kosarev V.E., Correlation of well logs with use of wavelet-images of log curves (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2006, no. 1, pp. 37–48.
4. Grunis E.G., Khasanov D.I., Reserves calculation using the volume and probability methods with the aid of Petrel-2013 program package (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2017, no. 5, pp. 129–134.
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Using the Rock-Eval pyrolytic method, a comparative analysis of bituminous rock samples from the Permian deposits of the Ashalchinskoye oil deposit and the house (Domaniñ) deposits of the Romashkinskoye oil field was carried out and their oil-generating potential was estimated. It is shown that according to the content of organic matter, rocks differentiate from very good productive deposits to satisfactory. Permian rocks contain a high content of free hydrocarbons, after extraction, which the oil-producing potential of rocks sharply decreases. The residual organic matter is characterized by low values of the hydrogen index, high values of the oxygen index and a low degree of maturity, which is typical for kerogen of type III, formed from the sediments of the continental type. A distinctive feature of the dominant rocks is the low content of free hydrocarbons and the high content of insoluble kerogen of types I and II associated with organic matter of marine origin and possessing high oil and gas generation potential, the realization of which with the formation of free hydrocarbons is possible using technologies simulating artificial maturation of kerogen directly in productive layers. The heterogeneity of rocks from the Permian and Domanic deposits by the oil-generating potential determined by the different organic matter contents in rocks, by its nature and resistance to thermal effects, indicates the various possibilities and conditions for its implementation.
1. Khisamov R.S., Abdulmazitov R.G., Zaripov A.T., Ibatullina S.I., Stages of development of bitumen pools in the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 7, pp. 43–45.
2. Muslimov R.Kh., Romanov G.V., Kayukova G.P. et al., Kompleksnoe osvoenie tyazhelykh neftey i prirodnykh bitumov permskoy sistemy Respubliki Tatarstan (Integrated development of heavy oil and natural bitumen of Permian system of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan’: Fen Publ., 2012, 396 p.
3. Khisamov R.S., The field development strategy at a later stage, the prospects for extraction of hydrocarbon resources from unconventional sources of hydrocarbons in the Tatarstan Republic (In Rus.), Burenie i neft', 2015, no. 1, pp. 40–44.
4. Khisamov R.S., Bazarevskaya V.G., Tarasova T.I. et al., Geochemical evidence for petroleum potential of Domanic deposits in the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 10–13.
5. Burdel'naya N.S., Bushnev D.A., Mokeev M.V., Structural evolution in the kerogen during artificial and natural maturation by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy (In Russ.), Vestnik IG Komi NTs UrO RAN, 2015, no. 6, pp. 33–39.
6. Kayukova G.P., Feoktistov D.A., Nosova F.F. et al., Neftegeneratsionnyy potentsial permskikh otlozheniy v zavisimosti ot soderzhaniya, sostava i termicheskoy ustoychivosti organicheskogo veshchestva v porodakh (Petroleum potential of Permian deposits depending on the content, composition and thermal stability of organic matter in rocks), Proceedings of Scientific and Technical Conference, Bugul'ma, 13–14 April 2016, Naberezhnye chelny: Publ. of Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2016, pp. 62–67.
7. Kayukova G.P., Mikhailova A.M., Feoktistov D.A. at al., Conversion of the organic matter of Domanic Shale and Permian bituminous rocks in hydrothermal catalytic processes, Ånergy&Fuels, 2017, V. 31(8), pp. 7789–7799.
8. Petrov S.Ì., Ibragimova D.A., Safiulina A.G. et al., Geothermal conversion of organic matter in the carbonaceous medium in the presence of homogeneous oxidation catalysts, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2017, V. 159, pp. 497–505.
9. Disnar J.R., Guillet B., Keravis D. et al., Soil organic matter (SOM) sharacterization by Rock-Eval pyrolysis: scope and limitations, Organic Geochemistry, 2003, V. 34, pp. 327–343.
10. Tissot B.P., Welte D.H., Petroleum formation and occurrence, Springer-Verlag Telos, 1984, 699 p.
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This paper presents core data on the composition and reservoir properties of the Famenian carbonate rocks in typical well section on the southern slope of South-Tatarian Arc. The core data include structures, minerals, reservoir properties measurements from previous studies and geochemical signs, just received by method of electron spin resonance (ESR).
Investigated intervals of 16 and 6 m thicknesses belong to the Famenian stage. The thickest interval is composed of grainstones and packstones. The second interval is composed of mainly packstones. The granulated fossils predominate in the studied limestones. Porous space is controlled by primary structure and also by leaching processes, secondary calcite mineralization and stylolites. The interval of 16 m concludes four layers on thin sections data and reservoir properties. The interval of 6 m belongs to one layer. ESR data have been obtained on 22 samples collected with step 0.6-1.2 m along the section. ESR spectra are characterized by narrow lines, pointing on marine genesis of carbonates. Paramagnetic centers of Mn2+ and SO2- have been observed as typical labels of rocks due by processes of carbonate sedimentation. A symbate behavior of Mn2+ and SO2- contents along the section correlates with reservoir characteristics increasing. A diverse behavior of Mn2+ and SO2- contents corresponds to reservoir characteristics decreasing. It can be explained by the unaltered carbonates in the first case and the altered carbonates in the second case because of the leaching, secondary crystallization, adding of the paramagnetic ions and redistribution of paramagnetic centers in new formed mineral phases.
1. Bulka G.R., Nizamutdinov N.M., Mukhutdinova N.G. et al., EPR probes in sedimentary rocks: the features of Mn2+ and free radicals distribution in the Permian formation in Tatarstan, Applied Magnetic Resonance, 1991, V. 2, no. 1, pp. 107–115.
2. Nurgalieva N.G., Galeev A.A., Issledovanie porod metodom ESR (Research of rocks by ESR method), Collected papers “Stratotipicheskiy razrez tatarskogo yarusa na reke Vyatke” (Stratigraphic section of Tatarian stage on the Vyatka River), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2001, pp. 56–68.
3. Nurgalieva N.G., Khasanova N.M., Gabdrakhmanov R.R., Conditions of formation of Urzhum stage deposits on ESR data (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Ser. Estestvennye nauki, 2010, V. 152, no. 1, pp. 226–234.
4. Fakhrutdinov E.I., Nurgalieva N.G., Khasanova N.M., Silant'ev V.V., The Lower Kazanian substage in the key section: lithologies and paleoenvironments based on the ESR data (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta, 2015, V. 157, no. 3, pp. 87–101.
5. Nurgalieva N.G., Anikina E.A., Khasanova N.M., The Tournesian reservoir limestones on core petrophysical and geochemical data (Southern slope of South-Tatarian Arc) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 46–48.
6. Nurgalieva N.G., Smelkov V.M., Kal'cheva A.V., Lithological and petrophysical features of Famenian and Tournesian carbonate reservoir rocks (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2013, no. 4, pp. 38–44.
7. Nurgalieva N.G., On influence of stylolites on reservoir properties of famennian carbonate rocks using Fourier spectra (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 16–19.
8. Dunham R.J., Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture, In: Classification of carbonate rocks – a symposium, AAPG Mem., 1962, V. 1, pp. 108–121.
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The problem of assessing the core saturation of rocks, which existed in the development of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic deposits, caused this research work, the elaboration of methods and the search for objective dependencies for solving it. One of the found and possible in the implementation was the method of pyrolysis and subsequent oxidation. Depending on the degree of oxidation, bitumens retain the ability to be partially (and sometimes completely) extracted when using core extraction methods with organic solvents (hot and even cold). In this case, uncontrolled overestimation of the total porosity and distortion of the parameters of absolute gas permeability occurs. To study the bituminous nature of reservoir rocks, it is possible to use thermal analysis methods that do not require special sample preparation and allow analysis of organic matter directly in the core material. One of the thermal methods of analysis is pyrolysis in the Rock Eval 6 installation. Pyrolytic analysis provides a quantitative assessment of organic matter components (oil and bitumen) contained in the reservoir rock. The study was conducted according to the method of Reservoir. The main goal of the study is to determine the boundaries of the mobility of organic matter and the criteria for oil-bitumen differentiation in the core.
The paper proposes the use of a pyrolytic method for estimating the structure of hydrocarbon saturation with respect to the core. Based on a comparison of laboratory studies with test data, the criteria for estimating the oil-saturated intervals for the core are identified. The criteria for estimating bitumenization of reservoirs are proposed.
1. Bazhenova T.K., Evolution of oil and gas generation in the Earth's history and petroleum prediction in sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2009, V. 50, no. 4, pp. 412–424.
2. Bazhenova T.K., Kazais V.I., History of oil and gas formation and accumulation in northwest Siberian platform (historical, geochemical and structural analysis) (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2011, V. 6, no. 2.
3. Espitalie J., Bordenave M.L., Rock-Eval pyrolysis, In: Applied petroleum geochemistry: edited by Bordenave M.L., Paris: Editions Technip, 1993, pp. 237–361.
4. Espitalie J. et al., Assessment of oil content using a Rock-Eval device with a computer (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1994, no. 1, pp. 23–32.
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At present, rotary steerable systems are widely used for drilling wells with a large departure from the vertical. The article presents the reasons for the decrease in the system's operability when drilling wells in the territory confined to the Verkhnekamskoye deposit of potash-magnesium salts. The design of the control system of the drilling device is determined, which is pin-joint shaft, which is rolled in supporting node. The shaft angle change is made by creating a deflection force with three wedges located at a radial offset of 120 degrees relative to each other. Each wedge is set in a motion by an electric motor with a planetary gear. The maximum angle of the shaft is 2.5 degrees.
The pin-joint shaft is subjected to strength calculations, which are acted on by axial load, torque and pressure of the drilling fluid during drilling, since the greatest loads arise in the joint of the pin-joint shaft. Mathematical strength calculations evaluated the efficiency of the pin-joint shaft at various parameters of the well drilling mode with horizontal termination. Under the most severe loading conditions, the safety coefficient of the pin-joint shaft at the design maximum contact pressure is equal to 2.75, the calculated value of the contact stresses is lower than permissible. In addition, in the software multi-processor complex ANSYS, the shaft is modeled by the finite element method. The maximum stresses obtained in the contact zone of the keys with the cylindrical grooves of the driven shaft are lower than the design tolerances. This confirms the correctness of the materials choice and design of the control system.
During the construction of directional wells with a large deviation from the vertical in fields confined to the Verkhnekamskoye deposit of potash-magnesium salts, the control system should provide transmission to the bit with an axial load of up to 180 kN, a torque of up to 10 kN∙m and a flush fluid pressure of up to 40 MPa.
1. Baldenko D.F., Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Ways to further improvement of well drilling by downhole drilling motors (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, no. 19, pp. 165–174, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.19.7
2. Samigullin V.Kh., Preduprezhdenie i likvidatsiya oslozhneniy pri burenii gorizontal’nykh skvazhin (Prevention and control of complications when drilling horizontal wells): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1999.
3. Nikolaev N.I., Kozhevnikov E.V., Enhancing the cementing quality of the well with horizontal profile (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2014, no. 11, pp. 29–36, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2014.11.3
4. Barton S., Card K., Pierce G., Delivering steering success in problematic soft-formation directional wells, SPE 115138-PA, 2009.
5. Sugiura J., Bowler A., Lowdon R., Improved continuous azimuth and inclination measurement by use of a rotary-Steerable system enhances downhole-Steering automation and kickoff capabilities near vertical, SPE 166099-PA, 2014.
6. Gravem T., Lee J., Lofts J., Fast track to optimum well positioning: Inteq logging-while-drilling technologies are improving real-time formation evaluation and well positioning, Hart’s E and P, 2006, Issue JULY.
7. Krysin N.I., Melekhin A.A., Dombrovskiy I.V. et al., Study of an information transmission channel in drill pipes during wells construction using rotary steerable system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 80–82.
8. Khalilov A., Prevention and control of complications when drilling horizontal wells (In Russ.), Burenie i servis, 2016, pp. 58–60.
9. Rynok bureniya gorizontal’nykh skvazhin i zarezki gorizontal’nykh bokovykh stvolov: tekushchee sostoyanie i prognoz razvitiya do 2027 goda (The market of horizontal drilling and horizontal sidetracking: current state and development forecast until 2027), URL: http://rpi-consult.ru/reports/dobycha-nefti-i-gaza/rynok-bureniya-gorizontalnykh-skvazhin-i-zarezki-...
11. Ust’kachkintsev E.N., Increase productivity of construction in sidetrack of Verkhnekamsk potassium-magnesium salts field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 5, pp. 39–46.
12. Novosel’tsev D.I., Epikhin A.V., Anisimov A.V., A method, applied for calculation of loads on the deflection module of the rotary steerable system to determine the risk of the system failure (In Russ.), Stroitel’stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2017, no. 6, pp. 4–8.
13. Patent application no. 2017113661 RF, Blok otkloneniya sistemy upravleniya burovym ustroystvom (Deviation block for the drilling control system), Inventors: Melekhin A.A., Turbakov M.S., Rusinov D.Yu., Chernyshov S.E., Zlobin A.A.14. Pisarenko G.S. et al., Spravochnik po soprotivleniyu materialov (Handbook on the resistance of materials), Kiev: Naukova dumka Publ., 1988, 736 p.
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The paper reviews the research on testing of the telemetry system block in the conditions of Perm region wells. There are axial, radial and torsional vibrations of the drill string that permanently occur during the drilling and lead to a sharp decrease in the accuracy of measurements of accelerometers. Telemetry systems used together with rotary steerable systems work in more extreme conditions. The major part of drill string rotation creates significant centrifugal forces affecting the readings of accelerometers. The navigational block of the telemetry system consists of a strapdown inertial navigation system and geostationary system. Navigational system is built on the basis of three orthogonally located fiber optic gyroscopes and quartz accelerometers. Gyroscopes serve to measure the azimuth angle and sufficiently replace the magnetometers. Accelerometers are used to measure the zenith angle. The geostationary system includes the base with sensors, electric motor, two shock absorbers mounted on it. The geostationary system is tested on a stand where various rotational speeds are set. The effectiveness of geostationary system is proved by tests where gyroscopes and accelerometers do not increase the error of readings and do not lose initial reference point at rotation of 200 rpm. A strapdown inertial navigation system is tested for the influence of high temperatures and vibrations. Temperature tests in a thermal chamber did not show an increase in the error of sensors at temperatures up to 90°C. Effectiveness of shock absorbers and working capacity of the system under the influence with a frequency of up to 200 Hz and acceleration up to 10g is confirmed by tests on the shaker stand.
1. Shevchenko I.A., Urgency of the use of downhole telemetry systems for drilling wells with a large step out for the development of offshore oil and gas fields (In Russ.), Nauchnaya perspektiva, 2014, no. 2, pp. 107-111.
2. Noureldin A., Irvine-Halliday D., Mintchev M.P., Measurement-while-drilling surveying of highly inclined and horizontal well sections utilizing single-axis gyro sensing system, Measurement Science and Technology, 2004, V. 15 (12), pp. 2426-2434, DOI 10.1088/0957-0233/15/12/012
3. Zhang C., Wang L., Gao S. et al., Vibration noise modeling for measurement while drilling system based on FOGs, Sensors (Switzerland), 2017, V. 10, p. 2367, DOI 10.3390/s17102367.
4. Fedorov V.N., Sheshukov A.I., Meshkov V.M., Hydrodynamic studies of horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2002, no. 8, pp. 92-94.
5. Fatikhov S.Z., Fedorov V.N., Opyt ispol’zovaniya telemetricheskikh sistem na mestorozhdeniyakh Respubliki Bashkortostan (Experience in the use of telemetric systems in the fields of the Republic of Bashkortostan), Collected papers “Fiziko-khimicheskaya gidrodinamika” (Physico-chemical hydrodynamics), Proceedings of The first summer school-conference, 2016, pp. 174-183.
6. Chernyshov S.E., Features of directional wells construction considering the size of buffer zones on the Verkhnekamskoye potassium salt deposit (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2006, no. 1, pp. 137-143.
7. Nikolaev N.I., Kozhevnikov E.V., Enhancing the cementing quality of the well with horizontal profile (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2014, no. 11, pp. 29-37, DOI 10.15593/2224-9923/2014.11.3
8. Poplygina I.S., Opportunities of improved development of high-viscosity oil pool in Perm kray (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2014, no. 11, pp. 57-66, DOI 10.15593/2224-9923/2014.11.6
9. Talipov R.N., Mukhametshin A.A., Technology of drilling two additional bores from horizontal part of directional well (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 2, pp. 45-54.
10. Krysin N.I., Dombrovskiy I.V., Krivoshchekov S.N. et al., Study of fiber optic gyroscopes for telemetry systems of well trajectory monitoring (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 102-105.
11. Krivoshchekov S.N., Melekhin A.A., Turbakov M.S. et al., Development of a telemetric system for monitoring downhole parameters in the course of wells construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 9, pp. 86-88.
12. Kychkin A.V., Volodin V.D., Sharonov A.A. et al., The synthesis of the hardware and software system structure for remote monitoring and control of the wellbore trajectory while drilling by rotary steerable system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 128-132.
13. Tereshin V.G., Ivanova G.A., The choice of dynamically tuned and fiber-optic gyroscopes for directional survey (In Russ.), Vestnik UGATU, 2012, no. 1(46), pp. 62-69.14. Korkishko Yu.N., Fedorov V.A., Prilutskiy V.E. et al., Fiber-optic gyroscopes, blocks of sensitive elements and free-of-charge inertial navigation systems based on them (In Russ.), Foton-ekspress, 2013, no. 6 (110), pp. 44-45.
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The article describes the process of operation of the telemetric control system of the trajectory of the trunk during drilling of directional and horizontal wells with a rotary controlled system. An algorithm for automated correction of the direction for drilling a well along the project profile has been developed. In the process of rotary drilling with the rotation of the entire column, the navigation block of the telemetry system, built on the basis of inclinometers and accelerometers, determines changes in the current position relative to the initial position in the three axes and, together with other drilling parameters, transfers this information to the control unit. The control unit, consisting of an electronic board with a processor unit, controllers and flash memory, detects a deviation from the design position at the current depth, then calculates the necessary path correction and transmits signals to the microprocessor control unit of the wedge drive motor controllers, which ensures the wedge drive supply voltage to the motors for the required time. Based on the studies carried out, a system of equations for calculating the position of the bit is constructed, taking into account the changes in the trajectory of the well due to the movement of the bit from the current point to the design point and a model for controlling the deflection of the bit in the spatial coordinates.
The performance evaluation of the control unit was performed at the booth on the basis of the actual drilling data for a sub-horizontal well in the territory of the north of the Perm Region in 2015 using a rotary controlled system. As a result of the research, it was confirmed that the well can be drilled in the project profile in automatic mode when using a rotary controlled system in conjunction with the developed telemetry system.
1. Xue Qilong, Wang Ruihe, Sun Feng, Huang Leilei, Han Laiju, Continuous measurement-while-drilling utilizing strap-down multi-model surveying system, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 2014, V. 63, pp. 650–657.
2. Krivoshchekov S.N., Melekhin A.A., Turbakov M.S. et al., Development of a telemetric system for monitoring downhole parameters in the course of wells construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 9, pp. 86–88.
3. Ust'kachkintsev E.N., Increase productivity of construction in sidetrack of Verkhnekamsk potassium-magnesium salts field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 5, pp. 39–46.
4. Nikolaev N.I., Leusheva E.L., Theoretical and experimental investigation of hard rock drilling efficiency (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, no. 15, pp. 38–47.
5. Zakirov A.Ya., The results of the first tests of the Russian rotary-steerable systems (In Russ.), PROneft'. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal “Gazprom nefti”, 2016, no. 2, pp. 43–47, URL: http://ntc.gazprom-neft.ru/research-and-development/proneft/776/13452/
6. Conti P.F., Controlled horizontal drilling, SPE 18708-MS, 1989.
7. Kychkin A.V., Volodin V.D., Sharonov A.A. et al., The synthesis of the hardware and software system structure for remote monitoring and control of the wellbore trajectory while drilling by rotary steerable system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 128–132.
8. Jian Kang, BoXiong Wang, Zhong Xiang Hu et al., Study of Drill Measuring System Based on MEMS accelerative and magnetoresistive sensor, Electronic Measurement & Instruments, ICEMI 09, Beijing, China, 2009.
9. Kychkin A.V., Artemov S.A., Vlasov V.A., Structural synthesis of integrated control and information management system of mobile platform (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Elektrotekhnika, informatsionnye tekhnologii, sistemy upravleniya = PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems, 2013, no. 7, pp. 83–95.
10. Kychkin A.V., Dadenkov D.A., Bilalov A.B., Automated information system for half-sized modeling of electric drives static load (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Elektrotekhnika, informatsionnye tekhnologii, sistemy upravleniya = PNRPU Bulletin. Electrotechnics, Informational Technologies, Control Systems, 2013, no. 8, pp. 73–83.
11. Baldenko D.F., Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Ways to further improvement of well drilling by downhole drilling motors (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, no. 19, pp. 165-174.
12. Kuz'mina T.A., Mironov A.D., Experience in the development of objects unproductive using technology multihole drilling (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 3, pp. 89–93.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
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Deterministic and stochastic models based on the previous analysis of porosity variograms range distribution across the Romashkinskoye oil field were used to assess the effect. The variograms’ range in the geologic stochastic models changed from 100 to 1000 m in 50-m increments. For each model version, 10 equiprobable model options were built; for each model option, 20 modes of well operation and 2 modes of oil flow, Newtonian and non-Newtonian, were generated. All in all, 7640 reservoir models were built.
The generated models were used to assess the effect of non-Newtonian oil properties on the effectiveness of reservoir performance. Deterministic and stochastic geologic and reservoir models with various input parameters were used to determine the effectiveness of cyclic waterflooding.
The analysis made suggests that the physical characteristics of flow have a significant effect on the forecast reservoir performance. A slight deviation from the linear flow results in a substantial deviation from the forecast data – the ultimate recovery decreases, the effectiveness of cyclic waterflooding increases; the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on cyclic waterflooding performance is more or less similar for Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows. The analysis of models differing in the number of injection wells that are simultaneously shut down shows that for the cyclic waterflooding providing for wells shutdown in a circle, the maximum effect is noted in case of the maximum number of shutdown wells (six well), when the number of active and inactive wells is the same. Nonlinear behavior of the production increment vs. shutdown period curve is characteristic for the case providing for six wells shutdown for less than two weeks’ period. The effect is even more salient for non-Newtonian flow – a sharp increase of oil production is noted following shutdown of injection wells for the period of 1 to 5 days, in particular, one-day shutdown yields 50% increase in the incremental oil production vs. 1-month shutdown.
1. Alishaev M.G., Vakhitov G.G., Glumov F.F., Fomenko I.E., Osobennosti fil’tratsii plastovoy devonskoy nefti pri ponizhennykh temperaturakh (Features of filtration of Devonian oil at low temperatures), Collected papers “Teoriya i praktika dobychi nefti” (Theory and practice of oil production), Proceedings of VNII, 1966, pp. 214–226.
2. Fomenko I.E., Diyashev R.N., Some results of field test to determine the initial pressure drop in oil wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1968, no. 4, pp. 33–36.
3. Iktisanov V.A., Sakhabutdinov K.G., Rheological studies of paraffin-base oil at different temperatures (In Russ.), Kolloidnyy zhurnal, 1999, V. 61, no. 6, pp. 776–779.
4. Sattarov R.Z., Uchet izmeneniya kollektorskikh svoystv plasta pri dlitel’noy razrabotke neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Accounting for changes in reservoir properties of the formation during long-term development of the oil field), Proceedings of scientific and technical conference dedicated to the 50th anniversary of TatNIPIneft, Moscow: Nefnyanoe Khozyaystvo Publ., 2006, pp.225–229.
5. Devlikamov V.V., Khabibullin Z.A., Kabirov M.M., Anomal’nye nefti (Abnormal oil), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 168 p.
6. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Kovalev A.G., Zaytsev Yu.V., Osobennosti ekspluatatsii mestorozhdeniy anomal’nykh neftey (Features of exploitation of deposits of anomalous oils), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1972, 200 p.
7. Nasybullin A.V., Sattarov R.Z., Application of stochastic simulation to estimate the dependence of sweep efficiency on macroheterogeneity indicators (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2014, no. 1(56), pp. 51–54.8. Nasybullin A.V., Sattarov Rav.Z., Sattarov Ram.Z., Khanipov M.N., Issledovanie mekhanizmov nestatsionarnogo zavodneniya v neodnorodnykh plastakh s primeneniem geologo-gidrodinamicheskogo modelirovaniya (Investigation of the mechanisms of non-stationary water flooding in inhomogeneous reservoirs with application of geological and hydrodynamic modeling), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft’, 2014, V. 82, pp. 148–156.
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Production decline rate slowing-sown and enhanced recovery of residual reserves demand application of new technologies. The preferred technologies are those that do not require significant capital costs. Methods changing reservoir filtration flows using thickening and gelling compositions – flow diverting technologies – fall into this group. When choosing a diverter composition and a method, factors like geological-and-physical conditions, current development status, water pathway after water injection and performance efficiency are considered. The paper discusses the results of the technology development and project implementation on water breakthough isolation using cross-linked polymer systems on horizontal wells of Vankorskoye field, taking into account the water production mechanism in producing wells. Based on a complex analysis, which includes identifying geological-and-physical structural characteristics and current development status of the deposit, and taking into account well and tracer tests it was found that the main watering source of producing wells is water injected though the water injection network. The authors found that the injected water percolates in sequence along the fractures in the bottom-hole zone of injection wells, and further the filtration goes on to the highly-permeable watered matrix and to production wells. Taking into account the identified water pathway, the strategy of placing the water-isolating polymer gel was developed. Based on laboratory tests the authors have selected reagents and solutions of the gel-polymer composition with optimum properties. The technology has been field-tested and has shown high process performance.
1. Ismagilov T.A., Application of water control technologies, considering the mechanisms of injected water breakthrough (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 56–59.
2. Magzyanov I.R., Ismagilov T.A., Zakharov V.P. et al., Realization of new method of gel placement in watered high permeable formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 25–29.
3. Ismagilov T.A., Magzyanov I.R., Water shut-off technology for injection wells treatment in heterogeneous systems with crossflows (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 54–57.
4. Zakharov V.P., Ismagilov T.A., Antonov A.M. et al., Waterproofing of cracks from the side of injection wells in carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 12, pp. 102–105.
5. Zakharov V.P., Ismagilov T.A., Asmandiyarov R.N., New methods of filtration flows adjustment in low permeability reservoirs with water shutoff (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 1, pp. 54–57.
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Priobskoye oil field plays an important part in Rosneft Oil Company activities. The undoubted importance of the field to the Company is defined by three factors at least, each of them being fundamental: oil production volumes (both current and prospective); a unique amount of recoverable oil reserves (according to the Russian classification); the field development receives increased attention from the state (oil recovery efficiency, environmental safety).
The development of the edge parts of Nothern license area of Priobskoye field is complicated by low-permeable and heterogeneous reservoirs. Despite this, bringing a maximum volume of reserves into development as well as increasing the oil recovery factor remains one of the strategic objectives of Rosneft Oil Company. With the tight oil share growing, the profitability of developing such zones falls sharply. Besides searching for new technologies, the company pays much attention to optimizing the existing ones to improve the development performance of hard-to-recover oil deposits. The paper discusses an approach to the design optimization of multistage hydraulic fracturing in new horizontal wells. Methods of calculating the optimal number of multistage hydrofracturing stages as well as proppant injection are discussed in detail, and pilot test results are listed.
1. Galeev R.R., Zorin A.M., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Optimal waterflood pattern selection with use of multiple fractured horizontal wells for development of the low-permeability formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 62–65.
2.Baykov V.A., Bochkov A.S., Yakovlev A.A., Accounting of nonhomogeneity in Priobskoye field geological modeling and simulation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 5, pp. 50–54.
3. Yarullin R.K., Valiullin A.S., Valiullin M.S. et al., The first experience of geophysical studies in long horizontal wells with using ESP bypass system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 62–65.
4. Ertekin T., Abou-Kassem J.H., King G.R., Basic applied reservoir simulation, Richardson, Texas: SPE, 2001, 421 p.
5. Kanevskaya R.D., Matemeticheskoe modelirovanie razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza s primeneniem gidravlicheskogo razryva plasta (Mathematical modeling of the development of oil and gas using hydraulic fracturing), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 1999, 212 p.
6. Gilaev G.G., Afanas'ev I.S., Timonov A.V., Priobskoe oilfield pilot area (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2012, no. 2, pp. 22–26.
7. Antonenko D.A., Pavlov V.A., Surtaev V.N., Sevastyanova K.K., Integrated modeling of the Priobskoe oilfield, SPE 117413, 2008.
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The analysis of the reasons for the decrease in the productivity of producing wells of Varadero oilfield was performed. It is established that the formation of deposits of asphaltenes in the bottom-hole formation zone and formation of highly viscous water-in-oil emulsions are the main reasons for the lower permeability of oil-saturated matrix of carbonate rocks. At temperature 65°C (reservoir temperature) Varadero oilfield oil has a viscosity more than 0,600 Pa·s. It is established that at temperature below 40 °C the oil is pseudoplasticity liquid and is well described by the rheological equation of Herschel – Bulkley. From the temperature dependence of the effective viscosity of the oil determined the optimal conditions for the application of thermal methods of enhanced recovery, with increasing temperature of the reservoir up to 80 -135 °C, the viscosity is reduced to 2-27 times.
The viscosity of water-oil emulsion at the reservoir temperature and water content more than 50% increases to 14 PA·s, the beginning of a sharp increase in viscosity is observed when the water content is more than 35%. Petroleum solvents and demulsifies introduced into an emulsion reduce its viscosity 20-50 times and are offered for treatment of producing wells in a continuous dispensing into the well and squeeze treatment into the reservoir. It is shown that the acid compositions on the basis of 12% HCl are compatible with oil and do not make a risk of formation of emulsions and precipitation of secondary collateralize formation.
The obtained information is used to develop optimal technologies of processing of bottom-hole zones of producing wells to increase the efficiency of heavy oil production.
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6. Kharisov R.Ya., Folomeev A.E., Bulgakova G.T., Telin A.G. The complex approach to the choice of the optimum acid composition for well stimulation in carbonate (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 2, pp. 78–82.
7. Glushchenko V.N., Ptashko O.A., Kharisov R.Ya., Kislotnye obrabotki: sostavy, mekhanizm reaktsiy, dizayn (Acid treatment: the compositions, reaction mechanisms, design), Ufa: GILEM Publ., 2010, 392 p.
8. Gharbi K., Benyounes K., Khodja M., Removal and prevention of asphaltene deposition during oil production: A literature review, J. Pet. Sci. and Eng., 2017, V. 158, no. 11, pp. 351–360.
9. Khalimov R.Kh., Smykov V.V., Farkhullin R.G. et al., Removal of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits from the bottomhole formation zone using the organic solvents is a promising way to restore the productivity of marginal well stock (In Russ.), Interval, 2004, no. 6, pp. 4–8
10. Telin A.G., Voloshin A.I., Ragulin V.V., Kalimullina G.Z., Effect of de-impulsive additives on the structural-rheological properties of oil shcha Yuzhno-Suhokumsk oil and gas production department (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy Vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2007, no. 1, pp. 45–4811. Voloshin A.I., Ragulin V.V., Telin A.G., Development and introduction of heavy organic compound deposition diagnostics, prevention and removing, SPE-93128, 2005.
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In recent years the task of development for an unconventional oil deposits (like a shale oil, heavy oil sands, tight oil, etc.) became highly important. On of such task is the development of Bazhenov formation reservoir containing large amounts of kerogen. Application of a thermal and gas impact (TGI) considering as an effective solution to this problem by pumping air under high pressure into the producing formation leading to the emergence of a highly miscible with the oil displacing agent that is formed by in-situ oxidation and thermodynamic processes. A thermal gas impact by pumping air under the high pressure into the producing formation is considered as an effective solution of this problem causing the moving hearth of burning due to in-situ oxidation and thermodynamic process. In the anoxic zone of the coking area ahead of the combustion front, which is characterized by increased temperatures, the kerogen is exposed to low temperature pyrolysis.
To determine the optimal conditions for forming the maximum amount of liquid hydrocarbons due to pyrolysis reaction of solid organic a series of experimental studies of the pyrolysis kerogen-containing rocks in thermochemical reactors for the Bazhenov formation had been carried out in VNIIneft JSC. Besides, for the qualitative evaluation of the obtained liquid phase from the kerogen a complex study for determination the heat release in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC1) had been carried out. As a result of these studies it has been shown that the possibility of separating the organic matter of the Bazhenov formation from its mineral composition by using low temperature pyrolysis (350-450°C) with formation of liquid hydrocarbons observing in the whole studied temperature range and it`s reduction with increasing duration of the experiment as a result of further destruction. Comparison of the dissipation curves for the rock samples before and after experiments in the thermo-chemical reactor shows the number of additionally obtained liquid phase due to the pyrolysis of kerogen. Based on the results of the studies a light hydrocarbon components are mainly occurring at temperatures of 350-400°C. It should be noted that while the temperature reaching 400°C and above a secondary-cracking processes are overlaying with pyrolysis with a formed thermo-bitumen initiating to decompose into volatile components and coke which may cause clogging of the pores and channels in the rock.
1. Lazeev A.N., Kashik A.S., Bilibin S.I. et al., Main problems of studying of the Bazhen formation deposits (In Russ.), Geofizika = , 2015, no. 3, pp. 2-4.
2. Bokserman A.A., Safiullin R.Kh., Kuz'mina M.V., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s pomoshch'yu vnutriplastovogo goreniya (Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s pomoshch'yu vnutriplastovogo goreniya), Proceedings of VINITI, 1969, pp. 106–161.
3. Aarna A.Y., Lippmaa E.T., Thermal destruction of oil shale-kukersite, Transactions of Tallinn Polytechnic Institute, Series A, 1958, no. 97, ðð. 3–27.
4. Deng S., Studies on the co-pyrolysis characteristics of oil shale and spent oil shale, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2015, September. – http://www.researchgate.net/publication/282893681_Studies_on_the_copyrolysis_characteristics_of_oil_...
5. Vakhin A.V., Onishchenko Ya.V., Chemodanov A.E. et al., Thermal transformation of bitumoid of Domanic formations of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 10, pp. 32–34.
6. Johannes I., Tiikma L., Kinetics of oil shale pyrolysis in an autoclave under non-linear increase of temperature, Oil Shale, 2004, V. 21, no. 4, pp. 273–288.
7. Aarna A.Y., Isothermal destruction of Baltic oil shale, Transactions of Tallinn Polytechnic Institute, Series A, 1954, no. 57, pp. 32–34.8. Nikitina E.A., Tolokonskiy S.I., Darishchev V.I. et al., Usloviya obrazovaniya topliva pri primenenii termicheskogo vozdeystviya na plastakh bazhenovskoy svity (Conditions of fuel formation applying the thermal recovery method in Bazhenov formation horizons), Collected papers “Tekhnologii razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov uglevodorodov” (Technologies for the development of hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves): edited by Fomkin A.V., Zhdanov S.A., Proceedings of VNIIneft', 2016, V. 155.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The article deals with new methods for performing measurements by complex equipment with the thermoconductive flowmeter (STD) to determine the flow rate of water injected into the well. Measurements are made both with a variable speed of the drawing of the logging tool and a series of measurements with different constant velocities, so that the direction of flow of the liquid and the device coincide. When the device moves with acceleration, the initial speed of the device should be less than the flow velocity, and the final speed is greater than the flow velocity of the liquid. With slow motion of the logging tool, the initial pulling speed should be longer, and the final one - less than the flow velocity of the fluid in the borehole. As a result, a bell-shaped curve will be registered for the dependence of the STD channel readings on the speed of the device's drawing. The flow rate of the injected water in the injection well must be determined by thermoconductive flowmeter channel measurements, carried out both with variable speed of the device pulling, and by the results of a series of measurements with different constant speeds of the logging tool. The error in determining the flow rate of injected water differs from the measurements by flowmeter Panametrics by no more than 5 %.
1. Zhuvagin I.G., Komarov S.G., Chernyy V.V., Skvazhinnyy termokonduktivnyy debitomer STD (Downhole thermal conductive flowmeter STD), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1973, 80 p.
2. Nazarov V.F., Mukhamadiev R.S., The determination of the velocity of the flow of liquid in the well (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2010, no. 8, pp. 118–126.
3. Patent no. 2441153 RF, MKI E 21 V 47/10, Method of defining extreme fluid flow rates in well (Versions), Inventors: Nazarov V.F., Mukhamadiev R.S.
4. Zel'dovich Ya.B., Myshkis A.D., Elementy matematicheskoy fiziki (Elements of mathematical physics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973, 352 p.
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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