January 2017

The oil and gas industry

R.Kh. Muslimov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Fundamental problems of the oil industry

Keywords: geological, balance, off-balance, recoverable reserves, design of rational development system, geological and filtration models, absolute and effective pore space, economic criteria, net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), profitability index (PI), the period of cost recovery, oil difficult to recover, oil recovery factor, geological models
The current state of the oil industry requires an urgent solution to fundamental problems. Based on the foundation of the modern petroleum science, its necessary to calculate reserves and to accomplish a design, taking into account geological, balance, off-balance, and recoverable reserves. The geological models should be built on a new basis in accordance with these categories, the filtration models - in accordance with current concepts of filtration processes. Design should be accomplished on the basis of the effective pore space concept, using models that take into account the geological reserves and all the peculiarities of the geological structure of deposits. Development should be carried on the principles of innovative design, taking into account the new criteria of optimality and rationality.


1. Zakirov S.N., Zakirov E.S., Indrupskiy I.M.,New concepts in 3D geological and

hydrodynamic modelling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2006, no. 1, pp. 3441.

2. Muslimov R.Kh., Sovremennye metody upravleniya razrabotkoy neftyanykh

mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem zavodneniya (Modern methods of development

of oil fields with the use the waterflooding), Kazan: Publ. of Kazan University,

2003, 596 p.

3. Muslimov R.Kh., Volkov Yu.A., Kasimov R.S. et al., Problemy kompleksnogo

osvoeniya trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti i prirodnykh bitumov (Problems

of the integrated development of hard-to-recover oil and natural bitumen reserves),

Proceedings of International conference, Kazan', 48 October 1994,

Part 2, pp. 496510.

4. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha; proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee (Oil

recovery: Past, Present, Future), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2012, 664 p.

5. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee

(optimizatsiya dobychi, maksimizatsiya KIN) (Oil recovery: Past, Present, Future

(production optimization, maximization of recovery factor)), Kazan': FEN

Publ., 2014, 750 p.

6. Khusainov V.M., Uvelichenie izvlekaemykh zapasov nefti na pozdney stadii

razrabotki krupnogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (teoriya, geologichsekie

osnovy, praktika) (The increase in recoverable oil reserves at a late stage of

development of a large oil field (the theory, geological basics, practice)):

thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2011.

7. Afanasev V.S., Afanasev S.V., Zakirov S.N., Printsipy kompyuterizirovannykh

tekhnologiy interpretatsii dannykh GIS i trekhmernogo kompyuternogo

modelirovaniya mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Principles of computerized

technologies of log data interpretation and three-dimensional computer

modeling of oil and gas fields), Proceedings of III International Scientific Symposium

Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi

plastov (Theory and practice of enhanced oil recovery methods application),

Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft, 2021 September, Part 2, pp. 130135.

8. Zakirov S.N., Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S. et al., Novye printsipy i tekhnologii

razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (The new principles and technologies

of oil and gas fields development), MoscowIzhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer

Science, Part 2, 2009, 484 p.

9. Krylov A.P., Osnovnye printsipy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v SSSR

(Basic principles for the development of oil fields in the USSR), Moscow:

Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1955.

10. Shchelkachev V.N., Vazhneyshie printsipy nefterazrabotki. 75 let opyta

(The most important principles for the development of oil fields. 75 years of experience),

Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2004, 608 p.

11. Zakirov S.N., Zakirov E.S., Induprinskiy I.M. et al., Criteria of efficiency and rationality

in oil and gas subsurface management (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 7478.

12. Kryukov V.A., Date knowledge about the technology of hydrocarbon production

(In Russ.), EKO, 2013, no. 8.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works

E.V. Zagrebelnyi (Messoyachanefntegas JSC, RF, Tyumen), B.V. Belozerov, A.S. Bochkov, D.O. Mishina, D.A. Reshetnikov, I.V. Kovalenko (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Benchmarking of techniques for improvement of geological model predictive ability (PK1-3 formation, Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field)

Keywords: geological modeling, forecast, continental environment, development drilling

The Messoyakha project is one of the priority plans of Gazprom Neft Company, exploration of which provides significant incremental oil production. The main object of development is PK1-3 formation (Pokur suite) which contains considerable oil and gas reserves. PK1-3 formation, deposited in continental sedimentation environment, is characterized by wide variety of facies with different sand proportion content. It provides high facies differentiation and high uncertainty of extension and position in space of formation sand bodies. At this moment, the field is at the development drilling stage, but new data shows that current geological model has low level of prediction ability. Considering this, the selection and application of such modeling parameters that would allow taking into account reservoir heterogeneity and raise the predictive ability becomes a critical issue of the project.

This study includes analysis of different variations of geological modeling methods and parameters with factoring in their uncertainty, and estimation of the model predictive probability. Furthermore, it contains analysis of all data, which could raise the predictive ability. Multirealisation modeling is performed using most suitable modeling methods, identified according to the results of the complex analysis of initial data and variations of modeling methods. The proportion of sand penetration and the evaluation of its deviation from the fact number serve as parameters for the estimation of predictive ability. Based on the modeling results, a comparison of methods and their predictive ability is performed using different parameters.

Moreover, this study suggests the optimal drilling method for fluvial deposition under the low prediction condition.


1. Belozerov B.V., Butorin A.V., Reshetnikov D.A. et al., Obnovlenie kontseptual'noy

geologicheskoy modeli plasta PK1-3 Vostochno-Messoyakhskogo

mestorozhdeniya (Updating the conceptual geological model of the PK1-3

layer of the East Messoyakhskoye field), Tyumen', Sankt-Peterburg, 2016, 164 p.

2. Dubrule O., Geostatistic in petroleum geology, AAPG Continuing Education

Course Note Series no. 38, AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A., 1998.

3. Dubrule O., Geostatistics for seismic data integration in earth model, EAGE,


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M.V. Chertenkov, L.M. Ruzin (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow)
Prerequisites to complex use of standard and acoustic logging for the forecast of a Poisson's ratio

Keywords: acoustic logging, Poisson's coefficient, geomechanical model

Now more and more attention is paid to creation of geomechanical models, key parameter in model is Poisson's coefficient. There are several approaches to measurement of coefficient of Poisson: acoustic and mechanical core researches, acoustic well logging, seismic researches. Each of the listed methods has the advantages and disadvantages. Core researches have and disadvantages as the researched sample is taken from a natural environment and often there passes the considerable period of time between an extraction and a research. According to Authors the most representative for use in geomechanical model is acoustic borehole researches. In the conditions of a well the researched intervals are in the loaded condition close to a natural and acoustic researches can show change of physical parameters (speeds of waves). Acoustic researches of coefficient of Poisson have also errors as for its obtaining used reexact formulas, besides acoustic logging has the small depth of a research. In our opinion use of acoustic well logging will bring minimum of possible mistakes in determination of coefficient of Poisson.

However, realities are that that measurement of coefficient of Poisson by means of acoustic methods in the large volume of wells often isn't reasonable from the economic point of view. This article is devoted to approaches to forecasting of this parameter on the basis of a standard logging complex. As it was shown on the example of the Uryevskoye field use of the given approaches allows to obtain large volume of borehole data without obtaining to a big mistake in the determined parameters. Certainly, use of similar approaches can't replace large-scale acoustic researches.


1. Winkler K.W., Liu H.-L., Johnson D.L., Permeability and borehole Stoneley

waves: Comparison between experiment and theory, Geophysics, 1989,

V. 54,no. 1, pp. 66-75.

2. Norris A.N., Stoneley-wave attenuation and dispersion in permeable formations,

Geophysics, 1989, V. 54, no. 3, pp. 330-341.

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I.V. Yazynina, E.V. Shelyago, A.A. Abrosimov Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), O.N. Veremko (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Grachev, N.E. Grachev, D.A. Bikulov, D.S. Senin (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow)
Novel approach to core sample MCT research for practical petrophysics problems solution

Keywords: X-ray micro computed tomography, porosity, permeability, virtual cubes

X-ray micro computed tomography (MCT) is a modern method of porous bodies studying. MCT is associated with its ability to visualize structure of the reservoir rock cavities, as well as fluid flow numerical simulation. Many issues of MCT data processing and hydrodynamic modeling are debatable today. In publications available, authors usually focus on pores visualization, but single-phase and especially two-phase flow calculation occurs much less frequently. Researchers often use model objects; face with insufficient MCT resolution problem, limitations of mathematical algorithms and computing resources.

This paper is devoted to the development of a new, affordable approach to MCT research of oil and gas formation core material, aimed at calculating accurate reservoir properties of common Russian reservoir rocks. One of the novel approach ideas is virtual cutting of several porous media segment (virtual cubes) from each of three-dimensional models obtained via MCT. Paired values of porosity and permeability are calculated for each cube. Group of cubes cut from the same model, generates a point cloud. Strong heterogeneity of reservoir properties at the pore level allows covering larger range of values. Finally, it is possible to get not one, but several pairs of porosity and permeability values from each MCT-shooting, which allows saving microtomograph system resource. Such an approach can find practical application in petrophysics when dealing with poorly consolidated rocks, unsuitable for traditional methods of reservoir properties measurement, and little collections of core material. 


1. URL: http://www.ostec-x-ray.ru/areas-of-application/oil-and-gas/parametri-


2. Chugunov S.S., Kazak A.V., Cheremisin A.N., Integration of X-ray microcomputed

tomography and focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy

data for pore-scale characterization of Bazhenov formation, Western

Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10,

pp. 44-49.

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quantifying pore-scale structure and processes in subsurface porous medium

systems, Advances in Water Resources.7, 2012.

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of porous media (In Russ.), SPE-162023-RU, 2012.

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pronitsaemosti i elektroprovodnosti v poristykh materialakh na osnove

kontseptsii ansamblya por (In Russ.), Prikladnaya mekhanika i tekhnicheskaya

fizika, 2011, V. 52, no. 1, pp. 101-118.

6. Grader A.S., Clark A.B.S., Al-Dayyani T., Nur A., Computations of porosity

and permeability of sparic carbonate using multi-scale CT images, Proceedings

of International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Noordwijk,

The Netherlands, 27-30 September, 2009.

7. Sok R.M., Varslot T., Ghous A., Latham S., Sheppard A.P., Knackstedt M.A.,

Pore scale characterization of carbonates at multiple scales: integration of

micro-CT, BSEM and FIBSEM, Proceedings of International Symposium of the

Society of Core Analysts, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 27-30 September, 2009.

8. Zakirov T.R., Galeev A.A., Konovalov A.A., Statsenko E.O., Analysis of the

''representative elementary volume'' sandstones reservoir properties using the

method of X-ray computed tomography in Ashalchinskoye oil field (In Russ.),

Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 54-57.

9. Culligan K.A., Wildenschild D., Chris tensen B.S.B., Gray W.G., Rivers M.L.,

Tompson A.F.B., Interfacial area measurements for unsaturated flow through

a porous medium, Water resources research, 2004, no. 40, . 112.

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modeling of two-phase fluid distribution, Transport in Porous Media,

2011, V. 86, pp. 495-515, doi: 10.1007/s11242-010-9636-2.

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among air-water interfacial area, capillary pressure, and water saturation for

a sandy porous medium, Water resources research, 2006, no. 42, . 15.

12. Dvorkin J., Derzhi N., Fang Q., Nur A., Nur B., Grader A., Baldwin C., Tono H.,

Diaz E., From micro to reservoir scale: Permeability from digital experiments,

The Leading Edge, 2009, no. 12, pp. 1446-1453.

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Drilling of chinks

V.Ya. Kershenbaum, A.S. Panteleev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow) G.I. Shmal (Union of Oil & Gas Producers of Russia, RF, Moscow)
Improving the quality management system of drilling fluids

Keywords: knowledge base, drill fluid, design, imports phase-out, fault-free drilling

In the oil and gas complex large role are played by a possibility of formalization of knowledge of specialists and experts. Experts in the conditions of lack of mathematical models are carriers of experience, knowledge. The structure and content of elements of the knowledge base "Designing of boring solutions" is revealed and shown. Some problems of import substitution of boring solutions are designated.

In article, the drilling mud fluid is considered as multicomponent system with very broad range of variations, both high-quality, and quantitative indices of structure depending on a number of exogenous factors (pressure, temperature, drilling depth, rock, etc.). The choice of the component structure determining in turn properties and functional purpose of drilling mud fluid represents a multicriteria task (in some cases criteria are interdependent), which complexity of the decision is well-known.

Feature of the considered task consists in the high level of uncertainty of basic data and dependences. In practice in case of the solution of the choice of composition of drilling mud fluid for effective management of drilling process specialists rely on the available experience, on similarity of the considered task with similar, with those which met earlier. From similarity of conditions the conclusion about analogousness of decisions is drawn. In view of the high level of uncertainty, the decisions at the choice of composition of drilling mud fluid arent unique. Therefore use of technologies of artificial intelligence is preferable to formalization of decision making process. In this regard in this work an attempt of use of expert information with creation of the corresponding databases and knowledge bases is made. For working off of a technique of forming of knowledge bases the databases containing classification of drilling mud fluids, mining-and-geological breeds, data and parameters of these breeds, information on functions, properties, structures, reagents of drilling mud fluid and interaction with each other was constructed. Possible complications and methods of their liquidation and further prevention are given in databases. Information (received by authors) on posting of wells in the Tomsk region, and also information obtained from the scientific and technical literature was the basis for a databases.


1. Leonov E.G., Isaev V.I., Gidromekhanika v burenii (Drilling hydromechanics),

Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 304 p.

2. RD 39-0148070-6.027-86, Instruktsiya po bureniyu naklonnykh skvazhin s kustovykh

ploshchadok na neftyanykh mestorozhdeniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Instructions

for drilling directional wells with the well pads on the oil fields of

Western Siberia), Tyumen': Publ. of SibNIINP, 1986, 138 p.

3. Abramson M.G. et al., Spravochnik po mekhanicheskim i abrazivnym

svoystvam gornykh porod neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Handbook

of mechanical and abrasive properties of the rocks of oil and gas

fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 207 p.

4. Grigor'ev L.I., Arabadzhi M.S., Gasymov I.T., Ekspertnye sistemy i ikh primenenie

(na primere neftegazovoy geologii) (Expert systems and their application

(on example, oil and gas geology)), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom, 1993,

69 p.

5. Bulatov A.I., Avetisov A.G., Spravochnik inzhenera po bureniyu (Handbook

for drilling engineer ), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993-1995.

6. Bulatov A.I., Pen'kov A.I., Proselkov Yu.M., Spravochnik po promyvke

skvazhin (Handbook of flushing out of well), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984,

317 p.

7. Eremenko N.A., Geologiya nefti i gaza (Oil and gas geology), Moscow:

Nedra Publ., 1984, 480 p.

8. Iogansen K.V., Sputnik burovika (Driller satellite), Moscow: Nedra, 1990,

303 p.

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Publ., 1967, 300 p.

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O.V. Kryukov, Nguyen Quoc Phong, G.G. Lapukhin (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
The experience of the rotary steerable systems application in the drilling of directional wells at fields of Vietsovpetro JV

Keywords: directional drilling, rotary steerable system (RSS), zenith angle

The article describes experience in implementing the rotary steerable system (RSS) for drilling deviated wells under Vietsovpetro conditions. Identified main advantages of such drilling systems application, analysed the quality of the open hole and shown the occurred problems. Geometrics comparative study for boreholes drilled by combination system with downhole drilling motor and with RSS, shown that in case of RSS borehole inclination and azimuth angle amplitude, as well as the deviation rate, is much lower. Therefore, implementation of RSS significantly reduces the tortuosity of the wellbore, improves the construction quality of the open hole and reduces the complications occurrence risks during drilling, running into hole and setting the casings; improves the general well construction quality.

The authors discuss the drilling scopes of subcontracting companies Schlumberger and Baker Hughes, which provide services in deviated drilling with implementation of rotary steerable system-RSS for six years and cost efficiency of such technology application for the given period, which combined by the increased drilling rate and consequently decreased drilling time.

Having conditions of high rent rate for jack-up rigs offshore operation, reduction of technological operations duration, including the reduced time for mechanical drilling, has significant influence on general economic costs during construction of production and appraisal wells. Having that, the companies conducting the offshore drilling are interested in application of the most advanced drilling technologies, which allow reducing the wells construction time.


1. Kelly S., Rotary controlled systems (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz Evrazii, 2012, no 6,

pp. 4446.

2. Menand S., A new buckling severity index to quantify failure and lock-up

risks in highly deviated wells, SPE 151279, 2012.

3. Mason C., Wellbore quality characterization for drilling and casing running

in challenging wells, SPE 112813-DL, 2007.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

B.C. Gabsia (VNIIneft AO, RF, Moscow)
Peculiarities in formation wettability evaluation techniques

Keywords: wettability, core, oil-wet, water-wet, ageing, core cleaning

Effective evaluation of formation wettability plays a key role in determining reservoir fluid distribution and flow properties. Knowledge of formation wettability is very crucial for carrying out a better control of reservoir performance and enhancing field production prediction, especially in complex reservoirs.

The methods generally employed for determining rock wettability, both qualitative and quantitative, were revised. Detailed analyses of relative permeability curves from steady state core tests, generally used in the qualitative analyses, show that their resultant shapes, not only depend on rock wettability, but also on pore space geometry.  Studies have shown that, for better results, alongside relative permeability curves, capillary curves and core samples pore geometry are needed to determine wettability.

Unlike qualitative evaluation, quantitative wettability techniques require direct laboratory measurements and provide adequate results with response to the solid surfaces and liquids used. In conventional laboratory tests on reservoir rocks the contacting liquids used are usually well defined, but the interacting solid surface (pore surface) remains partially unknown. It isnt quite clear what core (pore) surface is suitable for the right results to be obtained pure (clean) mineral surface or stained (with oil of some thickness). Core ageing can only restore a certain (unknown) wettability, as the real in situ formation wettability before drilling and coring has always been undefined and, ageing periods can never meet up with the formation geological time. Hence alternative core preparation methods are needed.

This article focuses not only on the development of new drilling, coring and core handling methods, but also on more effective wettability measurement and calculation techniques, necessary to meet the present day challenges of complex reservoirs and hence optimize production.


1. Gimmatudinov Sh.K., Fizika neftyanogo i gazovogo plasta (Physics of oil

and gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971, 312 p.

2. Tul'bovich B.I., Metody izucheniya porod-kollektorov nefti i gaza (Methods

of study of oil and gas reservoir rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 199 p.

3. Amott E., Observations relating to the wettability of porous rock, Petroleum

Trans., AIME 216, 1959, pp. 156-162.

4. Anderson W.G., Wettability literature survey, Part 2: Wettability measurement,

Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1986, V. 38, no. 11, pp. 12461262.

5. Cuiec L.E., Restoration of the natural state of core samples, SPE 5634-MS,


6. Morrow N.R., Wettability and its effect on oil recovery, JPT, 1990, V. 42,

pp. 1476-1484.

7. Mikhaylov N.N., Gurbatova I.P., Motorova K.A., Sechina L.S., New representations

of wettability of oil and gas reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo

= Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 8085.

8. Hirasaki G.J., Dubey , Niko H., Wettability evaluation during restored-state

core analysis, SPE 20506-MS, 1990.

9. Barro J., Blanc Ph., Efficiency of cleaning techniques for oil and ester based

muds on unconsolidated and tight sands, International Symposium of the Society

of Core Analysts, SCA2003-04, Pau, France, 21-24 September 2003, URL:


10. Cuiec L.E., Study of problems related to the restoration of the natural state

of core samples, J. Can. Petrol. Tech, 1977, V. 16, no. 4, pp. 68-80.

11. Kelleher H.A., Braun E.M., Milligan B.E., Glotzbach R.C., Haugen E., Wettability

restoration in cores contaminated by fatty acid emulsifiers, International

Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Calgary, Canada, 10-12 September,

2007, URL: http://www.jgmaas.com/SCA/2007/03.pdf

12. Graue A., Viksund B. G., Eilertsen T., Moe R.W., Systematic wettability alteration

by aging sandstone and carbonate rock in crude oil, J. of Petrol. Science

& Eng., 1999 (December), V. 24(2), pp.85-97.

13. Al-Mahrooqi S.H., Grattoni C.A., Muggeridge A. H., Jing X.D., Wettability alteration

during aging: the application of NMR to monitor fluid redistribution,

Int. Symposium, Society of Core Analysts, Toronto, Canada, 21-25 August,

2005, URL: http://www.ibrarian.net/navon/paper/WETTABILITY_ALTERATION_


14. Kowalewski E., Boassen T., Torsaeter O., Wettability alterations due to aging

in crude oil; wettability and Cryo-ESEM analyses, J Pet. Science & Engineering,

2003, V. 39, no. 3-4, pp. 377-388.

15. Shaddel S., Hemmati M., Zamanian E., Moharrami N.N., Core flood studies

to evaluate efficiency of oil recovery by low salinity water flooding as a secondary

recovery process, J. Petr. Science & Technol., 2014, no. 4 (1),

pp. 47-56.

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A.M. Svalov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Curve of pressure with the nonstationary inflow of two-phase fluid to the well, which works with the constant productive rate

Keywords: two-phase filtration, the effective parameters, the curve of pressure

In the classical theory of filtration it is known the exact analytical solution for the problem of nonstationary inflow of single-phase fluid to a well working with a constant flow rate in a homogeneous infinite reservoir, widely used for the well test analysis of hydrodynamic research data. A similar exact analytical solution for the problem, describing the transient inflow of two-phase fluid in the well, does not exist, although the solution of this problem is of special practical value, because in most cases the filtration flow in reservoirs, at least, two-phase, i.e., formation fluid is represented by two phases - oil and water, water and gas etc. In mathematical modeling processes of the two-phase fluid flow to the well frequently use analytical dependences corresponding to the exact solution as a single phase formulation of the problem, in some way averaging the parameters of two-phase medium.

This paper presents a mathematical model describing the change in reservoir pressure at the two-phase flow in the reservoir, caused work well with a constant flow rate. The problem is posed in Buckley -Leveret approximation, i.e. neglecting the capillary forces that causes scaling of solutions and therefore, simplification of the system of equations describing this solution.

Based on the analysis of the results of numerical solution of similar problem we propose an effective method of averaging the parameters of two-phase medium, which ensures high accuracy (1-3 %) when using conventional exact analytical solutions for the flow of a single-phase fluid flow in the description of the two-phase fluid. The proposed method can be practically used for the interpretation of well test data.


1. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey v prirodnykh

plastakh (The movement of fluids in natural reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,

1984, 211 p.

2. Shchelkachev V.N., Osnovy i prilozheniya teorii neustanovivsheysya filtratsii

(Fundamentals and applications of the theory of unsteady filtration),

Moscow: Neft i gaz Publ., 1995.

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L.V. Zatsarina, I.N. Khakimzyanov, U.P. Kemaeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma) I.M. Mukhametvaleev (Jil and Gas Production Department Bavlyneft, RF, Bavly), L.M. Mironova (NAUKA OOO, RF, Bugulma)
Aspects of Tournaisian reservoir development in Korobkovsky area of Bavlinskoye oilfield

Keywords: reservoir geology, horizontal well, oil production, development system improvement, geological model

Performance of vertical and horizontal wells drilled in carbonate reservoirs of Korobkovsky area in the Bavlinskoye field has been analyzed. Geological model was used to predict production data in case of injected water diversion to the lower part of a productive formation.

To define an optimum carbonate reservoir development strategy, pilot areas were selected in the Kizelovsky horizon in the middle 80s, which were developed with different well patterns and spacing. Field data proved the efficiency of carbonate reservoir development using waterflood techniques that ensured reservoir pressure stabilization, lower rate of water invasion, and maintenance of commercial production as against other pilot areas developed by depletion.

Since 2001, a new integrated production system has been introduced in the Kizelovsky horizon of Korobkovsky area involving cluster drilling of water-supply wells followed by drilling of injection and directional production wells. As of 2016, 212 wells have been drilled in this area, including 172 producers (101 vertical and 71 horizontal wells) and 40 injectors. All of the wells are on-stream now.

The experience of producing marginal reservoirs in Tatarstan fields suggests that one of the most efficient development systems involves using a combination of production (vertical and horizontal), injection and water-supply wells.

To attain maximum oil recovery in Korobkovsky area, we suggest improving the injection wells performance through diverting the injected water to the lower part of the formation in each injector, 1-2 m above the bottom of the lower oil-saturated layer. To solve this issue, a geological model of Korobkovsky area was developed to predict production data in case of diverting the injected water. Predicted results show that water diversion in injection wells improves waterflood system efficiency oil rates increased by 1.9-2.3 t/d, water-oil ratio decreased from 0.131 to 0.122, and oil recovery factor increased from 0.021 to 0.153.


1. Patent no. 2196885 RF, MPK7 E 21 V 43/22, Method of developing oil deposit

with carbonate fissured reservoirs, Inventors: Abdulmazitov R.G., Khurryamov

A.M., Mukhametvaleev I.M., Khannanov R.G.

2. Patent no. 2203405 RF, MPK7 E 21 V 43/20, Method of development of oil

field, Inventors: Abdulmazitov R.G., Ganiev G.G., Khannanov R.G., Khurryamov

A.M., Mukhametvaleev I.M., Ganiev B.G.

3. Patent no. 2439300 RF, MPK7 E 21 V 43/20, Method of oil deposit development,

Inventors: Khisamov R.S., Khannanov R.G., Podavalov V.B.,

Mironova L.M., Zatsarina L.V.

4. RD 39-0147585-214-00, Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu,

stroitel'stvu, geofizicheskim i promyslovym issledovaniyam, ekspluatatsii gorizontal'nykh

skvazhin i razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem

gorizontal'noy tekhnologii (A methodological guide for the design, construction,

geophysical and field research, operation of horizontal wells and oil

fields development using horizontal technology).

5. Khakimzyanov I.N., Khisamov R.S., I.M. Bakirov, D.A. Razzhivin, Kiyamova D.T.,

Voprosy optimizatsii i povysheniya effektivnosti ekspluatatsii skvazhin s gorizontal'nym

okonchaniem na osnove matematicheskogo modelirovaniya

mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana (Questions of optimization and increase the efficiency

of operation of wells with horizontal completion on the basis of mathematical

modeling of deposits in Tatarstan), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2014, 239 p.

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I.V. Kuvshinov, V.A. Kuvshinov, L.K. Altunina (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the RAS, RF Tomsk)
Field experience of thermotropic compositions application for enhanced oil recovery

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery (EOR), chemical EOR methods, thermal methods, gels, high-viscosity oils

World reserves of heavy and high-viscous oils exceed light and low-viscous reserves several times, and they are the most important part of raw materials base of petroleum industry, both in Russia and in a number of other oil-producing countries in the world. So, the development of high-viscosity oil pools receives increasing attention.

This work presents results of pilot tests of chemical EOR/IOR compositions, developed at Institute of Petroleum Chemistry Siberian Branch of RAS. The tests were held in 2014 on Permian-Carboni deposit of Usinskoye oilfield. Five different technologies had been tested on 23 producing and 5 injection wells. Significant effect had been obtained at increasing oil production rate and decreasing watercut. By additional oil, effect was up to 800 tons per well, with a duration of effect of up to 9 months. The conclusion is drawn about the prospects of using enhanced recovery technologies for low-productive wells using oil-displacing compositions with controlled viscosity and alkalinity IHN-PRO, as well as acid composition GBK. These compositions are proposed for cold intensification of high-viscous oil recovery, as an alternative for thermal methods.

Large-scale industrial application of new technologies for enhanced oil recovery will extend the profitable operation of oilfields in the late stage of development, and oilfields with hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves could be involved in the development, including high-viscosity oil fields and deposits of the Arctic region.


1. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil

recovery from oil fields (In Russ.), Uspekhi khimii = Uspekhi khimii, 2007, V. 76,

no. 10, pp. 10341052.

2. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Improved oil recovery of high-viscosity oil pools

with physicochemical methods at thermal-steam treatments, Oil&Gas Science

and Technology, 2008, V. 63, no. 1, pp. 37-48.

3. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Ursegov S.O., Chertenkov M.V., Synergism of

physicochemical and thermal methods intended to improve oil recovery

from high-viscosity oil pools, Proceedings of 16th European Symposium on Improved

Oil Recovery, Cambridge, UK, April 12-14, 2011, CD-ROM, Paper A13.

4. Kuvshinov I., Planning of complex cyclic-steam and physical-chemical

treatment of high-viscosity oil pools, Proceedings of 72nd EAGE Conference

& Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2010 Barcelona, Spain, 14 - 17 June


5. Altunina L., Kuvshinov V., Kuvshinov I., Ursegov S., Kompozitsii dlya

uvelicheniya nefteotdachi zalezhey vysokovyazkikh neftey (Compositions for

enhanced oil recovery of deposits of high-viscosity oil), Oil&Gas Journal Russia,

2012, no. 7, pp. 44 51.

6. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Chertenkov M.V., Ursegov S.O., Integrated IOR

technologies for heavy oil pools, Abstract Book of the 21st World Petroleum

Congress, Moscow, June 15-19, 2014, pp. 10-11.

7. Ursegov S.O., Opyt sektornogo termogidrodinamicheskogo modelirovaniya

permo-karbonovoy zalezhi Usinskogo mestorozhdeniya na osnove

realizatsii kompleksnogo podkhoda (Experience in the sector thermohydrodynamic

simulation of Permo-Carboniferous deposit of the Usinsk field

based on an integrated approach), Proceedings of III International Scientific

Symposium Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi

plastov (Theory and practice of EOR), Moscow: Publ. of OAO VNIIneft',

20-21 September, 2011, . 3738.

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N.A. Nebogina, I.V. Prozorova, N.V. Yudina (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk)
The study of rheological parameters of oil-water emulsions of highly paraffinic oils depending on the water content

Keywords: crude oil, water-oil emulsions, viscosity
Long-term exploitation of oil and water flooding of oil-bearing layers leads to the formation of stable oil-water emulsions. The properties of the formed emulsions depend on a number of factors, namely: the composition of oil and water, from the density and viscosity of oil and other. We have investigated the structural and rheological properties of oil-water emulsions of petroleum oils. Due to the fact that the viscosity of the highly paraffinic crude oils and their emulsions has high values already at positive temperatures, this creates additional problems in the process. It is shown that the increase of water content in the emulsions leads to a significant increase in viscosity compared with the original oil. Resin-asphaltene components and paraffin hydrocarbons also have a significant impact on the rheological properties of crude oils and their emulsions. The studied group composition of the interfacial layer of water-oil emulsions of highly paraffinic oils. It is found that with increase of water content in oil is an increase in the proportion of n-alkanes and asphaltenes in the interfacial layers of oil-water emulsions of highly paraffinic oil.


1. Peralta-Martinez M.V., Arriola-Madellin A., Manzanares-Papayanopo -

ulos E., Sanchez-Sanchez R., Palacios-Lozano E.M., Influence of the speed

mixing on viscosity and droplet size of oil in water emulsions, Petroleum Science

and Technology, 2004, V. 22, no.7-8, pp. 1035 1043.

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pp. 169 184.

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sistem (Scientific and applied aspects of the theory of oil disperse systems),

Moscow: Tekhnika Publ., 2000, 336 p.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery

622.276.72: 544.77.022
A.A. Zlobin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
The mechanism of magnetic activation of oil for well protection against asphaltene deposits

Keywords: magnetic activation, asphaltene deposits, asphaltene supramolecular structure, aggregation and peptization of asphaltenes, paramagnetism, spin dynamics of radical pairs
The article presents the experimental study and description of the mechanism of oils magnetic activation for the protection against asphaltene deposits, and improvement of the efficiency of high-viscosity oil extraction. The brief overview of the history of the use of magnetic activation is given. We describe the laboratory methods used for the efficiency of the magnetic activation assessment. The experiments revealed that a positive effect on protection against paraffin oil can be achieved for any oil regardless of the composition and viscosity, but it requires the selection of individual modes of activation. It is shown that the value of the "magnetic memory" of oil nonlinearly grows with increasing magnetic field strength, and may reach 20-40 hours. It is set a common mechanism for oil magnetic resonance activation. The efficiency of the magnetic activation depends on content of asphaltene-containing substances, i.e. the disperse phase of oil. We describe briefly the theory of paramagnetic spin dynamics of radical pairs, which occurs when activating oil. Mechanism of magnetic activation is that a magnetic field with a small supply of excitation energy produces selection of chemical and physical reactions by controlling the spin state of electrons, and stimulates recombination and formation of paramagnetic radical pairs, which ensures the manifestation of long-term high-activity (phase transitions) of asphaltene molecules with release of or absorption of energy, leading to the restructuring of the asphaltene nucleus of macro structures and physical oil in general. At the same time a positive protective effect against the asphaltene deposits after activation is due to aggregation and consolidation of asphaltene complexes, decrease in the specific surface adsorption of paraffin crystals, and creation in the volume of oil harmonic oscillation modes that reduce the probability of nucleation and subsequent growth of paraffin crystals. The results can be used in the development of modern methods for properties of oil disperse systems management and the development of downhole and surface magnetic activators.


1. Klassen V.I., Omagnichivanie vodnykh sistem (Magnetization of water

systems), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1978, 180 p.

2. Inyushin N.N., Ishemguzhin E.I., Kashtanova L.E. et al., Apparaty dlya

magnitnoy obrabotki zhidkostey (Apparatuses for magnetic treatment of

liquids), Ufa: Reaktiv Publ., 2000, 147 p.

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zhidkostey v neftedobyche (Magnetic treatment of fluids in oil production),

Saratov: Kolledzh Publ., 2003,136 p.

4. Zlobin A.A., Yushkov I.R., Analysis of the work of magnetic activators for

the protection from the paraffin depositions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 3537.

5. Postnikov V.V., Fazovye i strukturnye prevrashcheniya v diamagnitnykh

materialakh posle vozdeystviya slabykh magnitnykh poley (Phase and

structural transmutations into diamagnetic materials after weak magnetic

fields action): thesis of doctor of physical and mathematical sciences,

Voronezh, 2004.

6. Kolesnikova E.D., Vozdeystvie slabykh magnitnykh poley na protsessy

kristallizatsii i plavleniya lineynykh polimerov (Effect of weak magnetic

fields on processes of crystallization and melting of linear polymers): thesis

of candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Voronezh, 2007.

7. Morgunov R.B., Buchachenko A.L., Magnetoplasticity and magnetic

memory in diamagnetic solids (In Russ.), Zhurnal eksperimentalnoy i teoreticheskoy

fiziki = Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, 2009, V.

136, no. 3(9), pp. 505515.

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in chemistry and molecular physics (In Russ.), Uspekhi Fizicheskikh

Nauk = Physics-Uspekhi,1988, V. 155, no. 1, pp. 345.

9. Patent no. 2127708 RF kl. C 02 F 1/48, Device for magnetic treatment of

liquid, Inventors: Borsutskiy Z.R., Zlobin A.A.

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self-assembly in oil dispersed systems (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo

issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.

Neftepromyslovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of PNRPU. geology. oil & gas engineering

& mining, 2015, no. 15, pp. 5772.

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of paraffin deposits inhibitors (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2014, no. 6, pp. 4851.

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the resins and asphaltenes), Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian Publishing House

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(Organic chemistry of free radicals), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1979, 344 p.

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V.P. Bondarenko, K.S. Nadirov, V.G. Golubev, A.S. Kolesnikov, A.S. Sadyrbaeva (M.O. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan, Shymkent)
Study of a reagent-emulsifier for the preparation of reverse water-oil emulsions used for well-killing

Keywords: water-oil inverse emulsion, well-killing fluid, hydrophobic-emulsion composition, emulsifier, electrical cables, thermal stability, rheological properties
This work presents the results of laboratory tests of properties of emulsion compositions stabilized with additives obtained on the basis of modified cotton tars that may be used as fluids for overhaul and well killing. Developed the formulation of the emulsion composition, components of which are: oil, water (or brine water), calcium chloride and emulsifier of brand Emulsol GHM. We experimentally justified that the developed emulsion composition allows to improve such properties of liquids for well killing as aggregate resistance, thermal and electrical stability. The conducted research gave an opportunity to highlight the key parameters and define the dependencies to develop an efficient technological fluid composition, which can be used for killing of wells with high formation temperatures up to 80 0. It has been proven for improving the aggregative resistance of the process fluid at t= 80oC within no less than 3 days for the water phase it is necessary to add more than 5% (mass) of  CaCl2  containing in the composition of emulsifier Emulsol-GHM more than 3% (mass). It has been experimentally defined that the effective viscosity of the hydrophobic-emulsion composition stabilized by emulsifier Emulsol-GHM more than 3% of the masses can change considerably when the content of the aqueous phase is from 50 to 90% and a significant increase of this parameter is observed with increasing of aqueous phase from 75 to 90%. It is found that when the content of the aqueous phase is from 80 to 90% the effective viscosity with increasing the temperature from 20 to 80 C increases with lower shear rates. This process is accompanied by the decrease in the thickness of the hydrocarbon layer, which creates a layer effect and protects the aqueous phase in the reverse emulsion. It should be noted that increasing the concentration of CaCl2 in the aqueous phase of the hydrophobic-emulsion composition significantly reduces the effective viscosity.


1. Gaydarov M. M-R., Kravtsov S.A., Yusupkhodzhaev M.A., Conservation the

stability of clay rocks by hydrophobic mudding (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost'

= GAS Industry of Russia, 2007, no. 11, pp. 87-90.

2. Abaturov S.V., Ramazanov D.Sh., Shpurov I.V., About efficiency of gas and

water-gas stimulation of the watered stratum YuK10 of Talinskaya area of Krasnoleninskoye

oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009,

no. 9, pp. 90-91.

3. Bondarenko V.P., Nadirov K.S., Golubev V.G., Sadyrbaeva A.S., Dzhusenov

A.U., Research of properties of hydrophobic and emulsion structures for

muffling of wells, Vestnik Evraziyskogo natsional'nogo universiteta imeni

L.N. Gumileva, 2016, no. 2, pp. 151-156.

4. Kolesnikov A.S., Sadyrbaeva A.S., Shegenova G.K., Amantaeva D.B., Issledovaniya

gliny orangayskogo mestorozhdeniya s tsel'yu sozdaniya na ee osnove

burovogo rastvora (Research of clay of Orangescape deposit in order

to create on its basis the mud), Proceedings of International scientific and

practical conference dedicated to the 60th anniversary USPTU branch in Oktyabrsky

Sovremennye tekhnologii v neftegazovom dele 2016 (Modern

technologies in the oil and gas business - 2016), 2016, pp. 446-451.

5. Abramzon A.A., Poverkhnostno-aktivnye veshchestva. Sintez, analiz, svoystva,

primenenie (Surfactants. Synthesis, analysis, properties and application),

St. Petersburg: Khimiya Publ., 2008, 200 p.

6. Nadirov K.S., Bondarenko V.P., Bimbetova G.Zh., Baybotaeva A., Kadyrov

A.A., Preparation the mud component based modified hexahydro resin

(In Russ.), Nauka i obrazovanie Yuzhnogo Kazakhstana, 2012, no. 3/4 (94/95),


7. Gaydarov M. M-R., Kurbanov Ya.M., Application of hydrocarbon drilling fluids

at deep holes making (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2008, no. 4, pp. 41-43.

8. Bondarenko V.P., Nadirov K.S., Golubev V.G., Sadyrbaeva A.S., The research

of aggregate resistance and electrical stability of hydrophobic emulsion solutions

for drilling, Proceedings of International Conference of Indus trial Technologies

and Enginiring (ICITE), Shymkent, October 30-31, 2014, M. Auezov

South Kazakhstan State University, pp. 9-13.

9. Rogachev M.K. et al., Development and selection of water-repellent compositions

at killing of wells at their remedial work (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 4, pp. 116-118.

10. Basniev K.S., Dmitriev N.M., Rozenberg G.D., Neftegazovaya

gidromekhanika (Oil & Gas Hydromechanics), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute

of Computer Science, 2003, 480 p.

11. Nadirov K.S., Bimbetova G.Zh., Zhantasov M.K., Kolesnikov A.S., Sadyrbaeva

A.S., Orynbasarov A.K., Kutzhanova A.N., Turemuratov R.S., Botabaev N.E.,

Zhantasova D., Examination of optimal parameters of oxy-ethylation of fatty

acids with a view to obtaining demulsifiers for deliquefaction in the system of

skimming and treatment of oil, Chimica Oggi - Chemistry Today, 2016,

V. 34(1), February, pp. 72-77. 

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I.N. Ponomareva, P.Yu. Iluishin, A.V. Lekomtsev, D.A. Martyushev, R.M. Rakhimzyanov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Results of research for improving well-killing technology

Keywords: well-killing fluid, well test, geological-physical conditions, permeability coefficient of restitution, laboratory research
This article describes how to find some new well-killing fluids for a variety of geological and physical conditions of the Perm region, having a positive experience of practical application in other regions of Russia. Interaction of fluids well jamming with rock-forming minerals and the formation fluids often leads to a deterioration in the filtration reservoir characterization in the invaded zone. As a result, the process is complicated by the well output to the regime, it reduces productivity and performance. We consider examples of the wells in which production decline was probable cause for the negative impact of well-killing fluid on the filtration characteristics of the rock. Comparison of the properties and state of formation zone determined using pressure-processing, obtained before and after the repair. The properties of the remote formation zone determined by standard methods of diagnosis and isolation fracture parameters - by the method of Warren - Ruth, the parameter estimation zone - based on the method of deterministic pressure moments. In laboratory experiments conducted filtration and research in the free volume 5 different damping fluid, which allowed to identify the most effective ones for the conditions of the specific objects of oil deposits of the Perm region. According to the results of laboratory tests in the void volume it found that all damping fluid is inert to the clay minerals and the formation fluids, and does not influence the preparation process oil, and does not cause corrosion of the pipeline equipment intensive. The main criterion for the effectiveness of well-killing fluids adopted the coefficient of permeability recovery. It was found that the investigated damping fluid show quite different results in different geological and physical conditions of the Perm region, which confirms the need for their individual choice in the planning stage repair of wells, taking into account the real geological and physical properties.


1. Zeygman Yu.V., Fizicheskie osnovy glusheniya i osvoeniya skvazhin (Physical

fundamentals of killing and development of wells), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 1996,

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i podzemnogo remonta neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (The technology

of oil and gas well servicing and workover), Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban

Publ., 2002, 584 p.

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of well intervention aimed at oil production enhancement in the Perm

krai􀀀s fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo

politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo

= Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil &

Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015, no. 15, pp. 8189.

4. Cherepanov S.S., Chumakov G.N., Ponomareva I.N., Results of applying

acidic hydraulic fracturing with proppant in the Tournaisian-Famennian reserves

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issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe

i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University.

Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015, no. 16, pp. 7076.

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curves of pressure in wells of the carbonate collector with high-viscosity

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pp. 113115.

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1960, 160 p.

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natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.

Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research

Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015,

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2014, no. 4.(3). http://tp-ning.ru/img/04/01.pdf

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(In Russ.), Stroitelstvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na

more, 2014, no. 6, pp. 3841.

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Yu.V. Zeygman, V.Sh. Mukhametshin, A.R. Khafizov, S.B. Kharina, E.M. Abutalipova, A.N. Avrenyuk (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Peculiarities in selection of well-killng fluids composition for difficult conditions

Keywords: well-killing fluids, carbonate rocks, acid treatment, inverted emulsion, reservoir properties

Studies show that the most effective for deep delivery into the formation of sulfamic acid is the use of stabilized artificial emulsifiers inverse emulsions acid (OER). OER is maintained for a certain time in the acid as the dispersed phase and prevent its entry into the reaction. The result is to be transported to bottom active acid and its penetration into remote areas of the formation. As shown by the results of studies feature of OER is a much smaller dispersion of the globules of sulfamic acid, which helps to improve the uniform admission OER both low and high permeability in porous-fractured rock.

 It proposed to develop oil emulsion formulations (IRC) used in the primary and secondary opening of layers, well-killing operations, treatments of bottomhole formation zone, and in the processes of enhancing oil recovery. We present the results of the research of oil emulsions (NCE) for delivery of reactive acid into the formation. We determined weight loss of sieved and crushed rock deposit of core (Kuyumbinskoye field) when interacting with aqueous solutions of 15% hydrochloric and sulfamic acid at a temperature of 25 C. The content of dolomite samples 99%.Results of studies using filtration acidic solutions show that the maximum increase in permeability of rock samples occurs after filtration through cores about five pore volumes. A further increase in the multiplicity of pumping acid solutions practically does not change the value of the permeability of the samples in the water. Analysis of physical-chemical properties of the test compounds IRC allows us to recommend their use in the hydraulic fracturing of oil reservoirs dedicated to the Riphean deposits.


1. Yagafarov A.K., Kleshchenko I.I., Zeygman Yu.V. et al., Razrabotka

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Ishemguzhin E.I., Ufa: Monografiya Publ., 2003, 302 p.

9. Mukhametshin V.Sh., Popov A.M., Goncharov A.M., Field justification the selection

of wells and exposure settings during hydrochloride acid treatment (In

Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1991, no. 6, pp. 3233.

10. Khafizov A.R., Chizhov A.P., Chibisov A.V. et al., Complex technologies of

influence on gravely extracted and residual stocks of oil (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe

delo, 2011, no. 3, pp. 4044.

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The oil-field equipment

D.A. Panevnik, A.S. Velichkovich (Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk)
Assessment of the stressed state of the casing of the above-bit hydro-elevator

Keywords: oil well, ejection system, ejector pump, stressed state, stress concentration

The authors analyzed distribution of flows in the elements of the pumping and circulating system of the well, what equipped by the above-bit hydro-elevator. It was determined that the most difficult conditions of use the hydro-elevator casing appear at its operation in cavitation condition. It is developed the method of selection of geometric parameters of the casing of the well ejection system with an external arrangement of multiple jet pumps.

We researched the stressed state of the casing of the above-bit hydro-elevator at work in the drill column. For obtaining analytical results the casing was simulated like the momentless shell with through holes. It is established that the presence of through holes in the casing considerably affect on its state of stress. Along with the ring stresses from the internal pressure of the action it was taken into account the effect of axial stresses from the weight of the drill column and tangential stresses from its torsion. To perform design calculations and evaluating the strength it was used Huber-Mises theory. It was suggested an engineering approach to the research of the strength of the casing areas attenuation by holes. Assessment of equivalent stress concentration effect in the vicinity of the holes it was realized by combining solutions of multi-parameter two-dimensional problem with the results of Kirsch problem. It was made a numerical analysis of the results on the example of a specific engineering task. It was obtained a graph of the maximum equivalent stresses in the casing from its geometrical parameters useful for designing or checking calculations.

The investigations made it possible to determine the allowable at specific conditions operating the ratio of the wall thickness and inner diameter of the casing of the device, taking into account the perturbation stresses in the area technological holes. The results can be used during the design and operation of wells ejection systems.


1. Sokolov E.Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Jet devices), Moscow:

Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.

2. Marenko V.P., Mironov S.D., Mishchenko I.G., Tseplyaev Yu.A., Primenenie

struynykh nasosov dlya podema produktsii skvazhin (The use of jet

pumps for well production lifting), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1986, 38 p.

3. Kamenev P.N., Gidroelevatory v stroitelstve (Hydraulic elevator in the

building), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1970, 415 p.

4. Velichkovich A.S., Panevnik D.O., Rationale for choosing the geometric

dimensions of well hydraulic jet pump (In Ukr.), Naftogazova galuz

Ukrani, 2013, no. 6, pp. 2023.

5. Mavlyutov M.R., Skvortsov V.P., Radionova S.V., Sergeev S.A., The effectiveness

of the differential pressure control by ejection (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1998, no. 5, pp. 3940.

6. Iogansen K.V., Sputnik burovika (Driller satellite), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,

1986, 294 p.

7. Gere J.M., Goodno B., Mechanics of materials, Stamford: Cengage

Learning, 2012, 620 p.

8. Hahn H.G., Elastizit􀀀tstheorie. Grundlagen der linearen Theorie und Anwendungen

auf eindimensionale, ebene und r􀀀umliche probleme, B.G.

Teubner Stuttgart, 1985.

9. Dovbnya E.N., Krupko N.A., Influence of circular hole on the shell stress

state for arbitrary Gaussian curvature (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo

issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Mekhanika

= PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin, 2014, no. 1, pp. 108125.References

1. Sokolov E.Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Jet devices), Moscow:

Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.

2. Marenko V.P., Mironov S.D., Mishchenko I.G., Tseplyaev Yu.A., Primenenie

struynykh nasosov dlya podema produktsii skvazhin (The use of jet

pumps for well production lifting), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1986, 38 p.

3. Kamenev P.N., Gidroelevatory v stroitelstve (Hydraulic elevator in the

building), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1970, 415 p.

4. Velichkovich A.S., Panevnik D.O., Rationale for choosing the geometric

dimensions of well hydraulic jet pump (In Ukr.), Naftogazova galuz

Ukrani, 2013, no. 6, pp. 2023.

5. Mavlyutov M.R., Skvortsov V.P., Radionova S.V., Sergeev S.A., The effectiveness

of the differential pressure control by ejection (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1998, no. 5, pp. 3940.

6. Iogansen K.V., Sputnik burovika (Driller satellite), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,

1986, 294 p.

7. Gere J.M., Goodno B., Mechanics of materials, Stamford: Cengage

Learning, 2012, 620 p.

8. Hahn H.G., Elastizit􀀀tstheorie. Grundlagen der linearen Theorie und Anwendungen

auf eindimensionale, ebene und r􀀀umliche probleme, B.G.

Teubner Stuttgart, 1985.

9. Dovbnya E.N., Krupko N.A., Influence of circular hole on the shell stress

state for arbitrary Gaussian curvature (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo

issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Mekhanika

= PNRPU Mechanics Bulletin, 2014, no. 1, pp. 108125.

More or to buy article

Ya.A. Sazonov, M.A. Mokhov, V.V. Bondarenko (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Research of the turbine prototype for utilization of energy of the compressed gas on oil and gas fields

Keywords: energy conversion, gas, oil, turbine, loop blade, generator

New technologies must be implemented in order to use compressed gas energy on oil and gas fields rationally. The lack of cheap and reliable equipment leads to poor progress in this area. That is why development of the reliable and easy-to-use turbines for conversion of the gas stream energy to other types of energy is very important nowadays. Additionally, due to well-known problems of the climate change researches have to search for the new ways of additional energy generation without utilization of hydrocarbons. Compressed gas energy might be converted to heat or electrical energy and such options of the technological chain are the most demanded for the arctic regions.

The experimental sample of the heat energy generator is being developed within the scope of the ongoing research studies. One of the most important elements of the generator is turbine which converts compressed gas energy into mechanical energy. Then mechanical energy is converted to hydraulic energy in the pump which pumps the heat agent. The pump is attached to the turbine via transmission. Different types of the transmission might be used, including mechanical and electromechanical.

Maximum rotor mass reduction was the objective of the new turbine development process. Small rotor mass leads to better balance and some additional opportunities for the rotor rotation speed increase with wider area of application of such a turbine. Possibilities of turbine usage without a stator were considered during the designing stage and turbines from the active turbine group are of the particular interest in this case. Turbine blades must be thin, but strong at the same time and that is why loop type blades are considered. It is well-known fact that majority of the design studies are based on the experience accumulated by a huge number of specialists and this principle is important to use, including the information from patents databases.

In order to test the working efficiency of the considered machine elements and joints models are created. Conversion of the compressed gas energy to mechanical energy principles was tested. Principles of the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy and further to heat energy were tested using electromechanical transmission.


1. Sazonov I.A., Mokhov M.A., Design of thermoelectric generators for oil

and gas production systems, Indian Journal of Science and Technology,

2015, V. 8 (30), IPL0623, pp. 112, URL: http://www.indjst.org/index.php/indjst/


2. Sazonov I.A., Mokhov M.A., Frankov M.A., Biktimirova D.R., Studying issues

of compressed gas energy recovery, Indian Journal of Science and Technology,

2016, V. 9(19), pp. 17, DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i19/93904

3. Bondarenko V.V., Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Heat generators modeling

for oil and gas production systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo =

Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 127129.

4. Utility patent no. 163491 RF, Rotor lopatochnykh mashin (Rotor of impeller

machine), Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A.

5. Sarwar N., UK Gas pipeline to generate renewable energy through geopressure

technology, Climatico. Independent analysis of climate policy,

10 January 2009, URL: http://www.climaticoanalysis.org/post/uk-gaspipeline-


6. Kaupert Dr.K., Use better designed turboexpanders to handle flashing

fluids, Hydrocarbon Processing, 2012, URL: http://www.hydrocarbonprocessing.



7. Patent no. 2467568 EP B1., A method and an apparatus for obtaining energy

by expanding a gas at a wellhead, Inventors: Stefano F., Giacinto L.,

Luciano S.

8. Patent no. 4369373, Method and apparatus for generating electricity

from the flow of fluid through a well, Inventor: Wiseman B.W.

9. Patent no. 5117908, Method and equipment for obtaining energy from

oil wells, Inventor: Hofmann H.

10. Patent no. 6907727, Gas energy conversion apparatus and method, Inventor:

Turchetta J.M.

11. Patent no. 7043905, Gas energy conversion apparatus and method, Inventor:

Turchetta J.M.

12. Patent no. 5606858, Energy recovery, pressure reducing system and

method for using the same, Inventors: Nadiv A., Meir R., Yoel G.

13. Patent no. 2043788, Rotary steam friction motor, Inventor: Adair C.W.

14. Patent no. 7018167, Fluid machinery, Inventor: Minoru Y.

15. Sazonov Yu.A., Osnovy rascheta i konstruirovaniya nasosno-ezhektornykh

ustanovok (Bases for design and construction of pumping and

ejecting plants), Moscow: Neft i gaz Publ., 2012, 300 p.

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Standardization and technical regulation

G.G. Vasilev, S.I. Sencov, S.G. Ivancova, I.A. Leonovich (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University)
Development of normative requirement for oil and gas field gathering pipeline

Keywords: oil and gas field gathering pipeline, normative requirement, safety, reliability, resource conservation, minimum safe distance

Development of a process-oriented approach to regulatory activities and the formation of a new system normative and technical documentation can result in ambiguous situations in the field of cooperation and mutual supplement vaults requirements of regulations and national standards, and thus to standardize, as a whole, leading to different interpretations in compliance with the requirements of technical regulations, especially in view of the total lobbying of corporate interests. This situation greatly complicated by the fact that in the process of development of national standards, which usually takes place on the basis of existing rules and regulations in their demands made certain changes unfounded. Thus, the requirements developed by national standards are beginning to conflict with the requirements of updated codes of practice. This situation gives rise to different interpretations in the design and construction of facilities, which can cause conflicts in the production and acceptance of work.


1. Russian Federation Government Resolution No. 624 from July 1, 2016

Postanovlenie Pravitelstva RF ot 01.07.2016 624 Ob utverzhdenii Pravil

razrabotki, utverzhdeniya, opublikovaniya, izmeneniya i otmeny svodov pravil

(On Approval of Rules of development, approval, publication, modification

and cancellation of sets of rules).

2. Federal Law o. 104-FZ of April 5, 2016, On the amendments to individual

legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the issues of standardization.

3. SP 34-116-97. Instruktsiya po proektirovaniyu, stroitel'stvu i rekonstruktsii

promyslovykh neftegazoprovodov (Instructions for the design, construction

and reconstruction of field oil and gas pipelines).

4. GOST R 55990-2014. Mestorozhdeniya neftyanye i gazoneftyanye.

Promyslovye truboprovody. Normy proektirovaniya (Oil and gas-oil fields.

Field pipelines. Design codes).

5. GOST 31443-2012. Truby stal'nye dlya promyslovykh truboprovodov.

Tekhnicheskie usloviya (Steel pipes for crafts pipelines. Specifications).

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Information technology

I.S. Korovin, M.G. Tkachenko (Scientific Research Institute of Multiprocessor Computer Systems at Southern Federal University, RF, Taganrog)
Software & hardware platform for Digital Oilfield system organization

Keywords: digital oilfield, data mining, artificial neural networks, distributed calculations, multiagent system, software-hardware platform

Approach of building a software-hardware platform applied for solution of production tasks in the Digital Oilfield framework is considered in the paper. Nowadays a problem of development and implentation into industrial processes a united digital oilfield system assumes proceeding a sufficient amounts of work, linked with the integration of novel software & hardware tools into the existing infrastructure of an oil company. The suggested way of solving the given problem a priori demands huge financial investments and leads to unevitable stops in the work of the oil well fund, that is inadmissible in real industrial conditions.

In the paper we suggested an approach of building an intelligent oilfield system on the basis of autonomous software-hardware modules, phase-by-phase implemented into the existing corporate control systems. Also, we offered to apply data mining techniques, in particular, artificial neural networks, and also distributed calculations technology on the multiagent interaction for real time data handling procedures optimization. A prototype of a hardware-software module is presented.


1. Digital oilfield outlook report. Opportunities and challenges for Digital Oilfield

transformation, URL: https://www.accenture.com/t20151210T215032__w__/usen/_



2. The digital oilfield. Real time field management, URL [www.petex.com/includes/


3. Korovin Ya.S., Khisamutdinov M.V., Tkachenko M.G., Forecasting of oilfield

equipment work conditions with the application of evolutionary algorithms

and artificial neural networks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2013, no. 12, pp. 128-132.

4. Korovin Ya.S., Tkachenko M.G., Khisamutdinov M.V., Kalyaev A.I., Artificial intelligence

hybrid methods application in the task of the heavy oilfields profitability

increase (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1,

pp. 106-109.

5. Korovin Ya.S., Decision support system for electrical submersible pumps

control on the neural network basis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2007, no. 1, pp. 80-83.

6. Korovin Ya.S., Kononov S.V., Tkachenko M.G., Oilfield equipment's state diagnostics

on the basis of data mining technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 9, pp. 116-118.

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Oil refining

R.F. Khamidullin, H.. Kharlampidi, R.M. Nikulin, A.V. Sitalo, Sharaf F.A.(Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan)
Changing the depth of selection and properties of the gasoline fraction of petroleum activated by acoustic treatment

Keywords: oil, gasoline fraction, the rotary-pulsating acoustic apparatus activation, the output fraction, hydrocarbons, group composition

The paper presents the results of activation of high-viscosity and sour crude oil applying acoustic treatment in order to increase the yield of light distillates. The considered pilot rotary-pulsating acoustic device (RPAD) is capable to generate acoustic oscillations. The intensity of the acoustic radiation in RPAD with predominance of certain frequencies is adjusted with the rotational speed. A wide range of vibrations (from infrasound to ultrasound) takes place depending on the number of revolutions. The yield of gasoline fractions and the determination of their fractional composition during the distillation of feedstock were estimated with the aid of construction of the curves of true boiling point before and after activation in RPAD in the temperature range between the beginning and the end of the distillation. The RPAD leads to the increase of the yield of gasoline fraction by 10 % in comparison with non-activated feedstock depending on the intensity of acoustic oscillations. Despite the appearing of accompanied with the release of the great amount of heat cavitation effect, the selective low-temperature cracking of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes takes place in this process. The group composition and the content of the alkanes, naphthenes and aromatic compounds are found to be changed after the activation of crude oil at the certain conditions. The cracking leads to the change of various hydrocarbon compounds, which entails the redistribution of the fractional composition and allows to increase the yield of the gasoline fraction. The analysis of their qualitative parameters changes (octane number and density) and the steepness and shallowness of the true boiling point curve depending on activation conditions proves this fact. The acoustic treatment on the crude oil feedstock significantly changes its physicochemical properties and improves certain operational characteristics of the gasoline fraction. It is shown that the physicochemical nature of the wave oscillations is an effective way of treatment on crude oil, which leads to the significant change in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of gasoline fraction and other products after treatment process. It is consistent with the received gas chromatographic data of individual, group and fractional composition. Material balances of the atmospheric distillation of the initial and activated in RPAD crude oil also allowed to prove the effectiveness of acoustic treatment. Selected from activated crude oil gasoline has a higher octane number than the initial fraction, and can be recommended to use as a high-octane component of motor fuels for gasoline blending. Thus, the research shows the possibility of application of the alternative method that increase the yield of light distillates by acoustic activation of crude oil feedstock in the rotary-pulsating acoustic device.


1. Aleksandrova V.I., The issue of oil recycling in Russia (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-

analiticheskiy byulleten, 2011, V. 6, no. 12, pp. 45-50.

2. Muravev I.V., Lozhnikova A.V., Technology level and innovative portfolio

of Russian companies: on adequacy of assessment and existence of interrelation

(In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2012,

V. 365, pp. 116-121.

3. URL: http://forums.drom.ru/blagoveschensk/t1151361405-p89.html.

4. Patent no. 2354445 RF, Acoustic method of treatment of fluid mediums

and rotary pulsating acoustic device for implementation of this method,

Inventors: Fomin V.M., Ayupov R.Sh., Khamidullin R.F. et al.

5. Al-Obaydi A.Sh., Khamidullin R.F., Shibaeva O.N. et al., The influence of

mechanical-acoustic impact on the rheological characteristics of highviscosity

oils (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologiya uglevodorodov, 2003, no. 3,

pp. 24-27.

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Ecological and industrial safety

V.S. Kuznetsov, I.K. Suprun, D.S. Petrov (Saint-Petersburg Mining University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Assessment and reduction of drilling waste impact on the environment components

Keywords: drill cuttings, environment, drilling waste water, recycling of drilling waste
One of the most critical environmental problems of the oil industry in Russia is contamination with drilling waste, which has negative impact on the living conditions of people, animals and plants. The paper studies ways to dispose of drilling waste resulting from well construction. The issue of drilling waste disposal can be solved by using drill cuttings in drilling site construction. With this approach clean drilling waste is dumped into an earth trench specially constructed in the site bank, while drilling wastewater is collected in temporary waterproof earth storage. This well site design secures separate dumping of drilling wastes and drilling wastewaters during all well construction stages. Later on the disturbed lands are subjected to biological recultivation. The biological recultivation can be done in two basic ways: by stimulation of natural grass growth or through perennial grass seeding and, if reasonable, planting of shrub cuttings. It is assumed that from the environmental and economic point of view this approach offers more advantages than other recovery techniques which are currently implemented in the oil industry.


1. Sedykh V.N., Ignat'ev L.A., Semenyuk M.V., Reaktsiya rasteniy na otkhody

bureniya neftyanykh skvazhin (Plant reaction to the drilling waste), Novosibirsk:

Nauka Publ., 2004, 84 p.

2. Patent no. 2439098 RF MKP S08J11/00, C04B18/04, Method of drilling mud

utilization, Inventors: Pashkevich M.A., Malyshkin M.M., Malyshkina L.A.

More or to buy article

502.6: 622.276.5
..Soromotin, .Yu. Solodovnikov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
The ecological condition of Sarutausk group of licensed sites

Keywords: Sarutausk group of licensed sites, ecological condition of the environment, ecological monitor, surface waters, bottom clay

In this article the modern ecological condition of Sarutausk group of licensed sites located in Nenets autonomous district (NAD) that are the property of Surgutneftegas is observed. The organizing of new business activities here is the top priority for the whole country due to the exhausting of resources in Middle Ob region. Nenets autonomous district could also become the center of gas-oil extraction for Surgutneftegas as Sakha (Yakutia), helping theCompany to keep the leader position in Russia.

Nowadays on the territory of NAD and Sarutausk group of licensed sites the recon and research projects of hydrocarbon supplies are made. Simultaneously with them the ecological monitor is accomplished. Those researches are very important to once again prove that therere excesses of polluting substances in TAC in different regions of Russia. Their appeal is connected not only with the anthropogenic factor but with the natural one too. The ecological monitor researches allow to notify any harmful influence and to create special projects to minimize the influence on the nature components. This is proved by researches made by Surgutneftegas on the territory of Companys business activities.


1. Sever Evropeyskoy chasti SSSR (North of the European part of the USSR):

edited by Gerasimov I.P., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1966, 452 p.

2. Aleksandrova V.D., Geobotanicheskoe rayonirovanie Arktiki i Antarktiki

(Geobotanical zoning of the Arctic and Antarctic), In: Komarovskie chteniya,

1977, V. 29, 188 p.

3. Yurtsev B.A., Gipoarkticheskiy botaniko-geograficheskiy poyas i proiskhozhdenie

ego flory (Hypoarctic botanical and geographical zone and the origin

of its flora), In: Komarovskie chteniya, 1966, V. 19, 94 p.

4. Gorodkov B.N., Vegetation of the Arctic and mountain tundra of the USSR

(In Russ.), Rastitel'nost' SSSR, 1938, V. 1, pp. 297354.

More or to buy article

E.V. Glebova, A.T. Volokhina (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow
Improvement of safety management system in oil and gas companies based on the assessment of professional competence of employees

Keywords: professionally important qualities, operational staff, industrial safety

The HSE system at the enterprises of oil and gas branch operating hazardous production facilities is organized as a complex of related organizational and technical measures directed to the prevention of accidents and ensuring readiness of divisions for localization and liquidation of accidents consequences. One of such actions is compulsory training and an examination of workers in the field of the industrial safety, and also periodic training in actions in emergency.

The results of professional competencies assessment obtained in the course of mandatory testing as well as in conducting emergency response training should be taken into account in the implementation of production control over observance of industrial safety requirements.

As it has been shown in several studies the formation of professional competencies in the field of industrial safety is significantly affected by the level of development of employees professionally important qualities.

Currently the training requirements of employees carrying out the operation and maintenance of hazardous production facilities of oil and gas industry are established by law, the requirements for the assessment and development of professionally important qualities are not determined.

For increase in effectiveness of HSE system the automated complexes of assessment of professionally important qualities of main professions workers and also operation personnel, defining readiness for actions in emergency and readiness for hazardous work were developed and introduced. Use of the developed software products will allow to reduce, on the one hand, probability of emergence due to increase in effectiveness of the procedure of compulsory training and examination of industrial safety requirements of workers, and on the other hand, to reduce the extent of damage of accidents due to increase in readiness of operation personnel for actions for their localization.


1. URL: http://www.gosnadzor.ru/public/ annual_reports/.

2. RD 03-20-2007. Polozhenie ob organizatsii obucheniya i proverki znaniy

rabochikh organizatsiy, podnadzornykh Federal'noy sluzhbe po ekologicheskomu,

tekhnologicheskomu i atomnomu nadzoru (Regulations on the organization

of training and examination of workers' organizations, supervised

Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service of Russia),

URL: http://ohranatruda.ru/ot_biblio/normativ/data_normativ/50/50005/

3. Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service of Russia

Order from 26.12.2012 no. 781 Ob utverzhdenii rekomendatsiy po razrabotke

planov lokalizatsii i likvidatsii avariy na vzryvopozharoopasnykh i khimicheski

opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektakh (On approval of the the recommendations

on the development of plans for localization and liquidation of

accidents on the explosive and chemically hazardous production facilities),

URL: ht tp://docs.cntd.ru/document/902389563

4. Korobtsov S.N., Glebova E.V., Volokhina A.T., Gus'kov M.A., Development of

automated complex for readiness assessment of operational personnel to

actions in emergency situations (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS

Industry of Russia, 2014, no. 5, pp. 79-84.

5. Kuvykin V.S., Glebova E.V., Ivanova M.V., Volokhina A.T., Increasing industrial

safety of oil production objects by improving the operators training process

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 12, pp. 132-134.

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