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March 2015



Мартовский номер журнала посвящен 85 летию Российского государ-ственного университета нефти и газа имени И.М. Губкина и различным торжественным мероприятиям, которые проводятся по этому поводу.

Geology and geologo-prospecting works


O.E. Kochneva (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), T.V. Karaseva, E.A. Kuznecova (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm)
Prospects of oil-and-gas content of the deep-shipped deposits of the Verkhnepechorsky hollow by data basin modeling

Key words: Vuktylskoye gas&condensate field, Verkhnepecherskaja depression, oil-bearing, modeling of sedimentary basins, the model of oil and gas generation.

The article is devoted to the problem of oil and gas deep horizons Verhnepecherskij basin Ural foredeep. Due to the deep position of the oil-gas complexes, complicating exploration in this area, natural systems basin modeling was implemented. This article describes the results of 1D simulation using the software package Genex of well Vuktylskaya-58, who revealed the deep horizons of the sedimentary cover. The authors made several conclusions about the possibility of generation of gases and condensates, which could ensure the formation of deposits not only in the deeper horizons, but also large deposits in the overlying sediments, the selected periods of generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons, determined the position of the main zone of oil formation according to wells, and the lower limit of the existence of oil.

References
1. Belyaeva G.L., Karaseva T.V., Kuznetsova E.A., Geological structure and oil and gas content of deep deposits in Timan-Pechora oil and gas bearing
province (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh
mestorozhdeniy, 2012, no. 7, pp. 33–40.
2. Galushkin Yu.I., Modelirovanie osadochnykh basseynov i otsenka ikh
neftegazonosnosti (Modeling of sedimentary basins and assessment of their
oil and gas potential), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007, 456 p.
3. Krivoshchekov S.N., Geological evaluation and investment calculation of development costs of Patrakovskaya area (Verhnepechorskaya depression) (In
Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2008, no. 3, pp. 30–37.
1. Krivoshchekov S.N., Assessment of the prospects of Rusinovskaya prepared structure (southeast Verhnepechorskoy depression) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2007, no. 2, pp. 22–25.
5. Krivoshchekov S.N., Kozlova I.A., Verhnepecherskaya depression - a new
object of exploration for oil and gas in the Perm region (In Russ.), Vestnik
Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta.
Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2006, no. 1, pp. 51–58.
6. Larionova Z.V., Bogatskiy V.I., Dovzhikova E.G., Timano-Pechorskiy sedimentatsionnyy basseyn. Atlas geologicheskikh kart (Timan-Pechora sedimentation basin. Atlas of geological maps), Ukhta: Publ. of TP NITs, 2000.
7. Pestereva S.A., Methodological foundations and problems 1D basin modeling (In Russ.), Collected papers “Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' severnykh rayonov Uralo-Povolzh'ya” (Geology and oil and gas potential of the northern regions of the Ural-Volga region), Proceedings of conference “K 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya prof. P.A. Sofronitskogo” (On the 100th anniversary of prof. Sofronitsky P.A.), Perm': Publ. of PSU, 2010, pp. 231–232.
8. Kuznetsova E.A. Khopta I.S., Experience of application the pyrolysis by the
method "Rock-Eval" on the example of the well Mishparminskaya 2 (In Russ.), Collected papers “Vestnik molodykh uchenykh PGNIU”, Part 1, Perm': Publ. of PSU, pp. 87–94. 

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Drilling of chinks


M.V. Malimon, A.G. Shumikhin, A.V. Anisimov, A.S. Kozlov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Mathematical and information support of decision making during the optimization of the formulas of magnesia plugging materials for boring casings cementing in the oil and gas wells

Key words: deep well, dry magnesia cement mix, composition optimization, regression models, case study method.

The production of the dry magnesia cement mixes, intended for the qualitative cementing of the boring cases, overlapping the deposits of water-soluble salts in the oil and gas wells, is labor-consuming process. By this the need for the optimization of their compositions taking into account the chemical activity of the magnesia binding base, features of the mining-geological and engineering-technical conditions of the construction of each concrete well, is caused. As the method, making it possible to operationally optimize the process of the new formula choice, the case study method is selected. The method in question is based on the use of cumulative data on the previously optimized formulas of magnesia plugging materials. The applicability of the solutions, obtained with the aid of the case study method, is checked with the aid of the regression models, created with the use of the three-factor planned experiment, and by conducting control laboratory investigations of the selected according to the case study method formula of dry plugging mixture, prepared under the plant conditions. As a result the possibility of applying the selected method for the operational optimization of formulas at the production of dry magnesia cement mixes is proven.

References
1. Tolkachev G.M., Kozlov A.S., Devyatkin D.A., A method to reduce chemical activity of magnesite cements to ensure safety in casing cementing in oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013,
no. 9, pp. 49-56.
2. Tolkachev G.M. , Anisimova A.V., Study of modifying technological properties of a cement sheath for casing cementing in permafrosts (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 57-65.
3. Kozlov A.S., Pastukhov A.M., Plugging material for cementing casing in the range of perennially frozen rocks (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 42-48.
4. Tolkachev G.M., Kozlov A.S., Anisimova A.V., Pastukhov A.M., The use of magnesia cement when deep oil and gas wells casing (In Russ.), Sbornik
nauchnykh trudov Sworld, 2013, V. 14, no. 3, pp. 28-34.
5. Tolkachev G.M., Shilov A.M., Kozlov A.S. et al., Preparation of dry mixtures of magnesia plugging materials in stationary conditions (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 8, pp.43-45.
6. Akhnazarova S.L., Kafarov V.V., Metody optimizatsii eksperimenta v
khimicheskoy tekhnologii (Experiment optimization methods in chemical
technology), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1985, 327 p.
7. Anisimova A.V., Malimon M.V., Kozlov A.S., Skorogonov M.S., Optimizing of magnesia oil-well cement compositions using regression analysis (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Institute of Science Educatio, 2014, no. 5, pp. 130-133.
8. Shumikhin A.G., Aleksandrov I.V., Plekhov V.G., Automation of diagnostics of technical condition of sucker rod pumps by dynamograms based on methods of precedents (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Khimicheskaya tekhnologiya i biotekhnologiya, 2012, no. 14, pp. 5-12.
9. Shumikhin A.G., Dadiomov R.Yu., Algoritm poiska pretsedentov proizvodstvennykh situatsiy v baze znaniy (Algorithm of search the precedents of work situations in the knowledge base), Proceedings of Mezhdunarodnaya nauchnaya konferentsiya Tambovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, Part 5, Tambov, 2002, рр. 14–15.  

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A.V. Vervekin, V.M. Plotnikov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
The method of controlling the mode of operation downhole motors during drilling oil and gas well

Key words: feed off control bit, differential pressure, positive displacement motor, electric powder brake, control hydraulic energy.

The article considers a method for control of hydraulic energy during drilling oil and gas well using positive displacement motor. The authors show the differences in drilling technology of electric power powder brake and feed off control bit. Technical and technological features and the practical results of applying methods of control of the downhole motor are described.

References
1. Baldenko D.F., Baldenko F.D., Pressure difference monitoring at downhole screw motors operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 3, pp. 98–101.
2. Baldenko D.F. Baldenko F.D. Gnoevykh A.N., Odnovintovye gidravlicheskie mashiny (Single screw hydraulic machine), Part 2. Vintovye zaboynye dvigateli (Screw downhole motors), Moscow: Publ. of OOO IRTs Gazprom, 2002, 470 p.
3. Vervekin A.V., The reaction of high-speed screw downhole motors to create the axial load (In Russ.), Collected papers “Problemy razrabotki
mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnykh i rudnykh poleznykh iskopaemykh” (Problems of development of hydrocarbon and ore minerals deposits), Proceedings of V All-Russian Conference, Perm': Publ. of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 2012, p. 52.
4. Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Molodilo V.I., Some aspects relating to efficiency enhancement of oil and gas well drilling by mean of downhole hydraulic motors (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2013, no. 1, pp. 16–19.
5. Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Influence of power characteristics of screw
bottom-hole engines on drilling speed per run (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo
neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2013, no. 4, pp. 10–12.
6. Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Molodilo V.I., Control of input hydraulic power at rock distruction during well drilling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 32–34.
7. Vervekin A.V., To the question of automation of oil and gas wells drilling withn screw downhole motors (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i
gornoe delo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 49–65.
8. Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Molodilo V.I., Process control of downhole motor operation during oil and gas well construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 2, pp. 106–108.
9. Vervekin A.V., Plotnikov V.M., Process control of downhole motor technological operation during drilling oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 26–27.
10. Bulatov A.I., Proselkov Yu.M., Shamanov S.A., Tekhnika i tekhnologiya bureniya neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Technique and technology of oil and gas wells drilling), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2003, 1007 p.
11. Burovye kompleksy (Drilling systems): edited by Porozhskiy K.P., Ekaterinburg: Publ. of USMU, 2013, 768 p.
12. Patent no. 2013531 RF, MPK E21V44/00, Boring tool feed controller, Inventors: Molodilo V.I., Litvinov I.N.
13. Ovchinnikov V.P., Grachev S.I., Frolov V.A., Spravochnik burovogo mastera (Handbook of drilling foreman), Part 2, Moscow: Infra-Inzheneriya Publ., 2000, 608 p. 

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


D.A. Martyushev, V.A. Mordvinov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Features of the development of the structurally complex oil deposit with the fractured-porous type of reservoir

Key words: carbonate reservoir, natural fracturing, fractures opening, bottom-hole pressure, fractures permeability.

Wells flow indexes, reservoir permeability, natural fractures opening dependence on bottom-hole and lateral rock pressures ratio is established during the analysis of data, characterizing operation of producing wells of Tournaisian-Famennian deposit of Ozyornoye field. It is shown, that the deposit in the borehole zones is transformed from the fractured-porous type into the porous one at decreasing of bottom hole pressures and natural fractures closing during the reservoir deformation.
References
1. Viktorin V.D., Vliyanie osobennostey karbonatnykh kollektorov na effektivnost' razrabotki neftyanykh zalezhey (The influence of carbonate reservoirs in the efficiency of the oil deposits development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 150 p.
2. Bel'tyukov N.L., Evseev A.V., Comparison of the elastic properties of rocks
(In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2010, no. 5, pp. 82–85.
3. Martyushev D.A., Mordvinov V.A., Productivity of wells at oil and gas field while reducing the bottomhole and formation pressure (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 67–69.
4. Mordvinov V.A., Martyushev D.A., Puzikov V.I., Estimation of influence of natural fracture reservoir on the dynamics of wells productivity of complex structurally oil reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 120–122.
5. Trutneva M.A., Evaluation of permeability and porosity of reservoir rocks of Kraezhevskoe field as a result of well tests (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2005, no. 6, pp. 9 –43.
6. Mordvinov V.A., Martyushev D.A., Chernykh I.A., Puzikov V.I., Evaluation of formation characteristics and wells productivity under primary oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 31–33.
7. Earlougher R.C., Jr., Advances in well test analysis, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, New York, 1977, p. 264.
8. Martyushev D.A., Evaluation of fracture porosity of carbonate reservoir
using probabilistic-statistical methods (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 51–53.
9. Martyushev D.A., Vyatkin K.A., Determination parameters of natural fractures by carbonate reservoir tracer indicators (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 86–88.
10. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Shustov D.V. et al., Experimental and analytical studies of fracture permeability changes due to crack closure
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 40–43.
11. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Cherepanov S.S. et al., Experience of oriented hydraulic fracture creation at oil fields of LUKOIL-PERM LCC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 40–43.
12. Erofeev A.A., Mordvinov V.A., Changing the properties bottom-hole within the development of Bobrikovsky Unvinskogo deposit (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 57–62.
13. Nelson R.A., Geological analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs, In:
Contr.in Petrol. Geology and Eng., USA, Houston: Guest Publishing, 2001,
332 p.
14. Cherepanov S.S., Martyushev D.A., Ponomareva I.N., Evaluation of filtration-capacitive properties of fractured carbonate reservoir of Predural'skogo edge deflection (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 62–65.  

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A.V. Lekomtsev, D.A. Martyushev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), M.B. Savchik (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), I.A. Chernykh (LUKOIL-PERM LLC, Perm)
Evaluation of natural fracturing of carbonate reservoir of Siberian fields

Key words: carbonate reservoir, direction of natural fracturing, tracer tests, hydrodynamic model, openness of natural fracture.

The article presents the results of processing data obtained during tracer tests conducted on the carbonate deposits Bashkir-Serpukhov sediments of Siberian deposits. It is found that fracture permeability and indicator speed in the north-west direction are higher in several times than the corresponding parameters in other areas.

References
1. Martyushev D.A., Vyatkin K.A., Determination parameters of natural fractures by carbonate reservoir tracer indicators (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 86-88.
2. Chaudry A.U., Oil well testing handbook. Advanced TWPSON Petroleum
Systems, Texas: Ins. Houston, 2004, 702 p.
3. Earlougher R.C., Advances in well test analysis, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, New York, 1977, 264 p.
4. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Cherepanov S.S. et al., Experience of oriented hydraulic fracture creation at oil fields of LUKOIL-PERM LCC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 40–43.
5. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Shustov D.V. et al., Experimental and analytical studies of fracture permeability changes due to crack closure (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 40-43.
6. Cherepanov S.S., Martyushev D.A., Ponomareva I.N., Evaluation of filtration- capacitive properties of fractured carbonate reservoir of Predural'skiy edge deflection (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 62-65.
7. Lekomtsev A.V., Martyushev D.A.,Comparative analysis of methods for determining BHP during well test (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 37–39.
8. Trutneva M.A., (In Russ.), Evaluation of of reservoir properties of reservoir
rocks of Kraezhevskoe field as a result of hydrodynamic studies (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2005, no. 6, pp. 39-43.
9. Lekomtsev A.V., Turbakov M.S., Mordvinov V.A., On the question of optimization of technological operation modes of low-rate wells of Unvinskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2010,
no. 5, pp. 53-56.
10. Erofeev A.A., Mordvinov V.A., Changing the properties bottom-hole within the development of bobrikovsky Unvinskoe deposit (In Russ.), Vestnik
Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta.
Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 57-62.
11. Jackson R.R., Banerjee R., Application of reservoir simulation and history
matching methods to MDT vertical interference testing and determination of
permeability anisotropy, Paper presented at the 8th European Conference
on the mathematics of oil recovery, Freiberg, Germany, 3-6 September, 2002.
12. Mordvinov V.A., Martyushev D.A., Puzikov V.I., Estimation of influence of natural fracture reservoir on the dynamics of wells productivity of complex
structurally oil reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 120-122.
13. Khanna A., Neto L.B., Kotousov A., Effect of residual opening on the inflow performance of a hydraulic fracture, International Journal of Engineering Science, 2014, no. 74, pp. 80-90.
14. Bortolan Neto L., Kotousov A., Residual opening of hydraulic fractures filled with compressible proppant, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2013, no. 61, pp. 223-230. 

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E. Pavlovskaia (University of Aberdeen, UK, Aberdeen), D.Yu. Ivanov, I.Yu. Eliseyev, V.V. Poplygin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Effectiveness of acidizing in Bashkir deposits of Perm Region

Key words: oil reservoir, well, productivity index, acidizing, production, bottom hole pressure.

This paper presents the results of applying the two acid solutions for stimulation of oil wells in the Bashkir sediment rocks in the fields of Perm region. The influence of technological and geo-physical parameters of the layers on the success of the acid treatments is estimated by comparing the rates of well productivity before and after acid treatment. It is observed that after the acid treatment, water content in well products increases in the majority of cases. With the growing volume of acid solution pumped per unit of effective oil acid, performance impact is increasing. The average depth of penetration of the acid solution in the bottom zone of 0.5 m. Overall it was obtained that conducted acid treatment stimulation of the oil wells was effective and provided the lasting effects on the well productivity. The rate of success is higher for the wells with low reservoir pressure.

References
1. Poplygin V.V., Davydova I.S, Kuznetsov I.V., Galkin S.V., The results of composition DN-9010 treatment of bottom zones of layers BS of oilfield of
Verkhnekamsk deposit of potash area (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo. – 2010. – № 5. – S. 70–74.
2. Poplygin V.V., Beloglazova E.A., Ivanova A.S., Analysis of acid treatments in complex geological and technological conditions (In Russ.), Vestnik
Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta.
Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 83–90.
3. Poplygin V.V., Davydova A.V., Pronin N.V. et al., Evaluating the effectiveness of acid treatment in Turnaisian formation of Perm region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 1, pp. 78–79.
4. Galkin V.I., Khizhnyak G.P., Amirov A.M., Gladkikh E.A., Assessment of efficiency of core sample acidizing by means of regression analysis (In Russ.),
Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 13, pp. 38–48.
5. Poplygin V.V., Poplygina I.S., Evaluation of rational bottom-hole pressure for oil deposits with high gas saturation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 10, pp. 104–105.
6. Poplygin V.V., Dynamics of the wells productivity in case of the high gas saturation of the oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 28–29. 

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G.P.Khizhnyak, A.M. Amirov, E.A. Gladkikh (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), V.A. Kolesov (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft ДДСб Krasnoyarsk), A.G. Zakharyan, A.E. Chikin (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow), R. Kharris (Cleansorb Ltd., UK, Guildford)
Study of the acid-generating composition effect on the cores of the productive deposits of the Kuyumbinskiy license area

Key words: core, matrix, fractures, acid-generating composition, porosity, permeability.

The results of laboratory tests on the effect of the acid-generating composition, developed by the Cleansorb Ltd. Company, on the cores of the productive deposits of the Kuyumbinskiy license area are considered. The porous fractured type of reservoir is represented by five groups of the dolomites of different lithologic types, porous type - by dolomitized aleurolites. The time of the acidic composition generation, its solvency and time of holding in the core are determined. The result of the acid-generating composition effect on the dolomites of porous fractured type became an increase in opening and volume of fractures, porosity, permeability.
References
1. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry), Part 4. Kislotnaya obrabotka skvazhin (Well acid treatment), Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2010, 703 p.
2. Khizhnyak G.P., Ponomareva I.N., Amirov A.M. et al., Filtration studies of
new compounds for the treatment of acid carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 116–119.
3. Khizhnyak G.P., Ponomareva I.N., Amirov A.M., Glushchenko V.N., Determination of the optimal rate of injection acid compositions on the results of research on the core samples (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 52–54.
4. Plyusnin G.V., Results of laboratory tests on clastic rocks sample processing by acid compositions (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2006, no. 1, pp. 76–80.
5. Poplygin V.V., Davydova I.S., Kuznetsov I.V., Galkin S.V., The results of BS layer bottom zones treatment using DN-9010 composition in oilfield of
Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit area (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya, geoinformatsionnye sistemy, gornoneftyanoe delo, 2010, no. 5, pp. 70–74.
6. Poplygin V.V., Beloglazova E.A., Ivanova A.S., Analysis of acid treatments
in complex geological and technological conditions (In Russ.), Vestnik
Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta.
Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 83–90.
7. Glushchenko V.N., Ptashko O.A., Filtratrion research of novel acidic compounds for treatment of carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 11, pp. 46–56.
8. Galkin V.I., Khizhnyak G.P., Amirov A.M., Gladkikh E.A., Assessment of efficiency of core sample acidizing by means of regression analysis (In Russ.),
Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 13,
pp. 38–48.
9. Suchkov B.M., Dobycha nefti iz karbonatnykh kollektorov (Oil production
from carbonate reservoirs), Izhevsk: Publ. of NITs RKhD, 2005, 688 p.
10. Glushchenko V.N., Glazov V.A., Bezmaternykh E.N., The theoretical aspect of of using acid-generating compositions (In Russ.), Proceedings of III
Al-Russian Scientific Conference “Neftepromyslovaya khimiya” (Oilfield
chemistry), Moscow, 28.06.07, Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2007, pp. 87–90.
11. Patent no. 2122633 RF, kl. E21B43/27, E21B37/06, C12N9/20, Method of
acid treatment of underground beds, Inventors: Mouzes V., Harris R.
12. Harris R.E., McKay I.D., Mbala J.M., Schaaf R.P., Stimulation of a producing horizontal well using enzymes that generate acid in-situ – Case history, SP68911, 2001.

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The oil-field equipment


K.A. Vyatkin, D.A. Martyushev, А.V. Lekomtsev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Technology of cleaning pump-compressor pipes from asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits with the subsequent disposal

Key words: asphaltene-resin-parafin deposits, operating wells troubles, thermal cleaning of tubing, disposal of oily waste.

The article considers basic types of wells problems were found on Perm oil deposits in 2004, 2008 and 2012. The most common type identified for oil wells was is asphaltene-resin-parafin deposits formation. The authors consider the new method for tubing pipes cleaning. The efficiency of this method is estimated. To evaluate the effectiveness of the technology quality of pipe and steel structure after processing were studied. The results of the laboratory tests of the tubing and the coupling showed a high quality of cleaning. The technology was optimized using combustion catalysts.

References
1. Lekomtsev A.V., Depth of sucker-rod pumps estimate in wells of Unvinskoe oilfield (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2011,
no. 1, pp. 85-93.
2. Mordvinov V.A., Turbakov M.S., Lekomtsev A.V., Sergeeva L.V., The effectiveness of measures to prevent the formation and removal of paraffin in the operation of oil wells in LUKOIL-Perm(In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 8, pp. 78-79.
3. Lekomtsev A.V, Turbakov M.S., Mordvinov V.A., In-use conditions of the submersible electrocentrifugal and sucker-rod pumps at wells of Unvinskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 8, pp. 128-130.
4. Lekomtsev A.V., Turbakov M.S., Mordvinov V.A., Submersible pumps operation in wells at oilfields in Verkhnee Prikamje (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 10, pp. 144-145.
5. Lekomtsev A.V., Turbakov M.S., Mordvinov V.A., On the question of optimization of technological modes of low-rate wells of Unvinskoye oilfield
(In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2010, no. 5, pp. 53-56.
6. Erofeev A.A., Mordvinov V.A., Changing the properties bottom-hole within the development of bobrikovsky Unvinskogo deposit (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 57-62.
7. Ien T.F., Structure of problem asphaltenes and its signification, ZEnergy
Source, 1974, V. 1, no. 4, pp. 447-459.
8. Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, SPE 16258, 1987.
9. Turbakov M.S., Lekomtsev A.V., Erofeev A.A., Determination of paraffin saturation temperature of the Upper Kama oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 8, pp. 123-125.
10. Lekomtsev A.V., Turbakov M.S., Mordvinov A.V., Assessment of intensive paraffin accumulation depth in wells of Nozhovsky group oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 32-34.
11. Patent no. 3395757 USA, Method and composition for removing and inhiting paraffin deposition, Inventor: Crossland A.R..
12. Patent no. 476808 Australia, Solvent for and method of cleaning well
bores, flowlines and the like, Inventors: Rollo W.C, Melancon J.
13. Vyatkin K.A., Lekomtsev. A.V., Efficiency estimation of oil-polluted waste utilization methods (In Russ.), Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy, 2014, no. 1, pp. 25-29. 

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V.G. Ostrovskiy, S.N. Peshcherenko (Perm National Research Polytechnical University, RF, Perm), M.O. Perelman (AO Novomet-Perm, RF, Perm)
The centrifugal solids separator

Key words: fine particles, abrasive particles, the particle separator, abrasive wear.

The paper published the results of studies on the mechanism of destruction submersible solids separator. It has been established that the cause of failure is the accumulation of solids in the central part of the separator. A new design of the separator, wherein the vertical component of particle velocity prevents their accumulation and the rate of wear sleeve 10 times lower than that of the reference design.
References
1. Devitskiy V.N., Field tests of the equipment in the complicated conditions
(In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2011, no. 2, pp. 90–92.
2. Antipina N.A., Kaplan A.L., Peshcherenko S.N., Submersible separators for solids management (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2011, no. 12, pp. 40–43.
3. Armentor R.Dzh., Boumen M., Kavatsolli G. et al., Sand recovery control of production wells (In Russ.), Review, Neftegazovoe obozrenie, 2007, pp. 4–17.
4. Soboleva E.V., Analysis of formation and methods of fighting against asphaltene, resin and paraffin deposits in wells during oil production of Upper
Prikam''e fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013, no. 8, pp. 71–77.
5. Den'gaev A.V., Verbitskiy V.S., Drozdov A.N. et al., Development of the principles of centrifugal separation of mechanical impurities at the reception ESP (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2007, no. 10, pp. 26–28.
6. Markelov D.V., Tsentrobezhnaya separatsiya gaza i tverdykh chastits v
priemnykh ustroystvakh pogruzhnykh nasosnykh ustanovok dlya dobychi
nefti (Centrifugal separation of gas and solid particles in the receivers of submersible pumping systems for oil extraction): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2007.
7. Bulat A.V., Povyshenie effektivnosti raboty skvazhinnogo nasosnogo oborudovaniya za schet primeneniya separatorov mekhanicheskikh primesey (Improvingn the efficiency of downhole pumping equipment by applying of mechanical impurities separators): Thesis of candidate of technical science,
Moscow, 2013.
8. Den'gaev A.V., Drozdov A.N., Verbitskiy V.S., Exploring the causes of the
"flight" gas separators as a part of the ESP (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2005, no. 11, pp. 50–54.
9. Lambin D.N., Sviderskiy S.V., Comparative tests on durability domestic centrifugal gas separators (In Russ.), Neft', Gaz i Biznes, 2010, no. 4, pp. 78–83.
10. Ostrovskiy V.G., Perel'man M.O., Peshcherenko S.N., The mechanism of
hydroabrasive destruction of submersible gas separators (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 5, pp. 100–102.
11. Ostrovskiy V.G., Perel'man M.O., Peshcherenko S.N., Mechanism of hydroabrasive wear of oil pumps' stages (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2012, no. 10, pp. 36–38.
12. Ostrovskiy V.G., Peshcherenko S.N., Calculations of the rate hydroabrasive wear interstage seal oil pump (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 70–75.
13. Brusova O.M., The problem of increasing soil pumps lifetime (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 98–106.
14. Patent no. 2379500 RF, Abrasive-resistant centrifugal gas tank, Inventors:
Peshcherenko S.N., Peshcherenko M.P., Rabinovich A.I., Perel'man M.O.,
Dorogokupets G.L., Ivanov O.E., Kuprin P.B., Mel'nikov M.Yu., Gurkin A.M., Nagiev A.T., Kaplan A.L.
15. Patent no. 2526068 RU, kl. E21B43/38, Downhole separator of mechanical impurities, Inventors: Ostrovskiy V.G., Peshcherenko M.P.,
Peshcherenko S.N. et al.

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Economy, management, the legal right


A.N. Mezhetskiy, T.A. Mezhetskaya (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, RF, Tyumen)
Optimization of the ground rent under the trunk pipelines objects

Key words: contract of rent, land, rent, linear object, pipeline.

The article presents the analysis of topical issues of determining the rent for state or municipal land plots. The current legislation provides some ways to reduce the rent for linear facilities (pipelines, power lines, communication lines, roads, railway lines). The authors show this way of applying preferential rent not only for the linear part, but under the related structures of linear objects. 


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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


A.P. Shilovsky (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Reserves of oil and gas industry in Russia

Key words: Arctic shelf, Eastern Siberia, shale hydrocarbons, hard-to-recover reserves, Moscow sedimentary basin.

The problem of limited hydrocarbon resources trained every year it becomes more obvious. Against the background of known proposals to address this problem are bypassed proposals for study and additional exploration of vast areas for various reasons remained unexplored. Examples of these areas include Moscow sedimentary basin. A special feature of the territory is the presence in the sediment Devonian traps as crystalline solids, in terms of covering a huge area. Thereby generating conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon traps in areas previously recognized unpromising. The author proposes some ways to greatly alleviate the problem of lack of hydrocarbon resources in the shortest possible time and with minimum cost.
References
1. Vremya tyazhelykh resursov. Rossiya nachinaet stroit' v Arktike (Time of
heavy resources. Russia begins to build in the Arctic), URL:
http://www.aif.ru/society/1218307
2. Trudnoizvlekaemyy dokhod (Hard-to-earn income), URL: http://expert.ru/
ural/2014/37/trudnoizvlekaemyij-dohod/media/preview/#anchor-1
3. Shatskiy N.S., Izbrannye trudy (Selected Works), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1965, Part 4, pp. 324
4. Shilovskiy A.P., Problems of geophysical data interpretation obtained within the limits of Moscow-Mezen sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 12,
pp. 42-48.
5. Shilovskiy A.P., Shilovskaya T.I., Nerazvedannye zapasy uglevodorodov:
Nedra Moskovsko-Mezenskogo osadochnogo basseyna (Undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves: subsoil of Moscow-Mezen sedimentary basin), Palmarium Academic Publishing, 2012, 92 p.
6. Shilovskaya T.I., Shilovskiy A.P., The map of prospects of oil and gas content of Mezensky syneclise with identification of prospective zones and objects (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 12, pp. 21-25.
7. Patent no. 2486550 RF, Method of surveying hydrocarbon deposits in sedimentation mass, Inventors: Shilovskiy A.P., Shilovskaya T.I.

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P.S. Litvinenko, M.E. Pilyugin (Oil and Gas Production Department Surgutneft, Surgutneftegas OAO, RF, Surgut), V.I. Ilyushchenko (Oil and Gas Production Department Surgutneft Fedorovskneft, Surgutneftegas OAO, RF, Surgut)
The determination of morphological heredity of alluvial deposits of Tyumen suite at oil fields on western slope of Surgut arch

Key words: alluvial deposits, structural factor, facial analysis, morphological heredity.

A new integrating approach to the research of complex structure middle Jurassic alluvial deposits is proposed in the article. The research is based on the allocation in the formation genetically homogeneous time transgressive facies (by means of electrometric facial analysis). It is also focused on the assessment of influence over structural factor on lateral distribution of the deposits. This methodology provides effective planning of the exploration and production drilling activities.
References
1. Kontorovich A.E., Kazanenkov V.A., Vakulenko L.G. et al., Paleogeography of central and southern areas of the West Siberian sedimentary basin in the Bathonian time (In Russ.): edited by Zakharov V.A., Rogov M.A., Dzyuba O.S., Proceedings of The first All-Russian conference “Yurskaya sistema Rossii: problemy
stratigrafii i paleogeografii” (Jurassic System of Russia: problems of
stratigraphy and paleogeography), Moscow, 21-22 November 2005, Publ. of
Geological Institute RAS, 2005, pp. 141—143.
2. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel, litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies,
lithologic traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.

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V.Yu. Kerimov, R.N. Mustaev, U.S. Serikov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), E.A. Lavrenova, M.V. Kruglyakova (Research and Development Centre ASAP, RF, Gelendzhik)
Hydrocarbon generation-accumulative system on the territory of Crimea Peninsula and adjacent Azov and Black Seas

Key words: Azov Sea, Black Sea, Crimea, hydrocarbon generation and accumulation system, numerical basin modeling, source rocks, geological risks.

According to the results of basin analysis and modeling the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic hydrocarbon generation-accumulative system on the peninsula of Crimea and adjacent waters of the Azov and Black Seas determined the probability of petroleum charge that can provide filling traps in the study area. Potential source rocks sequences projected in the sediments of the transient formation (Paleozoic) and a cover slab (Cretaceous). The studies allowed to identify patterns of distribution of hydrocarbon accumulations and perform forecast oil and gas prospects in the Crimea and adjacent waters of the Azov and Black Seas.

References
1. Bazhenova O.K., Fadeeva N.P., Sen-Zhermes M.L., Biomarkers of organic matter in Maykop rocks and oils of the Caucasian-Scythian region,
Geokhimiya = Geochemistry International, V. 40, no. 9, pp. 899-913.
2. Afanasenkov A.P., Nikishin A.M., Obukhov A.N., Geologicheskoe stroenie i uglevodorodnyy potentsial Vostochno-Chernomorskogo regiona (Geological structure and hydrocarbon potential of the Eastern Black Sea region),
Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007, 172 p.
3. Distanova L.R., Features of oil and gas formation in the eastern Paratethys
basins (Eocene epoch of accumulation) (In Russ.), Proceedings of VIII International Conference “Novye idei v geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza. Neftegazonosnye sistemy osadochnykh basseynov” (New ideas in geology and geochemistry of oil and gas. Petroleum systems of sedimentary basins), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2005, pp. 131-133.
4. Lavrenova E.A., Results of basin modeling of eastern part of Azov sea
(In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2009,
no. 4, pp. 47-54.
5. Kerimov V.Yu., Lavrenova E.A., Kruglyakova M.V., Gorbunov A.A., Oil and gas prospects of Crimea and West part of Azov Sea (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 9, pp. 66-70.
6. Levitan L.F., Alekseev A.S., Badulina N.V. et al., Geochemistry of Cenomanian/ Turonian boundary sediments in the mountainous part of Crimea and the Northwestern Caucasus, Geokhimiya = Geochemistry International, 2010, V. 48, no. 6, pp. 534-554. 

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V.V. Kharakhinov, S.I. Shlienkin, M.V. Berin (Slavneft-NPTs OOO, RF, Tver), A.A. Vashkevich, A.V. Olyunin, T.N. Shevchuk (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
New approaches to the study of bazhenov oil-bearing deposits in Western Siberia

Key words: bazhenov formation, seismic exploration, fracturing, energy of the scattered waves, synergistic singularity, comprehensive assessment.

The paper proposes new approaches to the study of bazhenov oil-bearing deposits in West Siberia with innovative technologies for localization of productive areas of bazhenov complex.
References
1. Fursov A.Ya., Proceedings of III Conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways to implement oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk: Putived", 2000, p. 242–245.
2. Afanas'ev I.S., Gavrilova E.V., Birun E.M. et al., Bazhenov Formation.
Overview, problems (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2010, no. 4, pp. 20-25.
3. Balushkina N.S., Kalmykov G.A. , Kiryukhina T.A. et al., Regularities of structure of Bazhenov horizon and upper parts of Abalak suite in view of oil production prospects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2013, no. 3, pp. 48-61.
4. Karpov V.A., Some aspects relating to special type of hydrocarbons natural
reservoir in bazhenov suite of West Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i
razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 8, pp. 28-34.
5. Braduchan Yu.V., Gurari F.G., Zakharov V.A., Bazhenovskiy gorizont Zapadnoy Sibiri (Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1986, 216 p.
6. Guseva A.N., Klimushina L.P., Collected papers “Novye idei v geologii i
geokhimii nefti i gaza. Neftegazovaya geologiya – itogi XX veka” (New ideas
in geology and geochemistry of oil and gas. Petroleum geology - the results
of the XX century), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2000, pp. 76-79.
7. Petrov A.I., Shein V.S., Geodynamic model of the reservoir with siliceousclay collector (for example, the Bazhenov formation of Salym oil fields in Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1999, no. 9-10, pp. 7-13.
8. Strizhnev K.V., Cherevko M.A., Sitnikov A.N. et al., Geological characterization of Bazhenov-Abalak Formation on the example of Paliynovskoye area of Krasnoleninskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 24-27.
9. Slavkin V.S., Alekseev A.D., Koloskov V.N., Some aspects of a geological
structure and prospects of oil-bearing capacity of Bazhenovskaya suite in the
West of latitudinal Priobye (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2007, no. 8, pp. 100-104.
10. Prishchepa O.M., Aver'yanova O.Yu., Vysotskiy V.I., Morariu D., Bakken Formation: geology, development history and petroleum potential (In Russ.),
Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2013, V. 8, no. 2, pp. 4-28.
11. Alekseev A.D.,The Bazhenov Formation: In Search of big shale oil in Upper Salym, ROGTEC, 2013, no. 34, 35.
12. Lukin A.E., On the origin of oil and gas (geosynergetic concept of hydrocarbon-generating systems) (In Russ.), Geologicheskiy zhurnal, 1999, no. 1, pp. 30-42.
13. Matvienko N.I., Neobkhodimye usloviya dlya neftenosnosti raznovozrastnykh vysokouglerodistykh tolshch (Necessary conditions for the oil-bearing of different ages of high carbon strata), Proceedings of Regional Conference of Geologists of Siberia, the Far East and North-East of Russia, Part. 1, Tomsk, 2000, 235 p.
14. Nemova V.D., Conditions of reservoir formation in deposits of bazhenov
strata whithin the junction of Krasnolenin arch and Frolov megadepression
(In Russ), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 2,
pp. 1-14.
15. Kuznetsov O.L., Chirkin I.A., Kur'yanov Yu.A. et al., In book “Novye
tekhnologii i reshenie prikladnykh zadach” (New technologies and applications solution), Part 3, Moscow: Tsentr informatsionnykh tekhnologiy v prirodopol'zovanii Publ., 2007, 434 p.

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E.A. Rakitin (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
Selection of gas-saturated intervals and determining gas-oil contact on the base of a standard logging in complex terrigenous reservoir of oil and gas fields of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Key words: gas-oil contact, complex terrigenous reservoir, standard logging, normalization logging, interpretation's algorithm.

The author examines the possibility of gas-saturated intervals selection on the base of a standard logging in complex terrigenous reservoir. The express-method was developed to improve the reliability of determining gas-oil contact.

References
1. Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Rezvanov R.A., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya
parametrov neftegazovykh kollektorov (pri podschete zapasov i proektirovanii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy) (Geophysical methods of determining
the parameters of oil and gas reservoirs (for calculation of reserves and reservoir engineering))., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 318 p.
2. Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Zoloeva G.M., Tsareva N.V. et al., Geofizicheskie
metody izucheniya podschetnykh parametrov pri opredelenii zapasov nefti i
gaza (Geophysical methods for studying the calculation parameters in the
determination of oil and gas reserves), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 248 p.
3. Dakhnov V.N., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya kollektorskikh svoystv i neftegazonasyshcheniya gornykh porod (Geophysical methods for the determination of reservoir properties and oil and gas saturation of rocks),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 344 p.
4. Dakhnov V.N., Interpretatsiya rezul'tatov geofizicheskikh issledovaniy razrezov skvazhin (Interpretation of the results of geophysical investigations of well sections), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 448 p.
5. Larionov V.V., Radiometriya skvazhin (Wells radiometry), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1969, 328 p.
6. Darling T., Well logging and formation evaluation, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2005, 336 p.
7. Dratsov V.G., Petersil'e V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza ob"emnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera
nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of
oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersil'e V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow –Tver': Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003, pp. 4–12.
8. Zalyaev N.Z., Metodika avtomatizirovannoy interpretatsii geofizicheskikh
issledovaniy skvazhin (Methodology the automated interpretation of well logging), Minsk: Universitetskoe Publ., 1990, 144 p.

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Drilling of chinks


D.N. Mikhailov, N.I. Ryzhikov, V.V. Shako (Schlumberger Research and Development Centre, RF, Moscow)
An integrated experimental approach to determination of clogging kinetics of porous media

Key words: porous medium; near-wellbore zone; transport of solids; drill mud; internal filter-cake.

The authors present a new technique for estimating of kinetic parameters of internal filter-cake buildup by combining laboratory mud-filtration experiments with a profile of invaded mud components reconstructed by X-ray microcomputed tomography, image processing of a cleaved sample, and ultrasonic wave scanning. We include examples of reconstructed profiles of invaded mud components (solid particles and bentonite clay) as well as the procedure of determining of internal filter-cake parameters. Using obtained profiles we demonstrate that value of “critical porosity” when all mud particles stop to penetrate into porous medium and depost at the sandface, forming the external filter-cake. In the case of heterogeneous rock (limestone) the group of high-conductive pores is visualized.

Developed experimental techniques allow obtain the profile of mud components in core sample, determine the parameters of clogging kinetic and, then, calculate the mud components and permeability profiles in the near-wellbore zone.

References
1. Jiao D., Sharma M.M., Formation damage due to static and dynamic filtration of water-based muds, SPE 23823, 1992.
2. Longeron D.G., Alfenore J., Salehi N., Saintpère S., Experimental approach to characterize drilling mud invasion, formation damage and cleanup efficiency in horizontal wells with openhole completions, SPE 58737, 2000.
3. Herzig J.P., Leclerc D.M., Le Goff P., Flow of suspensions through porous
media – application to deep filtration, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry,
1970, V. 62, no. 5, pp. 8–35.
4. Bai R., Tien C., Effect of deposition in deep-bed filtration: determination and search of rate parameters, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2000, V. 231, pp. 299–311.
5. Bedrikovetsky P., Marchesin D., Shecaira F. et al., Characterisation of deep
bed filtration system from laboratory pressure drop measurements, Journal of
Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2001, V. 32, pp. 167–177.
6. Mikhaylov N.N., Izmenenie fizicheskikh svoystv gornykh porod v
okoloskvazhinnykh zonakh (Change in the physical properties of rocks in
boreholes zones), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 151 p.
7. Theuveny B., Mikhailov D., Spesivtsev P. et al., Integrated approach to simulation of near-wellbore and wellbore cleanup, SPE 166509, 2013.
8. Boek E.S, Hall C., Tardy P.M.J,. Deep bed filtration modelling of formation
damage due to particulate invasion from drilling fluids, Transport in Porous
Media, 2012, V. 91, no. 2, pp. 479-508.
9. Dewan J.T., Chenevert M.E., A model for filtration of water-base mud during drilling: determination of mudcake parameters, Petrophysics, 2001, V. 42, no.
3, pp. 237-250.
10. Mikhaylov N.N., Fizika neftyanogo i gazovogo plasta (Physics of oil and
gas reservoir), Moscow: Maks-Press Publ., 2008, 447 p.
11. Civan F., Reservoir formation damage: fundamentals, modeling, assessment and mitigation, Gulf Publishing Company, 2007, 1089 p.
12. Dinariev O.Yu., Mikhailov D.N., Basics of mesoscale theory for porous materials, Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2012.
13. Dobrynin V.M., Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (fizika gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (physics of rocks)), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2004, 368 p.
14. Nikolaevskiy V.N., Basniev K.S., Gorbunov A.T., Zotov G.A., Mekhanika
nasyshchennykh poristykh sred (Mechanics of saturated porous media),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 339 p.
15. Khan M.A. et al., A non-destructive method for mapping formation damage, Ultrasonics, 2001, V. 39, pp. 321-328.  

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А.А. Makarova, I.T. Mishenko (Gubkin Russian State University of oil and gas, RF, Moscow), D.N. Mikhailov, V.V. Shako (Schlumberger Moscow Research, RF, Moscow)
Sensitivity study of cleanup dynamics of well and near-wellbore zone to the properties of reservoir, perforation and drilling mud

Key words: mud losses, clogging, internal and external mud cake, perforation, cleanup of near-wellbore zone.

The processes that occur during the well drilling and completion have significant and often irreversible effects on the properties of near-wellbore zone. Sensitivity study of the characteristics of mud invasion, well cleanup and production processes is carried out to the properties of reservoir, external and internal mud cake and perforation length. Sensitivity of dynamics of external mud cake buildup to the rate of mud circulation in wellbore is also analyzed. The characteristics of mud invasion significantly depend on the reservoir mobility, solids concentration and circulation.
References
1. Darley H.C.H., Gray G.R., Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids, Houston, TX, Gulf Professional Publishing an imprint of Butterworth- Heinemann, 1988, 643 p.
2. Krylov V.I., Kretsul V.V., Metodicheskoe ukazanie po vyboru promyvochnykh zhidkosti dlya vskrytiya produktivnykh plastov (Methodological guidelines for the selection of washing liquid for drilling into productive formations), Moscow: Gubkin RSU of Oil and Gas, 2002, 45 p.
3. Mikhaylov N.N., Informatsionno-tekhnologicheskaya geodinamika
okoloskvazhinnykh zon (Information technology geodynamics of boreholes
zones), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1996, 348 p.
4. Mikhaylov N.N., Chirkov M.V., The generalized model of formation damage kinetics during field development (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2009, no. 2, pp. 32-33.
5. Makarova A.A., Mikhaylov D.N., Shako V.V., Modeling of influence of properties of formation damage zone on early production dynamics (In Russ.),
Geofizicheskie issledovaniya, 2014, V. 15, no. 1, pp. 53-65.
6. Raspopov A., Nachinkin A., Kul'baka M., Sumerin E., Economic evaluation
of oil field development under uncertainty conditions (In Russ.), Proceedings
of SPE Technical Conference “Prinyatie resheniya v usloviyakh neopredelennosti” (Making a decision under uncertainty conditions), 2014.
7. Civan F., Reservoir formation damage (Fundamentals, Modeling, Assessment and Mitigation), Second Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing, USA, 2007, 1135 p.
8. Lohne A., Han L., van der Zwaag C. et al., Formation damage and well productivity simulation, 2009, SPE 122241.
9. Theuveny B., Mikhailov D., Spesivtsev P., Starostin A, Osiptsov A., Sidorova M., Shako V., Integrated approach to simulation of near-wellbore and wellbore cleanup, 2013, SPE 166509, pp. 1–28.
10. Herzig J.P., Leclerc D.M., Le Goff P., Flow of suspensions through porous
media – application to deep filtration, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry,
1970, V. 62, no. 5, pp. 8-35.
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12. Dewan J.T., Chenevert M.E., A model for filtration of water-base mud during drilling: determination of mudcake parameters, Petrophysics, 2001, V. 42, no. 3, pp. 237-250.
13. Outmans H.D., Mechanics of static and dynamic filtration in the borehole,
SPE 491-PA, 1963, pp. 236-244.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


A.N. Sitnikov, A.A. Pustovskikh, A.P. Roshchektaev, T.V. Andzhukaev (Gazpromneft NTC, LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
A method to determine optimal switching time to injection mode for field development system

Key words: switching time to injection mode, regular patterns, technical and economic model.

The objective of the present work is to develop a methodology for determining of switching time to injection mode, which maximizes the economic effect in terms of cumulative discount production. The methodology is based on the techno-economic model of oil reservoirs development by regular patterns of vertical wells or vertical wells with fractures including the effect of switching wells to injection and allows to define optimal switching time for the given parameters of the well pattern, the filtration properties of the reservoir and the discount rate.

References
1. Khasanov M.M., Krasnov V.A., Korotovskikh V.A., Determination of the optimal flow back period of oil wells (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2007, no. 5, pp. 19–21.
2. Shchelkachev V.N., Basic equations of motion of an elastic fluid in an elastic porous medium (In Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, 1946, V. 52, no. 2, pp. 103–106.
3. Khasanov M.M., Mel'chaeva O.Yu., Sitnikov A.N., Roshchektaev A.P., Dynamics of hydraulically fractured wells production for economically optimal development systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 36–39 

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A.I. Volik, S. M. Durkin, O.A. Morozyuk, L.M. Ruzin (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
The accounting of the mechanism of heat conductivity in the hydrodynamic models of the skilled site of yaregsky of the field

Key words: field, high-viscosity oil, hydrodynamic modeling, heat conductivity, development indicators.

For rational, science-based heavy oil exploitation the creation of simulation models requires using a variety of modern software products. Often the accuracy of modeling of technological processes is influenced by shortcomings of simulators. The simulator of STARS doesn't consider heat arriving in layer at the expense of heat conductivity through a lateral wall of a well. In this connection, the calculation procedure and the accounting of additional quantity of heat on the basis of statistical data is developed. The filtrational model of a site OPU-3 bis Yaregskoye oil field taking into account the heat conductivity mechanism is created; technological indicators OPU-3 bis by two options are predicted; extent of influence of the additional mechanism of warming up on technological indicators of development is estimated. The mechanism of warming up of productive layer due to heat conductivity has essential impact on final coefficient of oil recovery that is caused by the additional useful energy brought in layer by development Yaregskoye heavy oil field.
References
1. Ruzin L.M., Chuprov I.F., Tekhnologicheskie printsipy razrabotki zalezhey anomal'no vyazkikh neftey i bitumov (Technological principles of abnormally
viscous oils and bitumens reservoir development): edited by Tskhadaya N.D.,
Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2007, 244 p.
2. Ruzin L.M., Thermal mining method for production of high-viscosity oil
(In Russ.), TEK Rossii, 2012, no. 11, pp. 32–36.
3. Durkin S.M., Morozyuk O.A., Ruzin L.M., New thermal shaft procedures and evaluation of their efficiency through numerical modeling (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2013, no. 4(171), pp. 45–51.
4. Ruzin L.M., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., Features and innovative ways of
highly viscous oil field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013, no. 8, pp. 51–53.
5. Ruzin L.M., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M. The mechanism of the recovery for the heterogeneous heavy oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013, no. 8, pp. 54–57.
6. Gmurman V.E., Teoriya veroyatnostey i matematicheskaya statistika (Probability theory and mathematical statistics), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2003, 479 p.
7. Ruzin L.M., Features of thermal mining development of Yaregskoye field
(In Russ.), Oil and Gas journal, 2008, no. 5, pp. 48–56. 

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Information technology


A.M. Sagdatullin, A.A. Emekeev (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Moscow), Е.А. Myraveva (Ufa State Oil Technical University, RF, Sterlitamak)
System-integrative approach to automation of the oil and gas fields design and development control

Key words: geologic-technological model, artificial intelligence, wells process optimization.

At present, the important issue is to develop a system of effective management and monitoring of the oil and gas field, for which have been used hydrodynamic model. In this paper, the basic steps of creating a permanent geological and technological model (PDGTM) and the analysis of the data needed for its construction are presented. On the basis of PDGM and neural network models to improve the system of automatic control and monitoring of oil and gas development is proposed the system-integrated approach that takes into account the basic system principles of the oil and gas development design and control processes. To ensure matching of recovery rates and injection fluid it is proposed local automation and control system of oil production well operation modes. On this basis, the optimization solutions modeling method is functionally extended, providing options to optimize modeling and decision making in the control and management of oil and gas development system.

References
1. RD 153-39-047-00, Reglament po sozdaniyu postoyanno deystvuyushchikh geologo-tekhnologicheskikh modeley neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Regulation on creation of permanent geological and technological models of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation, 2000, 129 p.
2. Nasybullin A.V., Antonov O.G., Shutov A.A. et al., 3D reservoir modeling and AI-based optimization of waterflooding system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 7, pp. 14–16.
3. Ivanenko B.P., Prokazov S.A., Parfenov A.N., Simulation of the oil production processes using neural networks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 12, pp. 46–49.
4. Rozhkin M.E., Mikliia O.A., Possibilities of modelling work of the well equipment at experimental stands (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2009, no. 8, pp. 16–20.
5. Il'yasov B.G., Tagirova K.F., Dunaev I.V., Automation of oilfield equipment diagnostics using neural networks (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2005, no. 4, pp. 11–18.
6. Tagirova K.F., Avtomatizatsiya upravleniya tekhnologicheskim protsessom
dobychi nefti iz malodebitnykh skvazhin na osnove dinamicheskikh modeley
(Automation of the process control of oil production from low production
wells based on dynamic models): Thesis of candidate of technical science,
Ufa, 2008.
7. Gorban' A.N., Rossiev D.A., Neyronnye seti na personal'nom komp'yutere
(Neural network on the personal computer), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1996, 276 p. 

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Ecological and industrial safety



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M.V. Dulyasova, A.T. Volohina, A.R. Bakhtizina (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Influence of working conditions on the fitness to work of dispatcher personnel of enterprises of oil and gas industry

Key words: dispatcher personnel, oil and gas industry, productivity of labor, fitness to work, working conditions, fatigue.

Dependence between the level of fatigue of dispatcher personnel of oil and gas industry and the working conditions at the work sites is established. The procedure of the integral estimation of working conditions is developed, allowing not only to determine the class of working conditions, but also to obtain its more detailed quantity indicator for each dispatcher board being investigated. Psychophysiology studies with use of an instrument for system psychological diagnostics and correction are carried out.
References
1. Intersectoral guidelines: Otsenka vliyaniya usloviy truda na ego
proizvoditel'nost' i effektivnost' proizvodstva (Assessing the impact of working conditions on labor performance and efficiency), Moscow: Publ. of NII truda i sotsial'nogo strakhovaniya, 1984. – 55 s.
2. Makushin V.G., Sovershenstvovanie usloviy truda na promyshlennykh predpriyatiyakh (Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie problemy) (Improvement of working conditions in the industrial enterprises (Social and economic problems)), Moscow: Ekonomika Publ., 1981, 216 p.
3. Kalinina N.P., Makushin V.G., Vliyanie usloviy truda na ego proizvoditel'nost' (Influence of working conditions on labor performance), Moscow: Ekonomika Publ., 1971, 144 p.
4. Kalinina N.P., Makushin V.G., Polezhaeva E.F., Slavina S.E., Fiziologicheskie i psikhologicheskie osnovy truda (Physiological and psychological bases of labor), Moscow: Profizdat Publ., 1974, 232 p.

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I.A. Shaidullina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.Kh. Yapparov (Tatar Research Institute of Agrochemistry and Agrology, RF, Kazan), I.A. Degtyareva (Tatar Research Institute of Agrochemistry and Agrology, RF, Kazan), V.Z. Latypova, E.Sh. Gadieva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Recultivation of oil-contaminated lands by example of leached black humus earth of Tatarstan

Key words: allowable residual oil content, recultivation of oil-contaminated lands, indigenous decomposing microorganisms, humic compounds.

Field and laboratory research has been carried out to compare effectiveness and ecological safety of novel biotechnologies based on indigenous decomposing microorganisms combined with nanosorbent, as well as humic compounds, and conventional approach providing for agrotechnical operations and land treatment with manure, for recultivation of oil-contaminated lands by example of Tatarstan’s leached black humus earth. It has been found out that in case of high levels of contamination, the novel technologies are more effectivecompared to conventional techniquesin that they enable to meet the standard for allowable residual oil content in soilsin a shorter period of time, and restore land fertility.
References
1. Ibatullin R.R., Mutin I.I., Iskhakova N.M. et al., Development of standards for
permissible residual oil content and its transformation products in soil for
leached chernozems of Republic Tatarstan (In Russ.), Interval, 2006, no. 2,
pp. 6-10.
2. Ibatullin R.R., Shaydullina I.A., Latypova V.Z. et al., Evaluation of ecological efficiency of oil-contaminated soil recultivation measures (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2006, no. 8, pp. 14-18.
3. Shagidullin R.R., Latypova V.Z., Ivanov D.V., The rationing of allowable
residue of petroleum and its transformation products in soils (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2011, no. 5(41), pp. 2-5.
4. Akhmetzyanova L.G., Selivanovskaya S.Yu., Latypova V.Z., Laboratory modeling of oil polluted soil remediation for determination of permissible residual content of oil products (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Seriya: Estestvennye nauki, 2010, V. 152, no. 4, pp. 69-76.
5. GOST RISO 22030-2009. Soil quality. Biological methods. Chronic phytotoxicity
for higher plants, Moscow: Standartinform Publ., 2010.
6. Malykhina L.V., Shaydullina I.A., Kolesnikova N.E., Antonov N.A., Working out of measures on recultivation of soils disturbed under the construction and operation
of oil-field facilities (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v
neftegazovom komplekse, 2012, no. 10, pp. 10-13.
7. Shaydullina I.A., Normirovanie i minimizatsiya obrazovaniya i opasnosti
neftezagryaznennykh pochv dlya prirodnoy sredy (na primere OAO “Tatneft'”) (Rationing and minimizing the existence and dangers of contaminated soils for the environment (on the example of Tatneft)): Thesis of candidate of chemical science, Kazan', 2006.
8. RD 153-39.0-716-11. Instruktsiya po rekul'tivatsii zemel', narushennykh v rezul'- tate razgermetizatsii neftepromyslovykh truboprovodov (Instructions for reclamation of land disturbed as a result of depressurization of oilfield
pipelines), Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2010, 77 p.
9. Yapparov A.Kh., Yapparov I.A., Khabipov N.N. et al., Tekhnologiya
polucheniya ekologicheski bezopasnoy produktsii sel'skogo khozyaystva pri
biorekul'tivatsii neftezagryaznennykh pochv aborigennymi uglevodorodokislyayushchimi
mikroorganizmami i nanostrukturirovannymi bentonitami
(Technology for producing the environmentally friendly agricultural production with bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil by aboriginal hydrocarbonoxidizing microorganisms and nanostructured bentonite), Kazan': Publ. of Center for Innovative Technology, 2010. – 220 s.
10. TU 2458-001-09265941-2012. Organo-khimicheskie pochvo-grunty iz
tverdykh nefteshlamov, obrabotannykh guminovym preparatom (Organochemical soils and subsoils of solid sludge treated with humic substances), Moscow: Gosstandart Publ., 2012.
11. Metodika izmereniy massovoy kontsentratsii nefteproduktov v pochve i
donnykh otlozheniyakh metodom infrakrasnoy spektrometrii (Technique for
measuring the mass concentration of petroleum products in soils and sediments by infrared spectrometry), PNDF 16.1:2.2.22-98.
12. Korn G.A., Korn T.M., Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers, McGraw Hill, 1968.

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N.Yu. Stepanova, T.R. Latypova, V.Z. Latypova (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Ecologically based sediment quality criteria of the oil content for freshwater ecosystems on example of Kuibishev water reservoir

Key words: oil products, sediment quality criteria, bioassay.

This article presents the criteria of sediment quality assessment for oil content according the integrated approach which based on chemical, ecological and toxicological data derived from a TRIAD monitoring network. The ecological criteria (the lowest effect level and the severe effect level) were calculated for oil content in sediments of Kuibyshev water reservoir on the base of benthos taxa occurrence. For the toxicological data, the threshold effect level and probable effect level were calculated, based on the results of the toxicological acute pore water and solid phase tests. The sediment quality guideline (49 mg/kg) is as a consensus value of the lowest effect level and threshold effect level. Presented criteria can be used for ecological risk assessment for benthic community in condition of cruel oil contamination.

References
1. Moiseenko T.I., Rodyushkin I.V., Dauval'ter V.A., Kudryavtseva L.P.,
Formirovanie kachestva poverkhnostnykh vod i donnykh otlozheniy v
usloviyakh antropogennykh nagruzok na vodosbory Arkticheskogo basseyna
(Formation of quality of surface water and bottom sediments under anthropogenic loads on the watershed of the Arctic Basin), Apatity: Publ. of
Kola Science Centre RAS, 1996, 263 p.
2. Sal'nikov N.E., Gershtanskiy N.D., The impact of oil pollution on fish fauna of the Volga delta(In Russ.), Collected papers “Okhrana vodnykh bioresursov intensivnogo osvoeniya neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy na shel'fe i vnutrennikh vodnykh ob"ektakh RF” (Protection of aquatic biological resources of intensive oil and gas development on the shelf and inland water bodies of the Russian Federation), Moscow: Publ. of TsUREN, 2000, pp. 214–218.
3. Stepanova N.Yu., Akhmetshina A.D., Latypova V.Z., Test-organism sensitivity comparison in toxicological evaluation of bottom sediments polluted with oil of various origin (In Russ.), Povolzhskiy ekologicheskiy zhurnal, 2012, no. 3, pp. 319–325.
4. Kondrat'eva L.M., Secondary pollution of aquatic ecosystems, Vodnye
resursy = Water Resources, 2000, V. 27, no. 2, pp. 197-206.
5. Metodika izucheniya biogeotsenozov vnutrennikh vodoemov (Method of
study of biogeocenosis of inland waters): edited by Mordukhay-Boltovskiy
F.D., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 240 p.
6. Makrushin A.V., Biologicheskiy analiz kachestva vod (Biological analysis of water quality), Leningrad: Publ. of ZIN AN SSSR, 1974, 60 p.
7. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po sboru i obrabotke materialov pri gidrobiologicheskikh issledovaniyakh na presnovodnykh vodoemakh (Guidelines to collect and processing of materials in hydrobiological studies on freshwater bodies), Zoobentos i ego produktsiya (Zoobenthos and its products), Leningrad, 1983, 52 p.
8. Vremennoe metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po normirovaniyu urovney
soderzhaniya khimicheskikh veshchestv v donnykh otlozheniyakh
poverkhnostnykh vodnykh ob"ektov (na primere nefti) (Temporary methodological guidance on standardization the levels of chemicals in bottom sediments of surface water bodies (for example, oil)), Moscow: Publ. of REFIA, NIA – Priroda, 2002, 138 p.
9. Borovikov V.P., Borovikov I.P., Statistica – Statisticheskiy analiz i obrabotka dannykh v srede Windows (Statistica - Statistical analysis and data processing for Windows), Moscow: Filin" Publ., 1997, 600 p.
10. Deckere E. De, Cooman W.De, Leloup V. et al., Development of sediment
quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems, J. Soils Sediments, 2011, no. 11,
pp. 504–517.
11. Stepanova N.Yu., Latypova V.Z., Ratushnyak A.A., Trushin M.V., The effect of sediment type and toxicity of crude oil-spiked sediments to paramecium caudatum, American-Eurasian Journal Agricultural And Environmental Sciences, 2011, no. 11(4), pp. 490–494.
12. Stepanova N.Yu., Latypova V.Z., Regularity of toxicants distribution in
sandy sediments (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski KGU, 2006, V. 148, no. 1, pp. 49–56.
13. Latypova V.Z., Stepanova N.Yu., Shalagin S.V., On factors of chemical
compositions formation in bottom sediments by mathematical statistics
methods (In Russ.), Vestnik KGTU (KAI) im. A.N. Tupoleva, 2004, no. 3, pp. 52–58.
14. Mikhaylova L.V., Isachenko-Bome E.A., Establishing and validation of a
standard for oil content of bottom sediments in surface water bodies, Vodnye
resursy = Water Resources, 2012, V. 39, no. 5, pp. 564–575.
15. Stortelder P.B.M., van der Guchte C., Hazard assessment and monitoring
of discharges to water: concepts and trends, European Water Pollution Control, 1995, V. 5, no. 5, p. 68. 

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