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550.834
A.N. Votintsev (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), O.F. Mishin (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), G.I. Didkovskaya (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk)
Traces of the Neoproterozoic glaciation on the erosion surface of the Nepa-Botuoba anteclise foundation according to the data of the 3D seismic survey by common depth point method

Keywords: Nepa-Botuoba anteklise, crystalline basement, Nepa formation, Neoproterozoic glaciations, glacial furrows, bosses of the foundation, 3D seismic survey by common depth point method, drilling data, oil-and-gas bearing prospects, facial zoning scheme

Based on the 3D seismic data, taking into account the drilling results, on the example of one of Rosnefts licensed areas within the Nepa-Botuoba anteclise, a general description of the composition and structure of the heterogeneous foundation and a detailed description of its surface are given. This surface is a local strip erosion form of pre-Vendian glacial-exaration paleorelief which, along with the protrusions of the foundation, determine the formation of facies heterogeneities in the basal sand deposits of the Nepa Vendian formation. The analysis of the probable features of the continental and coastal marine sediment accumulation in the geomorphological conditions of this relief is carried out. For the reconstruction of the paleorelief of the territory of a complex seismic-geological structure, the we used a map of the thicknesses of the Nepa Vendian Formation (data of 3D CDP method and drilling); slice sedimentation amplitude cube; and slice of spectral decomposition at the level of basal deposits of the Nepa Formation. General information on glacioperiods in the history interval of the Earth of 723-555 Ma and their manifestation within the southern part of the Siberian Platform is presented. Attention is drawn to the need to use in facies analysis the assumption that it was the melting of the vast glacial carapace that caused (the source of water mass) rapid transgression of the Nepa marine sedimentation basin. The example of a core sample from one of the wells illustrates the detection of tillites occurring on the surface of the foundation. It has been suggested that they are safe only under certain conditions. For deposits of the Nepa formation, taking into account all the data available to date, a facies scheme has been constructed that allows predicting reservoir distribution zones and is recommended for use in setting up exploratory and appraisal drilling.

References

1. Rozen O.M., Siberian Craton: tectonic regionalization, evolutionary issues (In Russ.), Geotektonika, 2003, no. 3, pp. 119.

2. Sokolov B.S., The chronostratigraphic space of the lithosphere and the Vendian as a geohistorical subdivision of the Neoproterozoic (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 2011, V. 52, no. 10, pp. 13341348.

3. Chumakov N.M., Oledeneniya Zemli. Istoriya, stratigraficheskoe znachenie i rol' v biosfere (Glaciations of the Earth History, stratigraphic and biospheric significance (In Russ.), Transactions of the Geological Institute), 2015, V. 611, 159 p.

4. Harland W.B., Rudwick M.J.S., The Great Infra-Cambrian ice age, Scientific American, 1964, V. 211(2), pp. 2836.

5. Condon D., Zhu M.Y., Bowring S. et al., U-Pb ages from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Foration, China, Science, 2005, V. 308, no. 5718, pp. 9598.

6. Hoffmann K.-H., Condon D.J., Bowring S.A., Crowley J.L., U-Pb zircon date from the Neoproterozoic Ghaub Formation, Namibia: constraints on Marinoan laciation, Geology, 2004, V. 32, pp. 817820.

7. Knoll A.H., Walter M.R., Narbonne G.M., Christie-Blick N., The Ediacaran Period: a new addition to the geologic time scale, Lethaia, 2006, V. 39, pp. 1330.

8. Walter M.R., Veeres J.J., Calver C.R. et al., Dating the 840544 Ma Neoproterozoic interval by isotopes of strontium, carbon and sulfur in seawater and some interpretative models, Precambrian Res., 2000, V. 100, no. 1, pp. 371433.

9. Rooney A.D., Macdonald F.A., Strauss J.V. et al., Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 2014, V. 111, pp. 5156, URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/articles/PMC3890860/

10. Sovetov Yu.K., Tillites at the base of the Vendian Taseeva Group in the stratotype section (Siberian craton) (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 2015, V. 56, no. 11, pp. 19341944.

11. Chumakov N.M., Linnemann U., Khofman M., Pokrovskiy B.G. Neoproterozoic ice sheets of the Siberian Platform: U-Pb-LA-ICP-MS ages of detrital zircons from the Bol'shoi Patom formation and the geotectonic position of its provenance (In Russ.), Stratigrafiya i geologicheskaya korrelyatsiya = Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 2011, V. 19, no. 6, pp. 697686.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-10-13

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519.868:55
K.O. Iskaziev (National Company KazMunayGas JSC, Kazakhstan, Astana), S.F. Khafizov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), N.V.Taninskaya (Geologorazvedka JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Conceptual sedimentological model of clastic-carbonate Frasnian section on Chinarevskoye field (Kazakhstan)

Keywords: Northern margin of Pre-Caspian basin, facies analysis, sedimentological model, fan, distributary

Middle-Upper Frasnian clastic-carbonate sequence is the new prospect on the Northern margin of Pre-Caspian depression. Kolgan unit, quite well explored in Orenburg region, could be thought of as its analog. In Kazakhstan interest to this subject had appeared after oil discovered on Chinarevskoye field. Frasnian clastic-carbonate sequence has the limited areal distribution which is because of specific sedimentological environment. Lithotypes were described in both carbonate and clastic parts, facial zonation identified, detail lithological and petrophysical characteristics given and sedimentological model proposed based on regional data, well log interpretation and core study from three wells drilled in the Northern part of Chinarevskoye field. In the result of well testing its found that the reservoirs are practically absent in the carbonate part therefore the main attention is paid to identification the reservoirs association with the clastic faces. Based on petrophysical parameters of different Frasnian clastic lithotypes its possible to conclude that in the Northern part of Chinarevskoye field the fans proximal part as well as distributary are the most promising facies for reservoir formation. Seism facies and attribute analysis of 3D seismic calibrated on the well data was used for forecasting subsurface geology in interwell space and outline zones with maximum sands in the section. Sand bodies geometry obtained from the different maps is consistent with proposed sedimentological model.

References

1. Afanas'eva M.A., Geologicheskoe stroenie i perspektivy otkrytiya novykh mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza v devonskikh otlozheniyakh Buzulukskoy vpadiny (Geological structure and prospects for the discovery of new oil and gas deposits in the Devonian sediments of the Buzuluk depression): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2011.

2. Muromtsev V.S., Elektricheskie modeli fatsiy i paleogeograficheskie rekonstruktsii usloviy formirovaniya shel'fov drevnikh morey Shirotnogo Priob'ya Zapadnoy Sibiri (Electric facies models and paleogeographic reconstructions of shelf formation conditions of the ancient seas of the Latitudinal Ob region of Western Siberia), Leningrad: Publ. of VNIGRI, 1984, pp. 106121.

3. Nikitin Yu.I., Rikhter O.V., Vilesov A.P., Makhmudova R.Kh., Structure and formation conditions of the Kolganian suite on the south of the Orenburg region (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2014, no. 2, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/ rub/4/21_2014.pdf

4. Taninskaya N.V., Shimanskiy V.V., Ostapenko S.V. et al., Usloviya formirovaniya klinoformnykh kompleksov kolganskoy tolshchi Vakhitovskogo mestorozhdeniya yuga Orenburgskoy oblasti (Conditions for the formation of clinoform complexes of the Kolgan strata of the Vakhitovskoye deposit in the south of the Orenburg region), In: Nestrukturnye, slozhnopostroennye lovushki osnovnoy rezerv prirosta uglevodorodnogo syr'ya Rossii (Non-structural, complex-built traps are the main reserve of growth in the volume of hydrocarbon raw materials in Russia), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2005, pp. 7482.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-14-18

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553.98.001
A.V. Polischuk (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), M.V. Lebedev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Oil and gas accumulation zones based on 3D basin modeling, Solimoes basin, Jurua sub-basin, Brazil

Keywords: oil and gas accumulation zone, intrusions, petroleum system modeling, geological exploration planning

A case study of the Solimoes basin and the Jurua sub-basin (Brazil) illustrates and confirms the principles of identifying oil and gas accumulation zones. The main principle of identifying an oil and gas accumulation zone is the uniformity of oil and gas system elements. The elements and processes of the oil and gas system of the Jurua sub-basin are briefly described: reservoirs and seals, source rock, source rock maturity and phase composition of hydrocarbons (HC), tectonics and hydrocarbon traps, HC migration and accumulation, preservation of deposits. The critical factors of naftidogenesis for the Jurua formation, which contains the bulk of hydrocarbon reserves, are the presence and location of hydrocarbon kitchens relative to traps; the degree of maturity; the presence of structural trends which are the main HC accumulators. Thus, in accordance with the accepted definition of an oil and gas accumulation zone in the Jurua interval, these are its connected parts, including, as a rule, groups of structural trends with the same source and phase composition of hydrocarbons; four oil and gas accumulation zones were distinguished in the considered target which differ by sources of hydrocarbons and types of HC fluids and traps. The results of 3D basin modeling is the basis for justifying the assessment of sediments maturity, type of fluids, volumes and migration pathways, and the charge potential of specific traps. The results can be used as a basis for planning further geological exploration in the Jurua sub-basin.

At the moment, basin modeling sets the tasks to assess the traps charge and, therefore, the local hydrocarbon resources within the proven zones of oil and gas accumulation. This is the area for further exploration efforts.

References

1. Milani E.J., Zalan P.D., An outline of the geology and petroleum systems of the Paleozoic interior basins of South America, Episodes-Newsmagazine of the International Union of Geological Sciences, 1999, V. 22(2), pp. 199205.

2. Polishchuk A.V., Lebedev M.V., Perepelina A.N., Modeling of petroleum system influenced by intrusive bodies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 1, pp. 1217.

3. Polishchuk A.V., Vliyanie trappovykh kompleksov na evolyutsiyu neftegazovoy sistemy (The influence of trap complexes on the evolution of the oil and gas system), Collected papers Informatsionnye sistemy i tekhnologii v geologii i neftegazodobyche (Information systems and technologies in geology and oil and gas production), Tyumen': Publ. of TIU, 2018, pp. 8796.

4. Prishchepa O.M., Oil and gas accumulation zones - methodological approaches to their allocation, providing a modern solution to industry problems (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2008, no. 3, pp. 131.

5. Lebedev M.V., Petroleum accumulation zones in main Vendian terrigeneous reservoirs in north-east Nepa-Botuoba petroleum region (In Russ.), 2015, no. 1, pp. 2026.

6. Janvier P., Melo J.H.G., Late Devonian actinopterygian scales from Upper Amazon basin, Nortwestern Brasil, Candido Simoes Ferreira, 1987, V. 59(3), pp. 213218.

7. Magoon L.B., Dow W.G., The petroleum system, AAPG Memoir, 1994, no. 60, pp. 323.

8. Barata C.F., Caputo M.V., Geologia do petroleo da bacia do Solimoes. O estado da arte, PDPETRO, 2007, no. 4, pp. 110.

9. Caputo M.V., Silva O.B., Sedimentação e tectônica da Bacia do Solimões, Origem e Evolução das Bacias Sedimentares, 1991, pp. 169193.

10. Almeida F.F.M., Neves B.B.B., Carneiro C.D.R., The origin and evolution of the South American Platform, Earth Science Reviews, 2000, V. 50, pp. 77111.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-19-23

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553.98.061.4
O.E. Kurmanov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.G. Miroshkin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.S. Khaydarov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.A. Shtyrlyaeva (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), L.A. Guryevskikh (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), I.I. Zayrullin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Influence of facies heterogeneity of the U11 formation on the reservoir properties distribution by the example of a part of the Nizhnvartovsk arch

Keywords: petrophysical relations, facies model, facies logging, data integration

The article describes data analysis and integration method for geological and petrophysical modeling. The input data includes the results of the interpretation of facies from the core and spontaneous polarization diagrams, analysis of petrophysical relations and processing of 3D seismic for the U11 formation in one of the fields of the Nizhnevartovsk arch. The analysis of these data showed a significant influence of the formation conditions on the distribution characteristics of petrophysical parameters in the reservoir. It became possible to see that the sandstones composing the meandering distribution channels of the delta plain and the sandstones of marine bars significantly differ in the nature of the core-core relations (porosity / permeability). The meandering distribution channels of the delta plain are clearly visible on the maps of the spectral decomposition and have a special form of spontaneous polarization diagrams in the wells. These sand bodies formed at the regression stage under the conditions of fluvial processes are more highly permeable reservoirs than the sand bodies of sea bars. The sufficient convergence of these wells and seismic data allows us to create different approaches for calculating permeability for sandstones of distribution channels and sandstones of sea bars. Facial logging was introduced into the petrophysical model to optimize calculations using two separate approaches. This allows you to automatically select an algorithm depending on the facies. A set of facies logs, which is confirmed by core analysis, spontaneous polarization diagrams, and seismic data, can serve as an example of an ideal training set for detecting facies by logging using machine learning methods.

References

1. Kontorovich A.E., Kontorovich V.A., Ryzhkova S.V. et al., Jurassic paleogeography of the West Siberian sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Geologiya I geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2013, V. 54, no. 8, pp. 9721012.

2. Reshenie VI Mezhvedomstvennogo stratigraficheskogo soveshchaniya po rassmotreniyu i prinyatiyu utochnennykh stratigraficheskikh skhem mezozoyskikh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Decision VI of the interdepartmental stratigraphic meeting on the review and adoption of refined stratigraphic schemes of the mesozoic deposits of Western Siberia), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 2004, 114 p.

3. Belozerov V.B., The role of sedimentation models in the electro-facies analysis of terrigenous deposits (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2011, V. 319, no. 1, pp. 116123.

4. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies - lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.

5. Yapaskurt O.V., Litologiya (Lithology), Mosocw: Infra-M Publ., 2016, 359 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-24-27

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553.98.001
Yu.A. Stovbun (Nedra-Konsalt LLC, RF, Tyumen), T.N. Smagina (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.P. Ulyanova (Nedra-Konsalt LLC, RF, Tyumen), E.Yu. Shevtsova (Nedra-Konsalt LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.N. Abrashov (Sibneftegas JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy)
Application of facies analysis in solving geomodeling challenges. Case study of Beregovoye field

Keywords: field, geologic model, seismic attributes, facies analysis, paleochannels

Practical experience of re-estimating hydrocarbons of larger fields in West Siberia being repeated every 4-6 years indicates that geologic models of accumulations are constantly getting complicated. Information on fields is added as a result of new drilling and field geophysical surveys, as well as a result of reprocessing and integrated interpretation of old materials of seismic exploration and field geophysical research, earlier conducted in the field. New technologies of handling raw seismic data allow extraction of significantly more important geologic information which provides insight into facies environments where productive strata have been formed, including in particular the role of channel deposits in the formation of traps containing oil and gas accumulations. Application of new methods and techniques for interpreting G&G materials and geologic modeling allows satisfactory tying of well test results, which earlier looked contradictory. One of the key challenges of geomodeling is the determination of geological nature and location of seals confining the accumulations. Often, the existence of such seals was deemed rather evident and indirectly confirmed by well test data. Yet, it was not always possible to explain the character of sealing, or locate the accumulation boundary in plan view, based on the existing G&G information. Thus, a conditional line (zone) was assumed for a seal. With such approach there is a possibility of errors in estimating reserves and significant geologic risks while drilling appraisal and development wells.

The article, based on analysis of re-processing and integrated interpretation of all available G&G data, establishes the presence of abandoned paleochannels of meandering rivers mainly filled with clays, in productive layers of Beregovoye field. In plan view, they represent narrow tortuous bodies - seals controlling the accumulations. Sealing effect of paleochannels is expressed through significant difference in hydrocarbons water contacts, and phase difference in the adjacent reservoirs. Lithologic seals picked with using modern depositional analogs and seismic attribute maps allowed a new geologic model of the field to be validated, confidence of hydrocarbons reserves estimate to be improved, subsurface risks of development drilling to be mitigated.

References

1. Ol'neva T.V., Khromova I.Yu., Experience of expertise of the seismic data, involved in the reserves estimation (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie KhKhI vek, 2016, no. 3, pp. 1624.

2. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies - lithological traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.

3. Belozerov V.B., Influence of facies heterogeneity of clastic reservoir on the development of hydrocarbon deposits (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2011, V. 319, no. 1, pp. 123-130.

4. Eremin N.A., Sovremennaya razrabotka mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza. Umnaya skvazhina. Intellektual'nyy promysel. Virtual'naya kompaniya (Modern development of oil and gas fields. Smart well. Digital oil field. Virtual company), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr, 2008, 244 p.

5. Medvedev A.L., Aptian incised river valleys of the Kamennoye field, Western Siberia: regional aspects of petroleum potential (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2010, V. 5, no. 3, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/4/36_2010.pdf
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-28-32

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550.832
A.N. Parfenov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), I.V. Lavrov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), A.E. Letichevskiy (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), S.V. Khvostancev (Scientific and Production Company GeophysicaTechnologiiService LLC, RF, Pyatigorsk)
Alternative methods for geophysical well logging to determine the azimuth of the horizontal stresses

Keywords: measuring of formation tilting, anisotropy, horizontal stresses, special geophysical methods, Devonian graben-shaped deflections

Today, in development of oil and gas fields processes remains quite a lot of complex issues for petroleum engineers in areas such as: safe and efficient drilling in difficult geological conditions, lateral and horizontal wells completion, the study and development of tight oil reserves, planning and realizing of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, also reservoir development and waterflooding in case of hydraulic fracturing. Data on the spatial orientation of horizontal stress azimuths play an important role in the successful solution of the above mentioned problems. With information on direction of stresses in various reservoir formations we can correctly plan and implement engineering control over the field development system and its dynamic change, which is especially important in the conditions of hydraulic fracturing for stimulation of oil and gas production. The correct choice of different development strategy and flooding is impossible without knowledge of geomechanical properties, in particular, the direction of horizontal stresses in the reservoir. For example, this data is required throughout the life cycle of well construction: from design to completion. Properly oriented horizontal well, with further multi-stage fracturing, helps to minimize the risks of complications during drilling and increase the stimulated volume of productive formation.

This article discusses the practical implementation of the long-known theoretical basis for obtaining data of the horizontal stresses direction as an alternative to well-known acoustic and seismic methods.

References

1. Akbar Ali A.Kh., Braun T., Delgado R. et al., Modeling the mechanical properties of the medium as a means of deciphering stresses in rocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe obozrenie, 2005, no. 1, pp. 423.

2. Nikitin A.N., Application of a complex of studies to determine the geometry of hydraulic fractures in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2007, no. 2, pp. 3537.

3. Latypov I.D., Borisov G.A., Khaydar A.M. et al., Reorientation refracturing on RN-Yuganskneftegaz LLC oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 3438.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-33-37

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550.832.77
O.B. Kuzmichev (RN BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Zhonin (RN BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), Yu.V. Martynova (RN BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.A. Kolomasova (RN BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Solution of the inverse problem of self-polarization logging in a pack of layers with a penetration zone (terrigenous section)

Keywords: direct and inverse problem, potential of spontaneous polarization, static potential, electrical resistivity, penetration zone, coefficient of oil and gas saturation

In layers of limited thickness and high resistance, the amplitude of the spontaneous potential (SP) logs differs significantly from the amplitude corresponding to the layer of unlimited thickness. For a more accurate determination of reservoir properties by the SP method it is necessary to move from the apparent values of the curve to the static potential of the reservoir, that is, to solve the inverse problem.

The article presents an analytical solution for a direct problem of the SP method in case of rocks in a well crossing an electrically inhomogeneous layer of limited thickness with a zone of drilling mud penetration. The analytical solution of a similar problem proposed by Schlumberger-Doll Research (M.R. Taherian, at al.) for an impenetrable formation in the absence of penetration zone is discussed. It is shown Schlumbergers solution is a subcase of the analytical solution regarded in present article. On the basis of the analytical solution of the direct problem the inverse problem of the SP method was solved taking into account the potentials of rock matrix. Solving the inverse problem in conjunction with the electric logging data is shown on the example of middle Cretaceous reservoirs (Achimov deposits) in Western Siberia. For this purpose we used algorithms of numerical solution of the direct problem in case of well crossing an electrically inhomogeneous layer of limited thickness with a zone of drilling mud penetration by the integro-interpolation method, and the analytical solution of the direct problem for a layer of limited thickness with regard to the potential of rock matrix. The results of numerical and analytical solutions of the inverse problem are almost identical. Proposed algorithms are intended to use in the Rosneft corporate software for petrophysical modeling.

References

1. Nosal E.A., Spontaneous potential log response expressed as convolution, Geophysics, 1982, V. 47, no. 9, pp. 13351337.

2. Doll H.G., Selective SP logging, AIME Trans., 1950, V. 189, pp. 129141.

3. Kashik A.S., Informative adequacy-of measurements in applied geophysics (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2007, no. 4, pp. 714.

4. Shpikalov Yu.A., Solving the inverse problem of the method of self-polarization potentials in the well using mathematical filtering (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya i geofizika, 1980, no. 6, pp. 3740.

5. Abrikosov A.I., The direct problem of the distribution of the field of potentials of intrinsic polarization in the well in inhomogeneous media (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya i geofizika, 1978, no. 6, pp. 2427.

6. Taherian M.R. et al., Spontaneous potential: Laboratory experiments

and modeling results, The Log Analyst, 1995, V. 36, no. 5, pp. 3448.

7. Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Issledovanie razrezov neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin metodom sobstvennykh potentsialov (Research of sections of oil and gas wells by the method of intrinsic potentials), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1966, 206 p.

8. Kuz'michev O.B., Issledovanie estestvennykh elektricheskikh poley v neftegazorazvedochnykh skvazhinakh (teoriya, apparatura, metodika, skvazhinnye ispytaniya) (The study of natural electric fields in the oil and gas exploration wells (theory, apparatus, method, well tested)), St. Petersburg, Nedra Publ., 2006, 252 p.

9. Kuz'michev O.B., Theoretical grounds of spontaneous polarization in oil and gas prospecting wells: from homogeneous to heterogeneous according to medium resistance (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 9, pp. 3742.

10. Ingerman V.G., Avtomatizirovannaya interpretatsiya rezul'tatov geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin (Automated interpretation of results of geophysical well survey), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 224 s.

11. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po kompleksnoy interpretatsii dannykh BKZ, BK, IK (Guidelines for the comprehensive interpretation of data lateral logging sounding, lateral logging, induction log), Kalinin: Publ. of NPO Soyuzpromgeofizika, 1990, 85 p.

12. Levchenko A.A., Pantyukhin V.A., Chaadaev E.V., Opredelenie prodol'nykh udel'nykh elektricheskikh soprotivleniy sloistykh plastov-kollektorov po dannym metodov karotazha soprotivleniy (Determination of longitudinal specific electrical resistances of layered reservoirs according to resistance logging methods), Collected papers Novye razrabotki v tekhnologii geofizicheskikh issledovaniy neftegazorazvedochnykh skvazhin (New developments in the technology of geophysical exploration of oil and gas exploration wells), Tver': Publ of NPGP GERS, VNIGIK, 1992, pp. 119124.

13. Potapov A.P., Kneller L.E., Determination of resistivity of reservoirs according to high frequency induction logging data in a thin-layered section (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 1998, V. 52, pp. 6267.

14. Patent no. RU2675187C1, Method for determining saturation of low-permeability reservoirs, Inventors: Kolonskikh A.V., Zhonin A.V., Mikhaylov S.P., Fedorov A.I., Murtazin R.R.

15. Antonov Yu.N., Sokolov V.P., Tabarovskiy L.A., Obobshchenie teorii geometricheskogo faktora. Elektromagnitnye metody issledovaniya skvazhin (A generalization of the theory of geometric factor. Electromagnetic Well Research Methods), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1979, pp. 3451.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-38-41

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550.814
S.A. Shumeyko (Rosneft NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), N.N. Filin (Rosneft NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar)
The use of non-professional unmanned aerial vehicle system for the tasks of engineering geodesy and mapping oil and gas fields territory

Keywords: photogrammetry, engineering surveys, unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVS), digital terrain model, topography map

This article compares two aerial unmanned systems in terms of solving problems of engineering geodesy and cartography. The unmanned aerial vehicles described in the article represent two segments - professional and semi-professional. The main differences between the studied systems are the availability of a high-class camera with a mechanical central shutter and a high-class GNSS receiver in a professional UAV. The aerial vehicle, positioned in this study as semi-professional, has a simple camera with a digital shutter, and a navigation satellite receiver, far from geodetic accuracy on board. The article assesses the possibility of using semi-professional unmanned aerial vehicles for solving professional tasks when performing geodetic and cartographic works. As part of the study, the territory was surveyed by both unmanned aerial vehicles. Mutual comparison and assessment of the characteristics of the results were made. Conclusions on the applicability of semi-professional systems for solving professional problems are drawn. As a result of the study, the suitability of a light unmanned aerial vehicle of the semi-professional segment was revealed. The light UAVS is suitable for performing quick aerial surveys and obtain geospatial data - a point cloud and high-resolution orthophoto maps, which can be used not just for reconnaissance and optimal planning of fieldwork, but also for engineering and topographic drafting. The horizontal accuracy of the orthomosaic and its spatial resolution make it possible to decode and coordinate the terrain objects with accuracy sufficient to compile topographic plans of scales 1: 1000-1: 5000.

References

1. Shumeyko S.A., Sologubov D.S., Photogrammetric technology for 3D modeling complex production facilities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 98101.

2. Shinkevich M.V., Vorob'eva N.G., Altyntsev M.A. et al., EvaLuation of accuracy of dense digitaL surface modeL and orthophotos, received by aeriaL imagery from the "Supercam" UAVs (In Russ.), Geomatika, 2015, no. 4, pp. 3741.

3. Silva M.R.S., Eger R.A., Anai Y. Rosenfeldt Z., Loch C., Testing DJI Phantom 4 Pro for urban georeferencing, The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 2018, URL: https://www.int-arch-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/XLII-1/407/2018/isprs-archives-XLII-....

4. Nagendran Sh., Tung Wen et al., Accuracy assessment on low altitude UAV-borne photogrammetry outputs influenced by ground control point at different altitude, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/169/1/012031.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-42-45

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622.276.1/.4(470.41)
R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), I.A. Guskova (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), A.T. Gabdrakhmanov (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), V.A. Sayakhov (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), E.S. Okhotnikova (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan)
The comparative analysis of heterogeneity composition and properties of extra-viscous oil of Ashalchinskoye field based on experimental researches

Keywords: extra-viscous oil, hydrocarbon composition, chromatography, rheology, spectrophotometry, heterogeneity

This article presents the experimental researches results of composition and properties of oil extracted from bitumen-saturated core and produced extra-viscous oil (borehole samples) of the Ashalchinskoye field and their degree of heterogeneity. The comparative analysis was carried out on the basis of chromatographic, rheological and optical experimental researches in accordance with the specially developed methodologies, the interpretation of the results was carried out using methods of mathematical statistics. The influence of increasing temperature (10-80C) on the heterogeneity of dynamic viscosity of extra-oil was studied using the rheological method. The chromatographic method was used to research the hydrocarbon composition (alkanes of the C10-C40 series) of core oil and borehole extra-viscous oil. The spectrophotometric experimental researches have made it possible to obtain the dependences of the light absorption coefficient for core oil and borehole extra-viscous oil. Based on the experimental researches performed authors revealed differences in the component composition, rheological and optical properties of core oil and borehole extra-viscous oil, obtained the temperature dependence of heterogeneity composition and properties. The results can be used to improve the technology of extra-viscous oil production in the Ashalchinskoye field.

References

1. Khisamov R.S., Amerkhanov M.I., Khanipova Yu.V., Change of properties and composition of heavy oil in the process of Ashalchinskoye field development by steam-assisted gravity drainage method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 7881.

2. Khisamov R.S., Production of oil reserves difficult to recover issues on the late stage of development and innovative technologies of their solution (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2012, no. 3, pp. 813.

3. Kayukova G.P., Petrov S.M., Uspenskiy B.V., Svoystva tyazhelykh neftey i bitumov permskikh otlozheniy Tatarstana v prirodnykh i tekhnogennykh protsessakh (Properties of high-viscosity oil and bitumen of Permian deposits of Tatarstan in natural and technogenic processes), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2015, 343 p.

4. Guskova I.A., Gumerova D.M., Budkevich R.L. et al., Gas-liquid chromatography for comparing crude oil core and bitumen sample compositions, Proceedings of 18th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM2018, Science and Technologies in Geology, Exploration and Mining, Albena, 2018, pp. 107112.

5. Guskova I.A., Gumerova D.M., Khayarova D.R., Shaidullin L.K., Laboratory experiments to study rheological properties of high viscous oils, Proceedings of 18th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM2018, Science and Technologies in Geology, Exploration and Mining, Albena, 2018, pp. 863868.

6. Gus'kova I.A., Gabdrakhmanov A.T., Gumerova D.M. et al., Rheogoniometry for optimizing parameters of oil production stimulation technologies (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2015, no. 11, pp. 6063.

7. Khisamov R.S., Zakharova E.F., Gumerova D.M., Sayakhov V.A., An integrated approach to the research of the composition and properties of bituminous oil at the Ashalchinskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 6871, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-10-68-71.

8. Kayukova G.P., Abdrafikova I.M., Petrov S.M., Musin R.Z. et al., Transformation of oils of different types in hydrothermal-catalytic processes (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2014, V. 17, no. 21, pp. 318323.

9. Evdokimov I.N., Losev A.P., Vozmozhnosti metodov issledovaniy v sistemakh kontrolya razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Possibilities of research methods in oilfield development control systems), Moscow: Neft I Gas Publ., 2007, 228 p.

10. Gabdrakhmanov A.T., Izuchenie izmeneniya
opticheskikh kharakteristik nefti dlya otsenki vozmozhnosti podpitki
uglevodorodami iz glubin Zemli (The study of changes in the optical
characteristics of oil to assess the possibility of replenishment of
hydrocarbons from the depths of the Earth), Proceedings of International
Scientific and Practical Conference Hydrocarbon and mineral raw potential of
the crystalline basement, Kazan', 2019, pp. 168171.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-48-52

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622.276.1/.4.001.57
P.V. Kryganov (Scientific Research Institute of System Development of RAS, RF, Moscow), I.V. Afanaskin (Scientific Research Institute of System Development of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.G. Volpin (Scientific Research Institute of System Development of RAS, RF, Moscow), M.Yu. Ahapkin (Scientific Research Institute of System Development of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Identification of the reservoir parts with the bypassed oil on the basis of mathematical simulation and well tests analysis

Keywords: bypassed oil reserves, hydrodynamic simulation, well test analysis

Problems of the completeness of oil recovery from the reservoirs in Russia are becoming increasingly relevant. They are largely caused by the complexity of the geological structure of the layers (reservoirs). Filtration heterogeneity of various types during the development of oil field leads to the formation of stagnant or bypassed oil zones, which are practically not produced. In modern development practice, the spatial distribution of oil-saturated areas in developed fields using special studies is far from always determined. Usually, only mathematical simulation is used for solving this problem.

This work is aimed to explore the possibility of identifying the undeveloped oil reserves (bypassed by waterflood) based on wells tests analysis and mathematical simulation, accumulating the results of other types of studies. Two hypothetical models of the part of the oil reservoir were created, differing in geological structure properties - a homogeneous reservoir and a heterogeneous reservoir with zones of the reduced permeability (in which the bypassed zones of the residual oil are then formed during the development). Using these models, the bottom hole pressure changes were calculated for various types of wells tests analysis: the method of pressure buildup and Interference test. The resulting curves were interpreted using the best fit method. The considered integrated approach using mathematical simulation and well test analysis allowed us to confirm the presence of a zone with reduced permeability (assumed by the results of the development analysis) between the studied wells.

Based on the study of a hypothetical field, diagnostic features are formulated to identify the bypassed areas saturated with oil using mathematical modeling and well test analysis. They allow to verify the filtration model and to recommend drilling infill wells or sidetracks to recover the remaining oil reserves.

References

1. Betelin V.B., Yudin V.A., Afanaskin I.V., Sozdanie otechestvennogo termogidrosimulyatora neobkhodimyy etap osvoeniya netraditsionnykh zalezhey uglevodorodov Rossii (The creation of a domestic thermohydrosimulator is a necessary stage in the development of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits in Russia), Moscow: Publ. of Research Institute for System Studies of the RAS, 2015, 206 p.

2. Surguchev M.L., Zheltov Yu.V., Simkin E.M., Fiziko-khimicheskie mikroprotsessy v neftegazonosnykh plastakh (Physical and chemical microprocesses in the oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 215 p.

3. Entov V.M., Pankov V.M., Pan'ko S.V., Matematicheskaya teoriya tselikov ostatochnoy vyazkoplastichnoy nefti (The mathematical theory of the pillars of residual viscoplastic oil), Tomsk: Proceedings of Tomsk University, 1989, 193 .

4. Mikhaylov N.N., Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabatyvaemykh plastov (Residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992, 270 p.

5. CMG users guide, Calgary: Computer Modelling Groupe LTD, 2018.

6. Houze O., Viturat D., Fjaere O.S., Dynamic data analysis, Kappa Engineering, 2017, V. 512, 743 p.

7. Kul'pin L.G., Myasnikov Yu.A., Gidrodinamicheskie metody issledovaniya neftegazovodonosnykh plastov (Hydrodynamic study of oil-gas-water-bearing strata), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 200 p.

8. Earlougher R.C. Jr., Advances in well test analysis, SPE Monograph Series, 1977, V. 5., 264 p.

9. Bourdet D., Well test analysis: The use of advanced interpretation models, Elsevier, 2002, 436 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-54-57

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622.276.1/.4(571.1)
D.I. Chuikina (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk), T.V. Petrenko (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk), L.D. Stakhina (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk), L.K. Altunina (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk), D.V. Andreev (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Studying the effect of improved and enhanced oil recovery methods on the composition and stability of oil from the Usinskoye oil field

Keywords: heavy oil, intensification of oil field development, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), systems, new technology, composition, stability, spectrophotometry

Technogenic impact on reservoir oil, which consists in the use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods could result in an interaction between reservoir fluids and injected liquids. The effect of oil-displacing and sol-forming EOR systems on the composition, properties, and stability of extracted oil is investigated in the case of heavy bituminous oil from the Usinskoye oil field. The results of investigation of the group chemical composition of oil samples are presented. It has been found out that the systems have different effects on the chemical composition of the oil. A change in the composition during the extraction with time has been established, which becomes the most noticeable after 1.5-2 months after the injection of oil-displacing systems. In this case, an increase in the content of oil components by 3-5%, a decrease in resin-asphaltene substances, and changes in the ratio of resins to asphaltenes are observed. The oil stability largely depends on changes in its composition, pressure and temperature. The oil stability was estimated via spectrophotometry. The results of the determination of various spectral characteristics of oil in the visible region via electron spectroscopy are presented. It has been found out that the aggregate stability of oil is significantly affected by aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons, and heavy high-molecular components (asphaltenes and resins). The relationship between the content of resin-asphaltene substances and oil stability is shown. The effect of oil-displacing and sol-forming compositions on the stability of oil to asphaltene precipitation is studied. The most effect on the stability of oil has been provided by oil-displacing systems containing surfactants. Control of changes in the composition and properties of the extracted oil allowed us to explain the mechanism of action of new technologies in a heterogeneous carbonate reservoir.

References

1. Ganeeva Yu.M., Yusupova T.N., Romanov G.V. et al., Monitoring the development of carbonate reservoir by observing the changes in the composition and properties of the produced oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 6467.

2. Chuykina D.I., Stakhina L.D., Serebrennikova O.V., Change of the composition of heavy oil from the Usinsk Deposit (Republic of Komi) under the action of oil-sweeping compositions (In Russ.), Khimiya v interesakh ustoychivogo razvitiya, 2016, V. 24, pp. 8187.

3. Serebrennikova O.V., Sherstyuk S.N., Stakhina L.D., Kadychagov P.B., Izmenenie sostava i svoystv vysokovyazkoy nefti pri vozdeystvii kompozitsiy dlya uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plasta (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2010, V. 317, no. 3, pp. 122125.

4. Mukhamedzyanova A.A., Influence of oil resins on the stability of model dispersion systems asphaltenes + N-heptane (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2010, V. 15, no. 2, pp. 312314.

5. Hirschberg A., deJong L.N.J., Schipper B.A., Meijers J.G., Influence of temperature and pressure on asphaltene flocculation, SPE-11202-PA, 1984.

6. Hong E., Watkinson A.P., A study of asphaltene solubility and precipitation, Fuel, 2004, V.83, pp. 18811887.

7. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields (In Russ.), Uspekhi khimii = Russian Chemical Reviews, 2007, V. 76, no. 10, pp. 10341052.

8. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Thermotropic inorganic gels for enhanced oil recovery, Progress in Oilfield Chemistry, 2011, V. 9, pp. 165178.

9. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Kuvshinov I.V. et al., Physical-chemical and complex EOR/IOR technologies for the Permian-Carboniferous deposit of heavy oil of the Usinskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2017, no. 7, pp. 2629.

10. Antipenko V.R., Petrenko T.V., Bakanova O.S., Ogorodnikov V.D., Relationship of specific absorption factor of oil, natural bitumen and their components in visible spectral region with the parameters of their compositions (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov, 2016, V. 327., no. 6, pp. 45 54.

11. Rogacheva O.V., Gimaev R.N., Gubaydullin V.Z., Khakimov D.K., Study of the surface activity of asphaltenes of oil systems (In Russ.), Kolloidnyy zhurnal, 1980, V. 42, pp. 586589 .

12. Speight J.G., Petroleum asphaltenes, Part 2. The effect of asphaltenes and resin constituents on recovery and refining processes, Oil and Gas Science and Technology, 2004, V. 59, no. 5, pp. 479488.

13. Leontaritis K.J., Asphaltene deposition: a comprehensive description of problem manifestations and modeling approaches, SPE-18892-MS, 1989.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-58-61

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622.276.1/.4(470.5)
S.M. Durkin (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta), I.N. Menshikova (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta), L.M. Rusin (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta), A.A. Terentiev (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
Expierence of development of the Liael area of Yaregskoye heavy oil field using different technologies

Keywords: high-viscosity oil, numerical modeling, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD)

This article shows the experience of the Yaregskoye field development. Consistently, the creation of a geological model of the Lyael area of the Yaregskoye deposit in the RMS Roxar software complex is considered. And also a description of the hydrodynamic model of the experimental site OPU-5, where the SAGD technology is used. Currently, the site under consideration is characterized by the largest volumes of accumulated fishing information, which served as the basis for the adaptation of the model to the history of development, as well as for performing further numerical experiments. For a detailed study of the dynamics of current development indicators, the article presents simulation results for one of five pairs of wells in the experimental site. Based on the results of tracer studies, a selection of the absolute permeability multiplier was carried out using the tool for automated adaptation to CMG's CMOST development and optimization history. The results of solving the inverse problem allowed us to develop recommendations for further research. Also, when visualizing the temperature distribution, the model identified high temperature zones on one of the side faces, which indicates a high probability of the coolant leaving the OPU-5 area. Thus, thanks to the solution of the inverse problem, it is established that fluid filtration occurs predominantly in high-permeability zones. Adaptation of sector models to the history of development is a complex task and requires mandatory consideration of fluid filtration through the side surfaces of the model in complex-built reservoirs for the possibility of simulating steam leaks.

References

1. Ruzin L.M., Chuprov I.F., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., Tekhnologicheskie printsipy razrabotki zalezhey anomal'no vyazkikh neftey i bitumov (Technological principles of development of deposits of abnormally viscous oil and bitumen), Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2015, 476 p.

2. Patent 4344485 A US, Method for continuously producing viscous hydrocarbons by gravity drainage while injecting heated fluids, Inventor: Butler R.M.

3. Matusevich G.V., Kol'tsov E.V., Dostizheniya i slozhnosti pri realizatsii proekta SAGD na Yaregskom mestorozhdenii Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii (Achievements and difficulties in the implementation of the SAGD project at the Yaregskoye field of the Timan-Pechora province), Proceedings of Scientific and Technical Conference dedicated to the 60th anniversary of TatNIPIneft, 13-14 April 2016, Naberezhnye Chelny: Publ. of Ekspozitsiya Neft Gaz, 2016, pp. 196203.

4. Gerasimov I.V., Kol'tsov E.V., Yarega: sostoyanie razrabotki mestorozhdeniya (Yarega: state of field development), Proceedings of Scientific and Technical Conference dedicated to the 60th anniversary of TatNIPIneft, 13-14 April 2016, Naberezhnye Chelny: Publ. of Ekspozitsiya Neft Gaz, 2016, pp. 203204.

5. Zakrevskiy K.E., Geologicheskoe 3D modelirovanie (3D geological modeling), Moscow: Publ of IPTs Maska, 2009, 376 p.

6. Durkin S.M., Men'shikova, I.N. Terent'ev A.A., Simulation parameters of heavy oil deposits development (In Russ.), Oil & Gas Journal Russia, 2017, no. 7, pp. 4246.

7. Durkin S.M., Men'shikova I.N., Reshenie obratnykh zadach pri chislennom modelirovanii mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Inverse solution in the numerical simulation of hydrocarbon deposits), Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2017, 60 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-10-62-67

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622.276.66.001.57
E.V. Zenchenko (Institute of Geosphere Dynamics RAS, RF, Moscow), M.A. Trimonova (Institute of Geosphere Dynamics RAS, RF, Moscow), S.B. Turuntaev (Institute of Geosphere Dynamics RAS, RF, Moscow)
Laboratory modeling of hydraulic fracturing and related processes

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, laboratory modelling, fracture reorientation, refracturing

The article describes the results of laboratory experiments conducted on a unique setup, which allows to model not only the process of hydraulic fracturing, but also to vary the external conditions. The advantages of the setup include the ability to model such tasks: reorientation of a hydraulic fracture due to the stress state changes caused by the development of the field; the formation of unstable fractures in the injection wells; verification of hydraulic fracturing simulators used in oil producing companies. The setup allows to study large samples (0.43 m in diameter, 0.07 m in height). It is possible to place in the sample not only a model well with fracturing, but also adjacent wells. Thus, we can model part of the development system and its effect on hydraulic fracture propagation. Also, a non-uniform three-dimensional stress-strain state which largely determines the geometry of the fracture can be created with the setup. The experiments were aimed at the study of the problems described above. It was found that the pore pressure distribution created by the development of neighboring wells can actually influence the fracture trajectory. Also, the influence of existing fractures on the propagation of a new fracture was established. In addition, in the experiment it was possible to obtain a refracture. The presented experimental results allow a better understanding of the formation of real hydraulic fracturing, which should be taken into account in the numerical simulation.

References

1. Liu H., Lan Z., Zhang G. et al., Evaluation of refracture reorientation in both laboratory and field scales, SPE-112445-MS, 2008.

2. Elbel J.L., Mack M.G., Refracturing: Observations and theories, SPE-25464-MS, 1993.

3. Berchenko I., Detournay E., Deviation of hydraulic fractures through poroelastic stress changes induced by injection and pumping, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 1997, V. 34, no. 6, pp. 10091019.

4. Andreev A.A., Galybin A.N., Izvekov O.Y., Application of complex SIE method for the prediction of hydrofracture path, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 2015, V. 50, pp. 133140.

5. Hagoort J., Weatheril B.D., Settari A., Modeling the propagation of waterflood-induced hydraulic fractures, SPE-7412-PA, 1980.

6. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Usmanov T.S., Stepanova Z.Yu., Special well tests to fractured water injection wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 6575, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Baikov/Baikov_1.pdf

7. Pater de C.J., Cleary M.P., Quinn T.S., Experimental verification of dimensional analysis for hydraulic fracturing, SPE-24994-PA, 1994.

8. Trimonova M., Baryshnikov N., Zenchenko E. et al., The study of the unstable fracure propagation in the injection well: Numerical and laboratory modeling,

SPE-187822-MS, 2017.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-68-71

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622.276.1/.4:553.98..
I.I. Rodionova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), M.A. Shabalin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.A. Mironenko (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), G.I. Khabibullin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Field development plan and well completion system optimization for ultra-tight and ultra-heterogeneous oil reservoirs

Keywords: multi-variant simulation, geological and technological uncertainty, history matching, probability, tight formation, production forecast, enhanced oil recovery, horizontal wells, multistage hydraulic fracturing

The paper presents an approach to a development of hard-to-recover reserves using horizontal wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing and modified development systems. In order to minimize the risks of drilling and optimize development plan, a systematic integrated approach is used, which includes analysis of geological and geophysical information (including special tests), interpretation of seismic data, analysis of actual production, construction of geological and hydrodynamic models using detailed lithological and facies analysis. Feature of this approach is that this work is carried out on an ongoing basis and adjusted to new incoming information.

For Achimov and Tyumen formations are characterized by high lithological-facies heterogeneity and difficulty of forecasting technological indicators shows design approaches and the results of scientific-engineering support of pilot projects. Multiple simulation of optimal system development for specific areas with the involvement of 3D hydrodynamic simulations showed that the systems of the horizontal and vertical wells 1:2 (base case) and horizontal injection wells for weak connecting sublayers are the best. Spacing between producer and injection rows is recommended to tight up to 200 m for oil thicknesses more than 12 m.

Based on simulation study piloting areas were selected. Currently pilot program is under implementation. The first results of experimental works confirm an efficiency of selected decisions. Successful implementation of pilot assessments leads to retranslate new systems to geological similar analogues.

References

1. Galeev R.R., Zorin A.M., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Optimal waterflood pattern selection with use of multiple fractured horizontal wells for development of the low-permeability formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 6265.

2. Zorin A.M., Usmanov T.S., Kolonskikh A.V. Et al., Operational efficiency improvement in horizontal wells though optimizing the design of multistage hydraulic fracturing at Priobskoye Northern territory (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 122125.

3. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.YA., Khabibullin I.L., Modeling reservoir pressure difference between injection and production wells in low permeable reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 21, no. 3, pp. 537 544.

4. Nurlyev D.R., Rodionova I.I., Viktorov E.P. Et al., Tight reservoir simulation study under geological and technological uncertainty (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 6063.

5. Baykov V.A., Zhdanov R.M., Mullagaliev T.I., Usmanov T.S., Selecting the optimal system design for the fields with low-permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 8497.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-72-76

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622.276.1/.4.04
O.Ya. Sochnev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), K.A. Kornishin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), P.A. Tarasov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), Ya.O. Efimov (Arctic research and design center for offshore technology, RF, Moscow), Yu.P. Gudoshnikov (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint Petersburg), A.V. Nesterov (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint Petersburg), I.V. Buzin (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint Petersburg), I.A. Svistunov (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint Petersburg), P.V. Maksimova (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint Petersburg)
Special aspects of iceberg towing in early ice conditions for arctic shelf development

Keywords: iceberg, towing, ice, technology

This article continues a series of scientific publications on results of iceberg defense research carried out by Rosneft Oil Company in 2016-2017 in the seas of Russian Arctic. The work describes unique experience of iceberg towing in conditions of newly formed sea ice. For the first time ever, feasibility of such operations was confirmed on practice with measurement of all iceberg movement parameters. Towing was carried out by the Novorossiysk diesel icebreaker in ice with concentration of up to 8 of 10 points and thickness of up to 15 cm. In the area of the Franz Josef Land archipelago, an ultra-long 24-hour iceberg towing for more than 90 km was successfully carried out. The paper describes operating conditions of the experiments, determines the icebergs towing force on speed dependence, and also identifies the technological aspects of towing in ice. Based on experiments, optimal tactics for towing icebergs of different sizes under conditions of early ice formation with the means of icebreaking fleet are proposed. Obtained experimental data allow to solve the problem of iceberg towing in the beginning of ice formation, which is extremely important for extension of the drilling season. Results can be used for development of new and update of existing standards of ice management system, as well as for effective and safe development of the Arctic shelf.

References

1. Pashali A.A., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Iceberg towing as a technology for its drift change to ensure safe Arctic development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 11, pp. 3640.

2. Pavlov V.A. Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Experience in monitoring and sizing up of icebergs and ice features in the south-western part of Kara Sea during 2012-2017 (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 8287.

3. Eik K., Review of experiences within ice and iceberg management, Journal of Navigation, 2008, V. 61, pp. 557 572, DOI: 10.1017/S0373463308004839.

4. McClintock J., Bullock T., McKenna R. et al., Greenland iceberg management: implications for grand banks management systems, PERD/CHC Report, 2002.

5. Grand Banks Iceberg Management, PERD/CHC Report, 2007.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-78-81

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622.276.53.054.23:621.67-83
A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), V.A. Bondarenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), M.M. Veliev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), E.V. Kudin (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), E.N. Grishchenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Test and application of electrical submersible pump units at White Tiger field

Keywords: electrical submersible pump (ESP) unit, artificial lift, watercut, time between failures, well production, gas saturated liquid, pilot test

Optimization of artificial oil lifting is the main objective to efficiently develop White Tiger field. Complex geotechnical conditions of the White Tiger zones development require pilot testing of various artificial lift methods in order to justify their effective application areas, as well as the analysis of the downhole equipment and selection of its best configuration, before the technical and process decisions are made.

Wide application of downhole centrifugal pumps with electric drive is caused by many factors. Having high amount of fluid withdrawal, the electrical submersible pump units are more economically efficient and less time-consuming during maintenance, comparing to compressor production or lifting by other types of pumps. The units power consumption under the high drainage is relatively low as well. ESPs require less space for surface equipment comparing to hydraulic pumps, which is crucial for the offshore fixed platform.

Gaslift is the main artificial lifting method at White Tiger field. However, delay in construction of gaslift cycle led to pilot tests of hydraulic pumps in 1988 and electric submersible pumps in 1991, in order to identify their application range on White Tiger field. Objective of testing and implementing the ESPs was to determine their application area during gas-saturated oil production from deep wells, with fluid temperature of 110130 .

The article covers the history of production using electrical submersible pumps at White Tiger field and insufficient reliability of REDA pump units, operated in Lower Miocene wells.

References

1. Printsipial'naya tekhnologicheskaya skhema sbora, podgotovki i vneshnego transporta do KPN nefti i gaza severnogo i yuzhnogo svodov mestorozhdeniya Belyy Tigr (The basic technological scheme of collection, preparation and external transport to the CIT of oil and gas of the northern and southern arches of the White Tiger field), Moscow: Publ. of VNIPImorneftegaz, 1989, 144 p.

2. Bondarenko V.A., Ivanov A.N., Kudin E.V., Veliev M.M., Experience of testing the hydraulic piston pumps in White Tiger wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 3, pp. 9295.

3. Bogdanov A.A., ESP and the effectiveness of their use for oil production (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1992, no. 12, pp. 110.

4. Sal'manov R.G., Application of gas separator to ESP (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1983, no. 5, pp. 89.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-82-86

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622.276.65.05
O.Yu. Elagina (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.N. Ageev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.G. Buklakov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Some aspects of heat-insulating materials application on systems of oil fields steam pipelines

Keywords: energy efficiency of formation heating, minimizing heat losses, high-viscosity oil fields, thermal insulation materials

Energy efficiency of formation heating at high-viscosity oil fields under development using steam injection is largely determined by minimizing heat losses during his transportation from the steam generator up to the wellhead. The use of superheated steam with temperatures in the range of 250300 C places increased demands on the thermal insulation material and makes the issue of its choice relevant. The most common and relatively cheap material used for insulating steam lines is glass staple fiber. However, its use has a number of limitations.

The article presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the use of staple fiber in various sections of steam pipelines. Evaluation of the effectiveness of thermal protection of steam pipelines of the steam injection system in the well was carried out by thermal imaging. The purpose of the measurements was to assess the reduction in the temperature of the steam line, depending on the distance of the injection wells from the place of steam generation and the conditions of its transportation. The analysis of the obtained data shows that the maximum decrease in the steam temperature occurs in the areas from the steam generation unit to the output combs. Further advance of steam on stationary steam pipelines with industrial thermal insulation practically does not give temperature decrease. It follows that in order to reduce heat loss in sections of steam pipelines with a temperature of 250280 , it is necessary to use materials with higher thermal insulation properties than staple fiber. The selection of such materials was carried out in the work. Based on the data on the value of the thermal conductivity coefficient of the considered types of thermal insulation, an approximate calculation of the required thickness of the thermal insulation layer for the steam pipe with a diameter of 86 mm was carried out. To assess the possibility of ensuring the economic efficiency of staple fiber replacement, the calculation of thermal loss reduction for various thermal insulation materials was performed. The conducted researches have shown possibility of application for thermal insulation of steam pipelines of such materials as basalt wool, foam-glass, aerogel, aluminosilicate fiber, silica materials which big advantage is possibility of production from them of covers for shaped elements of pipelines on which surface there are the greatest losses of heat.

References

1. Bazukova E.R., Van'kov Yu.V., The heat losses of steam lines in the deterioration of insulation properties in process of using (In Russ.), Inzhenernyy vestnik Dona, 2015, no. 3, URL: http://www.ivdon.ru/uploads/article/pdf/IVD_195_bazukova_vankov.pdf_884c547c9d.pdf

2. Gutnikov S.I., Lazoryak B.I., Seleznev A.N., Steklyannye volokna (Glass fibers), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2010, 53 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-87-89

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622.276.55
D.G. Zakirov (Mining Institute, Ural Branch of RAS, RF, Perm), M.A. Mukhamedshin (Perm Regional Center of Energy Efficiency LLC, RF, Perm), G.D. Zakirov (Project Center PNRPU-Oil, RF, Perm), R.A. Fayzrakhmanov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), A.N. Nikolaev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), A.A. Ryumkin (Uralkali PJSC, RF, Berezniki)
Problems and ways to improve energy efficiency, environmental performance and energy consumption of oil mining

Keywords: field, production, energy saving potential, fuel and energy resources, secondary energy resources, utilization, modernization, optimization, measures, energy resources, energy intensity, energy efficiency

The article describes in brief the history Yaregskoye field development. The authors consider oil properties, existing problems in the oil production by mining method and methods for solving these problems. Systematic integrated approach is proposed to solve technical and environmental problems through the use of system analysis, study of the dynamics and optimization of energy balances, mathematical modeling of the processes of converting the energy of secondary thermal resources into environmentally friendly thermal energy. The results of the research aimed at solving the energy and environmental problems of oil mining, improving energy efficiency and reducing the energy intensity of production. The use of secondary energy resources and utilization of low-grade heat are discussed. The article presents a generalized model of energy saving and greening of oil mines. It is substantiated the need to develop a scientific basis for creation of technologies for the use of low-grade heat of liquid contaminated waste and ventilation emissions in the mining method of heavy oil production and production of environmentally friendly heat energy for heat supply. The results of the energy survey of oil mine facilities are given. The advantages of the proposed technical solutions are shown. Implementation of these solutions allows reducing costs and improving the efficiency of production processes in the specific conditions of the mines Yarega town.

References

1. Naruzhnyy E., Pearl of the North. Thermal mine method of extraction of high viscosity oil (In Russ.), TekhNADZOR, 2010, no. 7(44).

2. Zakirov D.G., Krasnoshteyn A.E., Energy and environmental problems of the development of the coal industry and their solutions (In Russ.), Ugol', 2009, no. 6, pp. 6973.

3. Zakirov D.G., Zakirov D.D., Mukhamedshin M.A., Scientific and methodological foundations for the development of programs for improving energy efficiency and energy saving of coal enterprises based on energy surveys (In Russ.), Ugol', 2010, no. 3, pp. 6668.

4. Zakirov D.G., Gulyaev V.E., Mukhamedov I.G., Zakirov G.D., Perspektivy ispol'zovaniya nizkopotentsial'nogo tepla vtorichnykh energeticheskikh resursov dlya tseley teplosnabzheniya predpriyatiya (Prospects for the use of low-grade heat of secondary energy resources for the purposes of heat supply enterprises), Proceedings of Interregional conference Zakonodatel'stvo o teplosnabzhenii, puti resheniya energoeffektivnosti teploenergetiki. Novye energoresursosberegayushchie tekhnologii i oborudovanie (Legislation on heat supply, solutions to the energy efficiency of heat and power engineering. New energy-saving technologies and equipment), Perm, 1920 November 2010.

5. Zakirov D.G., Innovative solutions to improve the energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of the coal industry (In Russ.), Ugol', 2011, no. 4, pp. 7375.

6. Zakirov D.G., Development of scientific and methodological basis for improving energy efficiency in the coal industry (In Russ.), Ugol', 2011, no. 10, pp. 4345.

7. Patent no. 2476798, Heat-exchange device for cooling of shaft ventilation stream, Inventors: Zakirov D.G., Borinskikh I.I., Zakirov G.D., Mukhamedshin M.A., Gulyaev V.E., Kuznetsov S.A.

8. Zakirov D.G., Teplovye nasosy teplotransformatory na sluzhbe ekologii i energoefffektivnosti (Heat pumps heat transformers in the service of ecology and energy efficiency), Perm: Garmoniya Publ., 2014, 424 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-90-93

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622.276.8
V.S. Vovk (Gazprom Neft Shelf LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.M. Zaichenko (Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS, RF, Moscow), A.U. Krylova (Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS, RF, Moscow)
New direction of associated petroleum gas utilization

Keywords: associated petroleum gas, flare combustion, pyrolysis

The methods of utilization of associated petroleum gas (such as injection into treservoir, generation of electric energy, chemical processing) are considered. It was noted that injection into the reservoir does not allow to utilize associated gas, but only delays the problem for a while. Energy generation is justified in cases where the sources of electricity are necessary to ensure the operation of the oil fields. Chemical processing of associated gas is the most promising method for its utilization. Chemical processing methods such as fractionation followed by refinement of products, production of methanol and / or synthetic oil are considered. It is concluded that associated gas processing of can be implemented using closed technological cycles with the production of synthetic oil. The most promising method is conversion of associated gas into hydrocarbon products enriched with aromatic compounds. This method is preferable over the Fischer Tropsch synthesis, since the aromatic synthetic oil is easily mixed with crude oil, and can be transported by pipeline. Thermal decomposition technology to produce hydrogen and pyrocarbon can also be included in the general of associated petroleum gas processing cycle. Pyrocarbon is a compact commodity product that does not require special storage and transportation conditions. Hydrogen is used to produce electricity.

References

1. Zhizhin M., NOAA. Cooperative institute for research in environmental sciences, URL: https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/ Paper/138796

2. Poputnyy neftyanoy gaz i problema ego utilizatsii (Associated petroleum gas and the problem of its disposal), URL: http://novostienergetiki.ru/poputnyj-neftyanoj-gaz-i-problema-ego-utilizacii/

3. Reshenie problemy szhiganiya poputnogo neftyanogo gaza (Solving the problem of flaring associated petroleum gas), URL: https://neftegaz.ru/science/view/ 1372-Reshenie-problemy-szhiganiya-poputnogo-neftyanogo-gaza

4. Anastas P.T., Warner J.C., Green chemistry: Theory and practice, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 30.

5. Popov R.G., Shpilrain E.E., Zaichenko V.M., Natural gas pyrolysis in regenerative gas heater, Part I: Natural gas thermal decomposition on heat saving matrix of regenerative gas heater, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1999, V. 24, pp. 327334.

6. Al'-Bermani A.G., The creation of hydrogen energy technologies (In Russ.), Molodoy uchenyy, 2014, no. 18, pp. 217219, URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/ 77/13321/

7. Novoselov S.V., Vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya vodoroda v kachestve topliva dvigateley vnutrennego sgoraniya (Possibilities of using hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines), URL: http://elib.altstu.ru/elib/books/Files/ va2000_2/pages/14/14.htm

8. Associated petroleum gas flaring study for Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan, Carbon limits AS report, 2011, URL: https://www.ebrd.com/downloads/sector/sei/ap-gas-flaring-study-final-report.pdf

9. Metkar A.P., Shinde V.V., Design of injector for hydrogen operated S.I. engine, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 2017, V. 8, no. 4, URL: https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/Design-of-Injector-for-Hydrogen-Operated-S-I-Engine.pdf

10. Antunes J.M. Gomes, Mikalsen R., Roskilly A.P., An experimental study of a direct injection compression ignition hydrogen engine, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2009, V. 34, no. 15, pp. 65166522, URL: http://www.mikalsen.eu/papers/hydrogenDI.pdf

11. Petrov A.E., Tsyplakov A.I., Zaichenko V.M., Piston engine on pure hydrogen, Proceedings of XXXII International Conference on Interaction of Intense Energy Fluxes with Matter, March 16, 2017, Elbrus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-94-97

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608.2:622.276
E.I. Gromakov (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), T.E. Mamonova (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), A.V. Liepinsh (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), A.N. Rymshin (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk)
Development of perspective automation in the oil and gas industry

Keywords: evolutionary development of automation, oil and gas industry, Industry 4, cyber- physical systems, digitalization, plant wide control, multi-agent systems, sensor-networks

Currently, an obvious trend in the development of automated production control systems in the oil and gas industry (industry) is the introduction of digitalization of technological processes and production within the framework of the new industrial revolution Industry 4. The article analyzes the possible ways of digital (cyberphysical) transformation of automated process control systems for the oil and gas industry. Evolutionary development of automation systems in the production of industries can proceed within the framework of various roadmaps which depend on the degree of development of automation in production, as well as on financial support and strategic objectives of the management company.

The initial levels of development of the current automation of various productions of industries differ significantly. Based on the features of the oil and gas industry, it is proposed to allocate two blocks of production, automation of which currently has an established level of development: the block of oil and gas production, preparation and transportation and the block of oil and gas processing and petrochemicals. Automation of technological processes of the first block of productions is characterized by the simplest automation, absence of introductions of the automated systems of the improved management. For such productions it is not necessary to force transition to industry 4 technologies. The strategy of introduction of modern automation systems should be carried out by sequential change of field "wired" automation by autonomous sensor networks using the simplest control algorithms with forecasting based on digital asset models.

In the oil and gas industry for digitalization of productions within the Industry 4 paradigm petrochemical, oil refining productions are the most prepared. These enterprises have already implemented APC and MPC automation systems. It is recommended to carry out further development of automation on these productions by evolutionary introduction of the Internet of things (IOT), intelligent agents, virtual layers of cyberphysical systems, virtual agents with model forecasting of dynamics of key processes of hotel assets and technological processes in General with management in real and event time. Digitalization on the basis of autonomous sensor networks of cyber-physical systems will allow to increase efficiency of operation of physical assets of industries due to their technological self-organization at performance of the established plans and tasks.

The proposed sequence of levels of milestone evolutionary development of digitalization of technological processes will allow any large industry company to form roadmaps of automation development for various industries until 2023.

References

1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Martynov V.G., Abukova L.A., Eremin N.A., Digitalization and intellectualization of oil and gas deposits (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya i IT v neftegazovoy oblasti, 2016, no. 2 (24), pp. 1319.

2. URL: http://oilandgasforum.ru/data/files/Digest%20site/DAIDJEST%20 WEB2.pdf

3. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., The innovative potential of the smart oil and gas technologies (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2016, no.1, pp. 49.

4. NIST Special Publication 1500-201, Framework for cyber-physical systems, 2017, June, V. 1, 79 .

5. NIST Special Publication 1500-202, Framework for cyber-physical systems, 2017, June, V. 2, 163 .

6. FIPA 2000 Specifications. Geneva, Switzerland, Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents, 2002, URL: http://www.fipa.org/repository/fipa2000.html

7. Tsvetkov V.Ya., Control with the use of cyber-physical systems (In Russ.), International Scientific Electronic Journal, 2017, no. 3(27), pp. 5560.

8. Jay L., Behrad B., Kao Hung-An, A cyber-physical systems architecture for Industry 4.0-based manufacturing systems, Manufacturing Letters, no. 3, pp. 1823, doi:10.1016/j.mfglet.2014.12.001

9. Yuan X., Anumba C.J., Partt K.M., Review of the potential for a cyber-physical system approach to temporary structures monitoring, Int. J. Archit. Res., 2015, V. 9, no. 3, pp. 2644.

10. Krizhanovskiy A.A., Voprosy realizatsii problemno-orientirovannykh agentov integratsii znaniy (Issues of implementation of problem-oriented knowledge integration agents), Proceedings of SPIIRAN, 2003, V. 1, no. 3.

11. EUPASS Adaptive Assembly Roadmap 2015-deliverable 1.5f"; Del. 1.5f, EUPAS-SEvolvable Ultra Precision Assembly, NMP-2-CT-2004-507978, October 2008.

12. Onori M., Barata J., Durand F., Hoos J., Evolvable Assembly Systems: entering the second generation, Proceedings of the 4th CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems, 2012, pp. 8184.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-98-102

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622.692.4
A.G. Akhmadeev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Pham Thanh Vinh (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Chau Nhat Bang (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.I. Mikhailov (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Optimal gathering and transportation assurance of well production of small offshore oilfields

Keywords: oil treatment and transportation, high-paraffin oil, offshore field, marine stationary platform, wellhead platform, floating storage and offloading unit, product pumpless transportation

Nowadays, Vietnam offshore consists of many structures with relatively poor recoverable reserves. Development of these structures by stand-alone facilities for production, treatment, reservoir pressure maintenance and exportation is often unprofitable. The article covers the examples that ensure profitability of small offshore fields by tying in to the existing oil-and-gas production infrastructure. Continuously developed fields, after their production peak, have excess capacity for oil-and-gas treatment, reservoir pressure maintenance and compressing, which require high upkeep operational costs. Hook-up of small fields production may prolong their profitability. Assurance of safe pipeline transportation and treatment of small fields production is very important, especially for Vietnam offshore paraffin oil with high pour point. Based on major experience, Vietsovpetro has developed and implemented the methods to optimize the transportation, including the technology of oil treatment with pour point depressant, dissolution of high-paraffin oil with low-viscous thinning agents, oil transportation in gas-saturated and gas-liquid conditions, heat insulators and technology of subsea pipeline cleaning. These actions resulted in successful hook-up of five small fields and developing the technology to tie-in two more prospects. Transportation technologies and methods developed and applied in Vietsovpetro, as well as adaptation of the existing oil-and-gas field gathering systems assure safe and continuous operation of small fields at the lowest costs.

References

1. Nguyen Thu Khang et al., Razvitie sistemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i gaza v SP V'etsovpetro s uchetom podklyucheniya marginal'nykh mestorozhdeniy (Development of a system for collecting, preparing and transporting oil and gas in the Vietsovpetro JV, taking into account the connection of marginal deposits), Proceedings of scientific conference on the 35th anniversary of the creation of Vietsovpetro JV, Vung Tau, 2016, p. 30.

2. Akhmadeev A.G., Avdeev A.S., Laybold S.A., Ivanov S.A., Design concept for the offshore fields facilities construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 98101.

3. Akhmadeev A.G., Tong Canh Son, Ivanov S.A., Comprehensive approach to provide high-paraffin oil transportation from the offshore fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 6, pp. 100103.

4. Nguyen Thu Khang et al., Transport vysokoparafinistykh neftey mestorozhdeniya Yuzhnyy Drakon Doy Moy s nizkoy proizvoditel'nost'yu (Transportation of high-paraffin oils of the South Dragon - Doi Moi field with low productivity), Proceedings of Oil and Gas Forum Problemy i metody obespecheniya nadezhnosti i bezopasnosti sistem transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Problems and methods for ensuring the reliability and safety of oil, oil products and gas transport systems), Ufa, 2011, pp. 114115.

5. Akhmadeev A.G., Pham Thanh Vinh, Le Dang Tam, Implementation of adaptive gathering systems as the method to optimize oil transportation at offshore field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 2, pp. 7881.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-104-107

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622.692.4
A.A. Korshak (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), M.T. Gaisin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Pshenin (Saint-Petersburg Mining University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Method of structural minimization of the average risk for identification of mass transfer of evaporating oil at tanker loading

Keywords: tanker, evaporation losses, oil loading operations, mass transfer, parameter identification problem

Many complex technical systems are characterized by such properties as nonlinearity, non-equilibrium, stochasticity. The nature of this should be sought in the complex interaction of the constituent elements of such systems. To date, a number of scientific approaches have been developed that allow us to correctly describe such systems or to obtain some reasonable estimates of the main parameters. This paper shows how the use of one of these approaches (structural risk minimization) can be effectively used to identify the parameters of the evaporation process in the course of loading oil into tankers.

Despite the good knowledge of oil evaporation processes, in the case of tanker loading, the usual models face insurmountable difficulties. Deterministic models based on the solution of the system of equations of diffusion, heat and mass transfer, and gas dynamics are very complex in numerical implementation, and demanding on the accuracy and completeness of the original data. Stochastic, based on criterion equations of mass transfer, models need a reliable basis from numerous experimental studies. It should be taken into account here that under the operating conditions of the offshore oil terminals, most of the parameters characterizing the process of oil evaporation during loading are not controlled by the automation systems of tankers and berthing facilities. Thus, there is no reliable source of information about the characteristics of the process under study. Find a compromise in this case allows the proposed method, which is based not only on the results of regression analysis, but also allows to take into account the complexity of the model.

References

1. Volkodaeva M.V., Kiselev A.V., On development of system for environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta = Journal of Mining Institute, 2017, V. 227, pp. 589596, DOI: 10.25515/PMI.2017.5.589.

2. Sunagatullin R.Z., Korshak A.A., Zyabkin G.V., Current state of vapor recovery when handling oil and oil products (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 5, pp. 210.

3. Vykhodtseva N.A., Kostina E.A., Ukolova E.S., Biomonitoring of the offshore area of kozmino oil port bay in the area of the oil loading terminal of LLC "Spetsmornefteport Kozmino" (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2014, no. 1, pp. 8691.

4. Pshenin V.V., Gaysin M.T., Gas dynamics modeling during tanker loading operations (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal), 2017, no. S28, pp. 312.

5. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Etyudy o modelirovanii slozhnykh system neftedobychi. Nelineynost, neravnovesnost, neodnorodnost (Essays on modeling of complex oil production systems. The nonlinearity, disequilibrium, heterogeneity), Ufa: Gilem Publ., 1999, 464 p.

6. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Modelirovanie protsessov neftegazodobychi. Nelineynost, neravnovesnost, neopredelennost (Modelling of oil and gas production processes. Nonlinearity, disequilibrium, uncertainty), Moscow-Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2004, 368 p.

7. Tikhonov A.N., Arsenin V.Ya., Metody resheniya nekorrektnykh zadach (Methods for solving ill-posed problems), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1974, 223 p.

8. Shtukaturov K.Yu., Ekonomiko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie vybora tekhnologicheskikh rezhimov truboprovoda (Economic and mathematical modeling of the choice of technological modes of the pipeline): thesis of candidate of physical and mathematical science, Ufa, 2004, 129 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-108-111

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622.692./4.004.54
A.S. Tulyakov (RN-Uvatneftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen), R.R. Shigapov (RN-Uvatneftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Automatic inhibitor dosing in a system of field pipelines

Keywords: corrosion inhibitor, chemical dosing unit, corrosion inhibitor automatic feed control

The article describes the development of a method for a rational use of corrosion inhibitors, which enables to reduce fluids corrosive activity in field pipelines. The effectiveness of this method was achieved by developing and implementing an algorithm for automatically controlling corrosion inhibitor feed into field pipelines, depending on the flow rate of fluid from the well pads (oil treatment and pumping facilities, cluster pumping stations, etc.). Chemical dosing is also remotely controlled by an operator, which makes it possible to monitor the equipment remotely and to reduce labor costs for manually adjusting the amount of supplied chemicals. The problems arising during daily operation of field pipelines and oilfield equipment for dosing chemicals, that inspired the authors to look for solution, are briefly examined. While doing the job the authors were challenged to keep implementation costs as low as possible and not to jeopardize the reliability and integrity of field pipelines. As a result, this initiative was implemented and proved effective in the field pipelines inhibition and corrosion monitoring system in the Kalchinskoye field operated by RN-Uvatneftegas LLC. The article contains the formulas used in the algorithm for field pipelines inhibition automated control system. To prove its feasibility, this algorithm was monitored for two years, the expectations were justified. As a result, the systems economic efficiency due to saving corrosion inhibitor was proved.

References

1. RD 39-0147103-324-88, Metodika opredeleniya stepeni zashchity staley ingibitorami ot korrozionno-mekhanicheskogo razrusheniya v serovodorodsoderzhashchikh mineralizovannykh sredakh (Methodology for determining the degree of protection of steel by inhibitors from corrosion-mechanical destruction in hydrogen sulfide-containing mineralized media), Ufa: Publ. of VNIISPTneft', 1989.

2. Azhogin F.F., Korrozionnoe rastreskivanie i zashchita vysokoprochnykh staley (Corrosion cracking and protection of high strength steels), Moscow: Metallyrgiya Publ., 1974, 256 p.

3. Certificate of authorship no. 1810498, 5 E 21 V 43/00, Sposob dozirovaniya reagenta v skvazhinu (Method for metering of chemical agent injected into well), Authors: Safin V.A., Shinkarev S.A., Gaynutdinov A.G. et al.

4. Certificate of authorship no. 1578317, 5 E 21 V 43/00, Ustroystvo dlya dozirovannoy podachi khimicheskogo reagenta v skvazhinu (Device for dosed supply of chemical reagent into the well), Author: Cheryev O.M.

5. Petrov I.V., Programmiruemye kontrollery. Standartnye yazyki i priemy prikladnogo proektirovaniya (Programmable controllers. Standard languages and applied design techniques), Moscow: Solon-Press Publ., 2004, 256 p.

6. Brents A.D. et al., Avtomatizirovannye sistemy upravleniya v neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennosti (Automated control systems in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 233 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-112-113

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502.55:622.276.5.05
M.V. melyanyuk (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Armavir), I.A. akhlyan (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Armavir)
Developing and implementing the technology for cavitation-wave cleaning of radiation contaminated oilfield equipment

Keywords: radiobaryte, scale, oscillatory phenomena, the cavitation generator, hydrodynamic cleaning

One of the problems of the oil and gas complex enterprises is the handling of equipment contaminated with sediments of natural radionuclides. Sources of radioactive contamination are those contained in the earth's crust and brought to the surface of planet as a result of oil production of natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series - thorium, radium and potassium-40, the main component of the deposits is radio barites. There is a need to clean radiation contaminated equipment for subsequent operation or environmentally friendly disposal.

The authors developed a technology for removing various deposits from the surfaces of oilfield equipment. Destruction of solid deposits is carried out by using the energy of the fluid flow supplied to the hydro-jet device a pulsating cavitational flow of collapsing gas-vapor bubbles is generated, hydrodynamic force acting on salt deposits and high-amplitude vibrating microwave. The combined effect provides highly efficient cleaning at lower energy costs compared to conventional high-pressure cleaning. The amplitude-frequency and erosion characteristics of the jet flow are investigated. The substantiation of the profile of the internal channels of the nozzle-cavitators is made, the study of the optimal values of a number of technical and technological parameters of the cleaning process is carried out. A universal high-pressure apparatus was developed, manufactured and tested for the implementation of hydrodynamic cavitation cleaning of radiation-contaminated equipment. In carrying out the research methods of physical experiments, numerical simulation using software systems for hydrodynamics Star CCM+, ANSYS, FlowVision 2.3, analytical and numerical methods for solving problems were used.

There is positive experience in pilot studies and the introduction of equipment and technology for the decontamination and cleaning of tubing, working bodies of electric centrifugal pumps, in the fields of the Stavropol region and in Ukraine.

References

1. Priroda Rossii: Radiatsionnaya bezopasnost' neftegazovogo kompleksa (The nature of Russia: Radiation safety of the oil and gas complex), URL: http://www.priroda.ru/reviews/detail.php?ID=12065

2. Ryzhakov V.N., Krapivskiy E.N., Amosov D.A. et al., Efficient management of sites polluted with natural radionuclides during hydrocarbon production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2002, no. 3, pp. 107110.

3. Kulagin V.A., Metody i sredstva tekhnologicheskoy obrabotki mnogokomponentnykh sred s ispol'zovaniem effektov kavitatsii (Methods and means of technological processing of multicomponent media using cavitation effects): thesis of doctor of technical science, Krasnoyarsk, 2004.

4. Ganiev S.R., Issledovanie i razrabotka energosberegayushchikh tekhnologiy prigotovleniya i gomogenizatsii burovykh i tamponazhnykh rastvorov, osnovannykh na effektakh volnovoy mekhaniki (Research and development of energy-saving technologies for the preparation and homogenization of drilling and cement slurries based on the effects of wave mechanics): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2010.

5. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Decontamination of oilfield equipment from natural radionuclides (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii, 2013, no. 2, pp. 19.

6. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Cleaning of oil-field equipment from saline deposits with natural radionucleids (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2008, no. 2, pp. 23-29.

7. Certificate of official registration of the database no. 2016621297, Database Tekhnika i tekhnologii ochistki neftepromyslovogo oborudovaniya ot otlozheniy (Technique and technology for cleaning oilfield equipment from deposits), Authors: Kazarov G.A., Alad'ev A.P., Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A.

8. Patent no. RU2676071C1, Device for cleaning internal surfaces, Inventors: Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-117-121

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502.6: 622.276.5
.. Soromotin (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), .Yu. Solodovnikov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
Geochemical condition of soils of mature oil fields of the Middle Ob (based of Rodnikovoye oil field example)

Keywords: Rodnikovoye oilfield, soils, geochemical plane, ecological monitoring

The oil extraction is always followed by the influence on all the components of nature including soils. On the one hand we have the mechanical deformation, leading to its hardening and deformation, and transfomations in a whole soil system. On the other hand geochemical changes of soils take place. Any kind of man-made impuct on nature is always followed by its ertain reaction. In such cases the ecological after-effects differ a lot and are always followed by different factors. In soils these changes could be seen through aqua-physical changes, atmosphere pollution, salting and other. These changes are seen because of the provided ecological monitors. In Soviet times these measures were not performed. Rodnikovoye oil field stands among the other oil fields that functions more than 30 years. In this article, the modern geochemical analysis of soils condition is observed. Long-term use didn't affect the geochemical condition of soils. Most of the pollution is made not by the human factor but by the West Siberian natural factors. Soils of Rodnikovoye oil field are poor with microelements. The oil products in soils are on the low pollution rate. Salting also did not observed.

References

1. Soromotin A.M., Khattu A.A., Solodovnikov A.Yu., Rastitel'nost' dlitel'no ekspluatiruemykh mestorozhdeniy (na primere Rodnikovogo mestorozhdeniya) (Vegetation of long-term exploited deposits (on the example of the Rodnikovoye deposit)), Collected papers Voprosy geologii, bureniya i razrabotki neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Surgutskogo regiona (Questions of geology, drilling and development of oil and gas fields in the Surgut region), Proceedings of SurgutNIPIneft', 2005, V. 6, pp. 220232.

2. Nechaeva E.G., Landscape-geochemical zoning of the West Siberian Plain (In Russ.), Geografiya i prirodnye resursy, 1990, no. 4, pp. 7783.

3. Moskovchenko D.V., Ekogeokhimiya neftegazodobyvayushchikh rayonov Zapadnoy Sibiri (Ecogeochemistry of oil and gas regions of Western Siberia), Novosibirsk: Geo Publ., 2013, 259 p.

4. GN 2.1.7.2511-09, Orientirovochno-dopustimye kontsentratsii khimicheskikh veshchestv v pochve (Approximate allowable concentrations of chemical substances in soils), Moscow, 2009.

5. Pikovskiy Yu.I., Prirodnye i tekhnogennye potoki uglevodorodov v okruzhayushchey srede (Natural and man-made hydrocarbon flows in the environment), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1993, 206 p.

6. Moskovchenko D.V., Biogeochemical properties of the high bogs in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Geografiya i prirodnye resursy, 2006, no. 1, pp. 6370.

7. Izerskaya L.A., Vorob'eva T.E., Heavy metal compounds in alluvial soils of the Middle Ob valley (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie, 2000, no. 1, pp. 5662.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-122-125

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629.5: 534.6
B.Yu. Bogdanovich (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RF, Moscow), A.V. Ilyinsky (Institute for Geophysics and Radiation Technologies of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences LLC, RF, Moscow), E.M. Kutuzov (Institute for Geophysics and Radiation Technologies of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences LLC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Nesterovich (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RF, Moscow), V.A. Senyukov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RF, Moscow), A.E. Shikanov (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RF, Moscow), E.A. Shikanov (Spetsavtoengineering LLC, RF, Moscow)
Detection of leaks in underground oil and gas pipelines

Keywords: oil, gas, ultrasound, acoustic influence, tubing, gas control

A method is proposed for remote detection of leaks of productive hydrocarbons from underground main pipelines. The method involves impact on the soil adjacent to the tubing route by the acoustic field of the ultrasonic wave, at which its intensive degassing takes place accompanied by gas evolution from the surface of the earth. In parallel with the process of exposure, a chromatographic analysis of the composition of the released gas is carried out. It is described a device that realizes this method of detecting leaks of productive hydrocarbons associated with local tub damage. The technical solution of the device assumes the presence of an ultrasonic magnetostrictive radiator with power consumption ~ kW and an acoustic waveguide, with which the ultrasonic wave is directed to the earth's surface. A description is given of an ultrasonic radiator based on a magnetostrictor with a toroidal core, made in the form of an assembly of permangled plates. A small-size chromatograph of a batch production can be used in the apparatus complex. Dimensions and weight of the whole equipment complex allows its placement on a Gazel type vehicle. The results of field tests of the proposed method and the equipment that implements it are given. By their results, one can judge the effectiveness of the proposed method and the hardware complex.

References

1. Patent no. RU2308640C1, Method of detecting leakage sites in underground pipeline, Inventors: Shikanov E.A., Il'inskiy A.V., Lobacheva N.G., Titkina T.A.

2. Gulyaev D.N., Lazutkina N.E., Zhuykov Yu.F. et al., Research of ultrasonic treatment of an oil reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 8, pp. 6063.

3. Atamanov V.V., Zhuykov Yu.F., Pryakhin V.N., Shikanov E.A., Automated monitoring of the condition of pipelines in a production agricultural zone (In Russ.), Mekhanizatsiya i elektrifikatsiya sel'skogo khozyaystva, 2008, no. 6, pp. 4142.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-10-126-128

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