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|OIL & GAS COMPANIES|
|OIL & GAS INDUSTRY|
The article deals with the market mechanisms within the framework of the UN Paris Climate Agreement and the chances for the Russian oil industry to participate in them. The author traces the genesis of the new mechanisms and their connection with the market mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol already known to Russian oil companies. The mechanisms of the Paris Agreement are evaluated in terms of the legitimacy of the types of emissions reductions intended for trade in the new world market. The potential reductions that Russian oil companies can deliver to the market are compared with those from competing countries, especially developing countries, in terms of ensuring global net emissions reductions. The details of the negotiation process on development of the modalities of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement are discussed in detail, including the mechanism of paragraph 4 of this article, which forms a system for generating new types of reductions of project origin and schemes for their introduction to the global carbon market. The positions of the parties on the basic parameters of the new project mechanism are analyzed, including approaches to determining the baseline, the duration of the project period, restrictions on the transfer of carbon units, their banking and discounting, as well as possible requirements for the countries participating in the new mechanism. Proposals to add to the list of tradable instruments such as "additional benefits of adaptation", national action plans and economic diversification, and so-called "emissions avoidance" are criticized. A description of the process for the final approval of the modalities of the new mechanism is given. Special attention is paid to forecasting the volume of future demand for emission reductions under the new mechanisms from the leading potential buyers-the EU, the United States, and Japan. Recommendations are given for Russian oil companies on the tactics of their possible actions to promote their cuts to the new world market and to hedge the corresponding risks.
1. Roginko S., Den'gi iz vozdukha (Money out of thin air), URL: https://www.sovsekretno.ru/articles/dengi-iz-vozdukha
2. Paris Agreement, URL: https://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/application/pdf/english_paris_agreement.pdf3. State of the Union Address by President von der Leyen at the European Parliament Plenary, URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/ ov/SPEECH_20_1655
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|IN MEMORY OF OILMAN IN DISTINCTION|
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The Caspian region is one of the first oil and gas-bearing regions where aerospace studies were conducted to study its structure and forecast oil and gas content. The paper describes the relationship between the oil and gas content of the Caspian syneclise and the lithospheric permeability nodes caused by disjunctive tectonics, revealed from satellite images of various levels of generalization. As a rule, disjunctives are reflected in space images in the form of lineaments. The images of different scales clearly show that the earth's crust has a hierarchically block structure. Blocks are limited, as a rule, by lineaments that form regular systems, primarily radial-concentric and planetary. Traditional decryption methods and the LESSA software package (Lineament extraction and statistical analysis) were used.
It is noted that the largest oil and gas fields are statistically confined to lineaments and their intersections, reflecting the nodes of increased permeability of the lithosphere. The hydrocarbon deposits are confined to the intersection points of the lineaments, which also have their own microblock structure. The space image of the Caspian syneclise is a complex radial-concentric system of lineaments, centered in the Tentexor tract. In this paper, the authors propose a geodynamic model of the formation of a radial-concentric system of faults reflected in the lineaments, as a result of the action of a giant "funnel" under the modern Caspian Sea. The relationship between the "nodes" of the intersection of the maxima of planetary fracturing and the inflows and oil in the carbonate reservoirs is considered. The regular frequency of the size and orientation of the blocks allows remote methods to predict the location of hydrocarbon deposits.
1. Orudzheva D.S., Vorob'ev V.T., Romashov A.A., Aerokosmicheskie issledovaniya neftegazonosnykh territoriy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny (Aerospace studies of oil and gas bearing areas of the Caspian basin), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1982, 76 p.
2. Afanas'eva N.S., Bashilov V.I., Bryukhanov V.N. et al., Kosmogeologiya SSSR (Cosmogeology of the USSR): edited by Bryukhanov V.N., Mezhelovskiy N.V., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 239 p.
5. Miloserdova L.V., Blokovoe stroenie zemnoy kory po dannym deshifrirovaniya kosmicheskikh snimkov s pomoshch'yu programmy LESSA (Block structure of the earth's crust according to the interpretation of space images using the LESSA program), Proceedings of 7th All-Russian scientific and technical conference “Aktual'nye problemy sostoyaniya i razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii” (Actual problems of the state and development of the oil and gas complex in Russia), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2007, 109 ð.
6. Koronovskiy N.V., Zlatopol'skiy A.A., Ivanchenko G.N., Automated interpretation of satellite images for structural analysis (In Russ.), Issledovanie Zemli iz kosmosa, 1986, no. 1, pp. 111–118.
7. Miloserdova L.V., Ryabikina E.V., On the method of quantitative study of the orientation of the network of lineaments (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka, 1989, no. 99, ðð. 16–20.
8. Dantsova K.I., Miloserdova L.V., Osipov A.V., Lineament analysis of the results of geological interpretation of the territory of the Caspian basin and the relationship of the nodes of the lineament intersection with oil and gas (In Russ.), Conference proceedings, Geomodel 2020, Sept. 2020, V. 2020, pp. 1–5, DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.3997/2214-4609.202050055.
9. Miloserdova L.V., Sudarikov Yu.A., Vliyanie transregional'nykh i regional'nykh razlomov na sovremennyy oblik Prikaspiya (Influence of trans-regional and regional faults on the modern appearance of the Caspian region), Collected papers “Prikaspiyskiy neftegazovyy kompleks (problemy geologii, razrabotki i bureniya)” (Caspian oil and gas complex (problems of geology, development and drilling)), Alma-Ata: Publ. of KazPI, 1989, 178 ð.
10. Shul'ts S.S., Planetarnaya treshchinovatost' (Planetary fracturing), Leningrad: Publ. of LSU, 1973, 90 p.
11. Pavlov N.D., Regularities of the areal distribution of seismic parameters, petrophysics and reservoir productivity of the Tengiz field and the problems of optimizing its development (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1993, no. 9, pp. 10–13.
12. Kalinina E.A., Bochkarev A.V., Ostroukhov S.B. et al., Rock properties behavior in disjunctive tectonics zones (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2016, no. 2 (224), pp. 35–45.
13. Panina L.V., Zaytsev V.A., The recent tectonics of the Caspian Sea region (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 4: Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2014, no. 1, pp. 17–23.
14. Archegov V.B., Block divisibility of the earth crust and petroleum potential: theory and research application (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 2, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/8/22_2012.pdf
15. URL: https://www.geokniga.org/books/6519
17. Kuz'min Yu.O., Nikonov A.I., Shapovalova E.S., Peculiarities of decoding lineament systems taking with considering the recent geodynamics of faults (In Russ.), Georesursy, geoenergetika, geopolitika, 2016, no. 1(13), URL: http://oilgasjournal.ru/ vol_13/kuzmin.pdf18. Kats Ya.G., Poletaev
A.I., Rumyantseva E.F., Osnovy lineamentnoy tektoniki (Fundamentals of
Lineament Tectonics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 140 p.
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The interest in hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves has recently increased significantly, which is primarily due to the need to maintain the level of oil production in the late stage of development. Since all relatively large oil fields in Republic of Tatarstan have been identified and developed, in the last decade, the process of exploration extra-heavy oil deposits, whose reserves are enormous, has been rapidly developing. The object of the study is extra-heavy oil reservoir of the Kamyshla Beds of the Kazanian Stage, confined to the Gorskoye field, located in the marginal part of the Eastern side of the Melekess depression, near its junction with the western slope of the South Tatar arch. At the same time, the location of the field within the outer side zone of the Ust-Cheremshan trough of the Kama-Kinel trough system predetermined the significant influence of sedimentation processes on its formation. In order to establish the genesis, time of formation of the trap and Gorskoye extra-heavy oil deposit, the authors constructed a series of structural maps, carried out studies by methods of isopachic triangle and graph of structure growth. Paleotectonic reconstructions of the studied territory at various stages of ontogenesis allowed us to establish that the core of the Gorsky structure is an organogenic structure of Late Frasnian age, the growth of which was resumed repeatedly until the Early Kazanian age. The formation of the Gorskoye extra-heavy deposit occurred in the Late Permian age, and as a result of tectonic movements of the Alpine stage of tectogenesis, the deposit finally formed and began to collapse.
1. Muslimov R.Kh., Abdulmazitov R.G., Khisamov R.B. et al., Neftegazonosnost' Respubliki Tatarstan. Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oil and gas bearing of the Republic of Tatarstan. Geology and development of oil fields), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007.
2. Tektonicheskoe i neftegeologicheskoe rayonirovanie territorii Tatarstana (Tectonic and oil geological zoning in Tatarstan): edited by Khisamov R.S., Kazan': FEN Publ., 2006, 328 p.
3. Mirchink M.F., Khachatryan R.O., Gromeka V.I. et al., Tektonika i zony neftegazonakopleniya Kamsko-Kinel'skoy sistemy progibov (Tectonics and oil and gas accumulation zones of the Kama-Kinel system of troughs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1965, 214 p.
4. Mashkovich K.A., Metody paleotektonicheskikh issledovaniy v praktike poiskov nefti i gaza (Methods of paleotectonic research in the practice of prospecting for oil and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 221 p.
5. Neyman V.B., Teoriya i metodika paleotektonicheskogo analiza (Theory and methodology of paleotectonic analysis), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 80 p.
6. Otmas A.A., Complex paleotectonic analysis of conditions of forming the local objects prospective for oil: an example from the Kravtsovskoye field (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2010, no. 5, pp. 1–12.
7. Larochkina I.A., Geologicheskie osnovy poiskov i razvedki neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy na territorii Respubliki Tatarstan (Geological foundations of prospecting and exploration of oil and gas fields in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan: GART Publ., 2008, 210 p.
8. Voytovich E.D., Gatiyatullin N.S., Tektonika Tatarstana (Tectonics of Tatarstan), Kazan: KTU Publ., 2003, 132 p.
9. Produktivnye bituminoznye tolshchi permskikh otlozheniy Melekesskoy vpadiny i Tatarskogo svoda (The productive bituminous strata of the Permian deposits of the Melekess Basin and the Tatar Arch): edited by Troepol'skiy V.I., Lebedev N.P., Kazan': Publ. of Kazan University, 1982, 103 p.10. Luk'yanova R.G.,
Uspenskiy B.V., Valeeva S.E., Tektonicheskie, paleotektonicheskie i
geodinamicheskie aspekty formirovaniya Romashkinskogo mestorozhdeniya
(Tectonic, paleotectonic and geodynamic aspects of the formation of the
Romashkino field), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical
Conference “Uglevodorodnyy i mineral'no-syr'evoy potentsial kristallicheskogo
fundamenta” (Hydrocarbon and mineral resources potential of the crystalline
basement), Kazan: Ikhlas Publ., 2019, 206 p.
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The Upper Devonian carbonate deposits of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province are characterized by a wide distribution of bioherms, that control a large number of oil deposits. Deposits in the Upper Devonian carbonate strata are unevenly distributed over the area and section and are confined mainly to the territories of vast paleoshelfs. The main risk factor in prospecting for hydrocarbon deposits is the quality of seals.
The article discusses the structural features of the Bashkir and South Tatar paleoshelfs at the Middle and Late Famennian stages of development, which determined the patterns of distribution of reservoirs and seals in the Upper Devonian carbonate strata. The South Tatar and Bashkir paleoshelfs differ from each other in their internal structure. The main oil deposits on the South Tatar arch are belong to the deposits of the middle and upper Famennian, and on the Bashkirian - to the deposits of the Lower Famennian. The Famennian seals are composed of clayey-carbonate rocks. Their accumulation is associated with the stages of maximum transgression, when the shelf area totally sank below the wave base, as well as with the stages of maximum regression, when the barrier zone limited water exchange in the shelf. At that time, organogenic carbonates without clay admixtures, with bad seal properties, accumulated in the hydrodynamically active side zone. The Visean claystones are regional seals in the study area. The seals identified in the carbonate strata of the Famennian Stage are classified as zonal and local. The facies heterogeneities of the Upper Devonian carbonate shelves revealed decades ago and supplemented by us make it possible to predict the distribution of seals and reservoirs over the area. The proposed technique can be applied in neighboring regions.
1. Mkrtchyan O.M., Verkhnedevonskie rify i ikh rol' v formirovanii neftenosnykh struktur vostoka Uralo-Povolzh'ya (Upper Devonian reefs and their role in the formation of oil-bearing structures in the east of the Ural-Volga region), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1964, 119 p.
2. Mkrtchyan O.M., Khat'yanov F.I., Shalaginova F.P., Application of seismic exploration to prospect for oil-bearing structures associated with the Upper Devonian reefs (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1965, no. 2, pp. 49–53.
3. Mkrtchyan O.M., Zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya strukturnykh form na vostoke Russkoy platformy (Regularities in the placement of structural forms in the east of the Russian platform), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1980, 134 p.
4. Khat'yanov F.I., Geologo-geofizicheskie osobennosti pogrebennykh rifovykh massivov v svyazi s problemoy ikh poiskov (Geological and geophysical features of buried reef massifs in connection with the problem of their search), Collected papers “Iskopaemye rify i metodika ikh izucheniya” (Fossil reefs and methods of studying them), Sverdlovsk: Publ. of Ural Branch of AS USSR, 1968, pp. 226–247.
5. Yunusov M.A., Timergazin K.K., Zubik I.L. et al., Novye dannye o rifovoy prirode Chermasanskogo massiva Zapadnoy Bashkirii (New data on the reef nature of the Chermasan massif of Western Bashkiria), Proceedings of AS USSR, 1971, V. 198, no. 5, pp. 1163–1166.
6. Khachatryan R.O., Trokhova A.A., O rifogennykh karbonatnykh massivakh vostoka Russkoy platformy (On reefogenic carbonate massifs in the east of the Russian platform), Collected papers “Tektonika i razmeshchenie neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy vostoka Russkoy platformy” (Tectonics and placement of oil and gas fields in the east of the Russian platform), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1968, pp. 152–165.
7. Fortunatova N.K., Shvets-Teneta-Guriy A.G., Gumarov R.K., Vasil'ev I.V., Stroenie i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti devonskikh i kamennougol'nykh otlozheniy vostoka Tokmovskogo svoda (Respublika Chuvashiya) (The structure and prospects of oil and gas content of the Devonian and coal deposits in the east of the Tokmovsky arch (Republic of Chuvashia)), Collected papers “Maloizuchennye neftegazonosnye regiony i kompleksy Rossii (prognoz neftegazonosnosti i perspektivy osvoeniya)” (Little-studied oil and gas regions and complexes of Russia (forecast of oil and gas potential and development prospects)), Moscow: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2001, 113 p.
8. Grachevskiy M.M., Berlin Yu.M., Dubovskoy I.T., Ul'mishek G.F., Korrelyatsiya raznofatsial'nykh tolshch pri poiskakh nefti i gaza (Correlation of different facies strata in the search for oil and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1969, 299 p.
9. Filippov B.V., Tipy prirodnykh rezervuarov nefti i gaza (Types of natural oil and gas reservoirs), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1967, 123 p.
10. Khitrov A.M., Il'in V.D., Savinkin P.T., Vydelenie, kartirovanie i prognoz neftegazonosnosti lovushek v trekhchlennom rezervuare (Isolation, mapping and prediction of oil and gas content of traps in a three-member reservoir), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, VNIGNI, 2002, 84 p.
11. Khitrov A.M., Nikitin A.N., Popova M.N., Kolokolova I.V., Risk assessment of oil and gas search based on selecting and mapping the hydrocarbon accumulation caps according to geophysical techniques data (In Russ.), Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2011, no. 3, pp. 22–27.
12. Khitrov A.M., Hydrocarbons seals and subsoil resource potentia (In Russ.), Aktual'nye problemy nefti i gaza, 2013, no. 1 (7), pp. 7–10.
13. Shakirov V.A., Miropol'tsev K.F., Vilesov A.P. et al., Forecast of seal rocks areal extent in Upper Devonian carbonates in Orenburg region (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2018, no. 4, pp. 133–153.
14. Chikina N.N., Nikitin Yu.I., Astaf'ev E.V., Vilesov A.P., Razrabotka kompleksa kriteriev dlya otsenki kachestva flyuidouporov v otlozheniyakh famensko-turneyskoy karbonatnoy tolshchi Orenburgskoy oblasti na osnove dannykh kerna i GIS (Development of a set of criteria for assessing the quality of seals in deposits of the Famennian-Tournaisian carbonate strata of the Orenburg region based on core and logging data), Proceedings of 19th Anniversary Scientific and Practical Conference on Geological Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas Fields "Geomodel 2018", pp. 1–6.
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The article considers the peculiarities of the geological structure volcanogenic-sedimentary sequence of the northeastern framing of the Krasnoleninsky arch. Example of petrological separation and interwell correlation volcanogenic rocks based on well logging data with the results of core and seismic researches is shown. Most of the wells are represented by an alternation effusive, the lavoclastic, pyroclastic volcanic rocks of acid composition, is less often marked out alternation of volcanic rocks of acid composition from tuffite, volcanogenic-sedimentary and sedimentary rocks, is rarer with the basic and average volcanic rocks. The greatest variety of rock types characterize wells drilled within structural raisings. In them the transformed lavas, lavoclastic rocks, tufa with dimension of detrital material from pelitic to agglomerate are developed. In the wells drilled within lowered structural zones the prevalence of lavas with the subordinated quantity the lavoclastic of formations and the pelitic tufa is noted.
Petrological separation of volcanogenic-sedimentary sequence is executed by means of multidimensional classification of geophysical parameters: natural radioactivity, hydrogen index, density, sonic interval transit time, electrical resistance by method of the cluster analysis. For a clustering the method of hierarchical classification (Ward's method) allowing to reveal ordered structure (hierarchy) of data array was used. Similar objects united in groups (clusters) passing at further association into larger groups that allowed to determine optimum number of clusters on the basis of the analysis of process of group. The made cluster analysis with attraction of the petrographic description of a core allowed to identify 8 petrologic types: effusive of acid composition of massive texture, their perlite and loosened differences. Vulkanoclastic rocks; the transformed volcanogenic rocks of acid composition with the increased content of post-magmatic minerals with a density are higher and lower than at rock-forming; volcanogenic-sedimentary, sedimentary-volcanogenic and sedimentary rocks; weathering crust deposits. Interwell correlation of identified rock types was carried out taking into account the borders established by results of seismic researches. Results of Interwell correlation can be considered at creation of geological, hydrodynamic models and the forecast of efficiency rocks of volcanogenic-sedimentary sequence.
1. Kropotova E.P., Korovina T.A., Romanov E.A., Fedortsov I.V., Sostoyanie izuchennosti i sovremennye vzglyady na stroenie, sostav i perspektivy doyurskikh otlozheniy zapadnoy chasti Surgutskogo rayona (Rogozhnikovskiy litsenzionnyy uchastok) (The state of knowledge and modern views on the structure, composition and prospects of pre-Jurassic deposits of the western part of the Surgut region (Rogozhnikovsky license area)), Proceedings of IX scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2006, pp. 133–146.
2. Kropotova E.P., Korovina T.A., N Gil'manova.V., Shadrina S.V., Usloviya formirovaniya zalezhey uglevodorodov v doyurskikh otlozheniyakh na Rogozhnikovskom litsenzionnom uchastke (Conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon deposits in pre-Jurassic sediments at the Rogozhnikovsky license area), Proceedings of X scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk 13–17 November 2007, Ekaterinburg: IzdatNaukaServis Publ., 2007, pp. 372–383.
3. Shadrina S.V., Kondakov A.P., New data on the basement of the north-eastern framing of Krasnoleninskiy arch (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 94-99.
4. Karlov A.M., Usmanov I.Sh., Trofimov E.N. et al., Makroizuchenie neftenasyshchennykh vulkanitov doyurskogo kompleksa Sidermskoy ploshchadi Rogozhnikovskogo mestorozhdeniya (Macro-study of oil-saturated volcanics of the pre-Jurassic complex of the Sidermskaya area of the Rogozhnikovskoye field) Proceedings of X scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2007, pp. 295–307.
5. Sudakova V.V., Tectonic structure of the northern part of Krasnoleninsky arch by 3D exploration seismic data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 4, pp. 21–25.
6. Shadrina S.V., Composition, structure, and age of the Pre-Jurassic basement rocks in the north-eastern framing of the Krasnoleninsky anticlinal fold (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2018, no. 4, pp. 27–33.
7. Shadrina S.V., Kritskiy I.L., The formation of volcanogenic reservoir by hydrothermal fluid (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 8, pp. 18–21.
8. Gil'manova N.V., Mal'shakov A.V., Influence of the content of the main rock-forming elements and their ratios on the fractal and petrochemical characteristics of geological sections of volcanic-sedimentary rocks (In Russ.), Gornye vedomosti, 2006, no. 10, pp. 58–65.
9. Gil'manova N.V., Mal'shakov A.V., Determination of lithological differences limits and fractal properties of volcanogenic strata section for probable collectors zones forecast (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 11, pp. 24–28.
10. Shilov G.Ya., Dzhafarov I.S., Geneticheskie modeli osadochnykh i vulkanogennykh porod i tekhnologiya ikh fatsial'noy interpretatsii po geologo-geofizicheskim dannym (Genetic models of sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks and the technology of their facies interpretation from geological and geophysical data), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIgeosistem, 2001, 394 p.
11. Farooqui M.Y., Hou H., Li G. et al., Evaluating volcanic reservoirs, Oilfield Review, 2009, no. 1, pp. 36–47.
12. Gitis L.Kh., Statisticheskaya klassifikatsiya i klasternyy analiz (Statistical classification and cluster analysis), Moscow: Publ. of MSMU, 2003, 157 p.
13. Kos I.M., Belkin N.M., Kurysheva N.K., Seysmogeologicheskoe stroenie doyurskikh obrazovaniy Rogozhnikovskogo litsenzionnogo uchastka (Seismogeological structure of pre-Jurassic formations of the Rogozhnikovsky license area), Proceedings of VII scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 02–05 December 2003, Ekaterinburg: IzdatNaukaServis Publ., 2004, pp. 153–163.
14. Maleev E.F., Vulkanity (Volcanics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, 240 p.
15. Utkin Yu.V., Vulkanogenno-oblomochnye porody (sistematika, stroenie, geneticheskie tipy) (Volcanic-clastic rocks (taxonomy, structure, genetic types)), Tomsk: Publ. of TSU, 2017, 142 p.
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Offshore exploration on the shelf is a complex and expensive task, where the success depends on a comprehensive study of technical, technological, administrative, environmental, industrial safety issues and other aspects of the work. This paper presents an example of the successful implementation of 3D seismic survey by Rosneft in the extreme shallow water of the Pechora Sea, based on the use and application of an integrated project planning and control system, taking into account risk analysis, aimed at minimizing negative factors and increasing work efficiency, and also ensuring compliance with and fulfillment of industrial safety, labor and environmental protection requirements in the implementation of offshore projects. The main elements of an integrated system from the planning stage to the full completion of the work are considered. Stages of planning and execution of 3D seismic surveys in the extreme shallow water of the Pechora Sea shelf are discussed. With the help of seismic modeling, the substantiation of the method of field work was carried out from the point of view of solving specific geological problems. Based on the analysis of the market, the features of the choice of vessels and equipment for performing seismic operations are presented, taking into account the limited market of contractors and vessels in the Russian Federation, as well as their capabilities to perform work at minimum depths. Early elaboration of the issue of the scheme and the shooting priority, taking into account the existing obstacles, difficulties and limitations, allowed to increase the optimization of productivity and minimize the downtime of the vessel. An effective approach to obtaining high-quality field materials and results of fast-track processing in a short time is shown. The implemented HSE management system, including a complex of epidemiological measures, made it possible to ensure the implementation of seismic exploration without incidents.
1. Malyshev N.A., Obmetko V.V., Borodulin A.A. et al., Metodika i praktika provedeniya geologorazvedochnykh rabot na shel'fe Vostochnoy Arktiki (Methodology and practice of conducting geological exploration works on the shelf of the Eastern Arctic), Proceedings of conference “Innovatsii v geologii, geofizike i geografii – 2018” (Innovations in Geology, Geophysics and Geography – 2018), Sevastopol, June, 2018.
2. Gorbachev S.V., Titov A.B., An integrated approach to the development of optimal technical conditions for carrying out 3D seismic surveys in the shallow part of the shelf of the Pechora sea (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2015, no. 1, pp. 32–41.
3. Gorbachev S.V., Titov A.B., Chevokin A.A., Davydova E.A., Sistema obespecheniya trebovaniy PBOTOS pri vypolnenii morskikh seysmorazvedochnykh rabot na shel'fovykh proektakh (System for ensuring the requirements of ISLPE in the performance of offshore seismic surveys on shelf projects), Proceedings of Scientific and practical conference with international participation “Ekologicheskaya i promyshlennaya bezopasnost' pri organizatsii rabot na shel'fe” (Environmental and industrial safety in the organization of works on the shelf), Astrakhan, 17–18 September 2019.
4. Titov A.B., Gorbachev S.V., The elements of the quality control for streamer marine seismic (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2016, no. 1, pp. 42–47.
5. Burmistrov A.S., Emel'yanov V.V., Davydova E.A., Lessons learned management system related to geological exploration within the license blocks of the continental shelf (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 12–15.
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The paper presents the results of evaluation of the cement sheath safety in the interval of shaped charge perforation of reservoirs on the territory of the Perm Region. Various intervals of perforation are considered, pressure measurements at different distances from the perforation charges during cumulative perforation are performed, which made it possible to assess the cement stone safety behind the casing after the perforation job. To perform the calculations, the basic physicomechanical properties of the cement stone, which obtained using the most common recipes of cement slurries, were determined. With a minimum value of the compressive strength of selected recipes of cement slurries to prepare the cement stone samples (12.3 MPa), a significant zone of destroyed cement stone appears at the Shagirtsko-Gozhanskoye deposit, and at the Tanypskoye and Krasnoyarsko-Kuedinskoye deposits, the cement stone is completely destroyed during the shaped charge perforation. The results of estimation calculations showed that the massively applied technologies and methods of reservoir perforation do not ensure the safety of the wells casing, reduce its tightness, which leads to the occurrence of behind-the-casing flows and watering of the well production. In this regard, it is necessary, when designing and planning perforation works, to develop recommendations for the use of special perforation systems that allow to reduce the explosiveness, to reduce the density and the number of perforating charges, especially when forming the first holes in the well and where perforating operations have already been carried out earlier. Also, determine the change in the state of the cement stone behind the casing using scanning acoustic devices before and after the perforation of reservoirs.
1. Melekhin A.A., Krysin N.I., Tret'yakov E.O., Analysis of factors affecting the life time period of cement stone behind a casing string (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 77–82.
2. Chernyshov S.E., Kunitskikh A.A., Votinov M.V., Research of hydration dynamics and development of expanding additives to oil-well cement (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 42–44.
3. Chernyshov S.E., Galkin S.V., Krisin N.I. et al., Efficiency improvement of abrasive jet perforation, SPE 177375-MS, 2015.
4. Krysin N.I., Ryabokon' E.P., Turbakov M.S. et al., Improvement of devices of abrasive jet perforation in oil wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 8, pp. 129–131.
5. Bonett A., Pafitis D., Getting to the root of gas migration, URL: https://studylib.net/doc/8104375/getting-to-the-root-of-gas-migration
6. Savich A.D., El'kind S.Ya., Secondary opening of productive layers. Technics and techology (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2003, V. 106, pp. 120–134.
7. Samsykin A.V., Razrabotka kompozitsionnykh tamponazhnykh sostavov povyshennoy soprotivlyaemosti dinamicheskim vozdeystviyam dlya sokhraneniya germetichnosti krepi skvazhin (Development of composite grouting compositions with increased resistance to dynamic impacts to preserve the tightness of the lining of wells): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2010.
8. Rastegar R. et al., Mitigating formation damage by using completion with built-in-casing perforations instead of perforation with explosive charges, SPE-174251-MS 2015.
9. Rahman M.A. et al., Quantifying the skin factor for estimating the completion efficiency of perforation tunnels in petroleum wells, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2007, V. 58, pp. 99–110.
10. Grigoryan N.G., Vskrytie neftegazovykh plastov strelyayushchimi perforatorami (Opening of oil and gas reservoirs by perforating gun), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 263 p.
11. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Mekhanika gornykh porod pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Rock mechanics in the development of hydrocarbon deposits), Moscow: Gornaya kniga Publ., 2019, 496 p.
12. Charlez F.Ð., Rock mechanics. V2. Petroleum applications, Editions Technip, 1997, 661 p.
13. Fjaer E. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics, Elseveir, 2008, 515 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
This work presents the results of physical modeling of the process of steam stimulation together with solvent and catalyst injection on a bulk core model to increase the recovery factor (RF) of high-viscosity oil from the Mayorovskoye heavy oil field. A series of filtration experiments was carried out to select the optimal injection modes and conditions. The process of steam stimulation treatment of Mayorovskoye high-viscosity oil, were carried out in an autoclave reactor at a temperature of 300°C for 24 h in a nitrogen atmosphere with adding a catalyst precursor based on transition metals iron and nickel in a ratio of 85:15 was selected. The dosage in terms of catalytically active metals is selected in the amount of 0.2 wt.% (oil-soluble catalyst precursor) into a preheated model, which simulates catalyst injection between the cycles of the process of cyclic steam stimulation, the active form of the catalyst is formed. The catalyst precursor is transformed into ultrafine particles containing transition metal oxides and sulfides. According to SEM data, the particle diameter of the active form of the catalyst is less than 80 nm. Combined injection of a solvent with steam and a mixture of solvent and catalyst with steam leads to an increase in displacement efficiency compared to the standard method of steam injection. With additional exposure of the solvent and catalyst solution in the heated reservoir model, the displacement efficiency largely increases. This is associated with an increase in the potential upgrading degree of oil from the Mayorovskoye field. It has been found that catalyst injection is most effective if the formation is preheated and held before steam treatment.
1. Yakutseni V.P., Petrova Yu.E., Sukhanov A.A., Dynamics of share of the relative content of stranded oil in the general reserve (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2007, no. 2, pp. 1–11.
2. Khisamov R.S., Gatiyatullin N.S., Sharogorodskiy I.E. et al., Geologiya i osvoenie zalezhey prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology and development of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 295 p.
3. Lipaev A.A., Razrabotka mestorozhdeniy tyazhelykh neftey i prirodnykh bitumov (Heavy oil and natural bitumen field development), Moscow – Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2013, 484 p.
4. Darishchev V.I., Deliya S.V., Karpov V.B., Shadchnev A.N., RITEK–25 let innovatsiy (RITEK-25 years of innovation), Part 2, Moscow, 2017, 200 p.
5. Maity S.K., Ancheyta J., Marroquın G., Catalytic aquathermolysis used for viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils: A review, Energy Fuels, 2010, V. 24, pp. 2809–2816.
6. Li Guo-Rui, Chen Yu, An Yong, Chen Yan-Ling Li, Catalytic aquathermolysis of super-heavy oil: Cleavage of CS bonds and separation of light organosulfurs, Fuel Processing Technology, 2016, V. 153, pp. 94-100, DOI:10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.06.007
7. Kudryashov S.I., Afanas'ev I.S., Petrashov O.V. et al., Catalytic heavy oil upgrading by steam injection with using of transition metals catalysts (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 30–34.
8. Vakhin A.V., Aliev F.A., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., Extra-heavy oil aquathermolysis using nickel-based catalyst: Some aspects of in-situ transformation of catalyst precursor, Catalysts, 2021, V. 11, no. 2, DOI: 10.3390/catal11020189.
9. Mukhamatdinov I.I., Sitnov S.A., Slavkina O.V. et al., The aquathermolysis of heavy oil from Riphean-Vendian complex with iron-based catalyst: FT-IR spectroscopy data, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2019, V. 37, no. 12, pp. 1410–1416.
10. Vakhin A.V., Sitnov S.A., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., Perspectives in applying nano-dispersed catalysts at the basis of transition metals to enhance oil recovery at the stage of hard-to-recover oil fields commissioning at "RITEK" LLC (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2019, V. 224, no. 8, pp. 42–46.
11. Zaripova R.D., Khaydarova A.R., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., The temperature influence on transformation of mixed iron (II, III) oxides in hydrothermal-catalytic processes (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya. Neft'. Gaz, 2019, V. 71, no. 4, pp. 56–59.
12. Suwaid M.A., Varfolomeev M.A., Al-Muntaser A.A. et al., In-situ catalytic upgrading of heavy oil using oil-soluble transition metal-based catalysts, Fuel, 2020, V. 281, DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118753.
13. Al-muntaser A.A., Varfolomeev M.A., Suwaid M.A. et al., Hydrogen donating capacity of water in catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis of extra-heavy oil: Deuterium tracing study, Fuel, 2020, V. 283, DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118957.14. Vakhin A.V. , Sitnov S.A., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., Procedure of thermal catalyst effect for "RITEK"
LLC hard-to-recover oil fields development in Samara region (In Russ.), Neft'.
Gaz. Novatsii, 2019, V. 224, no. 7, pp. 75–78.
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|FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT|
The article provides an overview of the main features of geospatial data generated by LIDAR mapping systems with close attention to two categories - manned and unmanned aerial systems. The analysis is based on a comparison of several overlapping laser and imagery datasets acquired on the same territory by a full-sized LIDAR system and a small UAV system. An analysis and assessment of the quality and information content of airborne laser scanning materials is carried out, and the most important parameters have been determined, which define the optimal coverage and quality of the data required for solving a variety of production problems of Rosneft Oil Company. The work aimed to determine the criteria for the use of each technology in the process of creating topographic maps, forest inventory and building information model. The main features of LIDAR point clouds characterizing their integrity and quality is explored. The parameters are investigated including point density, spatial distribution, and attributive information. The results of a direct feature comparison of remote sensing data of two scanning systems are presented. The analysis is based on a matching of overlapping sets of laser data and images captured within the same area using a full-size LIDAR system for manned aircraft and a small system for unmanned aerial vehicles. A conclusion is made on the influence of the characteristics and information content of these scanning systems on the quality, homogeneity and detailing of the final model. A comprehensive concept of cyclic application of airborne laser scanning and digital aerial photography technologies at oil and gas fields of production enterprises of Rosneft Oil Company proposed. In addition, it is shown that differences in approaches to collecting data, varying their combinations, allow using the materials obtained to solve a wide range of tasks of the Company.
1. Shaohui Sun, Automatic 3D building detection and modeling from airborne LiDAR point clouds: Ph.D. Dissertation, Rochester Institute of Technology, 2013, URL: https://scholarworks.rit.edu/theses/960/
2. Shumeyko S.A., Sologubov D.S., Photogrammetric technology for 3D modeling complex production facilities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 98–101.
3. Skvortsov A.V., Triangulyatsiya Delone i ee primenenie (Delaunay triangulation and its application), Tomsk: Publ. of Tomsk University, 2002, 130 p.
4. Skvortsov A.V., Mirza N.S., Algoritmy postroeniya i analiza triangulyatsii (Algorithms for constructing and analyzing triangulation), Tomsk: Publ. of Tomsk University, 2006, 168 p.
5. USGS National geospatial program standards and specifications, Lidar Base Specification, 2020, URL: https://prd-wret.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/assets/palladium/production/atoms/files/Lidar-Base-Speci...
6. Kodors S., Point distribution as true quality of LiDAR point cloud, Baltic Journal of Modern Computing, 2017, V. 5, DOI:10.22364/bjmc.2017.5.4.03
7. Ullrich A., Sampling the world in 3D by airborne LiDAR — Assessingthe information content of LiDAR point clouds, Photogrammetric Week, 2013, URL: http://www.ifp.unistuttgart.de/publications/phowo13/index.en.html
8. Naus T., Unbiased LiDAR data measurement (Draft), 2008, URL: https://www.asprs.org/a/society/committees/lidar/Unbiased_measurement.pdf
9. Medvedev E.M., Danilin I.M., Mel'nikov S.R., Lazernaya lokatsiya zemli i lesa (Laser location of land and forest), Moscow - Krasnoyarsk: Publ. of Geolidar, Geoskosmos, Sukachev Institute of forest SB RAS, 2007.
10. Antonov A., Scanning laser rangefinders (LiDAR) (In Russ.), Sovremennaya elektronika, 2016, no. 1, pp. 10–15.11. Shumeyko S.A., Filin
N.N., The use of non-professional unmanned aerial vehicle system for the tasks
of engineering geodesy and mapping oil and gas fields territory (In
Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil
Industry, 2019, no. 10, pp. 42–45.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
Methodical and algorithmic description of tool for complex gaslift and ESP well stock production management is presented in the paper. The presented solutions fully cover the processes of automated creation and adaptation to actual data of physical models of well drainage area, gas-liquid elevator with submersible and surface equipment and oil gathering network, as well as algorithms of integration and management of these models to solve the problems of operational targeted lifting costs optimization taking into account physical processes occurring in each element of the system. The used models cover the whole range of physical phenomena necessary for accounting within the framework of the tasks being solved, being at the same time computationally non labor-intensive and not requiring manual adaptation to actual values, as well as additional initial data for creation, except for those contained in the well and its equipment datasheets. The algorithms described in the article allow solving problems of group optimization of operating modes of production wells on the basis of physical models in order to minimize lifting costs. Thus, the tool presented in the article allows, on the basis of a standard set of initial data, to perform group optimization of operating modes of production wells without changing equipment in order to maximize production without increasing technological costs, or to minimize technological costs without decreasing production. Besides, it is possible to integrate the presented tool with algorithms of calculation of effect from equipment change.
1. Basniev K.S., Dmitriev N.M., Rozenberg G.D., Neftegazovaya gidromekhanika (Oil and Gas Hydromechanics), Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2005, 544 p.
2. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, V.17, 1999, 164 p.
3. Ansari A.M. et al., A comprehensive mechanistic model for upward two-phase flow in wellbores (In Russ.), SPE 108506-PA, 1990, https://doi.org/10.2118/ 108506-PA.
4. Yudin E.V., Khabibullin R.A., Galyautdinov I.M. et al., Modeling of a gas-lift well operation with an automated gas-lift gas supply control system (In Russ.),
SPE-196816-MS, 2019, https://doi.org/10.2118/196816-MS.
5. Lubnin A.A., Yudin E.V., Fazlytdinov R.F. et al., A new approach of gas lift wells production optimization on offshore fields (In Russ.), SPE-181903-RU, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2118/181903-MS
6. Marquez R.A, Prado M.G., A new robust model for natural separation efficiency, SPE-80922-MS, 2003, https://doi.org/10.2118/80922-MS
7. Takacs G., Electrical submersible pumps manual, Cambridge, Elsevier, 2018, 564 p.
8. Krasnov V.A., Litvinenko K.V., Khabibullin R.A., An approach to account ESP head degradation in gassy wells for ESP frequency optimization, SPE-171338-MS, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/171338-MS
9. Perkins T.K., Critical and subsritical flow of multiphase mixtures through chokes, SPE-20633-PA, 1993, https://doi.org/10.2118/20633-PA.
10. Khabibullin R.A., Burtsev Ya.A., New approach for gas lift optimization calculations (In Russ.), SPE-176668-RU, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2118/176668-MS
11. Katsman M.M., Spravochnik po elektricheskim mashinam (Electric machines handbook), Moscow: Akademiya Publ., 2005, 480 p.
12. Charnyy I.A., Podzemnaya gidrogazodinamika (Underground fluid dynamics), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963, 397 p.
13. Khasanov M.M., Khabibullin R.A., Musabirov T.R., Krasnov V.A., Self consistent approach to construct inflow performance relationship for oil well (In Russ.), SPE-160782-RU, 2012, https://doi.org/10.2118/160782-MS
14. Khasanov M.M., Krasnov V.A., Guk V.Yu., Evaluation of reservoir parameters by production data analysis, SPE-117406-MS, 2008, https://doi.org/10.2118/ 117406-MS
15. Kermit E.B., Beggs H.D., The technology of artificial lift methods, Tulsa: PennWellBooks, 1984, 448 p.
16. Vogel J.V., Inflow performance relationships for solution-gas drive wells, JPT, 1968, V. 20, pp. 83-93.
17. Sudeev I.V., Timonov A.V., Guk V.Yu., Asmandiyarov R.N., The factor analysis of the new wells oil recovery change with use of non-stationary nodal analysis method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 11, pp. 58–61.
18. Krasnov V.A., Sudeev I.V., Yudin E.V. et al., Reservoir parameters evaluation using the production data analysis (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy Vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2010, no. 1, pp. 30–34.
19. Krasnov V.A., Yudin E.V., Lubnin A.A., Well exploitation models to estimate some reservoir parameters using the production data analysis (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy Vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2010, no. 2, pp. 34–38.
20. Kanin E.A., Krasnov V.A., The method for calculating the productivity of wells under transient behavior with an account of the lift characteristic of the well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 6, pp. 84-89.
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The choice of technology for dealing with well negative factors is based on comparative technical and economic calculations. The effectiveness of the use of chemical reagents is evaluated by increasing the operating time of the submersible equipment and the absence of negative factors. From a regulatory point of view, this is a post-factum approach, when the effectiveness of using a chemical reagent on a complicated well (like any other technology) can be fully evaluated after a stop and the fact of failure, other manifestations of complications during the operation of pumping equipment (increased electric current loads, sub-links, etc.) speak only of indirect signs of low efficiency, which may manifest themselves due to other factors. The lack of online monitoring methods and an individual approach to varying technologies depending on the characteristics of the well have a negative impact on the control of the effectiveness of chemical using in wells.
The article highlights the problem of the possibility of operational influence on the effectiveness of the use of chemical reagents in wells. The main indicators are identified, which should undergo a more in-depth assessment in terms of their consideration in tests and industrial applications. The main ones are: correct models of the treated liquids, conditions and design of wells (production rate, dynamic fluid level, etc.), and also the technological possibility of delivering the reagent to the effective area (problem area) in the well to protect the deep-pumping equipment from the negative influence of the complicating factor. In the future, in order to improve the efficiency of chemical using in wells, the test results and modeling of the influence of indicators should form the basis of the IT-model, which will take into account not only the inhibitory effect of the reagent, but also its behavior in certain well conditions.
1. Sapozhnikov P.A., Volovodenko A.V., Strizhak A.V., Experience of realization of inhibitor corrosion protection of downhole pumping equipment at the Gribnoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2010, no. 4, pp. 100–103.
2. Zhdanov I.A., Margarit A.S., Kuz'min M.I., Shadymukhametov S.A., Development of the algorithm for prevention of hydrate formation in the underground equipment during oil production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 62–65.
3. Kunakova A.M., Fayzullin R.K., Gumerov R.R. et al., Monitoring of salt formation in the downhole equipment, prevention techniques of salt formation and their optimization in Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2011, no. 12, pp. 66–67.
4. Nevyadovskiy E.Yu., Mechanisms for chemicalization of production processes in Rosneft. Development prospects (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 10, pp. 28–33.
5. Voloshin A., Ragulin V., Neviadovskiy E., Ganiev I., Technical and economic strategy in the scale deposition management is an important factor in enhancement the efficiency of oil production, SPE-138066-MS, 2010, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/138066-MS.
6. Lunin D.A., Minchenko D.A., Noskov A.B. et al., System to improve operational quality of artificial lift wells of Rosneft Oil Company in response to negative impact of complicating factors (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2021, no. 4, pp. 86–91.
7. Shangareev I.R., Dmitriev R.A., Sozonov A.M. et al., Reference specimens corrosion rate estimation at downhole conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 8, pp. 108–110.
8. Wright R.F., Ping Lu, Devkota J. et al., Corrosion sensors for structural health monitoring of oil and natural gas infrastructure: A review, Sensors, 2019, no. 19(18), pp. 1–32, DOI: 10.3390/s19183964.
9. Schovsbo N.H., Gottfredsen S.N., Schmidt K.G., Jørgensen Th.M., Oil production monitoring and optimization from produced water analytics; a casestudy from the Halfdan chalk oil field, Danish North Sea, IFAC PapersOnLine, 2018, V. 51(8), pp. 203–210, DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.06.378.
10. RD 39-0148070-026 VNII-86. Tekhnologiya optimal'nogo primeneniya ingibitorov soleotlozheniya (Optimum application technology for scale inhibitors), Tyumen': Publ. of SibNIINP, 1986, 37 p.
11. RD 39-1-641-81. Podbor ingibitorov otlozheniya soley dlya tekhnologicheskikh protsessov podgotovki nefti (Selection of salt deposition inhibitors for technological processes of oil treatment), Ufa: Publ. of VNIISPTneft', 1982, 23 p.
12. RD 39-0147103-319-86. Tekhnologiya zashchity vysokotemperaturnogo oborudovaniya podgotovki nefti ot otlozheniya soley (Technology of protection of high-temperature oil treatment equipment from salt deposition), Ufa: Publ. of VNIISPTneft', 1986, 17 p.
13. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 35–40.
14. Bulgakova G.T., Kharisov R.Ya., Sharifullin A.R., Pestrikov A.V., Optimization of the design of large-volume acid treatments of carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Territoriya neftegaz, 2010, no. 11, pp. 39–43.
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The well acidizing program is directly related to the efficiency of oil production. Common research that aimed at improving the efficiency of acid treatment in sandstone reservoir mainly includes the modification and adaptation of reagents to minimize formation damage that occurs due to the interaction of an acid with rock. To use new and unique acid compositions in real conditions is difficult because of organizational issues. Therefore, the traditional compositions based on a mixture of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are commonly used on oilfields. The article is based on the approach of increasing the productivity of well by choosing the optimal design of treatment based on acidizing process modeling. The article describes aspects of practical implementation of the previously developed simulator of acid treatment of sandstone reservoirs, based on a numerical model of hydrodynamic and physicochemical processes in a porous medium based on unstructured PEBI-grids. The main uncertainties of the model are identified and analyzed. Here some issues that were included in current research: the density of colloidal silica formed as a result of the interaction between acid and rock, the influence of empirical parameters presented in main equations, and modeling of the mineralogical composition of the rock. The article describes an algorithm for static modeling of the near-wellbore zone for the purposes of acidizing modeling and an approach to optimize the treatment of near-wellbore zone based on the adaptation of the results of acid flow tests. The necessity of secondary and tertiary reactions modeling was approved. A number of calculations with the use of real data were carried out to determine the optimal volume of acid composition injection. Previous experience was analyzed and used for giving new recommendations to improve the acid treatment efficiency in researched and simulated conditions.
1. Maltcev A., Shcherbakov G., The development of the trends in formation damage removal technologies in sandstone reservoirs, SPE-199321-MS, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/199321-MS
2. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry), Part 4. Kislotnaya obrabotka skvazhin (Acid treatment of wells): edited by Mishchenko I.T., Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2010, 703 p.
3. Blonsky A., Mitrushkin D., Kazakov A. et al., Development of acidizing simulator for sandstone reservoirs, SPE-94566-MS, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/ 94566-MS
4. Economides M.J., Nolte G.K., Reservoir stimulation, Wiley, 2000, 824 p.
5. Economides M.J., Hill A.D., Petroleum production systems, Prentice Hall, 1994, 611 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT|
A wide range of submersible pumping equipment produced by machine-building plants in Russia and abroad, as well as complicated well operation conditions set an urgent agenda for research and development of clear rating methods of electric submersible pumps (ESP) performance and gas stabilizing modules for it. Based on the results of the analysis of wells equipped with ESP installations in complicated conditions, taking into account the preliminary crash-tests, there was created a rating control method for serial pumping equipment. The methodology is based on two principles of comparative analysis: 1) study of energy performance due to the impact of free gas on the pump and / or gas stabilizing module; 2) study of resource reliability of equipment components with the identification of weak structural elements. The developed method takes into account the change of the pump vibration velocity indicator in three points along the pump length and the gas stabilizing module. The results of the parametric data interpretation allow to develop the typical failure statistics of the submersible pump equipment elements, which can be used for the development of the failure prediction methodology. The results of the rating control were tested in the course of tender and procurement procedures, as well as in the design of submersible pumping equipment, including specialized software. The results of bench tests made it possible to form a database of characteristics of pumping units from various manufacturers. To systematize these tests, a rating algorithm has been developed in two directions: a rating of the efficiency of the pumping unit when pumping a model well product with free gas and a rating of the resource reliability of a pumping unit when pumping a model well product containing solids.
1. Drozdov A.N., Den'gaev A.V., Verbitskiy V.S. et al., Operation of wells equipped with ESP in fields with hard-to-recover reserves (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2008, no. 10, pp. 82–85.
2. Drozdov A.N., Verbitsky V.S., Lambin D.N., Dengaev A.V., Stand research and analysis of average-integral characteristics of submersible centrifugal pumps operating at gas-liquid mixtures, SPE-141291-MS, 2011, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/141291-MS.
3. Smirnov N.I., ESP service life tests (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2008, no. 12, pp. 168–171.
4. Smirnov N.I., Wear features of high-speed submersible pumps for oil production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 1, pp. 62–65.
5. Smirnov N.I., Grigoryan E.E., Study of the impact of wear of movable interfaces on failures of an immersible electrically operated vane pump for oil extraction (In Russ.), Problemy mashinostroeniya i nadezhnosti mashin = Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability, 2019, no. 1, pp. 92–97.
6. Litvinenko K.V., Zdol'nik S.E., Mikhaylov V.G., An approach to ESP characteristics degradation modeling under high erosive wear conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 132–135.
7. Verbitskiy V.S., Results of research on the efficiency of ESP protection devices against the harmful effects of free gas (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2011, no. 5, pp. 134–141.8. Verbitskiy V.S.,
Gorid'ko K.A., Fedorov A.E., Drozdov A.N., Experimental studies of electric
submersible pump performance with ejector at pump inlet when liquid-gas mixture
delivering (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 9, pp.
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A significant decrease in the efficiency of the submersible installations of electric centrifugal pumps (ESP) accompanies the operation of the mechanized well stock in the presence of the pumped fluid-free gas. Based on photos showing the high-speed shooting the gas-liquid flow in the inter-blade channels of the ESP, the analysis of mixture structure changes depending on the size of the pump supply and the free-gas volume content is presented. It was established that when the ESP is fed with a volume of gas fraction more then 0.05, stagnant zones comprising gas bubbles (transient flow mode of the mixture) form in the flow channels of the impeller of the centrifugal pump, which, with further growth of volume of gas fraction, are transformed into stable gas caverns filling the entire flow section of the impeller (flow mode with a stable gas cavern). Such flow modes of the gas-liquid mixture contribute to an increase in pressure losses on friction, and, as a result, the degradation of the head capacity curve of the pump. Using the balance equation of forces acting on the gas bubble in the inter-blade channel of the centrifugal impeller, a mechanistic correlation is obtained for calculating the boundaries of the transition of gas-liquid structures to the transition flow regime and from the transition regime to the flow with a stable gas cavity. The verification of the obtained mechanistic correlation to determine the conditions that cause a change in the structure of gas-liquid mixture in the inter-blade channels of the ESP’S impeller, based on the comparison of calculated and experimental data at the boundary of the transition of gas-liquid structures to the transition mode and from the transition mode to the stable gas cavity, showed a satisfactory precision of the results, sufficient for engineering calculations.
1. Duran J., Prado E.M., ESP stages air-water two-phase performance – modeling and experimental data, SPE-87627-MS, 2003.
2. Volkov M.G., Mikhaylov V.G., Petrov P.V., The current modes analysis in cavity forming wheel flowing channels of centrifugal gasseparator (In Russ.), Vestnik UGATU, 2012, V. 16, no. 1(46), pp. 38-50.
3. San D., Modeling gas-liquid head performance of electrical submersible pumps: PhD dissertation, The University of Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2003.
4. Beltur R., Experimental investigation of performance of electrical submersible pumps in two-phase flow condition: MS thesis, The University of Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2003.
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To increase the efficiency of oil production from high gas content wells, submersible installations of electric centrifugal pumps (ESP) are equipped with centrifugal gas separators (CGS). When selecting a gas separator model for the specified field conditions, it is important to know that it is able to ensure effective separation of gas from well fluid. For this purpose, the developed method for evaluating the range of ESP feedings in which the CGS is able to effectively separate free gas from well fluid with high gas content and the formation of oil-water emulsions. The method is based on the calculation of the degree of degradation of the head capacity curve of the screw supercharger of the gas separator under the influence of complicating factors; mathematical modeling of hydraulic losses during the flow of the gas-liquid mixture in the inter-blade channels of the screw. Technique calculates the range of fluid flows through the CGS, at which the potential energy increase from the hydrodynamic action of the screw blades on the gas-liquid flow exceeds the loss of energy flow due to friction against the channel walls and impact in the front blade edges area. According to the developed method for the gas separator GSAON5A-500-5ME produced by RimeraAlnas LLC, the calculations showed that: with gas content increase from 0.1 to 0.5, the range of feeds corresponding to the effective operation of the gas separator decreases from 290 to 100 m3/day; with an increase in the viscosity of the extracted oil-water mixture from 0.001 to 0.5 Pa⋅s, with a volume gas content of 0.2, the feed range corresponding to the effective operation of the gas separator is reduced from 240 to 160 m3/day.
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Alkaya B., Oil-water flow patterns and pressure gradients in slightly inclined
pipes: PhD dissertation, Tulsa, Oklahoma: The University of Tulsa, 2000.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The article discusses the method of calculating the condensation of hydrocarbons contained in the gas-air mixture displaced from the tanks and vehicles when they are filled. Currently, there is a wide range of software products that allow high-precision modeling of various technological processes, including low-temperature condensation. However, foreign software products are expensive and therefore inaccessible for widespread use. At the same time, in the practice of designing and analyzing technological processes of oil and gas production and oil and gas processing, the equations of phase concentrations are widely used. They require a minimum amount of initial data for the calculation: information on the composition of the gas-air mixture, as well as on the thermodynamic conditions of the process (pressure and temperature). However, in most works, recommendations for calculating the phase equilibrium constants are given in relation to positive temperatures, which is typical for reservoir conditions and conditions for separation of reservoir fluids. Low-temperature separation processes of multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures in the field are also common. For example, the extraction of hydrocarbon condensate from gas at complex treatment plants is carried out at temperatures up to -40 °C. However, according to foreign data, to ensure a high degree of capture of oil and gasoline vapors, it is necessary to cool the gas-air mixtures to a temperature of -60 °C or less. Therefore, the currently known methods for determining the phase equilibrium constants, which are not intended for a given temperature range, cannot be used in the calculations of condensation units for recovering hydrocarbons.
With the use of relatively complex well-known techniques a data bank was developed on the dependence of the value of the phase equilibrium constants of individual components of the gas-air mixture on temperature at atmospheric pressure, which takes place in condensation units for recovering vapors of oil and oil products. Then, the obtained numerical values of these constants were approximated by a fairly simple dependence that is convenient for use.
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2. Shilov V.I., Klochkov A.A., Yaryshev G.M., Calculation of the constants of phase equilibrium of natural oil and gas mixtures (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1987, no. 1, pp. 37–39.
3. Gurevich, G.R., Brusilovskiy A.I., Spravochnoe posobie po raschetu fazovogo sostoyaniya i svoystv gazokondensatnykh smesey (A reference manual for calculating the phase state and properties of gas condensate mixtures), Moscow: Nedra, 1984, 264 p.
4. Lutoshkin G.S., Dunyushkin I.I., Sbornik zadach po sboru i podgotovke nefti, gaza i vody na promyslakh (Collection of tasks for the oil, gas and water gathering and treatment in the fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 135 p.
5. Je-Lueng Shie, Chen-Yu Lu, Ching-Yuan Chang et al., Recovery of gasoline vapors by a combined two-stage dehydration and condensation process (In Russ.), Zhurnal Kitayskogo instituta khimicheskoy inzhenerii, 2003, V. 34, no. 6, pp. 605–616.
6. Tugunov P.I., Novoselov V.F., Korshak A.A. et al., Tipovye raschety pri proektirovanii i ekspluatatsiy neftebaz i nefteprovodov (Typical calculations in the design and operation of tank farms and oil pipelines), Ufa: Dizain-PoligrafServis Publ., 2002, 658 p.
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15. Korshak A.A., Nikolaeva A.V., Nagatkina A.S. et al., Method for predicting the degree of hydrocarbon vapor recovery at absorption (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, no. 2, pp. 202–209.
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Modern rates of hydrocarbons extraction, as well as the development of new northern territories for increasing production volumes, dictate the need to take into account a large number of variables that change over time when designing new transport networks in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Special attention is paid to the thawing of permafrost soils. Long-term forecasting of the behavior of permafrost soils around an underground oil pipeline makes it possible to prevent accidents and environmental disasters, which have become more frequent in recent years due to the deterioration of the used technological equipment. The article presents the author's mathematical model and approbation of the method of heat engineering calculations for multilayer oil pipelines. A section of an oil pipeline running in difficult geocryological conditions is modeled, a methodology for calculating thermal processes occurring in the ‘pipe – soil’ system and the main results achieved are described. The simulation was carried out using several options of insulating material with the same internal diameter of the pipeline and the pumping mode. Verification of the mathematical model was carried out using a universal software system for finite element modeling ANSYS and a module developed by the authors for conducting thermal calculations TPS. The article also presents the main algorithms for constructing a model, predicting the materials necessary for calculating, taking into account their properties, building, correcting and refining the model mesh and setting up the solver. Simulation results are presented in graphical form with the distribution of halos depending on the season and the insulation materials used.
The developed method for modeling the thermal state of a pipeline in permafrost soil can be recommended for use in the development of design documentation for various purposes.
3. Golik V.V., Moiseev B.V., Gulkova S.G., Zemenkov Yu.D., Mathematic simulation of the effect of a buried oil pipeline on permafrost soils, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2018, DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/445/1/012004.
4. Teplomassobmen. Teplotekhnicheskiy eksperiment. Spravochnik (Heat and mass transfer. Heat engineering experiment. Directory): edited by Grigor'ev V.A., Zorin V.M., Moscow: Energoizdat Publ., 1982, 512 p.
5. Zemenkov Yu.D., Moiseev B.V., Bogatenkov Yu.V. et al., Energotekhnologicheskie kompleksy pri proektirovanii i eks-pluatatsii ob"ektov transporta i khraneniya uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Energy technology complexes in the design and operation of transport and storage facilities for hydrocarbon raw materials), Tyumen': Publ. of TumSPTU, TumSASU, 2015, 256 p.
6. Golik V.V., Zemenkov Yu.D., Gladenko A.A., Seroshtanov I.V., Modeling the heat transfer processes in the pipe-soil system, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2019, DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/663/1/012012
8. Zemenkova M.Y., Shastunova U., Shabarov A. et al., Physical and mathematical modeling of process of frozen ground thawing under hot tank, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2018, DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/357/1/012007.
9. Golik V.V., Zemenkov Yu.D., Subbotin V.Ya., Belsky S.G., Methods for calculating thermal fields using modern software products, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2019, DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/663/1/012001
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The article describes the advanced process control (APC) systems, their advantages, design features, and operating principles. APC is a technology that reduces fluctuations in production variables, which allows the process unit to operate stably and optimally, closer to its limitations (maximum productivity, product quality, technological limitations). APC is the most important element among automated business management systems, because exactly at this level the problem of optimal process management begins to arise and be solved. Besides the direct economic effect, the implementation of the APC brings many indirect improvements by reducing the number of unit regime upsets and saving energy. However, like any high-tech system, the APC needs constant monitoring, modernization, and maintenance. For timely and on-line adjustment of control system models, support teams are needed, which allow the regular modernization of system models and components with a significant increase in their efficiency, in a short time and with minimal costs. As a case, we consider the history of implementation and development roadmap for APC systems at the refineries of Bashneft PJSC and provide in-house designed improvements to APC at the enterprises of Bashneft. In order to establish a unified approach for estimating the technological and economic effects of APC business projects, methodological guidelines were developed while implementing APC technological installations. The need for development of APC and their integration with resource management and planning systems for building a new digital plant as part of global digital transformation of the economy is noted.
1. Lu Joseph Z., Closing the gap between planning and control: A multiscale MPC cascade approach, Annual Reviews in Control, 2015, V. 40, pp. 3–13.
2. Nedel'chenko S.I., Gayfullin M.S., Golovina E.S. et al., Criteria for choosing a process control system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 90–93.
3. Seleznev A.Yu., Possible refinery application processes to improve operation efficiency (In Russ.) Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2020, no. 4 (233), pp. 35–42.
4. Zakharkin M.A., Kneller D.V., Applications of advanced process control techniques (In Russ.), Datchiki i sistemy, 2010, no. 10, pp. 57–71.5. Camacho E.F., Bordens
C., Model predictive control, London: Springer-Verlag, 2004, 405 p.
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