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3'2021 (âûïóñê 1169)
|OIL & GAS INDUSTRY|
The article discusses a new paradigm for the development of the oil and gas complex of Russia, proposed by Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.E. Kontorovich in 2020. It was noted that the oil industry is currently facing a number of serious difficulties, such as the depletion of fields, a decrease in the number of discoveries of new fields, ineffective production methods due to the lack of modern innovative technologies, imperfect legislation, licensing of large state-owned enterprises, insufficient proven reserves; and lack of funding. It is shown that there will still be periods of destabilization of the oil market (crises) in the world, and in such conditions a more thought-out policy of Russia in matters of oil and gas production is needed. In this regard, the proposals of A.E. Kontorovich on the need to change the current development paradigm, which consisted in the consistent development of new oil and gas provinces, moving from west to east.
When discussing the new paradigm, we used the experience of the successful oil development in the oldest Russian oil ang gas bearing region - the Republic of Tatarstan. Over the long history of the development of the oil industry in the republic, a vast experience has been accumulated in the exploration and development of oil fields – from small and smallest to giant and supergiant. Approaches for the rational development of various groups and categories of deposits have been found. The most effective methods of prospecting, exploration and additional exploration of oil fields, the most advanced hydrodynamic methods for the development of fields with active and hard-to-recover reserves, including at the late stages of development, have been developed, methods of enhanced oil recovery for various geological and physical conditions have been widely used, including the extraction of residual reserves of long-term exploited deposits. Extensive experience has been accumulated in the development of complex small fields with hard-to-recover oil reserves. It is concluded that the proposed by A.E. Kontorovich, a new paradigm for the development of the oil and gas complex of Russia touches upon topical problems of the industry, requires additional analysis and further development.
1. Kontorovich A.E., Global problems of oil and gas and a new paradigm for the development of the oil and gas complex of Russia (In Russ.), Nauka iz pervykh ruk, 2016, no. 1, pp. 6–17.
2. Shmal' G.I., O novoy paradigme razvitiya neftegazovoy geologii (On a new paradigm for the development of oil and gas geology), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan': Ikhlas Publ., 2020, pp. 3–5.
3. Muslimov R.Kh., O novoy paradigme akademika A.E. Kontorovicha – razvitie neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii (On the new paradigm of Academician A.E. Kontorovich - development of the oil and gas complex of Russia), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan': Ikhlas Publ., 2020, pp. 5–13.
4. Zakirov S.N., Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S. et al., Novye printsipy i tekhnologii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (The new principles and technologies of oil and gas fields development), Part 2, Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of the computer science, 2009, 484 p.
5. Muslimov R.Kh., Osobennosti razvedki i razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v usloviyakh rynochnoy ekonomiki (Features of the exploration and development of oil fields in a market economy. Tutorial), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2009, 727 p.
6. Shchelkachev V.N., Vazhneyshie printsipy nefterazrabotki (75 let opyta) (The most important principles for the development of oil fields (75 years experience)), Moscow: Neft' i gaz, 2004, 608 p.
7. Muslimov R.Kh., Negativnoe vliyanie protsessa «stareniya» zalezhey na potentsial'nye vozmozhnosti neftedobychi i puti povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki na pozdney stadii (The negative impact of the process of "aging" of deposits on the potential of oil production and ways to improve the efficiency of development at a later stage), Collected papers “Novye idei v geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza” (New ideas in the geology and geochemistry of oil and gas), Proceedings of V international conference, Part II, Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2001.
8. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee (optimizatsiya dobychi, maksimizatsiya KIN) (Oil recovery: Past, Present, Future (production optimization, maximization of recovery factor)), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2014, 750 p.
9. Mustafin I.A., Geologo-tekhnologicheskie rezul'taty gidrodinamicheskogo metoda razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti v RF na primere supergigantov Romashkino i Samotlor (Geological and technological results of the hydrodynamic method for the development of oil fields in the Russian Federation on the example of the supergiants Romashkino and Samotlor), Kazan: Foliant Publ., 2018, 88 p.
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13. Muslimov R.Kh., Plotnikova I.N., Modeling the development of oil fields, considering the mature fields reforming and refill by the deep hydrocarbons (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 3, pp. 56–60.
14. Muslimov R.Kh., Osnovnye napravleniya sozdaniya geologicheskikh modeley dlya razvedki i razrabotki zalezhey netraditsionnykh uglevodorodov (The main directions of creating geological models for the exploration and development of deposits of unconventional hydrocarbons), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference “Modelirovanie geologicheskogo stroeniya i protsessov razrabotki – osnova uspeshnogo osvoeniya neftyanykh i neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy“ (Modeling the geological structure and development processes is the basis for the successful development of oil and oil and gas fields), 4–5 September 2018, Kazan': Slovo Publ., 2018.15. Tetel'min V.V., Russia needs a new state electrification plan (In Russ.), Moskovskiy komsomolets, 15.10.2020.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The high facies variability of V13 formation (Nepa suit) determines the reservoir properties anisotropy and the difficulty to identify promising areas for exploration and production drilling. As a result of core studies, processing and interpretation of 3D seismic survey, the detailed seismic facies model was built. Its application made possible to increase the degree of models verifiability from 15 to 85% and to optimize the number of exploration wells need to drill and to base an objective project business case. The best reservoirs were formed in the lower part of the formation, they are represented by facies of sandy fan and distribution channels, confidently identified using modern 3D seismic survey; the width of the fluvial cones ranges from 5–7 to 10–18 km, and the length from 5–8 to 20 km. According to the core, well logging and seismic data, a regular decrease in net pay to the edges of the cones is observed, and the proportion of the clay fraction increases. Uncertainty in the assessment of the vertical and lateral anisotropy of the reservoir is used for alternative concepts in 3D geological and hydrodynamic models. Developed methods and approaches, conceptual models, and the results obtained (sizes of facies bodies, their connectivity and reservoir properties) are can be used for analogous fields in the region in order to create a reliable predictive basis for drilling and production forecasting.
1. Vorob'ev V.S., Chekanov I.V., Klinovaya Ya.S., The distribution model of terrigenous reservoirs and saline sand-gravelite deposits within the fields of the central part of the Nepal arch (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2017, no. 3, pp. 47–60.
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6. Nichols G.J., Fisher J.A., Processes, facies and architecture of fluvial distributary system deposits, Sedimentary Geology, 2007, V. 195, pp. 75–90.
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It is proposed to introduce a new stage of rock transformation under technogenetic impact on it, in order to increase the efficiency of production operations - technomorphism, which cannot be identified with natural processes (lithogenesis). Technomorphism is the process of transforming rocks in reservoir conditions under a certain technogenetic impact. The purpose of studying the processes of technomorphism is to increase the efficiency of production by predicting changes in rock properties under a certain technogenetic impact on it. The study of technomorphism is considered on the example of thermal impact on oil source Upper Jurassic rocks of Western Siberia. During the air injection into the Upper Jurassic rocks, oil self-ignites and its oxidation is carried out with heat generation and temperature increasing in permeable reservoir layers. As a result, in reservoir rocks characterized by an increased content of organic matter (up to 5%), it is oxidized and the rocks acquire hydrophilic properties. During the oxygen and water injection, gypsum or anhydrite forms and seals the open porosity of the rocks. In this case, further oxygen injection becomes impossible. The scheme of changes in organic matter, minerals and the reservoir space of the rocks of the Upper Jurassic deposits depending on the temperature is proposed. The study of the technomorphism of rocks under various technogenetic impacts contributes to the understanding of changes in the mineral-component composition of rocks, porosity, various properties of rocks, which makes it possible to correct solutions aimed at developing technologies for increasing oil recovery, in particular, and production in general. The author supposes that studies of technomorphism are becoming more and more relevant due to the practical aims of human production activity.
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Evaluating of core saturation in case of oil source rocks of the Bazhenov formation by standard methods is not trivial task that hinders systematic measurements. An example is the existing method of distilling water in the Zaks (or Dean-Stark) apparatus, which does not allow to determine small amounts of water with high accuracy, in addition, the method is not "in-line" - it takes up to a week for one measurement. This leads to use for reserve calculation and planning mining values of oil saturation, which are not confirmed by actual data or determined on single core samples. The method was offered authors, based on combination of thermal and spectrometric techniques, let allowed measuring water saturation and oil saturation for core 12 oil fields. The results obtained indicate about significant variation in saturation by cross section of the Bazhenov formation, and the modal values of water saturation exceed those, that are usually used for reserve calculation. «Scale» factor significantly influences on the core properties, and actual values of water saturation may be higher. The degree of mobility of water in open porous space is important value. Established opinion that all water in the Bazhenov formation is associated with clays minerals is not confirmed by specially conducted researches. The dependence of water content and clayiness is linear with a high dispersion. The lowest values of water content tend to highly siliceous and carbonate rock, and the water in open voids is rather capillary-bound. The obtained values of chemically bound water released in process decomposition of minerals and transformation organic matter during heating, indicate high water content in closed pores. Studying of the features of water release in the temperature range corresponding to the decomposition (pyrolysis) of organic matter and minerals showed the presence of a large amount of water in closed pores.
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The Domanicoid high-carbon formation, represented by the alternation of clay-siliceous-carbonate rocks with an increased content of organic matter, covers the stratigraphic interval from the Sargayev horizon of the Upper Devonian to the lower Tournaisian stage of the Lower Carboniferous and is widespread in the east of the East European platform. The article presents the results of seismostratigraphic and cyclostratigraphic analyzes, based on the outcome thereof a regional geological model of the formation of the Domanicoid complex was developed. In the structure of the Middle Frasnian-Tournaisian Domanicoid deposits, three distinct areas were identified, differing in composition, structure, thickness and formation conditions, namely a carbonate platform, slopes, and an intrashelf depression. The revealed cyclicity in the structure of the studied complex implied that the section consisted of 4 large cyclites of the second order, the accumulation of which occurred at the stage of sea level rise on the background of general regression. Analysis of the material composition of the sediments made it possible to identify different sedimentation environments and typical sections of these areas within each cycle. The sides of the depression are composed of limestones of the shallow-water shelf, and the slopes are an alternation of detrital limestones, clayey limestones, and mixed siliceous-carbonate and carbonate-siliceous rocks. The deep-sea basin (intrashelf depression) is characterized by uncompensated sedimentation of mixed siliceous-carbonate and carbonate-siliceous rocks, with a high organic matter content (average content over 2.5 %), with which an area of Domanicoid high-carbon formation prospects is associated. The zones of the predominant development of these deposits, ranked according to the degree of prospects, have been determined. The zone of high prospects has the total thickness of high-carbon siliceous-carbonate and carbonate-siliceous rocks reaches 90–140 m and is mainly distributed in the central part of the trough.
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6. Kiryukhina T.A., Fadeeva N.P., Stupakova A.V. et al., Domanik deposits of Timano-Pechora and Volga-Ural basins (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2013, no. 3, pp. 76–87.
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In recent years, technologies of marine seismic data processing have made a huge leap due to rapid growth of computing power. Many algorithms for signal processing and depth imaging, which had no practical implementation before, now can be applied. Therefore, the question of their proper usage in the processing workflow and quality control of the results becomes as actual as never before. This paper shows an example of marine seismic data processing, acquired in different years offshore Sakhalin Island, which is characterized by complex geological conditions with the presence of near-surface gas in the upper layers of sedimentary rocks and variable acoustic characteristics of the water bottom. In the workflow various signal processing and imaging algorithms were used to improve the quality of data in order to increase the spatial and dynamic resolution for the prediction of reservoir characteristics. The ghost and multiple waves suppression, the results of the dynamic characteristics of different surveys matching are described in detail. Key results of velocity model building and prestack depth migration are also given. In conclusion, a comparison of the results of previous and new processing is given and allows to conclude that usage of modern technologies improved the dynamic characteristics and increased the resolution in the target intervals while preserving true signal characteristics. The processing approach implemented by Rosneft employees made it possible to significantly detail the geological structure of prospective deposits and identify new local prospecting targets.
1. Val'kova E.V., Kornev A.S., Nagaev R.R. et al., Tekhnologiya podavleniya voln-sputnikov s ispol'zovaniem dannykh gidrofonov blizhney zony pri obrabotke morskikh seysmicheskikh dannykh (Satellite wave suppression technology using near-field hydrophone data in marine seismic data processing), Proceedings of 22th scientific and practical conference on geological exploration and development of oil and gas fields "Geomodel 2020", Gelendzhik, September 2020, https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=44427068
2. Kornev A.S., Savitskiy L.M., Kibal'chich V.Ya. et al., Features of processing seismic data on the shelf of the Barents Sea in conditions of a “hard” water bottom (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2019, no. 3, pp. 34–40.
3. Nikul'nikov A.Yu., Gorbachev S.V., Myasoedov D.N., Nurmukhamedov T.V., The application of quantitative quality control in the processing of seismic data (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2019, no. 1, pp. 55–64.
4. Filimonov A.V., Gorbachev S.V., Lantsev V.V. et al., Features of attenuation of secondary pulsations of the source during processing of marine seismic data of different years (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2018, no. 1–2, ðð. 32–39.
5. Filimonov A.V., Myasoedov N.K., Gorbachev S.V., Broadband processing of 3D
seismic data on the example of the Black Sea shelf (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft”, 2016, no. 4, pp. 36–39.
6. Popova A.B., Gorbachev S.V., Samarkin M.A., Kurin E.A., Features of 3D data processing in solving complex problems confined to the gas anomalies of Sakhalin Shelf (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 4, pp. 28–32.
7. Bai B., Chen C., Yang M., Wan P., Ghost effect analysis and bootstrap deghosting application on marine streamer data, Proceedings of 75th EAGE Conference 2013, https://www.earthdoc.org/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201304918. Wang P., Zhuang D., Fu Z., Shen H. et al., Joint 3D source-side deghosting and designature for modern air-gun arrays, Proceedings of 77th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2015, Jun 2015, Volume 2015, pp. 1–5, https://www.earthdoc.org/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201413190
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The article describes the results of reprocessing retrospective 2D / 3D seismic data in order to obtain additional geological information on the licensed areas of Rosneft Oil Company without a significant increase in financial costs for expensive fieldwork. This is significantly important due to the beginning of a wide research of deeper prospective geological intervals in complex seismic geological conditions. First of all, it is about offshore geological exploration in shallow water and transit areas, where the cost of preparing objects is much higher than on land. Considering the fact that one of the most costly stages in the shallow water areas research is collection of primary geophysical, primarily seismic data, it becomes more and more important to re-process the previously obtained "retrospective" information using new technologies.The seismic processing workflow developed by Rosneft specialists based on new technologies (removal ghost reflection, iterative multiple wave attenuation, absorption and anisotropic migration before stacking in the deep) and allows processing without distorting the distribution of the dynamic characteristics of the seismic record. The utilization of broadband processing technology allows increasing the amount of useful geological information obtained from seismic data and thereby allows optimizing the volume of new expensive field researches. This is especially about researches in shallow water areas and in transit areas, where the primary data had characterized by the presence of a large spectrum of various interferences that significantly distort the dynamic characteristics of the wave field. The proposed approach will allow getting an idea of the geological structure of the research area in a shorter time at the licensed areas of Rosneft Oil Company. As a result, it allows preparing detailed seismic researches at an earlier date and at lower costs for well placement and exploratory drilling.
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This article discusses the results of the study of hard-to-recover reserves development features. The research was carried out at Zarubezhneft JSC and the RUDN University. Geological factors are considered that affect the effectiveness of stimulating the formation during oil and gas deposits development (maintaining formation pressure, water-gas stimulation, injection of reagents that reduce oil viscosity, steam injection, and others). The article presents an extended scheme of typing the factors that determine the existence of accumulations with hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves including the issues of such deposits development. Cases are considered when the underestimation of zones of increased permeability caused by the development of fractures determines both the practical exclusion of the upper parts of hydrocarbon deposits from the development, and the possibility of forming paths for advanced watering, which negatively affect the development of oil and gas. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of the mechanism of formation and evolution of the fractured type of voids in carbonate deposits, which makes it possible to increase the reliability of determining the nature of the distribution of this type of voids in the volume of the deposit. On the example of a number of deposits of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province, confined to carbonate reservoirs, two types of fractured layers are distinguished. The first occurs in the upper part of the strata, occurring on rocks with cavernous-pore and porous reservoir types, which are confined to parts of deposits that are often not taken into account when calculating hydrocarbon reserves. The second type is recorded in the central part of the reservoir section, which often determines the advanced waterflooding, which negatively affects the oil recovery factor.
1. Sapozhnikov A.B., Strakhov P.N., Filippov V.P. et al., Systematization of geological factors that determine the existence of hydrocarbon accumulations with hard recoverable reserves (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 10, pp. 4–9.
2. Gavrilov V.P., Forecast for potential trends of russian and global energy complex development (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2016, no. 5, pp. 24–31.
3. Strakhov P.N., Belova A.A., Markelova A.A., Strakhova E.P., Accounting for productive deposits heterogeneity in geological modeliling in order to improve an efficiency of water-alternated-gas injection (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 2, pp. 46–49.
4. Strakhov P.N., Sapozhnikov A.B., Bogdanov O.A., Prospects for increasing oil production due to the development of accumulations with hard-to-recover reserves of deposits of the famennian stage in the southwestern part of the khorever depression (In Russ.), Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov, 2017, no. 4, pp. 24–27.
5. Strakhov P.N., Bogdanov O.A., Koloskov V.N., Sapozhnikov A.B., Localization of objects with hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves in the composition of deposits confined to carbonate deposits (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnika v gazovoy promyshlennosti, 2017, no. 4, pp. 3–11.
6. Strakhov P.N., Reasons for the weakening of correlations between sedimentation conditions and capacity properties of carbonate deposits during their lithogenesis (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1996, no. 9, pp. 30–37.
7. Strakhov P.N., Formirovanie kaverno-porovogo prostranstva v karbonatnykh otlozheniyakh (Formation of cavernous pore space in carbonate sediments), Moscow: Marketing Publ., 2005, 76 p.
8. Ar'e A.G., Fizicheskie osnovy fil'tratsii podzemnykh vod (Physical principles of groundwater filtration), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 101 p.9. Carbonates: Mineralogy and chemistry: edited by Reeder R.J., Mineral. Soc. Amer. Reviews in Mineralogy, 1983.
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The explosive growth of horizontal sidetrack wells drilling has led to the large-scale geosteering development to maintain such wells. It turned out to be an important issue to improve well-drilling efficiency. For effective horizontal well-drilling in the difficult geological conditions there is used logging while drilling complex, which is often more comprehensive than in the controlled directional wells. Normally there is a distance to the bit up to 20 m (non-measurement zone from the drill bit to the logging tools) for some well-logging methods resulting in a delay in decision-making and the well-drilling efficiency is less than it could be. The solution is using at-bit sensors, which allow determining the required well-logging parameter on the bit (usually it is gamma-log or electrical resistivity). A possible alternative or addition to the existing solutions might be the use of geological well testing data. However, the current level of geological well testing in Russia is in such state that it isn’t possible to rely on the received data to make decisions concerning wells geosteering. Situation is especially crucial when it comes to the geological information (sludge diagram, gas logging). Despite this, the technological parameters registered by geological well testing station are continually used for the purposes of accident-free drilling. Therefore, it was decided to come up with an algorithm by which it would be possible to predict the reservoir presence based on the drilling mechanics data (drilling technological parameters).
The article describes the algorithm that makes it possible to predict porosity and density log on a bit for Western Siberia terrigenous deposits during the rotary drilling of wells. Algorithm design is performed by adjusting the parameters of the drilling mechanics to well logging data and well log interpretation results. As a result of the adjustment a number of conceptual remarks were made concerning the different physics of analysis of rock properties for the particular point according to the drilling mechanics data and well logging data that allow to explain the processes during drilling and to predict the properties on the bit. The final algorithm requires well logging calibration during drilling the first 100-150 m of the horizontal section of the well.
1. Luk'yanov E.E., Kayurov K.N., Shibaev A.A., Shrago I.L., 50 years of geological and technological research (GTI) in Russia. History. A new look at the development of the GTI in Russia (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2018, no. 7/8, pp. 2–9.
2. Luk'yanov E.E. et al., An extensive research is required for the effective studying and drilling of horizontal wells (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2019, no. 4(298), pp. 114-–134.
3. Luk'yanov E.E., Geologo-tekhnologicheskie i geofizicheskie issledovaniya v protsesse bureniya (Geological, technological and geophysical surveys while drilling.), Novosibirsk: Istoricheskoe nasledie Sibiri Publ., 2009, 752 p.
4. Luk'yanov E.E., Informatsionno-izmeritel'nye sistemy geologo-tekhnologicheskikh i geofizicheskikh issledovaniy v protsesse bureniya (Information and measuring systems for geological, technological and geophysical research while drilling), Novosibirsk: Istoricheskoe nasledie Sibiri Publ., 2010, 816 p.
5. Luk'yanov E.E., Interpretatsiya dannykh GTI (Interpretation of geological and technical research data), Novosibirsk: Istoricheskoe nasledie Sibiri Publ., 2011, 944 p.
6. Luk'yanov E.E., Petrofizicheskaya model' protsessa bureniya – osnova interpretatsii dannykh GTI (Petrophysical model of the drilling process - the basis for interpretation of well logging data), Novosibirsk: Istoricheskoe nasledie Sibiri Publ., 2015, 312 p.
7. Luk'yanov E.E., Kudasheva S.V., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po interpretatsii dannykh GTI (Methodological recommendations for the interpretation of geological and technical research data), Novosibirsk: Istoricheskoe nasledie Sibiri Publ., 2016, 512 p.8. Luk'yanov E.E., Geomekhanicheskoe modelirovanie v protsesse stroitel'stva skvazhin (Geomechanical modeling during well construction), Novosibirsk: Istoricheskoe nasledie Sibiri Publ., 2018, 720 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Restricting the use of gas enhanced oil recovery methods for low-permeability reservoirs, including pressures exceeding 40-60 MPa, is caused by high capital costs for increasing the injection pressure of the displacing agent. The paper proposes a solution aimed at improving the efficiency of the development of low-permeability oil deposits in multilayer oil and gas fields by using gas or gas condensate deposits of this field as a source of the injected agent. Oil and gas deposits must intersect in plan. The solution does not imply the use of equipment for increasing the gas pressure during injection into the oil reservoir, but provides for the use of equipment to control and regulate the pressure and flow rate of the injected agent. For the considered conditions of the Achimov deposits with abnormally high pressure, the proposed method of developing a low-permeability oil reservoir of a multilayer oil and gas condensate field is implemented in two stages. At the first stage, the oil reservoir is developed by depletion by one of the known systems of horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. At the second stage, some of the wells are perforated at a depth of gas or gas condensate formation and downhole equipment is installed for simultaneous separate production and compressorless gas injection. Simulation of the proposed method was carried out in the compositional simulator GEM (CMG) to reproduce the process of miscible displacement of oil by hydrocarbon gas. As a result of a series of multivariate calculations of technological development indicators, restrictions on the bottomhole pressure of injection wells were obtained, which ensure the achievement of the maximum recovery factor under the given conditions. The estimation of the minimum ratio of gas volume of a gas reservoir to the volume of oil of an oil reservoir for the implementation of the method is carried out.
1. Soin D.A., Skorobogatov V.A., Kovaleva E.D., Peculiarities of estimating potential hydrocarbon resources of Achim and Lower-Middle- Jurassic deposits at northern regions of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki, 2016, no. 1 (25), pp. 16–22.
2. Messoyakhaneftegaz nachal polnomasshtabnuyu razrabotku achimovskikh zalezhey (Messoyakhaneftegaz begins full-scale development of the Achimov deposits), Neftegaz.RU, URL: https://neftegaz.ru/news/dobycha/499621-messoyakhaneftegaz-nachal-polnomasshtabnuyu-razrabotku-achim...
3. Lake L.W., Enhanced oil recovery, Prentice Hall, Cop., 1989, 550 p.
4. Boyko V.S., Razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Development and operation of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 427 p.
5. Nazarova L.N., Karpov S.N., Evaluation of efficiency of gas injection technology in low-permeable multiplayer objects (In Russ.), Territoriya neftegaz, 2019, no. 9, pp. 58–63.
6. Patent RU 1239276 SU, Method of sustaining formations pressure in oil reservoir, Inventor: Aliev A.I.
7. Patent RU 2295632 C1, Method for well drilling and development of multihorizon hydrocarbon field characterized by non-uniform geological conditions of productive bed attitudes, Inventors: Vitjazev O.L., Dorofeev A.A., Medvedskij R.I., Popov A.P., Rjazanov A.N., Khajrullin B.J., Khudajnatov E.J.
8. Patent SU 1678110 A1, Method of developing oil and gas-condensate pool with oil and gas condensate beds situated one over the other, Inventors: Stepanova G.S., Skripka V.G., Konyshev B.I., Zhustarev V.V., Mordukhaev M.Kh., Mosina A.A.
9. Vafin T.R., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologiy vodogazovogo vozdeystviya na plast na nestatsionarnom rezhime (Improvement of technologies for water-gas stimulation of the reservoir in a non-stationary mode): thesis of candidate of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2016.
10. Patent RU 2737043 C1, Method for development of oil reservoir of multi-layer oil and gas condensate deposit, Inventors: Pyatibratov P.V., Kalinin D.S.
11. Krasnoborov S.V., Byakov A.V., Evaluation of injection agent selection for Achimovsky deposits development in Western Siberia with hard to recover oil and abnormally high formation pressure (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 9, pp. 44–46.
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Development of heterogeneous reservoirs is accompanied by premature water-cutting of wells caused by water breaks through the most permeable layers, and is characterized by low reservoir sweep by the development and production of significant volumes of associated produced water with low-efficiency injection. To improve the efficiency of field development, technologies are used to regulate the coverage of reservoirs by flooding and water inflow shut-off. The standard procedures have a number of disadvantages, including a short period of technological effect. New generation thermotropic compositions based on titanium coagulant have been developed. The resulting gels are superior in structural and mechanical properties (viscosity and strength) to gels of analogous compositions. The composition of Reagent TK-2, used in procedures for increasing the coverage of reservoirs by flooding and leveling the pick-up profiles, is significantly superior in structural and mechanical properties (by 1.4–2.2 times) to the compositions of GALKA-S, THERMOGOS and RV-3P-1 MS, widely used in Western Siberia at reservoir temperatures of 70–98 °C, and the composition of Reagent TK-4 is superior to analogues developed for reservoirs with temperatures less than 60 °C. The results of field tests in injection wells indicate a higher technological efficiency. Additional oil production is more than 2 times higher than the efficiency parameters when using procedures-analogues. To gas and water inflow shut-off, the composition Reagent TK-10 was developed. Filtration studies have established that the resulting gels can withstand a pressure drop of about 4.5 MPa/m. The results of work on producing wells also confirmed the high inflow shut-off properties composition of Reagent TK-10. Geophysical studies have confirmed the absence of inflow from the watered interval of the formation. According to the results of the measures carried out, the production of liquid from the treated wells was reduced by 2.5–10 times while maintaining the oil flow rate. It is concluded the integrated application of measures to control reservoir sweep by flooding through injection wells and water inflow control into production wells, can significantly increase the technical and economic indicators of nature water-cut fields development.
1. Ivanova M.M., Dinamika dobychi nefti iz zalezhey (Dynamics of oil production from deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 246 p.
2. Mulyak V.V., Chertenkov M.V., Veremko N.A., Golden miles in oil recovery (In Russ.), SPE-184385-RU, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2118/184385-MS.
3. RD 39-0147428-235-89, Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po tekhnologii provedeniya indikatornykh issledovaniy i interpretatsii ikh rezul'tatov dlya regulirovaniya i kontrolya protsessa zavodneniya neftyanykh zalezhey (Guidance on the technology for conducting indicator studies and interpreting their results to regulate and control the process of waterflooding of oil deposits), Groznyy: Publ. of SevKavNIPIneft', 1989, 79 p.
4. Mulyak V.V., Poroshin V.D., Gattenberger Yu.P. et al., Gidrokhimicheskie metody analiza i kontrolya razrabotki neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Hydrochemical methods of analysis and control of oil and gas fields development), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2007, 245 p.
5. Mulyak V.V., The analysis of features of flooding of Permian-Carbonian oil pool of Usinskoye field according to hydrochemical data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 11, pp. 109–111.
6. Mulyak V.V., Hydrochemical control of oil field development (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 4, pp. 25–31.
7. Danilova E.A., Chernokozhev D.A., Application of computer technology for express analysis and interpretation of the results of tracer studies to determine the quality of production of oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2007, no. 1, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Danilova/Danilova_1.pdf
8. Kononenko A.A., Kusakin V.Yu., Mulyavin S.F., Evaluation of the effectiveness of the methods of injectivity profile smoothing with the use of tracer studies in the fields of Gazpromneft-NNG (In Russ.), Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2015, no. 1–1, URL: http://science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=18928
9. Sannikov V.A., K metodike izucheniya treshchinovatosti i fil'tratsionnoy neodnorodnosti zavodnennykh plastov po dannym trassirovaniya potokov indikatorami. Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (On the method of studying fracturing and filtration heterogeneity of flooded formations based on the data of tracing flows with indicators. Theory and practice of enhanced oil recovery methods), Proceedings of International Scientific Symposium, Part 2, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2008, pp. 210–216.
10. Stupochenko V.E., Dyabin A.G., Sorkin A.Ya. et al., Opyt primeneniya fiziko-khimicheskikh metodov regulirovaniya protsessa zavodneniya (Experience in the application of physicochemical methods for regulating the waterflooding process), Proceedings of VNIIneft, 2005, no. 132, pp. 88–97.
11. Khisamov R.S., Gazizov A.A., Gazizov A.Sh., Uvelichenie okhvata produktivnykh plastov vozdeystviem (Increasing the coverage of productive strata by), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2003, 568 p.
12. Patent RU 2693104 C1, Composition of reagent for development of oil field by flooding and method of its application, Inventors: Mulyak V.V., Veremko N.A.
13. Patent RU 2735821 C1, Method of increasing oil recovery of formations, Inventors: Mulyak V.V., Veremko N.A.14. Patent RU 2716316 C1, Oil deposit development method, Inventors: Mulyak V.V., Veremko N.A.
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Recording of the build-up curve (BC) is one of the main and most common types of well testing. However, the implementation and interpretation of the BC in low permeability reservoirs faces a number of difficulties, primarily related to the insufficient duration of well shutting-in, as well as requirement for a stable rate before well test. This paper is devoted to the development of an approach to the interpretation of reservoir pressure based on BC in low permeability reservoirs, devoid of mentioned disadvantages. The proposed method is based on the general form of solving the single-phase flow equation (diffusion equation) in a heterogeneous reservoir. The desired pressure distribution in the reservoir can be described through a series of the diffusion equation eigenfunctions. The eigen functions can change depending on the distribution of reservoir pressure at the time of well shutting-in, but the eigenvalues are constant and characterize the reservoir properties only. Earlier works have already described some possibilities for the restoration of the BC based on this principle, but our calculations shows that this approach is poorly applicable to low permeability reservoirs due to the need for a long well shutting time to calculate the eigenvalues. In this paper, the authors modified the method so that after evaluation the eigen functions and eigen values in one long-term study, it was possible to use them for short-term BCs interpretation. This allows us to carry out the so-called "accumulated interpretation", improving reservoir pressure estimation in each study. Paper provides an example of application of the proposed approach to improve reservoir pressure estimation in low permeability reservoirs during short well stops using the information from long-term well shutting-in. In contrast to traditional approaches of build-up interpretation, the proposed technique is applicable to a well of arbitrary completion in a heterogeneous reservoir. The proposed approach is verified both for synthetic examples and for field cases. The use of the method in real wells is demonstrated by the low-permeability reservoirs in the Orenburg region and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district. It is shown that the proposed approaches allow to carry out short BCs for monitoring reservoir pressure.
1. Horner D.R., Pressure build-up in wells, WPC 4135.
2. Coats K.H., Rapoport L.A., McCord J.R., Drews W.P., Determination of aquifer influence function from field data, SPE-897-PA, 1964.
3. Gavalas G.R., Seinfeld J.H., Reservoirs with spatially varying properties: estimation of volume from late transient pressure data, SPE 4169-PA, 1973.
4. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v prirodnykh plastakh (Movement of liquids and gases in natural reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 211 p.
5. Crump J.G., Hite R.H., A new method for estimating average reservoir pressure: The muskat plot revisited, SPE-1027330-PA, 2008, DOI: 10.2118/102730-PA.
6. Yudin E., Galyautdinov I., Piotrovskiy G. et al., Approach to determining the optimal parameters of well performance in fractured reservoirs with a gas cap: Orenburg GCF case study, SPE-196852-RU, 2019, DOI: 10.2118/196852-MS.
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A key element in the life cycle of offshore oil and gas facilities and offshore facilities is the development of design documentation. The design stage is an important stage during which the efficiency of both construction, operation, modernization and subsequent decommissioning of these facilities is laid down. One of the most acute issues is excessive requirements for design documentation, which contribute to the emergence of administrative barriers and increased costs, both time and financial costs for the development of design documentation. All this leads to unreasonable expenses and increase of investment project implementation terms.
The article considers the principle of composition and development of project documentation for the organization of construction and repair of offshore oil and gas and offshore facilities in the fields of Vietsovpetro JV. The separation of work into the main groups of capital construction and repair facilities of Vietsovpetro JV is described. It is considered the experience of the organization, composition, structure and scope of design documentation to provide construction and installation work, as onshore construction sites, and for offshore operations in the fields of Vietsovpetro JV to ensure the construction of new oil and gas facilities, commissioning, modernization and subsequent decommissioning of existing facilities previously put into operation. The design experience in Vietsovpetro JV allows avoiding excessive detailing of design solutions and reducing the sections of the design documentation to a number sufficient for the subsequent qualitative design and construction of offshore oil and gas facilities and offshore facilities with appropriate measures of safety, reliability and efficiency.
1. Karaev R.N., Razuvaev V.N., Portnoy A.S., Okeanotekhnika i morskie operatsii na shel'fe (Ocean engineering and offshore operations), St. Petersburg: Morintekh Publ., 2008, 516 p.2. Val'dman N.A., Zharkikh N.V., Karaev V.A., Primenenie kriteriev bezopasnosti dlya otsenki riska morskikh operatsiy (Application of safety criteria to assess the risk of offshore operations), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Krylov State Scientific Center, 2018, 174 p.
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|Oil & Gas News|
The article discusses the problem of optimal well placement, it is proposed to solve it using the Alpha Zero reinforcement learning algorithm, which has proven itself as an artificial intelligence for games and for solving optimization problems in quantum optimal control theory. It is assumed that it can be no less effective in solving the problem of optimal well placement. The main components of the algorithm that influence decision making are the Monte Carlo tree search and the neural network. To select the location of the next well, a limited number of simulations are carried out along the tree, the root of which is the current sector from which the selection is made. During simulations, different tree branches are explored and new nodes are added for unexplored branches. The neural network gives an estimate of the NPV for the unexplored variant branches and the desirability of the following actions. As states in our approach, we will consider sectors of a fixed size, taken from a hydrodynamic model (hereinafter HDM), calculated for the entire field. Each sector is characterized by maps of properties of the HDM cut along the contour of the sector. Additionally, a vector of economic parameters is set. Note that a great advantage of the chosen approach is that there is no need for a complete enumeration of placement options - only branches with good estimates are revealed more deeply. The results of the system prototype operation according to the developed algorithm are presented and a brief comparison with the results of a hydrodynamic simulator is made. The developed prototype showed correct operation for synthetic models during the placement of production wells. The proposed well placement algorithm has shown its performance, comparable to the results of the hydrodynamic simulator.
1. Sugaipov D.A., Nekhaev S.A., Perevozkin I.V., et al., Optimization of well pattern for oil rim fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 12, pp. 44–46.
2. Vladimirov I.V., Al'mukhametova E.M., Efficient location of the rows of injection and production wells in high viscosity oil deposits with extended reservoir tightness zones (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2019, no. 3, pp. 62–74.
3. Ilsik Jang, Seeun Oh, Yumi Kim et al., Well-placement optimization using sequential artificialneural networks, Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 2018, V. 36 (3), pp. 433–449.
4. Hamida Z., Azizi F., Saad G., An efficient geometry-based optimization approach for well placement in oil fields, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2017, V. 149, pp. 383–392.
5. Silver D. et al., A general reinforcement learning algorithm that masters chess, shogi, and Go through self-play, Science, 2018, V. 362, no. 6419, pp. 1140–1144.
6. Pumperla M., Ferguson K., Deep learning and the game of Go, Manning, 2019, V. 231, pp. 279.
7. Dalgaard M. et al., Global optimization of quantum dynamics with AlphaZero deep exploration, npj Quantum Information, 2020, V. 6, no. 1, DOI: 10.1038/s41534-019-0241-0
8. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Khisamutdinov N.I., Taziev M.Z. et al., Sovremennye metody resheniya inzhenernykh zadach na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Modern methods for solving engineering problems at a late stage of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2000, 104 p.
9. Lozhkin A., Bozek P., Maiorov K., The method of high accuracy calculation of robot trajectory for the complex curve, Management Systems in Production Engineering, 2020, V. 28, no. 4, pp. 247-252.10. Božek P. et al., Information technology and pragmatic analysis, Computing and informatics, 2018, V. 37, no. 4, pp. 1011–1036.
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The digital twins are one of the necessary attributes of digitalization of the industrial facilities and technological processes. Gathering data from sensors and measuring devices they model behavior of the facility or the process and marks risks and deviations from the normal work and provide the optimal way of the system operation. Oil and gas production today is one of the industry leaders in the application of digital twins to improve the production efficiency. This is so because such factors, as the diversity of output processes (reservoir engineering, well construction, artificial lift, oil transport and treatment, refining of hydrocarbon raw materials), the existence of large volume of industrial information and high level of automation (high accuracy sensors and analyzers, systems of telemechanic and telemetry, industrial databases, special software for modeling), high return on investment (by increasing of oil production and decreasing OPEX and CAPEX). In Bashneft PJSOC the concept of maximum involvement of the digital twins in oil and gas production processes is taken into service.
In this paper, the description of a digital twin of an artificial lift well equipped by the electric submersible pump is presented, which allows minimizing risks of complications during bringing the well on to stable production and to reduce the oil losses. The digital twin contains the model of elements of the well and pump installation, algorithms of adjustment to field measurements and algorithms of the forecast of the well and equipment operation. All this together enables to use it during all the stages of bringing the well on to stable production starting from initial state up to the moment of bringing the well on to stable production.
1. Grieves M., Origins of the digital twin concept. Working paper, Florida: Institute of Technology, 2016, 7 p.
2. Saddik A.El., Digital twins: The convergence of multimedia technologies, IEEE MultiMedia, 2018, no 25 (2), pp. 87–92.
3. Carvajal G., Mausec M., Cullick S., Intelligent digital oil and gas fields: Concepts, collaboration, and right–time decisions, Cambridge: Unitied States, 2018, 357 p.
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5. Kostyukov V.E., Zhigalov V.I.., Kibkalo A.A., Baturin V.P., Digital subsea production facility (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2018, no. 12, pp. 21–23.
6. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, V.17, 1999, 164 p.
7. Topol'nikov A.S., Obosnovanie primeneniya kvazistatsionarnoy modeli pri opisanii periodicheskogo rezhima raboty skvazhiny (Justification of the application of the quasi-stationary model in the description of the periodic well operation mode), Proceedings of Institute of Mechanics. R.R. Mavlyutova, 2017, V. 12, no. 1, pp. 15–26.
8. Topol'nikov A.S., Primenenie metodov matematicheskogo modelirovaniya pri kontrole i optimizatsii nestatsionarnogo rezhima raboty neftyanoy skvazhiny (Application of mathematical modeling methods for monitoring and optimization of unsteady operation of an oil well), Proceedings of Institute of Mechanics. R.R. Mavlyutova, 2016, V. 11, no. 1, pp. 53–59.
9. Volkov M.G., Optimization of low productivity wells cyclic operating (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2017, V. 15, no. 1, pp. 70–74.
10. Andriasov R.S., Mishchenko I.T., Petrov A.I. et al., Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu razrabotki i ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Dobycha nefti (Reference guide for the design, development and operation of oil fields. Oil production): edited by Gimatudinov Sh.K., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 455 p.
11. Marquez M., Modeling downhole natural separation: PhD dissertation, Tulsa, 2004, 154 p.
12. Pashali A.A., Mikhaylov V.G., Topol'nikov A.S., Flow rate retrieval on the basis of algorithms of the “virtual flowmeter” for wells testing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 63–67.
13. Volkov M.G., Dynamic models of flowing and mechanized oil producing wells to analyze their stability and control (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 4, pp. 17–20.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
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The design, selection of materials and manufacturing technology of equipment and hydrocarbon pipeline transportation system were always based on traditional regulation requirements for the strength of the system, obtained on the basis of traditional calculations. However, with this approach, it was not possible to avoid significant quantity of pipeline equipment failures on all stages of its life cycle which demanded further development of both existing deterministic calculations and justification of transition to new statistical and probability calculations, allowing to consider such factors as operation period, loading cyclicity, actual stress-strain state, variations in time of elements mechanical characteristics of transport system and possible directional properties. The suggested approaches allowed to reduce existing deterministic safety factors for shell-type and hull structures without decreasing the reliability of the hydrocarbon transport system and obtain significant economic effect. Following optimization of strength margin and evaluation of performance efficiency of functional structures is impossible without expansion of data.
Evaluation of performance efficiency of such complex and heavily loaded structures as plunger pumps was always related to uncertainty due to the presence of big number of structural elements, which are equally responsible for reaching facility’s limit state at load. Such scatter of indices of yield strength of steel 34XN3M, out of which the bodies of plunger pumps are manufactured, can reach 20%. The technology of plunger manufacturing consists of overlaying with subsequent plasma spraying onto the operating surface of plunger of high-strength wear resistance materials. Deterministic approaches for evaluation of strength of such structural elements shall be enhanced with statistical and probability methods. The performed analysis of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of plunger pump parts allowed to perform ranking according to wear rate and the level of changes to physical and mechanical properties in the process of continuous operation and to determine the parts, the wear or changes in load-bearing capacity of which will lead to the failure of the plunger pump.
1. Makhutov N.A. et al., Analysis of stress-strain and limit states in extremely loaded zones of machines and constructions (In Russ.), Chebyshevskiy sbornik, 2017, no. 3(18), pp. 394–416.
2. Neganov D.A., Damage and strength analysis of long-term oil and gas chemical equipment materials (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, no. 2(18), pp. 105–111.
3. Lanchakov G.A., Zorin E.E., Stepanenko A.I., Lanchakov G.A., Zorin E.E., Stepanenko A.I., Corrosion-mechanical strength and statistics of pipeline failures (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 1991, no. 10, pp. 14–19.
4. Makhutov N.A., Gadelin M.M., Neganov D.A., Risks and safety of power-generating equipment (In Russ.), Elektricheskie stantsii, 2017, no. 2, pp. 2–9.
5. Neganov D.A., Goncharov N.G., Investigation of cast pump bodies defects and development of a repair technology for them (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5, pp. 84–89.6. Zorin E.E., Lanchakov G.A., Stepanenko A.I., Rabotosposobnost' truboprovodov (Pipeline performance), Part 1. Raschetnaya i ekspluatatsionnaya nadezhnost' (Design and operational reliability), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 244 p.
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The article highlights geological and physical features of the pre-Jurassic Triassic complex. Promising targets for prospecting and exploration of oil depositions have been outlined. Consistent patterns associated with reservoir type and dynamic parameters of wells have been identified. Mixed type wells (porous-fractured, porous and fractured) demonstrate a relatively stable production rate. Wells with predominantly fractured reservoir type demonstrate a rapid decline in production. Oil production from wells of the pre-Jurassic complex (the Triassic period) is performed using electrical submersible pumps (ESP). High formation temperature of 116°C, total salt content of about 50 g/l in the produced formation fluid, GOR over 120 m3/m3 are considered as complicating factors for the Triassic target operation. Decrease in the time between failures in the wells of the pre-Jurassic complex (the Triassic period) is caused by the formation of salt residues. Measures were taken to increase the mean time between failures of ESP units. The well stock has been divided into groups; salt hazard categories have been identified for each well group. Criteria for the use of additional ESP units at the salt hazardous well stock of the pre-Jurassic complex (the Triassic period) have been identified. The methodology for the use of an inhibitor for salt depositions has been developed to determine the priority of wells treatment. The saturation index has been defined taking into account the temperature increase in the pump to improve the efficiency of forecasting salt depositions formation in wells of the pre-Jurassic Triassic complex. The methodologies applied to the wells of the pre-Jurassic complex (the Triassic period) allowed to achieve the mean time between failures of 637 days and to increase the work efficiency at the salt hazardous well stock.
1. Shuster V.L., Punanova S.A., Samoylova A.V., Problems of searching and exploring for commercial oil and gas accumulations in fracture-cavernous massive rocks of Pre-Jurassic complex of West Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 2, pp. 26–33.
2. Meshcheryakova K.A., Karaseva T.V., The formation peculiarities of the Triassic troughs of the north of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2010, V. 5, no. 3, pp. 1–11.
3. Shadrina S.V., Kondakov A.P., New data on the basement of the north-eastern framing of Krasnoleninskiy arch (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 94-99.
4. Tseplyaeva A.I., Modelirovanie zalezhey nefti v kollektorakh paleozoyskogo fundamenta na osnove kompleksirovaniya geologo-geofizicheskikh i promyslovykh dannykh (na primere odnogo iz mestorozhdeniy Krasnoleninskogo svoda) (Modeling of oil deposits in reservoirs of the Paleozoic basement based on the integration of geological-geophysical and field data (on the example of one of the fields of the Krasnoleninsky arch)): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Tyumen, 2018.
5. Makeev A.A., Methods for increasing the service life of the ESP on the complicated well stock of the Oktyabrsky district (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2017, no. 5.
6. Makeev A.A., Leont'ev S.A., Shchelokov D.V., Shay E.L., Criteria for the introduction of gas-stabilizing devices in the wells of high-temperature reservoirs of the Krasnoleninsky arch deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 1, pp. 66–67.
7. Makeev A.A., Shchelokov D.V., Shay E.L., Chirkov M.V., Efficiency of electric centrifugal pumps application for oil production from wells of pre-Jurassic formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 8, pp. 74-76.8. Makeev A.A., Shchelokov D.V., Shay E.L., Complications during the operation of wells of high-temperature deposits in the Oktyabrsky region (Krasnolensky arch) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 42-44.
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The article presents algorithm for calculating the pressure-flow characteristics, which will allow calculating the optimal speed of rotation of a progressing cavity pump (PCP) for oil production, depending on the swelling of the elastomer, the viscosity of the liquid and the gas content. To quantify the deviation of the actual feed and head values from the nominal values, the following coefficients are proposed: the flow deviation coefficient and the maximum pressure deviation coefficient. To quantify the influence of operating factors on the pressure characteristics of the proposed coefficients: the coefficient of swelling elastomer, coefficient of pressure in the working volume, the pressure coefficient on the rotational speed, the coefficient of pressure on the viscosity and the coefficient of pressure on the gas content. Based on analytical studies, it was found that the pressure and flow characteristics of PCP with uneven elastomer thickness significantly depend on the operating parameters. For example, the maximum pressure developed by the pump increases by 2–3 times with an increase in viscosity from 1 to 800 mPa∙s, and with a change in the flow deviation coefficient from 0.979 to 1.11, it decreases by 1.5–2 times. A change in the limit pressure causes a change in the speed of rotation necessary to ensure the calculated values of supply and pressure. The required speed to ensure the design values of supply and pressure for pumps with uneven elastomer thickness depends on operational factors to a greater extent for electric PCP than for sucker-rod screw pumps, with elastomer swelling being the most significant factor. For example, the rotation speed for electric PCP when the elastomer swells by 10 % can be reduced by 30 %, and for sucker-rod screw pump – by 21 %. The proposed algorithm for calculating the characteristics can be used in the development of a software product – a simulator of the pressure-flow characteristics of PCP.
1. Valovskiy V.M., Vintovye nasosy dlya dobychi nefti (Screw pumps for oil extraction), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2012, 248 p.
2. Baldenko D.F. Baldenko F.D. Gnoevykh A.N., Odnovintovye gidravlicheskie mashiny (Single screw hydraulic machine), Moscow: Publ. of OOO IRTs Gazprom, 2005, 488 p.
3. Urazakov K.R., Timashev E.O., Molchanova V.A., Volkov M.G., Spravochnik po dobyche nefti (Handbook of oil production), Perm: Aster Plus Publ., 2020, 600 p.
4. Timashev E.O., Moguchev A.I., Vliyanie natyaga v pare rotor – stator vintovogo zaboynogo dvigatelya na ego rabochie kharakteristiki (Influence of the preload in the rotor-stator pair of the downhole drilling motor on its performance), Proceedings of II All-Russian educational-scientific-methodical conference. Scientific and methodological section, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2004, pp. 203–205.
5. Timashev E.O., Yamaliev V.U., Brot A.R. et al., Bench studies of the performance of single-screw multi-flow pumps at low rotor speeds (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2008, no. 6–1, pp. 137–141.
6. Volkov M.G., Khalfin R.S., Brot A.R. et al., Method of calculation and selection of designs installations of PCP pumps with submersible and surface drive for oil production (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2018, no. 6, pp. 32–37.
7. Korotaev Yu.A., Alpatov A.N., Trubin A.S. et al., Methods and means of control of gear surfaces of gerotor mechanisms of downhole drilling motors and pumps (In Russ.), Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov, 2011, no. 1, pp. 10–14.
8. Pashali A.A., Mikhaylov V.G., Use of the "virtual flow meter" algorithm in bringing the oil wells on to stable production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 10, pp. 82–85.
9. Gamboa J., Olivet A., Espin S., New approach for modeling progressive cavity pumps performance, SPE-84137-MS, 2003, https://doi.org/10.2118/84137-MS.
10. Agrawal N., Baid R., Mishra L. et al., Quick look methodology for progressive cavity pump sizing and performance monitoring, SPE-178097-MS, 2015. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/SPE-178097-MS.
11. Desheng Zhou, Hong Yuan, Design of progressive cavity pump wells, SPE-113324-MS, 2008, https://doi.org/10.2118/113324-MS.12. Karassik I.J., Messina J.P., Cooper P., Heald C.C., Pump handbook, McGraw-Hill, 2001, 1789 r.
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The article considers the peculiarities of the processes of prevention of intensive formation of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits (ARPD) and their removal in the wells of the fields operated by Bashneft-Polyus LLC. The characteristic features of deposit formation kinetics from high-paraffin oil of R. Trebs and A. Titov fields are described, taking into account their high melting temperature, which creates additional difficulties in the application of technologies to prevent their formation and removal. The factor analysis ascertained the influence of well operation parameters and product composition on the ARPD formation depth and determined the most significant parameters in assessing the risks of this complicating factor. The efficiency of applied technologies for controlling paraffin-type organic deposits was evaluated and analyzed in order to improve technologies efficiency without negative impact on the oil production process. The reasons for frequent operations to remove paraffin deposits with scrapers, including those complicated by emergency well operations, were investigated. The area of the highest risk of pigging was substantiated, which will allow reducing the number of complications when selecting technology parameters. Suggestions for increasing the efficiency of ARPD prevention and removal technologies were developed. A matrix of applicability of the most effective technologies for preventing and removing paraffin-type paraffin-type paraffin deposits with a high melting point was developed adapted to the conditions of the R. Trebs and A. Titov fields.
1. Ilyushin D.V., Stock dynamics and operating experience of wells complicated by ARPD at Bashneft-Polyus LLC (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2018, no. 4, pp. 28–31.
2. Alferov A.V., Lutfrakhmanov A.G., Litvinenko K.V. et al., Selection of artificial lift method considering production problems on R. Trebs oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 108–112.
3. Nikulin V.Yu., Zeygman Yu.V., Increase of the temperature forecast accuracy along the wellbore with account of the products movement and degassing specific features (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 4(606), pp. 64–68.
4. Nikulin V.Yu., Kostin D.S., Mikhaylov A.G., Shakirov E.I., Using the heating cable for paraffin control in wells of R. Trebs oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 4, pp. 89–93.
5. Markin A.N., Nizamov R.E., Sukhoverkhov S.V., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya: prakticheskoe rukovodstvo (Oilfield chemistry: a practical guide), Vladivostok: Dal'nauka Publ., 2011, 288 p.
6. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Gerin Yu.G., Preduprezhdenie i ustranenie asfal'tenosmoloparafinovykh otlozheniy (Prevention and elimination of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits), In: Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry), Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2009, Part 5, 475 p.7. Ivanova L.V., Burov E.A., Koshelev V.N., Asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits in the processes of oil production, transportation and storage (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business , 2011, no. 1, pp. 268–284, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/IvanovaLV/IvanovaLV_1.pdf
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Oil production is accompanied by the impact of the oil-water liquid and the gas phase with the simultaneous effect of temperature and aggressive substances on the oilfield equipment. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of parts made of elastomers during the operation of progressing cavity pumps (PCP) affect the amount of tension and the adhesion of the elastomer to the pump body – the main operating parameters. Available in the scientific literature the results of precision and laboratory studies of rubber compounds show that the issues of the influence of operating conditions on the physical and chemical properties of elastomers are not sufficiently studied. A new approach to the research of the effect of butadiene-nitrile elastomers on the effects of various factors is proposed, using modern physical and chemical methods and modeling their effect under operating conditions. The elastomer research methodology includes tests: fluid resistance, static tension and compression, elastomer-to-core adhesion, friction and wear, dynamic thermogravimetric analysis, elastomer fracture kinetics, and surface micrographs. The methodology was tested by conducting test experiments. A significant quantitative change in the geometric dimensions, strength and adhesive properties was found when changing the influencing factors. For example, at an overpressure of 3.0 MPa, the swelling of the elastomer and the swelling stress on the depressions are 1.6 times greater than on the protrusions. At an excess pressure of 3.0 MPa, compared to 0.1 MPa, for example, on the protrusions, the swelling of the elastomer and the swelling stress are reduced by 2.6 and 2.1 times, respectively. It is shown that dynamic thermogravimetric analysis makes it possible to determine changes in the structure of the elastomer for different operating conditions. Conducting studies of elastomers according to the proposed method will allow us to assess the compliance of the elastomer with the conditions of its use, classify the causes of low operating times, minimize risks when choosing equipment and ensure high operating times for ÐÑÐ for oil production, by predicting changes in the properties of the elastomer under operating conditions.
1. Urazakov K.R., Timashev E.O., Molchanova V.A., Volkov M.G., Spravochnik po dobyche nefti (Handbook of oil production), Perm: Aster Plus Publ., 2020, 600 p.
2. Timashev E.O., Yamaliev V.U., Analysis of the causes of destruction of elastomers of cages of screw pumps (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, no. 2, c. URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/ Timashev/Timashev_1.pdf
3. Shaydakov V.V., Svoystva i ispytaniya rezin (Properties and testing of rubbers), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 2002, 235 p.
4. Batarin E.A., Issledovanie iznashivaniya pary treniya rezina-metall pri dinamicheskom nagruzhenii primenitel'no k usloviyam ekspluatatsii odnovintovykh gidromashin (Investigation of the wear of a rubber-metal friction pair under dynamic loading as applied to the operating conditions of single-screw hydraulic machines): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1974.
5. Mutin I.I., Valovskiy V.M., Sakhabutdinov K.G. et al., Investigation of the resistance of samples of elastomers for screw pumps in field fluids (in Russ.), Interval, 2003, no. 4(51), pp. 44–48.
6. Ableev R.I., Voloshin A.I., Ragulin V.V., Gimaev R.N., Evaluation of operational stability polymer materials used in oil production (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 6, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Ableev/Ableev_1.pdf
7. Pyatov I.S., Tikhonova S.V., Bychkova T.V. et al., Resistance of elastomeric products of oil and gas equipment to explosive decompression (In Russ.), Sfera. Neftegaz, 2005, no. 2.
8. Il'yasov U.R., Lutfurakhmanov A.G., Efimov D.V., Pashali A.A., Comparative analysis of the properties of hydrocarbon components and fractions in PVT modeling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2020, no. 5, pp. 64–67.
9. Usachev S.V., Filippov A.A., Malysheva T.B., Palacheva S.V., The thermooxidative degradation of butadiene-styrene -butadiene-nitrile rubber blends (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Khimiya i khimicheskaya tekhnologiya, 2006, V. 49, no. 3, pp. 39–42.10. D. Yue, X. Wei, X. Wang et al., Hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile-butylacrylate rubber and its properties, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 2013, V. 86, no. 2, pp. 165–174.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The scientific article discusses the advantages of using modular equipment in the implementation of projects in the oil and gas industry. The technology of a mobile free water knock out is presented, which was developed by LLC AETC «Sapphire» within the framework of innovative activities of Rosneft Oil Company with the participation of specialists from the TomskNIPIneft Specialized Institute for Oil Field Development Technologies. The main task of the mobile free water knock out (MFWKO) is the primary preparation of the formation fluid directly at the field, near the well pad, while excluding the transport of ballast - produced water to the central processing and collection point. The developed solution is based on a unique technology that allows temporarily placing a set of equipment with the ability to quickly mount / dismantle and relocate to other facilities by road and rail. At the same time, technological equipment is placed in interconnected block-modules in the form of standard transport containers of full factory readiness using quick-disconnect couplings and flexible pipelines. The requirements for the placement of the complex are minimal; installation is carried out on a base of road slabs. MFWKO can be used both in the study of remote wells and wells during the trial operation, and in the development of small fields and fields at an early stage of the development. The scientific article presents the results of pilot industrial tests of the MFWKO, which were carried out at the site of Tyumenneftegas JSC in June 2020. The indicator of water and oil quality at the outlet from the MFWKO corresponded to the technical task, the design of the internal devices of the blocks ensured the implementation of the separation process for the preparation of oil and water, and a reserve for the productivity of the MFWKO was also ensured.
1. Grebnev V.D., Martyushev D.A., Khizhnyak G.P., Stroitel'stvo neftegazopromyslovykh ob"ektov (Construction of oil and gas production facilities), Perm': Publ. of PSPTU, 2012, 115 p.
2. Sokolov S.M., Strekopytov S.K., Tukaev Sh.G., The problems of large blocks construction of oil-and-gas facilities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 3, pp. 94–95.
3. Kozhushkov I.P., Smirnov A.P., Kolonskikh K.V., Rerspective block-modular methods for the construction of oil and gas facilities using superblocks (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 2(12), pp. 71–75.
4. Ogudov A.G., Andrianova L.I., Pneva A.P., Vnedrenie industrial'nogo metoda stroitel'stva s ispol'zovaniem uzlov maksimal'noy zavodskoy gotovnosti (Implementation of the industrial construction method using nodes of maximum factory readiness), Proceedings of International Scientific and Technical Conference dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Tyumen Industrial Institute “Neft' i gaz Zapadnoy Sibiri” (Oil and gas of Western Siberia), 2013, Part 1, pp. 121–123.5. Utility patent RU 195517 U1, Ustroystvo dlya separatsii plastovoy vody ot nefteproduktov (Device for separating formation water from oil products), Inventors: Dorovskikh I.V., Bulatov V.A., Nechaev A.S.
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The article deals with the issues of increasing the accuracy of hydraulic calculation of oil and oil product pipelines. A brief historical review of dependencies for determining the coefficient of hydraulic resistance obtained as a result of industrial tests of operating pipelines is given. It is shown that the existing methods of hydraulic calculation for most of the operated pipelines do not allow achieving the coincidence of the actual and calculated values of the hydraulic resistance coefficient with the required accuracy. This is due to the uncertainty in assessing the state of the internal surface of the pipeline and the presence of additional hydraulic resistances caused by accumulations of water and air at the points of bending of the route profile. The authors carried out a comparative analysis of the most common theoretical dependencies for calculating the coefficient of hydraulic resistance in the mixed friction zone of a turbulent regime with the results of semi-industrial and laboratory tests of pipelines given in the literature. It is shown that when using the value of the relative roughness of the pipe wall adapted to the actual pumping conditions, operational calculations can be performed with the required accuracy practically according to any of the formulas of classical hydraulics. At the same time, based on the literature data, it was concluded that the actual value of the relative roughness in the formulas for the hydraulic calculation is not as important as the correctly found empirical coefficients. From here follows a conclusion: for specific technological sections of operating oil and oil product pipelines, there is no need to use such a parameter as relative roughness. To improve the accuracy of operational calculations of specific technological sections of operating oil and oil product pipelines, the authors proposed not to use a deliberately undefined value of relative roughness in the calculations, but to approximate the industrial test data with empirical dependencies, the coefficients of which will integrally take into account all available hydraulic resistances. As an example, the authors approximated the experimental data for two technological sections of an operating oil pipeline by the dependences of the hydraulic resistance coefficient on the Reynolds number. It is shown that the most preferable approximation of the dependence of the hydraulic resistance coefficient on the Reynolds number by a polynomial, the degree of which should be justified in each specific case.
1. Kutukov S.E., Gol'yanov A.I., Chetvertkova O.V., The establishment of pipeline hydraulics: retrospective of researches of hydraulic losses in pipes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 7, pp. 128–133.
2. Kutukov S.E., Gol'yanov A.I., Chetvertkova O.V., Fluid dynamics of crude oil flow: the longer-term study of pressure losses in oil pipelines (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 136–140.
3. Revel'-Muroz P.A. et al., Assessing the hydraulic efficiency of oil pipelines according to the monitoring of process operation conditions (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, no. 1, pp. 9-19.
4. Zholobov V.V., Numerical method for identification of a hydraulic model of a pipeline linear section (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, no. 6, pp. 640–651.
5. Korshak A.A., Nechval' A.M., Proektirovanie i ekspluatatsiya gazonefteprovodov (Design and operation of gas and oil pipelines), Rostov-na-Donu: Feniks Publ., 2016, 540 p.
6. Starodub B.Ya., Observations of oil pumping through the Transcaucasian kerosene pipeline (In Russ.), Neftyanoe i slantsevoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1925, no. 1, pp. 20–27.
7. Leybenzon L.S., On the application of the formula of the Lang formula type in the pipeline business (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1926, no. 6, pp. 789–793.
8. Bulgakov A.V., Description of the project and calculation methods for the Baku-Batumi oil pipeline (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1925, no. 10, pp. 500–511; no. 12, pp. 659–674.
9. Kashcheev A.A., From the experience of the Tuapse oil pipeline (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1930, no. 7, pp. 80–95.
10. Savel'ev G.P., Experimental study of the coefficient of hydraulic resistance of the Kuibyshev-Bryansk oil product pipeline (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1983, no. 10, pp. 4–6.
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|ENVIROMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
In this article Rosneft Oil Company approaches to problems of industrial safety improvement are presented with application of risk management means. In Company since 2018 the project of health, safety and environmental (HSE) protection risks management has been executed. A common property of all modern production activities management systems of large companies is the element dedicated to risk management. HSE risk management process objective in Company is implementation and maintenance in terms of all the revealed hazards of proper and sufficient management measures, which correspond to the level of assessed risk, but also provided with necessary resources, distinguished on priority basis, and approved in Company on the corresponding management level. Basic selected process means are single risk matrix and risk analysis method “Bow tie diagram”. The implemented approaches to Company HSE risk management are innovative and advantageous due to their proactivity and structuredness. The condition and security of successful introduction of the process is engagement of Company employees at all levels. The experience of process introduction has demonstrated the efficiency of applied “Bow tie diagram” method, which apart from provision of the basic objectives achievement, presented opportunities of advanced key performance indicators formation, corresponding to self-monitoring, analysis and reporting technology criteria, based on assessment of preventive and responsive safety barriers. Moreover the process introduction experience presented the opportunity of improvement of incident investigation procedures and implementation of HSE risk-oriented control.
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The Severo-Labatyuganskoye oil field is one of the oilfields, which development began at the beginning of the XXI century. At this period the concept of sustainable development was formulated, that means the rational use of natural resources and the environmental protection. One of the key elements of sustainability is the regular environmental monitoring and transparency. Surgutneftegas PJSC keeps the same way with these ecological innovations. On the territory of all oil fields in Russia Federation the Company performs systematic ecological monitoring. The results of researches are annually published in different open information sources. Despite the high cost of researches, that increase the final cost of extracted oil, monitoring is performed statedly. It is necessary because of high importance of measures for environmental protection. The longer the research time, the more accurate it is possible to draw a conclusion about the impact of economic activities on the environment. This also applies to the territory of the Severo-Labatyuganskoye field, which has been developed for 20 years. The observation period within the framework of the program for monitoring the state of natural environments at the field is even longer. The experience in the development of the Severo-Labatyuganskoye field has shown that hydrocarbon production did not lead to a change in the initial state of natural environments. The current environmental indicators are in the same ranges as the background ones. The indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North continue to engage in traditional crafts on the territory of the Severo-Labatyuganskoye field.
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4. Kalinin V.M., Voda i neft' (Gidrologo-ekologicheskie problemy Tyumenskogo regiona) (Water and oil (Hydrological and environmental problems of the Tyumen region)), Tyumen': Publ. of TSU, 2020, 244 p.
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