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August 2013




Working out and operation of oil deposits


S.B. Denisov, I.V. Evdokimov, D.S. Sgibova (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
Substantiation of wells selection for execution of geological and engineering operations on the basis of criterion analysis

Key words: geological and engineering operations, three-dimensional models, watering, arrays formation, the effectiveness of waterflooding, wells productivity, forced withdrawal.

The problems of substantiation of wells selection for execution of geological and engineering operations for the purpose of oil production increase are considered. The methods of analysis of geological-production data for substantiation of the causes of high watering, reducing the productivity of wells, wells selection for the forced withdrawal, optimization of reservoir pressure maintenance system are shown. Calculations of the technological effect are made on full-scale filtration model. The estimation of technical and economic indices of variants of geological and engineering operations is given.

References
1. Khisamutdinov N.I., Gil'manova Z.Kh., Vladimirov I.V. et al., Razrabotka
neftyanykh plastov v pozdney stadii (The development of oil reservoirs in the
late stage), Part 1. Geologiya i razrabotka zalezhey v pozdney stadii (Geology
and development of deposits in the late stage), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG,
2004, 252 p.
2. Chan K.S., Water control diagnostic plots, SPE 30775, presented at the SPE
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, USA, October 22-
25, 1995.
3. Denisov S.B., Evdokimov I.V., Rudaya V.S., Sherashova A.G., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 03, pp. 64-66.
4. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po vyboru skvazhin dlya osushchestvleniya
forsirovannogo otbora zhidkosti (Guidance on the selection of wells for the
implementation of forced liquid production), Perm': Publ. of PermNIPIneft',
1985, 12 p.
5. Gabdulov R.R., Nikishov V.I., Slivka P.I., ROGTEC Magazine – Russian Oil &
Gas Technologies: News, Reviews & Articles, Friday, June 25th, 2010.
6. Kirillov A.I. Sovershenstvovanie razrabotki Tuymazinskogo neftyanogo
mestorozhdeniya v zavershayushchey stadii (Improving the development of
Tuimazy oil field in the final stage): Thesis of the candidate of technical sciences,
Ufa, 2006 g. 

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R.K. Ryazapov, A.S. Sorokin (East-Siberian Oil and Gas Company, RF, Krasnoyarsk), S.G. Volpin, A.V. Svalov, Yu.M. Shteinberg, P.V. Kryganov (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
Detailing Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye deposit geology using well interference testing data

Key words: permeability, hydraulic diffusivity, Interference test, pulse test.

The article presents key data of well interference testing at Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye oil-gas-condensate field. Pioneering estimation of two zones interference is carried out. It is shown that the investigated part of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field presents one hydrodynamic system. According to interference testing data carbonate reservoir matrix does not contribute to fluid filtration.

References
1. Kontorovich A.E., Izosimova A.N., Kontorovich A.A. et al., Geologiya
i geofizika – Russian Geology and Geophysics, 1996, V. 37,
no. 8., pp. 166-195.
2. Kul'pin L.G., Myasnikov Yu.A., Gidrodinamicheskie metody issledovaniya
neftegazovodonosnykh plastov (Hydrodynamic study of
oil-gas-water-bearing strata), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 200 p.
3. Bourdet D. et al., A new set of type curves simplifies well test analysis,
World Oil, 1983, May, pp. 95–106.
4. Shchelkachev V.N., Razrabotka neftevodonosnykh plastov pri uprugom
rezhime (Development of oil-water bearing strata in the volumetric
expansion drive), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1959, 467 p. 

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A.M. Petrakov, Yu.A. Egorov, T.L. Nenartovich (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
Experimental study of the oil displacement process at gas injection into the reservoir

Key words: gas and water-gas stimulation, oil reservoir, methane and water fringe, multiple contact process, oil and gas mutual solubility.

The results of the filtration studies of water-gas stimulation and the mutual solubility in the PVT vessel, supporting the realization of the multi-contact process at the injection of dry gas into an oil reservoir in relation to the light oil of YuK10 layer of Talinskaya area of Krasnoleninskoye field are presented. It is shown, that injection of methane or alternating volumes of methane and water in the reservoir model at the additional displacement of residual oil forms at the front of displacement hydrocarbon "condensate", mainly containing oil light components. Such hydrocarbon liquid is well dissolved in the residual oil, altering its properties, that leads to an effective additional oil displacement from the watered formation.

References
1. Rozenberg M.D., Kundin S.A., Mnogofaznaya mnogokomponentnaya fil'-
tratsiya pri dobyche nefti i gaza (Multiphase multicomponent filtration in oil
and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 336 p.
2. Petrakov A.M., Egorov Yu.A., Nenartovich T.L. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
– Oil Industry, 2009, no. 9, pp. 90 – 93.
3. Petrakov A.M., Egorov Yu.A., Nenartovich T.L., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil
Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 100 – 102.

4. Skripka V.G., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1984, no. 3, pp. 34 - 37. 


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G.V. Sansiyev, A.R. Bench, N.S. Kazakov (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow), N.I. Syromyatnikov JC Rusvietpetro LLC, RF, Moscow)
Use of carbonate reservoir filtration model to increase the development parameter of the North-Khosedayuskoye oil field

Key words: carbonate rocks, lithofacies variability, hydrodynamic and downhole logging, modeling, filtration model.

Large body of research to determine the permeability and porosity of carbonate reservoir and displacement efficiency is carried out. The stages of the simulation of the pay zone are considered. Technological operation parameter of a typical well is presented. Actual and estimated production by wells of the field is compared.

 


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N.P. Lebedinets, A.N. Vesvalo (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
Approximate evaluation of the granitoid rocks compressibility

Key words: basal complex, granitoid reservoir, closed pool, elastic capacity, compressibility.

The article presents the methodological approaches to the approximate evaluation of average coefficient of granitoid rock compressibility. Evaluation is based on field data. Quantitative results obtained by this methods for one of the granitoid reservoir are given. 



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Drilling of chinks


Yu.M. Gerzhberg (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
Researches of BHA differential sticking in well and action development to prevent this complication

Key words: well, BHA, differencial sticking, prevention.

This work is devoted to prevent BHA differential stickingas a result of its sticking to well`s wall. We give the methodology and some research results of various factors influence on BHA sticking to a crust by means of contact area determination and the interaction force of pipes with a crust. We show the most significant actions to prevent BHA differential stickingof the boring tool when the boring tool stops working.

References
1. Gerzhberg Yu.M., Bel'skiy D.G., Kirshin V.I. et al., Proceedings of XVI International
Scientific and Practical Conference “Reagenty i materialy,
tekhnologicheskie sostavy i burovye zhidkosti dlya stroitel'stva, ekspluatatsii
i kapital'nogo remonta neftyanykh, gazokondensatnykh i gazovykh
skvazhin” (Reagents, materials and drilling liquids for the construction,
maintenance and overhaul of oil, gas and gas condensate wells), Suzdal',
2012, pp. 196-204.
2. The certificate of official registration of computer programs no.
2006610570, Programma EVM. Programmnyy kompleks dlya proektirovaniya
optimal'nogo sostava buril'noy kolonny (A computer program. The software
package for the design of the optimal composition of the drill string): authors:
Gerzhberg Yu.M., Charkov V.D., 2006.
3. Gerzhberg Yu.M., Kirshin V.I., Inzhener-neftyanik, 2011, no. 4, pp. 13-17.

4. Gerzhberg Yu.M., Kirshin V.I., Inzhener-neftyanik, 2013, no. 1, pp. 36-40.  


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Working out and operation of oil deposits


L.M. Ruzin, O.A. Morozyuk, S.M. Durkin (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
Features and innovative ways of highly viscous oil field development

Key words: highly viscous oil, thermal methods, Usinsk field, Yarega field, new thermal methods way of oil production, the results of experimental work, oil recovery, vapour-oil ratio.

The urgency of the development of high viscosity oilfields for Timan-Pechora province is determined by their large reserves. On two large fields have accumulated the most experience in RF application of modern production highly viscous oil technologies based on the application of thermal stimulation. The main way to improve the development of the Permo-Carboniferous deposits in Usinskoye field is the use of wells for steam-cycle treatment with radial bends and horizontal wells. Employees Ukhta State Technical University has developed and implemented a new thermomine way of oil production that can significantly improve the efficiency and security of oil operations in the Yaregskoye field.

References
1. Ruzin L.M., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 1, pp. 70-73.

2. Durkin S.M., Morozyuk O.A., Ruzin L.M., Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2013, no. 4. 


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L.M. Ruzin, O.A. Morozyuk, S.M. Durkin (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
The mechanism of the recovery for the heterogeneous heavy oil reservoirs

Key words: heavy oil, Yarega field, Usinsk field, the development works, oil recovery, steam-oil ratio, heterogeneous collector.

The article is devoted to the principles and methods of the unique heavy oil fields development in the Komi Republic. The main EOR method for heterogeneous fractured heavy oil reservoirs is the involvement of low-permeability reservoirs in the filtration process. A comprehensive analysis of the laboratory and field studies allowed to determine the main directions of the technologies development for the mentioned deposits. The technologies consider the features of the warm-up and oil recovery mechanism and the current state of these fields development to the maximum extent.

 


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A.I. Kobrunov, S.G. Kudelin, S.V. Mukhametdinov, A.N. Khudozhilova (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
Method of studying of spatial distribution of filtration resistance on oil fields

Key words: tomography, hydrodynamics, piezoconductivity coefficient, interval times.

We studied the problem of filtration resistance spatial distribution monitoring which characterizes the capacity of productive layer when extracting hydrocarbons. To solve the problem it is offered to use the tomographic principles based on transformation of the removed integrated equation for the fields of transmission times of hydrodynamic signal. The use to solve the methods of integrated geometry allows us to study internal local heterogeneity of piezoconductivity coefficient of coherent part of deposit. Basic data on interval times of hydrodynamic signal distributions to implement the tomographic scheme can be received on the basis of direct experiment and can be calculated on the basis of the offered model of deposit work as well which coefficients are selected on the basis of deposit development history.

References
1. Shchelkachev V.N., Osnovy i prilozheniya teorii neustanovivsheysya fil'tratsii
(Fundamentals and applications of the theory of unsteady filtration), Part 1, 2,
Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 1995, 586 p.
2. Chaudhry A., Oil well testing handbook, Gulf Professional Publishing, 525 p.
3. Patent no. 2092691 RF, MKP6 E 21 B 47/00, Method for control of filtration
flows created at development of oil deposits with stratified-nonuniform beds,
Inventors: Kondarattsev S.A., Mukhamedshin R.K., Khasanov M.M., Khatmullin
I.F., Khisamutdinov N.I., Galeev R.M.
4. Patent no. 2166630 RF, MKP7 E21 V 49/00, 43/16, Method of control over
oil deposit development, Inventors: Kondarattsev S.A., Denisov V.V., Karachurin
N.T.
5. Patent no. 2229020 RF, MKP7 E21 V 43/00, Method for detecting non-conducting
portions of oil deposit during its exploitation, Inventors: Shatskij A.V.,
Kolesov V.V., Churinova I.M., Shatskij D.A.
6. Patent no. 2298647 RF, MKP E21 V 47/10, Oil reservoir investigation methods,
Inventors: Shatskij A.V., Kolesov V.V., Shatskij D.A., Mitrofanov A.D., Bodrjagin A.V., Ivanov S.V.
7. Kobrunov A.I., Izvestiya Komi nauchnogo tsentra UrO RAN - Proceedings of
the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
2012, V. 4(12), pp. 82-86.
8. Tereshchenko S.A., Metody vychislitel'noy tomografii (Methods of computer
tomography), Moscow: FizMatLit Publ., 2004, 319 p.
9. Krasnov V.A., Ivanov V.A., Khasanov M.M., Pomekhoustoychivyy metod otsenki
svyaznosti plasta po dannym ekspluatatsii mestorozhdeniy (Interference
evaluation method according to the connectivity of the reservoir exploitation),
SPE 162053.
10. Jong S. Kim, Larry W. Lake, Thomas F., Edgar integrated capacitance-resistance
model for characterizing waterflooded reservoirs, Proceedings of
the 2012 IFAC Workshop on automatic control in offshore oil and gas production,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway,

May 31 – June 1, 2012. 


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Transport and oil preparation


V.O. Nekuchaev, A.A. Vaseneva (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
Features of rheological curves of heavy oil and water-oil emulsions

Key words: high-viscosity oil, water-oil emulsions, rheology curves, oscillations and sharp decreases of shear stress, viscosity super anomaly.

This work is devoted to the study of the features of non-traditional flow curves obtained on the rotational viscometers for heavy oil and water-oil emulsions from Timan-Pechora oil fields. It has been found that the oscillations and sharp decreases of shear stress on rheological curves may occur at certain critical values of the shear rate. It was established that the cause of the observed effects is water film separation from the water-oil emulsion on the surface of the viscometer cylinder. Experiments show that the values of the critical shear rate are reduced with temperature decreasing and water phase concentration increasing. For the dewatered oil from any fields such fluctuations and sharp decreases of shear stress were not observed in all studied ranges of temperature and shear rate.
References
1. Schramm G., A Practical approach to rheology and rheometry, Germany:
Haake Rheometers, 1994, 290 p.
2. Belkin I.M., Vinogradov G.V., Leonov A.I., Rotatsionnye pribory. Izmerenie
vyazkosti i fiziko-mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik materialov (Rotary devices.
The viscosity measurements and physical and mechanical characteristics of
materials), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1987, 272 p.
3. Malkin A.Ya., Isayev A.I., Rheology. Concepts, methods, and applications,
Toronto: ChemTech Publ., 2005.
4. Ur'ev N.B., Kolloidnyy zhurnal – Colloid Journal, 1998, V. 60, no. 5,
pp. 662-668.
5. Evdokimov I.N., Strukturnye kharakteristiki promyslovykh vodoneftyanykh
emul'siy (Structural characteristics of produced oil-water emulsions), Moscow:
Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2012, 477 p.
6. Rogachev M.K., Kolonskikh A.V., Neftegazovoe delo – Oil and Gas Business,
2009, V. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-42. 

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V.O. Nekuchaev, A.A. Vaseneva , I.S. Filippov (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
The rheological properties of Timan-Pechora anomalous oils changing under their mixing and heat treatment

Key words: high wax and high viscosity oils, rheological properties, viscosity, heat treatment, additivity law.

The dependence of mixture viscosity of waxy and heavy high viscosity oil on the concentration of heavy oil has been investigated in the present work. It has been shown that at approximately equal concentrations of these oils the strong deviations from the additivity rule for double logarithm of mixed oils viscosity take place. The influence of heat treatment on the rheological properties of the predictive oil mixture, expected to transport through the main pipeline Usa – Ukhta - Yaroslavl in the next 5 year, has been studied. It was found experimentally that the main rheological characteristics of oil depend substantially nonmonotonically on the temperature of preliminary heat treatment.

 References

1. Evdokimov I.N., Losev A.P., Fesan A.A., Burenie i neft', 2012, no. 1, pp. 27-28.
2. Evdokimov I.N., Nanotekhnologii upravleniya svoystvami prirodnykh
neftegazovykh flyuidov (Nanotechnology to control the properties of natural
gas fluids), Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 2010, 364 p.

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Economy, management, the legal right


A.B. Ankudinov, M.Kh. Biktemirova, O.V. Lebedev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Financial structure determinants analysis of Russian oil companies

Key words: capital structure, financial structure, panel data, oil companies.

The article presents econometric analysis of factors determining financial structure of Russian oil companies. The study is based on microeconomic data. The impact on the companies’ financial structure of profitability, revenue growth rate, age, size, ownership structure (presence of foreign investors, state ownership) as well as public status is statistically tested. Financial structure is analyzed in terms of percentage of total debt, percentage of long-term liabilities, percentage of short-term liabilities in the companies’ capital structure. The sample is formed by 2002-2009 panel data for 200 companies with highest annual revenue, which according to All-Russia Classifier of Types of Economic Activity belong to the “Extraction of Crude Oil and Associated Gas” (11.10.11). Quantitative estimates are obtained of the impact the factors under consideration have on financial policies of national oil companies.

Referenses
1. Bokpin, G.A. Macroeconomic development and capital
structure decisions of firms. Evidence from emerging market
economies//Studies in Economics and Finance. – 2009 . – № 2
(26). – P. 129-142.
2. L. Booth, A. Varouj, A. Demirguk-Kunt, V. Maksimovic Capital
structures in developing countries//Journal of Finance. – 2001. –
№ 56 (1). – Р. 87–130.
3. Delcoure N. The determinants of capital structure in transitional
economies//International Review of Economics and Finance.
2006. – № 16. – Р. 400–415.
4. StataCorp. Stata Longitudinal Data Reference Manual: Release

11.0, (StataCorporation, College Station, Texas), 2009. 


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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


R.Kh. Masagutov, V.A. Fedorchenko (Bashneft JSOC, RF, Ufa), V.N. Minkaev, T.F. Karimov (LLC BashNIPIneft, RF, Ufa)
Flysch deposits of Yuryuzano-Sylvenskaya Depression: prospective target for hydrocarbon exploration

Key words: Yuryuzano-Sylvenskaya Depression, flysch deposits, gas-prone play, petroleum potential

Previously due to the active exploration of the primary Middle Carboniferous and Devonian target formations the flysch deposits of Yuryuzano-Sylvenskaya Depression remained frontier and underexplored. They were viewed only as a thick seal for the underlying oil reservoirs. However high gas readings while drilling in this flyschoid sequence (from 0.12 to 90 %), noncommercial flow of petroleum gas while testing (up to 2000 m3/day), as well as the presence of relatively large cut-through superimposed anticlines in the internal zone of Yuryuzano-Sylvenskaya Depression provide evidence to the potential commercial gas discoveries.

 


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Drilling of chinks


S.E. Chernyshov, N.I. Krysin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), A.V. Mosin (Ontustik Munaygas JSC, the Republic of Kazkhstan, RF, Shymkent)
Technology of casing deep wells by light cement slurries with microspheres in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Key words: technology of casing, producing deep wells, light cement slurries, spacers, microspheres, improve the quality of oil wells casing.

To improve the quality of oil wells casing the fulfillment of a complex of measures is required. Complex includes the preparation of the well bore to the cementing jobs, at the preparation of cement slurries with the required technological properties, at the realization of the mode of spacer and cement squeezing grout injection, at the ensuring the safety of a cement stone and etc. A comprehensive approach taking into account the geological features of the oilfields allows effectively solve the task of improving the quality of the oil wells casing.

References
1. Ashraf'yan M.O., Nizhnik A.E., Govzich A.N., Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i
gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2011, no. 3, pp. 36-40.
2. Novokhatskiy D.F., Nizhnik A.E., Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin
na sushe i na more, 2010, no. 2, pp. 45-49.
3. Chernyshov S.E., Krysin N.I., Kunitskikh A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry,
2011, no. 10, pp. 20-21.
4. Chernyshov S.E., Krysin N.I., Kunitskikh A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry,
2012, no. 8, pp. 108-110.
5. Patent no. 2452758 RF, Expanding backfill solution with controlled properties,
Inventors: Chernyshov S.E., A.A. Kunitskikh, N.I. Krysin, T.I. Soboleva, T.N. Krapivina. 

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


S.V. Kostyuchenko, D.V. Tolstolytkin, A.A.Chuprov, M.B. Shinkarev (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Technology of large fields simulation with a system of conjugated sector models. Part 3. The technology approbation by the example of models of Samotlorskoye field AB1-5 reservoirs

Key words: giant fields, hydrodynamic simulation, simulation sites, sector models, models overlapping, iterative conjugation.

The article continues a series of publications about the creation of technology for hydrodynamic simulation of giant fields on the basis of decomposition of large models and iterative conjugation of sector models by reservoir pressures and fluids flows. The results of approbation of this technology on the model of Samotlorskoye field AB1-5 reservoir are given. The 21-sector model with cross overlapping is formed. The results of calculations on the complete model, on the sector non-conjugated and the sector conjugated models are compared. Software system INTERMOD is described. The conclusions about the applicability of the technology are made.

References
1. Arzhilovskiy A.V., Bikbulatova T.G., Kostyuchenko S.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2011, no. 11, pp. 52-55.
2. Kostyuchenko S.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 4, pp. 96-100. 

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Z.M. Ganeeva, M.R. Khisametdinov, R.Z. Rizvanov, M.Kh Musabirov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Development of silica gel based EOR technologies in Tatneft OAO

Key words: enhanced oil recovery, silica gel, suspension, injection well.

Technologies of enhanced oil recovery based on application of silica gel suspension are proposed. These include: the technology for improved depletion of productive strata at the late stages of development using viscoelastic colloidal suspension based on liquid glass and the technology for increased oil production using silica gel based compositions. Silica gel preparation and dispersion under field conditions are carried out using UPSG-1 mobile plant. Application of silica gel based technology resulted in average daily oil increment in the amount of 5.87 ton/day and profitability index of 1.52. The results confirm applicability and efficiency of dispersed silica gel injection for improving reservoir sweep efficiency.

References
1. Utility patent no. 48202 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/22, Ustanovka dlya prigotovleniya, dozirovaniya i zakachivaniya tekhnologicheskikh rastvorov v
skvazhinu (Installation for preparing, dosing and injection of process solutions
into the well), Inventors: Rizvanov R.Z., Petrov N.M., Rakhmatullin A.A., Ganeeva
Z.M., Kubareva N.N., Abrosimova N.N.
2. Ganeeva Z.M., Elizarova T.Yu., Rizvanov R.Z. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo –Oil Industry, 2011, no. 7, pp. 33-35. 

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V.A. Grinchenko, I.A. Vinogradov, A.S. Timchuk, PhD (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), Ya.I. Gordeev (Verkhechonskneftegaz OJSC, RF, Irkustk)
Numerical studies of dissolution processes in waterflooding of salty clastic reservoirs with fresh water

Key words: clastic formation, salinization, halite, dissolution, desalination, salt deposits dissolution, high salinity water, core experiments, waterflooding, field development, fresh water, reservoir simulation.

The paper reviews approaches for modeling the development of salted clastic reservoirs confined to the Verkhnechonskoye field. The results of simulations on synthetic and full field models are reviewed. Dissolution characteristics are described; the key factors to control the field development are determined. Numerical evaluation of dissolution effects on production performance and oil recovery factor is presented. The field zonation by dissolution degree is shown. Recommendations on minimizing the negative impact from the dissolution on reservoir development are given. High salinity water injection pilot is recommended.

References
1. Vinogradov I.A., Zagorovskiy A.A., Grinchenko V.A., Gordeev Ya.I.,
Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013, no. 1, pp. 74-77.
2. Grinchenko V.A., Vinogradov I.A., Zagorovskiy A.A., Neftyanoe
Khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 100-103.
3. Verigin N.N., Sherzhukov B.S., Diffuziya i massoobmen pri fil'tratsii
zhidkostey v poristykh sredakh (Diffusion and mass transfer in liquid filtration
in porous media), Razvitie issledovaniy po teorii fil'tratsii v SSSR
(Development of researches on the theory of filtration in the USSR),
Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1966, 547 p.
4. Verigin N.N., Vasil'ev S.V., Sarkisyan V.S., Sherzhukov B.S., Gidrodinamicheskie i fiziko-khimicheskie svoystva gornykh porod (Hydrodynamic
and physical and chemical properties of rocks), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1977, 271 p.
5. Bogachev K.Yu., Milyutin S.V., Dzuba V.I., Numerical modelling of salty reservoir waterflooding with fresh water, SPE 162091-MS, 2012. 

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I.M. Kamaltdinov, L.A. Kovaleva (Bashkir State University, Ufa), F.S. Khismatullina (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), A.D. Galimbekov (Bashkir State Agrarian University, RF, Ufa)
Influence of high-frequency electromagnetic field on adsorption in porous structure

Key words: high-frequency electromagnetic field, adsorption, porous structure, surface-active components, filtration.

Study of strong high-frequency and microwave electromagnetic fields influence at different mediums has particular interest of late years. Mathematical calculation of high-frequency electromagnetic field influence on filtration of hydrocarbon systems containing surfactant components adsorbing at surface of porous structure during the flow is studied. In result it is established that force effect occurs (ponderomotive, thermomechanical, thermoelectrical and etc.) during high-frequency electromagnetic field influence at working medium and distributed heat sources presence. This force effect influences on formations and destructions of structures of petroleum polar components. Research results can be applied at oil extraction using adsorptive interactions.

References
1. Galimbekov A.D., Kovaleva L.A., Nekotorye aspekty vzaimodeystviya elektromagnitnykh
poley s polyarizuyushchimisya sredami (Some aspects of the
interaction of electromagnetic fields with a polarizable media), Ufa: Publ. of
Bashkir State University, 2004, 104 s.
2. Fedorov E.E., Fedorov M.G., Izvesti vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 1977, no. 5, pp. 51-53.
3. Sayakhov F.L., Issledovanie termo- i gidrodinamicheskikh protsessov v mnogofaznykh
sredakh v vysokochastotnom elektromagnitnom pole primenitel'no
k neftedobyche (Study of thermal and hydrodynamic processes
in multiphase flow in the high-frequency electromagnetic field is applied to
oil production): thesis of doctor of physical and mathematical sciences,
Moscow, 1984.
4. Galimbekov A.D., Nekotorye aspekty vzaimodeystviya elektromagnitnykh
poley s polyarizuyushchimisya sredami (Some aspects of the interaction of
electromagnetic fields with a polarizable media): thesis of doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, Ufa, 2007. 

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M.A. Filatov, A.U. Vishnjakov (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), M.S. Turbakov, P.Yu. Ilyushin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Simulation of polymer flooding in the Moskudinskoe oil field

Key words: hard to recovery oil, methods of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), polymer flooding, producing well

The numerical evaluation of the effectiveness of polymer flooding on the hydrodynamic model of the Moskudinskoe field has been done by Tempest MORE. On the basis of the calculations were defined the best option with a polymer concentration of 0.15% to the size of the polymer slug 30% of the pore volume. Based on multiple calculations, the sensitivity parameter has been determined - the concentration of polymer. Hydrodynamic calculations have shown the constraint associated with the lack of opportunities simulator to implement modeling of polymer mixture movement as a single rim. 

References
1. Kasim Basim M.N., Polimernoe zavodnenie v slozhnopostroennykh
kollektorakh pri uchete lokal'nykh nelineynykh
effektov (Polymer flooding in complex reservoirs, taking into
account the local non-linear effects): thesis of the candidate
of technical sciences, 2001.
2. Kukin V.V., Solyakov Yu.V., Primenenie vodorastvorimykh
polimerov dlya povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (The use of
water-soluble polymers for enhanced oil recovery), Moscow:
Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1982, 44 p.
3. Lekomtsev A.V., Mordvinov V.A., Turbakov M.S., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 30-31.
4. Ilyushin P.Yu., Turbakov M.S., Galkin S.V., Kern D.A., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 116-117.
5. Sorkin A.Ya., Tekhnologiya regulirovaniya profiley priemistosti
vodonagnetatel'nykh skvazhin polimernymi suspenziyami
(Control technology profiles pickup of water injection wells
by polymeric suspensions): thesis of the candidate of technical
sciences, 1999.
6. Shcherbakov A.A., Turbakov M.S., Dvoretskas R.V., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12., pp. 97-99.

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L.N. Nazarova, E.V. Nechayeva (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
The impact of technological modes of wells operation on the degree of development of reserves

Key words: saturation pressure, bottomhole pressure, dissolved gas dry, mobility ratio, filtration zone, compositional three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, waterflooding, oil viscosity.

It is noted that the bottomhole pressure decrease below the saturation pressure leads to formation of zones with dominated three-phase filtering in the reservoir. Moreover with the increase in oil viscosity the size of these zones increases. The technique is suggested, based on the account of the mobilities relation and allowing to quantify the impact of wells transfer into operation mode with the pressures below the saturation pressure on the development of reserves.

References
1. Merrill L.S. Jr., KazemiHossein and Gogarty W. Barney, Pressure Falloff Analysis in Reservoirs With Fluid Banks, J. Pet. Tech, 1974, July, pp. 809 – 818.
2. Nechaeva E.V., Gazovaya promyshlennost' – GAS Industry of Russia, 2009,
no. 11, pp. 41 – 42.
3. Nazarova L.N., Nechaeva E.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013,
no. 1, pp. 83-85.

 


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I.V. Kuvshinov, V.A. Kuvshinov, L.K. Altunina (Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tomsk)
Component-wise gel injection technology for EOR

Key words: improved oil recovery, technologies, gels, computer modeling, fluid dispersion, filtration in porous media, component-wise injection.

This work presents the results of computer modeling, laboratory research and field tests of component-wise gel injection technology for EOR. Now standard methods of gel injection imply using of homogeneous gel-forming composition, with component mixing on a surface just before injection, or even earlier, at a stage of chemicals production. It is not always acceptable, because the gelation process can start inside or near the wellbore, e.g. in a hot steam injection well, but the technology requires the formation of a gel shield at a certain distance from the well. Component-wise injection technology is based on fluid dispersion during filtration through a porous media, when the solutions of each reagent are sequentially injected into the well, and their mixing occurs due to dispersion at a certain distance from wellbore. The computer model of the component-wise injection process, which enables to estimate the required volumes of reagent and their mixing conditions in situ, is presented. Modeling results for different laboratory experiments and injection schemes for field tests are shown.

References
1. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Physicochemical methods for enhanced oil
recovery from oil fields (review), Russian Chemical Reviews, 2007, 76 (10), pp.
971-987.
2. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Thermotropic inorganic gels for enhanced oil
recovery, Oil & Gas Journal, 2008, no. 5(18), pp. 64-72.
3. Groundwater contamination (In Studies in geophysics), 1984, 180 r.
4. Chesnut D.A., Dispersivity in heterogeneous media, International High Level
Radioactive Waste Management Conference, Las Vegas, NV, May 22-26,
1994, 20 p.
5. Kuvshinov I., Computer model of componentwise gel injection, Proceedings
of 16th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Cambridge, UK,
12-14 April, 2011.
6. Gelhar L.W., Welty C.W., Rehfeldt K.R., A critical review of data on fieldscale
dispersion in aquifers, Water Resources Research, 1992, V. 28, no. 7, pp.
1955-1974.
7. Alekseev V.S., Kommunar G.M., Sherzhukov B.S., Collected papers “Gidrogeologiya. Inzhenernaya geologiya” (Hydrogeology. Engineering geology),
Part 11, 1989, 133 p.
8. Gavich I.K., Gidrogeodinamika (Hydrogeodynamics), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1988, 349 p.

 


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Designing of arrangement of deposits



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M.A. Zavyalov, A.M. Zavyalov, A.V. Gruzin, M.V. Kucherenko (Omsk State Technical University, RF, Omsk)
Thermal stability ensuring of artificial constructions

Key words: thermal stability, artificial construction, frozen soil basis, temperature field stability.

It is offered and theoretically proved the constructive solution of ensuring thermal stability of the artificial constructions, consisting in the thermal diode building: inner layer from a water-saturated and water-retaining material in ground construction on the surface of the frozen soil basis. Two ways of thermal stability assessment of artificial constructions are considered and analyzed: in the time of their own operation and after the putting into operation the thermal diode. The offered ways of an assessment also give the chance to predict thermal stability of considered constructions. The received results are opportune for applying in need of lying of pipelines, construction of highways and other constructions in cold regions of the world.
References
1. Karlson G., Collected papers “Merzlotnye yavleniya v gruntakh” (Permafrost
phenomena in soils), Moscow: Izdatel'stvo inostrannoy literatury Publ.,
1955, pp. 239-270.
2. Fel'dman G.M., Metody rascheta temperaturnogo rezhima merzlykh gruntov
(Methods for calculating the temperature of frozen ground), Moscow:
Nauka Publ., 1973, 254 p.
3. Zav'yalov M.A., Bedrin E.A., Zav'yalov A.M., Obespechenie termicheskoy
ustoychivosti osnovaniya zemlyanogo polotna avtomobil'nykh dorog (Providing
thermal stability of foundation of sub-grade highways), Omsk, 2012, 192 p.
4. Malkova G.V., Pavlov A.V., Skachkov Yu.B., Kriosfera Zemli, 2011, V. XV, no. 4, pp. 33-36.
5. Kondrat'ev V.G., Perekupka A.G., Primakov S.S., Petrova A.S., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 10, pp. 122-125.
6. Patent no. 2443828 RF, Earthwork on permafrost soils and method of its
erection with base reinforcement in areas of permafrost propagation, Inventors:
Bedrin E.A., Zav'jalov A.M., Popov V.P., Lonskij V.N.
7. Zav'yalov A.M., Zav'yalov M.A. Bedrin E.A., Omskiy nauchnyy vestnik, 2011,
no. 2(100), pp. 9-13.

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The oil-field equipment


I.R. Shangareev, R.A. Dmitriyev, A.M. Sozonov, A.I. Malanin (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF Tyumen), R.V. Avershin (Oil and Gas Production Department Fedorovskneft, RF, Surgut)
Reference specimens corrosion rate estimation at downhole conditions

Key words: corrosion rate, corrosion reference specimens, the device for installation, the packer device, operating conditions.

Impossibility to simulate real conditions of casing pipe operation in the laboratory, as well as the low reliability of laboratory values of corrosion rates became a cause of execution of the experiment to estimate the corrosion rate in real downhole conditions. The principle of studying the corrosion rate and the technical device for the installation of reference specimens, which allow to estimate the degree of negative impact of external factors on the casing pipe and the effectiveness of the proposed measures for chemical protection against corrosion in the future, are developed.


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V.D. Grebnev, M.S. Turbakov, E.O. Tretyakov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), E.P. Riabokon (Institute French Petroleum school in Paris, France, Paris)
Improving oil pipeline cleaning devices

Key words: the complications in the extraction of oil, producing well, asphaltene deposits, the technology of asphaltene deposits removal.

A device for cleaning pipelines, which separates the layer of wax and impurities from the inner wall of the pipeline by the blades ends and washes it by liquid jet in the direction of movement, is proposed. Short length of the device allows high-quality clear the pipeline in areas of curvature due to its short length of the flexible part. The simple principle of the device, the lack of moving parts and a small number of connection points contribute to the reliability of the device and increases its service life.

References
1. Mordvinov V.A., Turbakov M.S., Erofeev A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2010, no. 7, pp. 112-115.
2. Turbakov M.S., Erofeev A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2010,
no. 11, pp. 106-107.
3. Turbakov M.S., Lekomtsev A.V., Erofeev A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil
Industry, 2011, no. 8, pp. 123-125.
4. Mordvinov V.A. et al., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 8, pp. 78-79. 

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Transport and oil preparation


A.V. Abramov, R.V. Bikbulatov, I.U. Kolesnik, A.N. Vinokurov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Gravitational separation fluid treatment quality prediction

Key words: separator effluent liquid quality, gravitational separation, settlement process simulation.

A method of separator effluent liquid quality prediction is presented. The current treatment quality is the only initial information required for the method to work. The prediction results are compared against numerical modeling of the settlement process. The method could be used for ageing oilfields in changing conditions of the development.

References
1. Walvekar R.G., Choong T.S.Y., Hussain S.A., Khalid M., Chuah T.G., Numerical
study of dispersed oil-water turbulent flow in horizontal tube, Journal of Petroleum
Science and Engineering, 2009, V. 65, pp.123-128.
2. Valee C., Hohne T., Prasser H.-M., Suhnel T., Experimental investigation and
CFD simulation of horizontal stratified two-phase flow phenomena, Nuclear
Engineering and Design, 2008, V. 238, pp. 637-646.
3. Lee C.-M., van Dijk E., Legg M., Byeseda J., Field confirmation of CFD design
for FPSO-mounted separator, The Offshore Technology Conference, Houston,
TX, USA., May 2004, OTC 16137.
4. Frankiewicz T., Lee C.-M., Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation
to model fluid motion in process vessels on fixed and floating platforms,
IBC 9-th Annual Production Separation Systems Conference, London, UK,
June 2002, SPE 77494.
5. Jeelani S.A.K., Hosig R., Windhab E.J., Kinetics of low reynolds number
creaming and coalescence in droplet dispersions, AIChE Journal, 2005, V. 51,
no. 1, pp.149-161.
6. Hallanger A., Soenstaboe F., Knutsen T., A simulation model for three-phase
gravity separators, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,
CO, USA, October 1996, SPE 36644.
7 Simmons M.J.H., Komonibo E., Azzopardi B.J., Dick D.R., Residence time distribution and 􀀀ow behavior within primary crude oil-water separators treating
well-head 􀀀uids, Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 2004, V. 82,
pp.1383-1390.
8 Powers M.L., Analysis of gravity separation in freewater knock-outs, SPE Production Engineering, February 1990, V. 5, no. 1, pp. 52-58.
9. Hafskjord B., Celius H.K., Aamo O.M., A new mathematical model for
oil/water separation in pipes and tanks, SPE Annual Technical Conference
and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, USA, October 1997, SPE Prod. & Facilities 14
(1), February 1999, pp. 30-36.
10. Arnold K., Stewart M., Surface production operations, Volume 1: Design of
oil-handling systems and facilities, Gulf Publishing, 1998, pp. 444.
11. Vielma M., Atmaca S., Sarica C., H.-Q. Zhang, Characterization of
oil/water flows in horizontal pipes, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, CL, USA, November 2007, SPE 109591.
12. Choi M.S., Separator performance under changing field conditions, SPE
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, LA, USA, September
1990, SPE 20703.
13. Taylor G.I., The formation of emulsions in definable fields of flow, Proc. R. Soc. Lond A., 1934, V. 146, pp. 501-525. 

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Rational use of oil gas


M.S. Turbakov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), E.V. Kozhevnikov (National Mineral Resources University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Utilization of associated petroleum gas at small fields

Key words: production well, the complications in the extraction of oil, technology of gas utilization, utilization of associated petroleum gas (APG).

Depletion developed deposits in close proximity to the user leads to the fact that the share of hard stocks that contributes to the development of small, distant fields. Involvement in the development of small fields is complicated by high capital investment for the construction of oil and gas production facilities. Modern requirements for the design of field development, involve the fullest use of harvested resources, and especially the associated petroleum gas (APG). To simplify and systematization of design solutions aimed at increasing the share of APG small deposits offered methodological bases and the sequence of selection of technical and economically reasonable way of APG utilization.

References
1. Andreeva N.N., Problemy proektirovaniya, razrabotki i ekspluatatsii melkikh
neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The problems of design, development and operation
of small oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2003, 196 p.
2. Ilyushin P.Yu., Turbakov M.S., Galkin S.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 116-117.
3. Turbakov M.S., Chernyshov S.E., Ustkachkintsev E.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 130-132.
4. Government Decree no. 1148 of November 8, 2012 “Ob osobennostyakh ischisleniya platy za vybrosy zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv,
obrazuyushchikhsya pri szhiganii na fakel'nykh ustanovkakh i (ili) rasseivanii
poputnogo neftyanogo gaza” (About the features of calculating fees for
emissions of pollutants generated by burning in flares and (or) the dissipation of associated gas). 

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Ecological and industrial safety


А.М. Kunakovа, R.R. Gumerov, N.M. Katrich (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Sain-Petersburg), R.Sh. Iseev Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC, RF, Khanty-Mansyisk)
The study of biological contamination of oilfield environments by sulfate reducing bacteria for Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC deposits

Key words: biological corrosion, sulfate reducing bacteria.

The article presents the information on researches in biological contamination of oilfield environments by sulfate reducing bacteria for Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC deposits. It is shown that oilfield environments are highly contaminated but this fact cannot be considered as sufficient condition for intensive microbial corrosion. For hydrogen-sulfide corrosion development presence of sulfate reducing bacteria in field and waste waters is not sufficient condition. The authors note that it is necessary to estimate also the behavior pattern of hydrogen-sulfide concentration and presence of iron sulfide hard deposits.

References
1. Andreyuk E.I., Bilay V.I., Koval' E.Z., Kozlova I.A., Mikrobnaya korroziya i ee vozbuditeli (Microbial corrosion and its agents), Kiev: Naumova dumka Publ.,
1980, 28 p.
2. Getmanskiy M.D., Rozhdestvenskiy Yu.G., Kalimullin A.A., Collected papers
“Korroziya i zashchita v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti” (Corrosion and protection
in oil and gas industry), Mosoco: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1981.
3. Nizamov K.R., Murzagil'din Z.G., Armenskiy E.A., Kalimullin A.A., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2002, no. 4, pp. 90-91.
4. Gonik A.A., Kornilov G.G., Zashchita metallov – Protection of Metals, 1999,
V. 35, no. 1, pp. 83-87.
5. Daminov A.A., Kol'chugin I.S., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1998, no. 6,
pp. 37-38.
6. Nazina T.N., Mikroorganizmy neftyanykh plastov i ikh ispol'zovanie v
biotekhnologii povysheniya nefteotdachi (Microorganisms of oil reservoirs
and their use in biotechnology for enhanced oil recovery): thesis of doctor of
biological sciences, Moscow, 2000.

7. Rozanova E.P., Nazina T.N., Uspekhi mikrobiologii, 1989, V. 23, pp. 191-226. 


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From history of development of petroleum industry



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