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12'2020 (âûïóñê 1166)
|OIL INDUSTRY: A NEW ERA, CENTURY TWO|
|OIL & GAS INDUSTRY|
Sustainable mid-term development of the petroleum industry depends on many factors, and the key of them is recoverable (with current technologies) and economic oil reserves supply to the raw material base. Between 2003 and 2018 there was a reproduction of recoverable oil reserves on a large scale. For a reliable assessment of oil production levels, in addition to recoverable reserves it is also necessary to take into account economic reserves, which became possible after the introduction of the 2013 Classification and making the entire architecture of resources and reserves project-oriented. Ongoing analysis of recoverable and economic reserves interconversion allows not only to plan amount of oil production, but also to create a scientifically based system of state management of hydrocarbon reserves. The state and companies-subsoil users get an opportunity of iterative modelling of development options and searching for the most optimal of them in terms of both cost effectiveness and sustainable subsoil use. The results of HC reserves inventory taking in different economic scenarios conducted in 2019-2020 by the decision of the Russian government allowed drawing conclusions on both categories and amount of difficult-to-recover reserves in Russia and possible consequences of changes in economic scenarios of fields development, and also on the need for routine proceeding of this work.
1. Strategiya razvitiya mineral'no-syr'evoy bazy Rossiyskoy Federatsii do 2035 goda (Development strategy of the mineral resource base of the Russian Federation until 2035), URL: http://static.government.ru/media/files/WXRSEBj6jnRWNrumRkDakLcqfAzY14VE.pdf.
2. Preobrazovanie nashego mira: Povestka dnya v oblasti ustoychivogo razvitiya na period do 2030 goda (Transforming Our World: An Agenda sustainable development for the period up to 2030), UN, 2015, URL: https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/ares70d1_ru.pdf.3. Klassifikatsiya zapasov i resursov nefti i goryuchikh gazov (Classification of reserves and resources of oil and combustible gases), 2013, URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/499058008.
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|STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REGULATION|
The article examines the key events and changes in the technical regulation and standardization systems in Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) over the past five years in the context of the oil and gas sector (OGS). The preconditions for the creation of a common market for oil, oil products and gas in the EAEU were noted, technical regulations (TR) EAEU were considered to ensure the operation of a single energy space. Also, approaches to the formation of lists of standards for regional technical regulations are analyzed; the high importance of including interstate standards in the evidential base for the EAEU regulations is emphasized. In addition, the authors draw attention to the innovations in the Russian standardization system after the entry into force of Federal Law No. 162-FZ "On Standardization in the Russian Federation": the tasks of developing information and technical guides of the best available technologies for the needs of oil and gas sector, the importance of the mechanism for referring to standards in the normative legal acts of federal executive bodies, strategic comprehensive programs for standardization of oil and gas equipment and technologies. The article notes the essential role of specialized technical committees for standardization TK 023, TK 024, TK 052, etc. in the preparation of progressive national standards for the oil and gas industry, and considers the methodological basis for the activities of technical committees at present. The authors outlined promising directions for improving domestic standardization in relation to oil and gas companies in accordance with the roadmap for the development of standardization in Russia until 2027, emphasizing the need to strengthen positions in the international organizations ISO and IEC. The article also touches upon the topic of industry standardization, provides an example of the intercorporate Institute for Initiatives in Oil and Gas Technologies, created on the initiative of Gazprom PJSC. Moreover, the achievements of this company in the formation of the INTERGAZCERT voluntary certification system are considered.
1. Shmal' G.I., Kershenbaum V.Ya., Guseva T.A., Moroz A.Yu., Regulatory aspects of import substitution in the oil and gas sector (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 4, pp. 6–9.
2. Burmistrov V.A., We need a concept for technical regulation development (In Russ.), Standarty i kachestvo, 2020, no. 6, pp. 10–13.
3. Zubkov I., Double bottom tank: head of Rosstandart - about checking gasoline and checking meters (In Russ.), Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2020, URL: https://rg.ru/2020/09/16/glava-rosstandarta-rasskazal-o-proverkah-benzina-i-poverkah-schetchikov.htm...
5. Sokolov S., How to assess and regulate the work of technical committees for standardization (In Russ.), Standarty i kachestvo, 2019, no. 5, pp. 20–25.
6. Pugachev S.V., The standards of standards. development: one step forward and two steps back (In Russ.), Standarty i kachestvo, 2020, no. 1, pp. 20–24.
7. Grigin N.V., Restoring the status of industry standards (In Russ.), Standarty i kachestvo, 2016, no. 7, pp. 27–29.
8. Fomin A., On the need to legalize industry standards (In Russ.), Standarty i kachestvo, 2015, no. 2, pp. 26–28.
9. Podobedova L., Neftyaniki nashli sposob zashchitit' rossiyskikh proizvoditeley ot sanktsiy (Oilmen have found a way to protect Russian producers from sanctions), RBK, 2019, URL: https://www.rbc.ru/business/04/12/2019/5de76cd79a79476873fe3492.
10. Eksperty TPP RF obsuzhdayut v Sankt-Peterburge problemy importozameshcheniya v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (RF CCI experts discuss the problems of import substitution in the oil and gas industry in St. Petersburg), URL: https://tpprf.ru/ru/news/eksperty-tpp-rf-obsuzhdayut-v-sankt-peterburge-problemy-importozameshcheniy...
11. URL: https://inti.expert.A
12. Ivashchenko A.V., Shabalov I.P., Khorunzhiy S.B., Talanov O.P., INTERGAZCERT certification system - effective risk management tool (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2019, no. S4 (793), pp. 16–21.
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|News of the companies|
|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The main hydrocarbon reserves in the Jurassic sediments of Western Siberia are associated with various types of non-anticlinal objects in the Middle Jurassic oil and gas basin. Collectors have a complex structure and often belong to channel-shaped bodies. To date, these objects are of great interest for oil and gas search. The main task set for the authors was to allocate similar channels and avandelt facies in the productive formation J2 the Tyumen retinue according to the seismic survey MCDP 2D. The detailed seismic survey of MCDP 3D is quite easy, copes with such tasks by layer-by-layer studying of cubes of amplitudes, seismofacies, frequency decomposition, etc. For seismic exploration of MCDP 2D, in this regard, there are a number of restrictions. The article considers the technology of creating synthetic cubes 3D from profile data Pseudo 3D, describes the principle of its operation and demonstrates the results of solving the problem. The construction of a synthetic cube made it possible to interpret objects of interest not only in the plane, but also to go into the volume of three-dimensional space. As a result of the studies carried out with the involvement of the Pseudo 3D cube in the territory not studied by drilling, it was possible to quarry promising objects of the fluvial type, the forecast of which would be difficult according to profile data. The authors also draw attention to the increasing interest in such solutions in connection with the preservation of significant volumes of seismic exploration of MCDP 2D. Technologies for synthesizing pseudo 3D seismic cubes from profile data provide a whole range of possibilities for removing restrictions when evaluating the spatial location of search objects according to 2D data, especially those with a complex geological structure.
1. Surkov V.S., Gurari F.G., Smirnov L.V., Kazakov A.M., Nizhne-sredneyurskie otlozheniya Zapadno-Sibirskoy plity, osobennosti ikh stroeniya i neftegazonosnost' (Lower-Middle Jurassic deposits of the West Siberian plate, features of their structure and oil and gas content), Collected papers “Teoreticheskie i regional'nye problemy geologii nefti i gaza” (Theoretical and regional problems of oil and gas geology), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1991, 156 p.
2. Shpil'man A.V. et al., Report on the results of work on the object "Kompleksnye geologo-geofizicheskie raboty po izucheniyu glubinnogo stroeniya, otsenke perspektiv neftegazonosnosti i tekhniko-ekonomicheskomu obosnovaniyu osvoeniya nedr Yugansko-Koltogorskoy zony" (Integrated geological and geophysical work to study the deep structure, assess oil and gas potential and feasibility study for the development of the subsoil of the Yugansk-Koltogorsk zone), Tyumen, 2015, 3124 p.
3. Baraboshkin E.Yu., Prakticheskaya sedimentologiya. Terrigennye rezervuary. Posobie po rabote s kernom (Practical sedimentology. Terrigenous reservoirs. On how to operate core samples), Tver': GERS Publ., 2011, 152 p.
4. Parra H., et al., First Abu Dhabi 2D/3D seismic merge. Fast track approach for seismic data integration at regional scale in exploration studies, SPE-193066-MS, 2018.
5. Isaac J.H., Lawton D.C., Squeezing more out of 2D seismic data: Processing and interpretation of a pseudo-3D seismic survey from New Zealand, CREWES Research Report, 2013, no. 5.
6. Trinchero E., Vernengo L., Roizman M., 3D seismic processing and interpretation from 2D seismic data: Application in environmentally sensitive areas of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina, The Leading Edge, July 2014, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, DOI: 10.1190/tle33070714.1.
7. Bin Wang, Bondeson H., Zhiming Li, 3D imaging from 2D seismic data, an enhanced methodology Wilfred Whiteside, Proceedings of SEG Houston 2013 Annual Meeting, 2013, DOI: 10.1190/segam2013-1148.1
8. Gogonenkov G.N. et al., Sedimentation seismic data analysis technology (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 1, pp. 62–69.9. Patent RU 2165630 S1, Method of seismic prospecting and data processing, Inventors: Gogonenkov G.N., Badalov A.V., Garipov V.Z., Kashik A.S., Ehl'manovich S.S.
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The article considers one of the largest fields operated by Rosneft Oil Company in Eastern Siberia – Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye oilfield. Main reservoir of the field associated with the oldest sedimentary deposits of the planet – Riphean. The field is classified as very complex in terms of geological aspects and has practically no analogues. Reservoir properties of rocks are associated with a system of natural fracture system and the presence of vuggy zones. The paper describes a multi-disciplinary approach for identifying and forecasting high- porosity vuggy zones in the Riphean carbonate reservoir. The results of the classification of vugs based on core data are presented and the features of its distribution are empirically substantiated. A well logs interpretation technique was developed based on standard methods and using advanced technologies. Various approaches based on 3D seismic data have been proposed for predicting high- porosity vuggy zones. For the forecast we used both modern interpretation technologies, such as seismic inversion and spectral decomposition, and innovative technologies based on scattered seismic waves processing and interpreting. The results obtained are aimed at increasing the efficiency exploration, production and geological support for well drilling, by reducing geological risks. The relevance of the work is due, firstly, to the fact that previously the Riphean reservoirs of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye oilfield were considered exclusively from the perspective of predicting fracturing, and the vuggy zones was not given sufficient attention due to poor amount of the core data. Secondly, the paper presents advanced technologies that can be useful in the study of other objects with vuggy reservoir type.
1. Meretskiy A.A., Merzlikina A.S., Ispol'zovanie rasseyannykh seysmicheskikh voln dlya prognoza kollektorskikh svoystv (Using scattered seismic waves to predict reservoir properties), Proceedings of II Scientific-practical conference “Matematicheskoe modelirovanie i komp'yuternye tekhnologii v razrabotke mestorozhdeniy” (Mathematical modeling and computer technology in the development of the fields), Ufa, 15–17 April 2009, Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2009.
2. Kharakhinov V.V., Shlenkin S.I. et al., Treshchinnye rezervuary nefti i gaza (Fractured oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2015, 284 p.
3. Kharakhinov V.V., Shlenkin S.I., Neftegazonosnost' dokembriyskikh tolshch Vostochnoy Sibiri na primere Kuyumbinsko-Yurubcheno-Tokhomskogo areala neftegazonakpoleniya (The oil and gas potential of the Precambrian strata of Eastern Siberia on the example of the Kuyumbinsko-Yurubcheno-Tokhomsky area of the oil and gas region), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2011, 420 p.
4. Vetrova N.I., Geokhimiya i C-, Sr-khemostratigrafiya pozdnedokembriyskikh karbonatnykh otlozheniy Sibirskoy platformy (khorbusuonskaya seriya i dashkinskaya svita) (Geochemistry and C-, Sr-chemostratigraphy of Late Precambrian carbonate deposits of the Siberian platform (Khorbusuon series and Dashkinskaya suite)): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Novosibirsk, 2018.
5. Korobov A.D., Korobova L.A., Hydrothermal nature of cavern formation in the Vendian-Riphean collectors in the Baikitskaya Anteclise – a key to predicting zones of oil and gas accumulation (In Russ.), Izvestiya of Saratov University = New series. Series: Earth Sciences, 2006, V. 6, no. 1, pp. 57-63, DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1819-7663-2006-6-1-57-63
6. Mel'nikov N.V., Vend-kembriyskiy solenosnyy basseyn Sibirskoy platformy (Stratigrafiya, istoriya razvitiya) (Vendian-Cambrian salt basin of the Siberian Platform (Stratigraphy, development history)), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 2018, 177 p.
7. Kozyaev A.A., Bibik A.N., Kvachko S.K. et al., Spektral'naya dekompozitsiya – effektivnaya metodika dlya izucheniya geologicheskikh osobennostey, na primere mestorozhdeniy Vostochnoy Sibiri (Spectral decomposition is an effective technique for studying geological features, on the example of fields in Eastern Siberia), Proceedings of Geomodel 2016 – 18th Science and Applied Research Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development, 2016, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201602210
8. Osipenko A.A., Boykov O.I., Nazarov D.V. et al., Practical aspects of the identification of the void space of cavern-and-fracture reservoirs in conditions of an extremely low porosity (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2019, no. 6 (300), pp. 134–144.
9. Pozdnyakov V.A., Shilikov V.V., Merzlikina A.S., Allocation of high fractured zones in carbonate reservoir of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 7, pp. 86–88.
10. Lisitsa V.V., Pozdnyakov V.A. et al., Scattered seismic responses: simulation and imaging. Part 1. Two-dimensional media (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2013, no. 1, pp. 46–58.
11. Likhachev P.A., Kozyaev A.A., Izuchenie kharakteristik sistemy estestvennoy treshchinovatosti i kavernoznosti dlya optimizatsii razrabotki karbonatnogo rezervuara (Research of the characteristics of the system of natural fracturing and cavernosity to optimize the development of carbonate reservoirs), Proceedings of Geomodel 2019 – 21th Science and Applied Research Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development, 2019, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201950022
12. Gadyl'shin K.G., Kolyukhin D.R., Lisitsa V.V. et al., Use of scattered wavefield to locate fine cavernous layers in fractured formations of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2017, no. 1, pp. 56-62.13. Kozyaev A., Petrov D., Melnik A. et al., Vuggy zone forecast through the integration of logging data and azimuthal characteristics of scattered seismic waves, Proceedings of 6th scientific conference – Tyumen 2019, Tyumen, 25–29 March 2019.
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Since the beginning of the geological researches, the Domaniñ deposits of the Republic of Bashkortostan were considered as the main oil and gas producing strata with a high generational potential. But current level of Domanic formation study by the modern analytical methods still remains low. Sediments of the Domanic fomation (Semilukskian horizon) horizon enriched in a dispersed organic matter (DOM) (0.5–27.31 %).cover a large western part of the territory of the Bashkortostan. The cumulative analysis of the data of subsidiaries of Rosneft – RN-BashNIPIneft and IGiRGI on the level of DOM thermal maturity in the Domaniñ formation within the Bashkortostan territory showed that the level of organic matter maturity in Devonian rocks, in general, is relatively low, both within the arched uplifts and at the biggest part of the territory of the Blagoveshchenskaya depression. According to the pyrolysis data and the values of Tmax for Upper Paleozoic domaniñ-type deposits of most part the Bashkortostan territory levels of katagenesis of organic matter are noted – as the end of protokatagenesis (PK3) – the beginning of mesokatagenesis (MK1-2). The organic matter content and the level of katagenetic transformation have a direct affect to the generational potential. Quantity of hydrocarbons generated by the Domanic source rocks on the territory of Bashkortostan vary fr om 0.1 to 2 mln t/ km2. It was noted that the highest quantity of generated hydrocarbons are observed in the MK1 and MK2 katagenesis zones in the Preduralskyi trough, wh ere the Domanic deposits are the most deeply submerged.
Based on the current degree of the knowledge of Domanic strata in the region, to the most perspective territories directed on the hydrocarbon exploration in Domanic horizon can be attributed the areas of the Blagoveshchensk depression, which has the highest TOC content, sufficient katagenetic maturity of the sediments – MK1 substage, maximum thicknesses of high-carbon deposits, and the areas of the eastern slope of the Bashkir arch, where, according to the results of wells tests, hydrocarbon inflows were obtained from the Domanic sediments.
1. Gosudarstvennyy doklad MPR o sostoyanii i ispol'zovanii mineral'no-syr'evykh resursov Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2016 i 2017 godakh (State report of the Ministry of Natural Resources on the state and use of mineral resources of the Russian Federation in 2016 and 2017), URL: https://www.mnr.gov.ru/docs/o_sostoyanii_i_ispolzovanii_mineralno_syrevykh_resursov_rossiyskoy_feder....
2. Lyan S.P., Galushin G.A., Filippov V.P., Conditions for the formation of Domanikites in the southeast of the Russian Platform (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2015, no. 3 (62), V. 2, pp. 54–63.
3. Kayukova G.P., Romanov G.V., Plotnikova I.N., Geochemical aspects of the oil deposits replenishment process research (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2012, no. 5, pp. 37–40.4. Schmoker J.W., Volumetric calculation of hydrocarbons generated, In: The petroleum system-from source to trap: edited by Magoon L.B, Dow W.G., AAPG Memoir, 1994, V. 60, pp. 323–326.
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Currently, among the specialists accompanying geological prospecting work in Eastern Siberia, the task of technological "re-equipment" is becoming especially urgent, including at the first stage pilot operations with modern equipment and an assessment of the applicability of the latter in the specific conditions of the geological section. At present, experience has been accumulated in conducting research on oil and gas objects throughout the license areas of the Irkutsk region. The share of research for 2017-2020 falling on the mini-DST + casing test complex, in relation to the total volume of exploratory drilling, is 65%. The mini-DST + casing test assumes preliminary open hole testing immediately after completion of drilling (classified as a special logging complex), followed by testing after casing and perforating the wellbore. Due to the presence of a special logging complex, the saturation estimate is refined by standard logging methods and, if there are fluid sections in the reservoir section, the testing strategy is adjusted. The full-scale complex of testing in a casing string means operational staging from secondary opening by perforation, preliminary stimulation of oil production (hydrochloric bath, acid treatment), long-term working out on chokes in free-flow production, etc. The standard layout of the considered formation testers is a modular assembly / instrument set. The main tools for well testing are the clamping probe arrangement and the dual packer / pumping module. The paper presents the results of determining the reservoir properties, reservoir pressure measurements, the quality of deep oil samples when testing carbonate reservoirs on drill pipes in an open hole and the data obtained by full-scale cased-hole well test complex. Comparison of these two methods results make it possible to assess the applicability and reliability of mini-DST for testing the geological and physical characteristics of complex oil and gas reservoirs of the carbonate type.
1. Natarajan K.K., Joshi S., Banerjee R., Sundaram K.M., A new method for gas well deliverability potential estimation using MiniDST and single well modeling: Theory and examples, SPE-113650-MS, 2008, DOI:10.2118/113650-MS.
2. Varlamov P.S., Griguletskiy V.G., Varlamov G.P., Varlamov S.P., Plastoispytatel'noe oborudovanie dlya gidrodinamicheskikh issledovaniy plastov neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Formation testing equipment for hydrodynamic studies of oil and gas wells), Ufa, 2005, 620 p.
3. Houz? O., Viturat D., Fjaere O.S., Dynamic data analysis: The theory and practice of pressure transient and production analysis & The use of data from permanent downhole gauges, URL: https://www.kappaeng.com/documents/flip/dda51001/files/assets/basic-html/
4. Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety “Pravila bezopasnosti v neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennosti” (Safety rules in the oil and gas industry), Series 08, Issue 19, Moscow: Publ. of Scientific technical center of industrial safety problems research, 2013, 288 p.5. Brusilovskiy A.I., Fazovye prevrashcheniya pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Phase transformations in the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Graal' Publ., 2002, 575 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The possibility of using hydrodynamic methods for the development of oil fields and, especially, of peripheral contour water flooding at the beginning of their introduction (50s of the last century) was questioned by many experts and raised concerns. Criticism of this method, and especially the principles of oil field development using water flooding, continued until the 80s and at the end of the last century it almost stopped. But at the beginning of the 21st century, I.A. Mustafin began to sharply criticize the application of this method on the example of supergiants - Romashkinskoye and Samotlorskoye oil and gas fields. His brochure “Geological and technological results of the hydrodynamic method of developing oil fields in the Russian Federation on the example of supergiants Romashkino and Samotlor” was sent to most oil companies and industry experts, scientists and even sent to the President of the Republic of Tatarstan. In this brochure was used such a terrible term - "destruction" of an oil field. Because of this mythical destruction, the author suggests switching to more benign methods (essentially those that were used at the beginning of the method’s implementation), and it is better to use other methods (thermal, gas, etc.). Also, the author of the brochure offered to retrain students in universities and specialists and radically change the development system.
Since the author of this article was a direct participant and leader at almost all stages of the introduction of hydrodynamic methods, most of the decisions at Romashkinskoye and other fields of the Republic of Tatarstan were made with his direct and active participation. Therefore, the author decided in this article to briefly assess the formation and development of this technology and share judgments about the future prospects of this method. This is very important for the oil community, scientists of present and future specialists, and most importantly for the safe operation of oil and oil and gas fields.
1. Muslimov R.Kh., Vliyanie osobennostey geologicheskogo stroeniya na effektivnost' razrabotki Romashkinskogo mestorozhdeniya (Influence of the peculiarities of the geological structure on the efficiency of the development of the Romashkinskoye field), Kazan: Publ. of KSU, 1979.
2. Muslimov R.Kh., Shavaliev A.M., Khisamov R.B., Yusupov I.T., Geologiya, razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya Romashkinskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Geology, development and exploitation of Romashkinskoye oil field), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1995, 492 p.
3. Shchelkachev V.N., Vazhneyshie printsipy nefterazrabotki (75 let opyta) (The most important principles for the development of oil fields (75 years experience)), Moscow: Neft' i gaz, 2004, 608 p.
4. Muslimov R.Kh., Negativnoe vliyanie protsessa “stareniya” zalezhey na potentsial'nye vozmozhnosti neftedobychi i puti povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki na pozdney stadii (The negative impact of the process of "aging" of deposits on the potential of oil production and ways to improve the efficiency of development at a later stage), Collected papers “Novye idei v geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza” (New ideas in the geology and geochemistry of oil and gas), Proceedings of V international conference, Part II, Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2001.
5. Yusupova T.N., Petrova L.M., Mukhametshin R.Z. et al., Osobennosti sostava ostatochnoy nefti v zavodnennykh terrigennykh kollektorakh (Peculiarities of residual oil composition in flooded terrigenous reservoirs), Proceedings of International conference “Problemy kompleksnogo osvoeniya trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti i prirodnykh bitumov (dobycha i pererabotka)” (Problems of integrated development of hard-to-recover oil and natural bitumen reserves (production and processing)), Kazan, 1994.
6. Neprimerov. N.N., Sharagin A.G., Vnutrikonturnaya vyrabotki neftyanykh plastov (Internal development of oil reservoirs), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1961, 213 p.
7. Dobrynin V.M., Deformatsii i izmeneniya fizicheskikh svoystv kollektorov nefti i gaza (Deformations and changes in the physical properties of oil and gas collectors), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 239 p.
8. Slavin V.I., Khimich V.F., Geodinamicheskie modeli formirovaniya AVPD i ikh prakticheskoe znachenie (Geodynamic models of abnormal formation pressure formation and their practical significance), In: Izuchenie geologicheskogo razreza i prognozirovanie AVPD (Study of the geological section and forecasting abnormal pressure), Proceedings of VNIGRI, 1987.
9. Muslimov R.Kh., Development of the Romashkino supergiant field is a great contribution of Russian scientists and experts to world petroleum science and oil development practice (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2008, no. 4, pp. 2–6.
10. Muslimov R.Kh., Sovremennye metody upravleniya razrabotkoy neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem zavodneniya (Modern methods of development of oil fields with the use the waterflooding), Kazan: Publ. of Kazan University, 2003, 596 p.
11. Mustafin I.A., Geologo-tekhnologicheskie rezul'taty gidrodinamicheskogo metoda razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti v RF na primere supergigantov Romashkino i Samotlor (Geological and technological results of the hydrodynamic method for the development of oil fields in the Russian Federation on the example of the supergiants Romashkino and Samotlor), Kazan: Foliant Publ., 2018, 88 p.
12. Mustafin I.A., Shaykhutdinov R.S., Gidrodinamicheskie etapy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Hydrodynamic stages of oil field development), Proceedings of International conference “Osobennosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy netraditsionnykh uglevodorodov”(Features of exploration and development of unconventional hydrocarbon fields), Kazan, 2–3 September 2015, pp. 229–230.
13. Mustafin I.A, Mustafin G.M(A)., Geologo-tekhnologicheskie usloviya primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Geological and technological conditions for the application of methods of enhanced oil recovery), Proceedings of International conference “Innovatsii v razvedke i razrabotke neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy” (Innovation in oil and gas exploration and development), Kazan, 7–8 September 2016, V. II, pp. 56–58.
14. Mustafin I.A., K proektirovaniyu gorizontal'nykh skvazhin na obvodnennykh mestorozhdeniyakh nefti (Designing horizontal wells in flooded oil fields), Proceedings of International conference “Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny i GRP v povyshenii effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy” (Horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing in improving the efficiency of oil field development), Kazan, 6–7 September 2017, pp. 230–231.
15. Mustafin I.A., Nekotorye rezul'taty vnutrikonturnogo zavodneniya neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Some results of in-circuit waterflooding of oil fields), Innovatsionnye tekhnologii v geologii i razrabotke uglevodorodov (Innovative technologies in geology and hydrocarbon development), Proceedings of international scientific and practical conference, Kazan', 2009, pp. 294–295.
16. Izotov V.G., Sitdikova L.M., Nanomineral oil reservoir systems and their role in the development process (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2007, no. 3 (22), pp. 21–23.
17. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee (optimizatsiya dobychi, maksimizatsiya KIN) (Oil recovery: Past, Present, Future (production optimization, maximization of recovery factor)), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2014, 750 p.
18. Muslimov R.Kh., Plotnikova I.N., lternative solutions - Key to create state-of-art technologies in oil and gas field prospecting, exploration and development (In Russ.), Neft'.Gaz.Novatsii, 2018, no. 9 (214), pp. 14–17.
19. Dyachuk I.A., Reformation of oil fields and reservoirs (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2015, no. 1(60), pp. 39–46.
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Historically, an opinion has been formed that invasion of the mud filtrate in the near-wellbore zone introduces a positive skin factor. Indeed, the magnitude of the positive skin factor can high, even in completely penetrated wells. And yet, thousands of pressure buildup curves annually recorded in Tatneft PJSC support the inverse trend – average distribution of the total skin factor approximates to -3.7. The underlying reasons can be diverse. First of all, one must differentiate between the total skin factor determined form pressure buildup curves and its constituents, geometrical and mechanical skin factors. A large number of production enhancement operations, including well stimulation and fracking, performed by the operator introduce the negative skin factor. Average distribution of the mechanical skin factor approximates zero, significantly differing, thus, from the total skin factor. This fact also raises suspicions of experts, who reason that the parameter characterizing the bottomhole zone should not be but positive. This discrepancy can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the mechanical skin factor. In reality, it is influenced by a number of drivers that can either increase, or decrease the skin factor. Positive contribution to the mechanical skin factor may be the result of friction losses from formation to the pressure gauge, etc.; negative contributions result from non-linear-viscous oil properties, physicochemical interaction of fluid with the open surface of pores, mechanical damage of open hole completions in incompetent formations, natural fracturing of sandstone reservoirs, behind-the-casing flows, active water-saturated intervals, etc. Considering the diversity of forces influencing the skin factor, the cause of any particular skin factor magnitude should be found out using all available reservoir and well data.
It should be noted that the persisting myth of the bottomhole zone serious damage is demolished by actual surveys. The results of earlier experiments on comparison of formation damage resulting from conventional and underbalance perforation and modeling of flow to perforations confirm the trend. In majority of cases, the mechanical damage caused by drilling fluids is removed by adequate perforation and completion.
1. Hurst W., Establishment of the skin effect and its impediment to fluid flow into a well bore, The Petroleum Engineer, 1953, V. XXV, no. 1, pp. B6-B16.
2. Shagiev R.G., Issledovanie skvazhin po KVD (Well testing), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1998, 304 p.
3. Charnyy I.A., Podzemnaya gidrogazodinamika (Underground hydraulic gas dynamics), Moscow – Leningrad: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963, 396 p.
4. Shchurov V.I., Tekhnika i tekhnologiya dobychi nefti (Technique and technology of oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 510 p.
5. Iktisanov V.A., Description of steady inflow of fluid to wells with different configurations and various partial drilling-in (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2020, V. 243, pp. 305–312.
6. Allain O. et al., Dynamic flow analysis, KAPPA, 2007.
7. Iktisanov V.A., Izuchenie osobennostey relaksatsionnoy fil'tratsii zhidkosti (Study of the features of relaxation fluid filtration), Palmarium Academic Publishing, 2012, 125 p.
8. Batchelor G.K., An introduction to fluid dynamics, Cambridge University Press, 1967.
9. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Kovalev A.G., Zaytsev Yu.V., Osobennosti ekspluatatsii mestorozhdeniy anomal'nykh neftey (Features of exploitation of deposits of anomalous oils), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1972, 200 p.
10. Hawkins M.F., A note on the skin-effect, JPT, 1956, V. 65-66, https://doi.org/10.2118/732-G
11. Nuriev I.A., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologiy zakanchivaniya skvazhin dlya usloviy neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana (Improvement of well completion technologies for the conditions of oil fields in Tatarstan): thesis of candidate of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2011.
12. Zheltov Yu.P., Mekhanika neftegazonosnogo plasta (Mechanics of oil and gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 216 p.
13. Iktisanov V.A., Musabirova N.Kh., Baygushev A.V. et al., Evaluation of well completion quality based on flow test result (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 7, pp. 33–35.14. Ibragimov N.G., Iktisanov V.A., Ibatullin R.R., Akhmadishin F.F., Estimation of technological efficiency of formations exposing in drawdown conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 4, pp. 108–111.
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The general downward trend in oil production requires a constant increase in recoverable reserves. Most of the currently developing deposits have low reservoir properties and are characterized by a relatively low final oil recovery. Nowadays economic factors play a decisive role in the design of the development of such deposits. The implemented development system is selected in the first technological document, which, due to the lack of initial knowledge of the reservoir, is characterized by an optimistic idea of the reserves quality. With the input of the field into commercial development, the active implementation of the adopted design solutions is realized with the maximum possible rate of reserves development.
Waterflooding, especially for low-permeability objects, is often implemented under conditions of insufficiently expedient in relation to production intensity of the pressure maintenance system. This is reflected in the optimization of the number of injection wells, a less intensive option for their completion, which is compensated by an increase in the injection pressure; rapid flooding of production wells. The authors have identified and shown the relationship of factors affecting the dynamics and rate of watering of wells in low-permeability reservoirs. It is shown that even in the presence of mobile reserves in the drainage area the formation of through man-made cracks multiplies the recovery time reserves and reduces the intensity of displacement.
1. Zakirov S.N., Zakirov E.S., Zakirov I.S. et al., Novye printsipy i tekhnologii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (The new principles and technologies of oil and gas fields development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 520 p.
2. Afanas'eva A.V., Gorbunov A.T., Shustef I.N., Zavodnenie neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy pri vysokikh davleniyakh nagnetaniya (Waterflooding of oil fields at high injection pressures), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 216 p.
3. Mal'tsev V.V., Asmandiyarov R.N., Baykov V.A. et al., Testing of auto hydraulic-fracturing growth of the linear oilfield development system of Priobskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 5, pp. 70-73.
4. Gavura V.E., Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Geology and development of oil and oil-and-gas fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1995, 496 p.
5. Klyachko V.A., Apel'tsin I.E., Ochistka prirodnykh vod (Purification of natural waters), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1971, 579 p.
6. Chepkasova E.V., Ivanov M.G., Technological efficiency evaluation applying water like as displacement agent in low permeable formation (In Russ.), Territoriya neftegaz, 2016, no. 2, pp. 82-86.
7. Nazarov V.D. et al., Preparation of produced water for pressure maintenance system in low permeable oil reservoir (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2017, no. 6, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/issues/6_2017/ogbus_6_2017_p35-56_NazarovVD_ru.pdf
8. Kuznetsov V.S., Dependence of injectivity of injection wells on the quality of water injected into oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1978, no. 8.
9. Neyman Yu.I., Landa P.S., Statisticheskie i khaoticheskie kolebaniya (Statistical and chaotic fluctuations), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 424 p.
10. Zaynetdinov T.I. et al., On the deterministic nature of permeability fluctuations during filtration of heterogeneous systems (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1999, no. 3.
11. Khasanov M.M. et al., Technical and economical evaluation of waterflood patterns formed by hydraulically fractured wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 2, pp. 92–96.
12. Kuzmina S.S., Butula K.K., Reservoir pressure depletion and water flooding influencing hydraulic fracture orientation in low permeability oilfields, SPE-120749-MS, 2009.
13. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Usmanov T.S., Stepanova Z.Yu., Special well tests to fractured water injection wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 65–75, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Baikov/Baikov_1.pdf
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The paper looks at the process of development of a reservoir pressure maintenance (RPM) system in the Srednebotuobinskoye oil-gas-condensate field of Rosneft Oil Company. The field is located in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The region has a number of specific climatic and hydro-geological features setting certain requirements to selecting a source of water. An integrated approach is implemented in the Srednebotuobinskoye field to provide water required for the RPM system, which includes surface and subsoil water supply sources. Prospecting and exploration activities were undertaken to identify promising subsoil water sources. In the , Srednebotuobinskoye field two aquifers have a potential for being water sources: the Bordonsk series and the Meteger-Ichera series. The Bordonskaya water can be used for waterflooding purposes without any preliminary treatment. The Meteger-Ichera water contains hydrogen sulphide and therefore requires treatment prior to being used for reservoir pressure maintenance. Laboratory core studies were performed and helped establish the impacts on reservoir permeability if a mixture of surface and aquifer water is used. The outcome of the technical-economic assessment was in favor of the Bordonsk series. As a result, an integrated strategy for reservoir pressure maintenance was developed to minimize early water coning. It envisages a two-stage approach to converting wells to injection. At the first stage, when the main source of injection water is rivers and water intake wells (water viscosity is not exceeding 1.5 mPa⋅s), a nine-spot waterflooding system is used. At the second stage, with an increasing share in total injection volumes of produced water with a viscosity of 4 mPa⋅s, a single-line waterflooding system is used. The strategy for developing the reservoir pressure maintenance system proved its effectiveness. The transformation of the nine-spot into a single-line system helped restore reservoir pressure without causing early water coning, and formed the basis for a mutli-fold increase in production rates.
1. Levanov A., Kobyashev A., Chuprov A. et al., Evolution of approaches to oil rims development in terrigenous formations of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), SPE-187772-RU, 2017.
2. Levanov A.N., Belyanskiy V.Yu., Anur'ev D.A. et al., Concept baseline for the development of a major complex field in Eastern Siberia using flow simulation (In Russ.), SPE 176636-RU, 2015.
3. Grinchenko V.A., Aksenovskaya A.A., Valeev R.R., Savel'ev E.A., Dynamics of intrapermafrost water in thermo-radiation taliks in Srednebotuobinsky oil and gas condensate field development (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2019, no. 1 (77), pp. 84–89.
4. Karta resursnogo potentsiala podzemnykh vod Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Map of the resource potential of groundwater in the Russian Federation), Moscow: Publ. of Rosnedra, GIDEK, 2011.5. Valeev R.R., Kolesnikov D.V., Buddo I.V. et al., An approach to the water shortage problem solution for a reservoir pressure maintenance of oil fields in the eastern Siberia (on the example of Srednebotuobinsky oil and gas-condensate field) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2019, no. 1, pp. 55–67.
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Oil industry are faced with the challenge of developing fundamentally new oil fields associated with deposits in unconventional hydrophobic reservoirs. The old approaches, unfortunately, are inapplicable in the development of such deposits, which are widespread in the Upper Jurassic deposits of the West Siberian oil and gas basin. As shown by the conducted field studies, using the example of the Sredne-Nazymskoye field, classical water injection is impossible for such fields, due to the rapid breakthrough of water to the bottom of production wells. The use of horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing allows entering these fields into development; however, they provide low values of the oil recovery factor of 7-9%. Methods of maintaining reservoir pressure can radically change the situation. As one of these methods, the method of thermal gas exposure or high-flow rate air injection was studied. At the Sredne-Nazymskoye field, for the first time in the post-Soviet space, technological approaches to the organization of injection were successfully developed. Despite the undoubted advantages over the classical water injection, there are still questions of improving the process of high-flow rate air injection. In addition to the tasks of maintaining reservoir pressure, the task is to convert organic matter, namely kerogen into mobile hydrocarbons. Due to the specifics of the process, the fastest markers are the outgoing gases. The article discusses an approach to monitoring high temperature oxidation processes based on changes in the composition of the outgoing gases. The proposed approach was substantiated on the basis of a set of laboratory studies. Also, based on the proposed approaches, it is possible to control the combustion process in the field. In the course of research, were established markers of kerogen transformation, it was shown that the presence of CO does not always mark low-temperature oxidation.
1. Bartlesville energy technology center U.S. department of energy, URL: https://www.energy.gov/fe/downloads/bartlesville-energy-research-center
2. Ren Y., Freitag N.P., Mahinpey N., A simple kinetic model for coke combustion during an in-situ combustion (ISC) process, Petroleum Society of Canada, 2007, April 1, doi:10.2118/07-04-05
3. Agca C., Yortsos Y.C., Steady-state analysis of in-situ combustion,
SPE-13624-MS, 1985, doi:10.2118/13624-MS
4. Bagci A.S., Kok M.V., Okandan E., Combustion reaction kinetics in limestones containing heavy oils, SPE-15737-MS, 1987, doi:10.2118/15737-MS.
5. Guindon L., Kinetic modelling of the in-situ combustion process for Athabasca oil sands, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 2015, V. 51, no. 1, doi:10.2118/0115-012-JCPT.
6. Gutierrez D., Moore R.G., Ursenbach M.G., Mehta S.A., The ABCs of in-situ combustion simulations: From laboratory experiments to the field scale, SPE-148754-MS, 2011, doi:10.2118/148754-MS.
7. Coats K.H., In-situ combustion model, SPE-8394-PA, 1980, doi: 10.2118/8394-PA.
8. Nemova V.D., Panchenko I.V., The productivity factors of Bazhenov formation in Frolov megadepression (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2017, V. 12, no. 4, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/4/46_2017.pdf
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Today, hydraulic fracturing is one of the most used methods of impact on the reservoir in order to increase the flow rate of the fluid. Holding an event involves a large number of risks that reduce its effectiveness. In order to increase the success of hydraulic fracturing, simulation results are applied in specialized simulators, which are based on various mathematical models. Most of the software products used is foreign-made. In this paper, we give a mathematical model that allows to consider the features of the process of flowing a viscous fluid with an admixture of particles in an opening hydraulic fracture. The model under consideration is an alternative to the commercial hydraulic fracturing simulators on the market with the option of rapid assessment. In the course of the computational experiment, it was found that the presence of particles in the fracturing fluid has a significant effect on the nature of the crack formation process, stopping its growth (in particular, due to clogging of the crack nose). A decrease in the concentration of particles in the injected mixture leads to a slowdown of precipitation and a continued growth of the crack. The dependence of the ultimate crack length, the feed time of the mixture, and the moment of stopping the growth on the volume content of particles was established. The paper presents the results of a numerical solution of the problem of the process of formation of hydraulic fractures when hydraulic fracturing fluid is injected into the well. Input parameters are: parameters of the elastic medium (Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), reservoir properties of the rock, concentration and time of supply of the mixture. A comparison is made of the fracture parameters obtained during the computational experiment with the values, calculated using a foreign hydraulic fracturing simulator.
1. Perkins T.K., Kern L.R., Widths of hydraulic fractures, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1961, V. 13, pp. 937–949.
2. Nordgren R.P., Propagation of a vertical hydraulic fracture, SPE-18959-PA, 1972.
3. Zheltov YU.P., Khristianovich S.A., On hydraulic fracturing of oil reservoir (In Russ.), Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR, 1955, no. 5, pp. 3–41.
4. Chernyy S.G. et al., Metody modelirovaniya zarozhdeniya i rasprostraneniya treshchiny (Methods for modeling crack initiation and propagation), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2016, 312 p.
5. Khasanov M.M., Paderin G.V., Shel' E.V. et al., Approaches to modeling hydraulic fracturing and their development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 37–41.
6. Chesnokov Yu.G., Influence of the Reynolds number on the plane-channel turbulent flow of a fluid (In Russ.), Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki = Technical Physics. The Russian Journal of Applied Physics, 2010, V. 80, no. 12, pp. 33–39.
7. Tatosov A.V., Shlyapkin A.S., The motion of propping agent in an opening crack in hydraulic fracturing plast (In Russ.), Izv. Saratovskogo un-ta. Novaya seriya. Matematika. Mekhanika. Informatika, 2018, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 217–226, DOI: 10.18500/1816-9791-2018-18-2-217-226.8. Karnakov P.V., Lapin V.N., Chernyy S.G., A model of hydraulic fracturing with fracture plugging mechanizm (In Russ.), Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. Informatsionnye tekhnologii, 2014, V. 12, no. 1, pp. 19–33.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The need to develop and apply effective cleaning technologies and modern energy-saving equipment that implements them is an urgent task for many oil and gas producing and service organizations. Today, there is an increase in the role of modern techniques and software designed for the design and selection of equipment, with the ability to simulate work processes. The use of mathematical models makes it possible to develop the most optimal design without making prototypes. Numerical methods have revealed the main regularities of submerged and non-submerged jet outflows for the destruction of deposits with high adhesion from the surface of oil and gas field equipment. Numerical simulation of the flow of multiphase flows was carried out in a software package for solving problems of computational fluid dynamics by the finite element method.
The paper describes the applied hydrodynamic calculation models, the features of mesh construction, the choice of the solver parameters. A number of mathematical experiments were carried out: flow modeling, as well as comparison of flows for three types of nozzles: conical converging with a cylindrical outlet; cylindrical and conical divergent. The obtained results were verified by practical testing in field conditions. An improved high-pressure cleaning technology has been introduced at oil and gas and service enterprises of the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The results were realized in the design of various installations for hydrodynamic cavitation cleaning of the working bodies of the ESP and tubing from salt deposits with increased radioactivity; Tubing from asphalt-resins-paraffin deposits with high adhesion and strength; hydrodynamic purification units, gas treatment facilities of gas producing enterprises and underground gas storage facilities.
1. Kulagina T.A., Kulagin V.A., Moskvichev V.V., Popkov V.A., The use of cavitation technology in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel processes (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii = Ecology and Industry of Russia, 2016, V. 20 (10), pp. 4–10.
2. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Decontamination of oilfield equipment from natural radionuclides (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii, 2013, no. 2, pp. 1–9.
3. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Pakhlyan I.A., Developing and implementing the technology for cavitation-wave cleaning of radiation contaminated oilfield equipment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 10, pp. 117–121.
4. Brennen C.E., Fundamentals of multiphase flows, California: California Institute of Technology, 2005.
5. Davis M.R., Fungtamasan B., Two-phase flow through pipe branch junctions, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 1990, V. 15, no. 5, pp. 799–817.
6. Gao F., Wang H., Wang H., Comparison of different turbulence models in simulating unsteady flow, Procedia Engineering, 2017, V. 205, pp. 3970-3977, URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.09.856
7. Launder B.E., Spalding D.B., Lectures in mathematical models of turbulence, London: Academic Press, 1972.
8. Stenmark E., On multiphase flow models in ANSYS CFD software: Master’s thesis in applied mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 2013.
9. Tijsseling A.S, Lavooij C.S.W., Fluid-structure interaction in liquid filled piping systems, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 1991, pp. 573–595.
10. Kothe D.B., Rider W.J., Mosso J., Brock J.S., Volume tracking of interfaces having surface tension in two and three dimensions, AIAA J., 1996, pp. 96–0859.
11. Egorychev V.S., Shabliy L.S., Kudinov I.V., Chislennoe modelirovanie dvukhfaznykh potokov v forsunke kamery ZhRD (Numerical modeling of two-phase flows in a liquid-propellant engine chamber nozzle), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, 2013.
12. Rodionov V.P., Modelirovanie kavitatsionno-erozionnykh protsessov, vozbuzhdaemykh gidrodinamicheskimi struynymi izluchatelyami (Modelirovanie kavitatsionno-erozionnykh protsessov, vozbuzhdaemykh gidrodinamicheskimi struynymi izluchatelyami): thesis of doctor of technical science, St. Petersburg, 2001.
13. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Razrabotka tekhnologii gidrodinamicheskoy kavitatsionnoy ochistki trub ot otlozheniy pri remonte skvazhin (Development of technology for hydrodynamic cavitation pipe cleaning from deposits during well repair): thesis of candidate of technical science, Krasnodar, 2004.
14. Ukolov A.I., Rodionov V.P., Verification of numerical simulation results and experimental data of the cavitation influence on hydrodynamic characteristics of a jet flow (In Russ.), Vestnik MGTU im. N.E. Baumana. Ser. Estestvennye nauki, 2018, no. 4, pp. 102–114, https://doi.org/10.18698/1812-3368-2018-4-102-114.
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The article describes the basic principles of mathematical modeling of sampling devices (SD) in order to determine the design of their sampling tubes, allowing to ensure the highest representativeness of samples. The calculations were carried out for slot-type SD that are widely used at present in systems for measuring the quantity and quality of oil. To establish the boundary conditions for mixing the components, the authors substantiated the mixing criteria. To calculate the solution model, a dispersion turbulence model was chosen, implemented in the ANSYS application software. The analyzed components contained in the stream were water, chloride salts, and mechanical impurities. The main results obtained indicate the operability of the mathematical model, which makes it possible to calculate the SD for various incompressible media. The main research results also include the following conclusions. An increase in the content of chloride salts in the stream improves the representativeness of the water samples taken; increased turbulization of the flow can lead not only to an improvement in the representativeness of samples, but, under certain conditions, to their deterioration; in some cases, the representativeness of samples for water and chloride salts may coincide. In the process of research it was noted that it is impossible to obtain the same improvement in the representativeness for all substances contained in oil (in some cases, an improvement in the representativeness of samples for mechanical impurities led to deterioration in the previously achieved representativeness for water). Thus, the task of uniform improvement of the representativeness of samples with respect to water, mechanical impurities and chloride salts was taken as an optimization problem. In the course of research, this problem was solved: the obtained design of the SD allows to improve the representativeness of samples for water by 17.29%, for chloride salts by 21.89 %, for mechanical impurities by 6.77 %.
1. Shabarov A.B., Gidrogazodinamika (Fluid dynamics), Tyumen: Publ. of Tyumen State University, 2013, 460 p.
2. Morozov D., CAE software for the simulation of flow and heat transfer problems (In Russ.), Nauka i innovatsii, 2017, no. 1 (167), pp. 29–32.3. Shustrova M.L., Aminev I.M., Baytimirov A.D., Sredstva chislennogo modelirovaniya gidrodinamicheskikh parametrov protsessov (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2014, no. 14, pp. 221–224.
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To predict gasoline losses fr om evaporation from tanks that are not equipped with means to reduce them, it is necessary to have reliable methods for assessing mass transfer from its surface. By now, many such methods are known, starting with simplified empirical formulas or graphs and ending with criterion equations. The use of simplified empirical formulas can significantly simplify the calculations. However, this is achieved at the cost of a high calculation error. When predicting the concentration of hydrocarbons in the gas space of reservoirs at the time of the beginning of "exhalation" for several decades, graphs of the increase in the relative concentration of gasoline vapors over time are also used. The curves on them have the form of a parabola and differ only in the value of its exponent. However, the monotonic nature of the increase in the relative concentration over several tens of hours contradicts the foundations of the theory of losses from "small breaths", according to which the concentration of hydrocarbons in the HZ reservoirs is minimal in the morning, then increases with sunrise, reaches a maximum in the afternoon, after which, again at according to the behavior of the sun, decreases. The use of criterion equations is most preferable since mass transfer from the surface of gasoline in tanks is a thermodynamic process, the rate of which is determined by many factors: temperature, pressure of saturated vapors, concentration of hydrocarbons above the surface of an evaporating liquid, intensity of its mixing, speed of air flow around the surface of gasoline, etc. In the known criterion equations, these factors are taken into account in the form of dimensionless similarity criteria of Sherwood, Schmidt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Grashof. However, they have a number of disadvantages, including insufficient consideration of the real conditions of these processes (filling level of tanks, intensity of mixing gasoline, etc.), inconsistency with the requirement of the lim it transition at low rates of filling and emptying tanks, etc. In addition, when calculating the similarity criteria, the value of the average concentration of hydrocarbons above the surface of gasoline is used, this makes the calculation of mass transfer iterative. The article presents the criterion equations for mass transfer, which allow performing calculations without numerous iterations.
1. Rybakov Yu.N., Volgin S.N., Larionov S.V. et al., Predicting of the kinetics of fuel losses in polymer tank storage (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation,, 2018, no. 2, pp. 142–146.
2. Bazhaykin S.G., Mukhametzyanov R.R., Stepanyugin A.V., Oil product losses rationing in the airport fuel supply system (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation,, 2018, no. 2, pp. 142–146.
3. Korshak A.A., Korshak An.A., Method for predicting breathing losses of oil and oil products for a long period (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation,, 2018, no. 5, pp. 79–87.
4. Korshak A.A., Leont'ev S.A., Fominykh O.V., Snizhenie poter' uglevodorodov v sistemakh sbora i podgotovki skvazhinnoy produktsii (Reduction of losses of hydrocarbons in systems of gathering and preparation of well products), Tyumen': Publ. of TIU, 2019, 95 p.
5. Abuzova F.F., Skovorodnikova T.K., A simplified method for calculating the loss of oil products from large breaths from above-ground metal tanks (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1967, no. 2, pp. 22–24.
6. Abuzova F.F., Issledovanie poter' nefti i nefteproduktov i effektivnosti sredstv sokrashcheniya ikh v rezervuarakh (Study of losses of oil and oil products and the effectiveness of means to reduce them in tanks): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ufa, 1977.
7. Mukhamed'yarova R.A., Abuzova F.F., Mass transfer from the evaporating surface during saturation of the gas space of the reservoir (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1981, no. 4, pp. 27–29.
8. Molchanova R.A., Issledovaniya po vyboru tipov rezervuarov dlya khraneniya legkoisparyayushchikhsya nefteproduktov (Research on the selection of types of tanks for the storage of volatile oil products): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1981.
9. Martyashova V.A., Khabibullina S.S., Mass transfer when filling the tank with "hot" gasoline (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 1977, no. 11, pp. 1–3.
10. Korshak S.A., Sovershenstvovanie metodov rascheta poter' benzinov ot ispareniya iz rezervuarov tipov RVS i RVSP (Improving methods for calculating the loss of gasoline from evaporation from tanks of the VST and VSTP types): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2003.
11. Tugunov P.I. et al., Tipovye raschety pri proektirovanii i ekspluatatsiy neftebaz i nefteprovodov (Typical calculations in the design and operation of tank farms and oil pipelines), Ufa: Dizain-PoligrafServis Publ., 2002, 658 p.12. Korshak A.A., Korshak S.A., A universal method for calculating the total losses from the "breaths" of tanks (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov “Neft' i gaz”, 1999, no. 4, pp. 85–87.
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Development of information technologies is the steady trend in the in the oil and gas business. To ensure the prompt receipt, storage and analysis of information, it is necessary to create a unified information system that permeates all divisions of the company and connects them into a coherently functioning mechanism. Such a structure of the management system allows obtaining reliable production and financial information throughout all business-units of oil and gas company: exploration – production – processing – transportation – sales – management.This article presents the experience of developing a drilling management information system (ISUB) module that minimizes the risks of complications and accidents during well drilling in order to reduce time and financial costs when drilling wells in the Zarubezhneft Group of Companies. The article describes the creation of a unified information space and tools for planning, monitoring and managing well construction for all levels of management of the Zarubezhneft group of companies through the implementation of the ISUB. In turn, the characteristics of the main blocks of the new module are given, its functional capabilities are described at all levels of well drilling management, and the information flows generated by the module are shown. A detailed overview of all new ISUB software blocks reveals the main technical characteristics and capabilities of this software product. The influence of new ISUB module on the technical and economic indicators of the enterprise is also disclosed. The first results of the development of the new module were summed up; results achieved were noted.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
The article presents the results of research of the production of asphalt-concrete using drill cuttings as a mineral powder. Laboratory studies of the original samples of drill cuttings were carried out. It was found that there are no excess of the standards for the content of heavy metals in a mobile form in the samples of drill cuttings. An analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of water extracts showed that there are high values of chemical oxygen demand, the content of oil products, dry residue, chlorides, exceeding sanitary standards, which indicates a negative impact on the environment. The chosen method of utilization assumes the use of drill cuttings as a mineral powder, which will reduce the negative load by placing the drill cuttings in a dense hydrophobic structure of asphalt concrete. To study the dependence of the values of the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete on the drill cuttings content, three series of tests with different component composition were carried out. Analysis of the data obtained showed that with an increase in the content of drill cuttings in the composition of the asphalt concrete mixture, its average density increases, and the water saturation indicator decreases. An excessive amount of drill cuttings leads to a decrease in the strength of the coating. This is due to the heterogeneity of the drill cuttings composition, due to the chlorides, drilling fluid reagents and oil products that are part of the drill cuttings, which contribute to the deterioration of the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete. It has been established that the optimal content of drill cuttings in the composition of asphalt concrete can reach up to 7% by weight, while the physical and mechanical properties will meet the requirements of national standard GOST 9128-2013.
1. Kujawska J., Potential influence of drill cuttings landfill on groundwater quality-comparison of leaching tests results and groundwater composition, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2016, V. 57, pp. 1409–1419.
2. Rudakova L.V., Pichugin E.A., Shenfel'd B.E., Elizarova I.A., Estimation of geoecological stability of road construction material based on drill cuttings (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii = Ecology and Industry of Russia, 2019, V. 23, no. 12, pp. 48–53.
3. Xu T., Wanga L., Wanga X. et al., Heavy metal pollution of oil-based drill cuttings at a shale gas drilling field in Chongqing, China: A human health risk assessment for the workers, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2018, no. 165, pp. 160–163.
4. Aboutabikh M., Soliman A.M., Naggar M.H. El., Properties of cementitious material incorporating treated oil sands drill cuttings waste, Construction and Building Materials, 2016, V. 111, pp. 751–757.
5. Junttila J., Dijkstra N., Aagaard-Sorensen S., Spreading of drill cuttings and sediment recovery of three exploration wells of different ages, SW Barents Sea, Norway, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2018, no. 135, pp. 224–238.
6. Pichugin E.A., Assessment of the impact of drill cuttings on the environment (In Russ.), Molodoy uchenyy, 2013, no. 9, pp. 122–123.
7. Yagafarova G.G., Rakhmatullin D.V., Insapov A.N., Modern methods of disposal of drilling waste (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2018, V. 16, no. 2, pp. 123–129.
8. Mostavi E., Asadi S., Ugochukwu E., Feasibility study of the potential use of drill cuttings in concrete, Procedia Engineering, 2015, no. 118, pp. 1015–1023.
9. Abbe O.E., Grimes S.M., Fowler G.D., Boccaccini A.R., Novel sintered glass-ceramics from vitriﬁed oil well drill cuttings, Journal of Materials Science, 2009, no. 44, pp. 429106–4302.
10. Kujawska J., Pawłowska M., Effects of soil-like materials mix from drill cuttings, sewage sludge and sawdust on the growth of trifoliumpratense l. and transfer of heavy metals, Journal of Ecological Engineering, 2018, V. 19, pp. 225–230.
11. Dubinetskiy V.V., Drill cuttings as a source of raw materials for production building ceramics plastic molding (In Russ.), Inzhenernyy vestnik Dona, 2015, no. 4.
12. Okparanma Reuben N., Araka Perez P., Towards enhancing sustainable reuse of pre-treated drill cuttings for construction purposes by near-infrared analysis: A review, Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology, 2018, no. 9, pp. 19–39.
13. Kuznetsov V.S., Suprun I.K., Petrov D.S., Assessment and reduction of drilling waste impact on the environment components (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 94–95.14. Vlasov A.S., Pugin K.G., Ispol'zovanie burovogo shlama v sostave asfal'tobetona (Use of drill cuttings in asphalt concrete), Collected papers “Molodezh' i nauchno-tekhnicheskiy progress v dorozhnoy otrasli Yuga Rossii” (Youth and scientific and technological progress in the road industry in the South of Russia), Proceedings of XIII International Scientific and Technical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists, 2019, pp. 114–118.
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The catalytic desulfurization is one stage selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptanes into sulfur and disulfides respectively. The reaction takes place in the presence of catalyst and air oxygen. Oxygen content is about 50 % of total SH concentration. Air concentration needed is far from the range of ignition. The yield of sulfur and disulfides is about 99,9999%, including of heavy mercaptanes. Reaction selectivity is 100%. Temperature is more than 25 °C. Pressure is above 0.1 MPa. The process of APG desulfurization/demercaptanization based on one-stage reaction has been realized at 25–35 °C, 0.5 MPa in the presence of catalyst in non aqueous solvent accordingly to the reaction equation. The prototype of mobile catalytic desulfurization unit has been created and tested in the field. Initial total hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans content was about 2% vol. The gas consumption was 4–25 nm3/h, catalyst content was 1–30 %. Residual hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans content was 1–3 ppm. It is shown hydrogen sulfide and mercaptane conversion is 99.995-100 and 99.875-100 % respectively. Thus, according to the APG treatment data at the field, it was found that the catalytic desulfurization technology can provide a solution to the entire set of desulfurization problems in one technological stage, including: gas desulfurization with residual hydrogen sulfide content up to 1 ppm; gas demercaptanization with residual mercaptans content up to 1 ppm; hydrogen sulfide utilization with conversion more than 99,9 %; mercaptans utilization with conversion more than 99,9 %. The prototype of mobile catalytic desulfurization unit can be used for optimization of technological conditions depending on demands of desulfurization object to enhance the technical and economic characteristics of gas treatment in various fields.
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2. Mazgarov A.M., Kornetova O.M., Tekhnologii ochistki poputnogo neftyanogo gaza ot serovodoroda (Technologies for associated petroleum gas desulphurization) Kazan': Publ. of KFU, 2015, 70 p.
3. Busygina N.V., Busygin I.G., Tekhnologii pererabotki prirodnogo gaza i gazovogo kondensata (Natural gas and gas condensate processing technologies), Orenburg: Gazprompechat' Publ., 2002, 432 p.
4. El-Gendy N.S., Speight J.G., Handbook of refinery desulfurization, Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, 2019, 492 p.
5. Grunval'd V.R., Tekhnologiya gazovoy sery (Gas sulfur technology), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1992, 272 p.
6. Patent RU 2649442 C2, Apparatus, method and catalyst for the purification of a gaseous raw hydrocarbon from hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans, Inventors: Tyurin A.I., Tarkhanova I.G., Tyurina L.A.
7. Patent US 10144001B2, Device, process, and catalyst intended for desulfurization / demercaptanization / dehydration of gaseous hydrocarbons, Inventors: Tyurina L.A., Tyurin A.I., Tarkhanova I.G., Tyurin A.A.
8. Kohl A.L., Nielsen R.B., Gas purification, Chapter 2. Alkanolamines for hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removal, 5th ed.: Houston, TX, USA, 1997, pp. 40–186.
9. Mathias P.M., Jasperson L.V., von Niederhausern D. et al., Assessing anhydrous tertiary alkanolamines for high-pressure gas purifications, Ind. Eng.Chem. Res., 2013, no. 52, pp. 17562–17572.
10. Khayrulin S.R., Ismagilov Z.R., Kerzhentsev M.A., Direct heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur (In Russ.), Khimicheskaya promyshlennost', 1996, no. 4, pp. 265–268.11. Ismagilov Z.R., Khayrulin S.R., Kerzhentsev M.A. et al., A fluidized bed reactor for the direct oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. Creation of a pilot plant at the Bavlinskaya hydrogen sulfide oxidation unit (In Russ.), Kataliz v promyshlennosti, Special Issue, 2004, pp. 50–55.
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The article is devoted to the assessment of biotechnological aspects of the selection of mycological aboriginal biodestructors for biological cleaning of soil from engine oil, which is relevant in the development of biotechnologies for remediation of the environment from oil and oil products pollution, the search and isolation of micro- and mycobiota strains developing in regional soil and climatic conditions, with strain specificity of transformation of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida were isolated on Sabouraud's medium; for their selective isolation, Candi Select 4 medium (BioRad, France) was used, which provides direct identification of yeast-like fungi species. The mycological identification of cultures was carried out on the basis of studying the characteristic morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties. The authors developed technological regimes for the cultivation of strains-destructors with the aim of obtaining cell biomass for asporogenic yeast cultures using a number of nutrient media. Samples of soil contaminated with engine oil and control samples were taken; biotoxicity, catalase and cellulase activity were studied. Selected after mycological isolation of the culture of fungi, a weak degree of enrichment with the enzyme catalase in soil samples contaminated with motor oil, strongly pronounced biotoxicity and cellulase activity were established. The paper proposes the use of selected yeast microorganisms, which are active biodestructors, resistant to high concentrations of motor oil oil, to create a microbial consortium when carrying out biological treatment of soil contaminated with motor oil.
1. Lashkhi V.L., A view upon the applied chemistry of motor oils (In Russ.), Mir nefteproduktov. Vestnik neftyanykh kompaniy, 2014, no. 2, pp. 23–27.
2. Vasil'eva G.K., Strizhakova E.R., Bocharnikova E.A. et al., Oil and petroleum products as soil pollutants. The technology of combined physical and biological treatment of contaminated soils (In Russ.), Rossiyskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal = Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2013, V. 57, no. 1, pp. 79–104.
3. Yang M., Yang Y.S., Du X. et al., Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in vadose zone: Compound-specific natural attenuation, Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 2013, V. 224, no. 3, art. 1439, 14 p.
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5. Dzhavadov N.G., Eminov R.A., Mursalov N.Z. et al., Adaptive optimization method of bioremediation polluted oil and oil products soil plots (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2019, no. ¹ 1 (117), pp. 144–153.
6. Mohajeri L., Aziz H.A., Isa M.H., Ex-situ bioremediation of crude oil in soil, a comparative kinetic analysis, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, 2010, V. 85, no. 1, pp. 54–58.
7. Khaustov A.P., Redina M.M., Transformations of oil damages in geological environment under the effect of liquid substance (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2013, no. 10, pp. 22–30.
8. Zemo D.A., O'Reilly K.T., Mohier R.E. et al., Life cycle of petroleum biodegradation metabolite plumes, and implications for risk management at fuel release sites, Integrated Environmental Assessment & Management, 2017, V. 13, no. 4, pp. 714–727.
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10. Krasil'nikov P.A., Seredin V.V., Leonovich M.F., Investigation of the distribution of hydrocarbons to cut the soil mass (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2015, no. 2, pp. 3100–3104.
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12. Ivanova A.E., Kanat'eva A.Yu., Kurganov A.A., Aerobic biodegradation of liquid motor fuels under extreme acidic conditions (In Russ.), Mikrobiologiya = Microbiology (Mikrobiologiya), 2019, V. 88, no. 3, pp. 318–327.
13. Chesnokova M.G., Shalay V.V., Kriga A.S., Biocorrosive activity analysis of the oil pipeline soil in the khanty-mansiysk autonomous region of Ugra and the Krasnodar territory of the Russian Federation, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2017, p. 020019, https:// doi.org/ 10.1063/1.4998839.
14. Chesnokova M.G., Shalay V.V., An actuality of soil micromyceta community studies for soil biocorrosive activity evaluation on the oil pipeline routes, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2018, p. 020006, URL: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5051845.15. Rojo F., Degradation of alkanes by bacteria, Environmental Microbiology, 2009, V. 11, no. 10, pp. 2477–2490.
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|IN MEMORY OF OILMAN IN DISTINCTION|
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