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|STANDARDIZATION AND TECHNICAL REGULATION|
The article discusses the legislative and regulatory aspects of import substitution by the example of the Russian oil and gas sector. It was noted that federal and industry programs prepared over the past 5 years are mainly focused on import substitution of certain groups of uniform products, while the implementation of unique projects often becomes more significant in the oil and gas industry. Moreover, despite the use of standardization tools, including the making of long-term plans for the preparation of national standards, barriers to the successful solution of the import substitution problem arise, caused not only by poorly effective harmonization of standards, but also by significant differences in domestic and foreign regulatory practice of project management approaches. The article presents the results of an analysis of the harmonization of national standardization documents with international analogues carried out in accordance with the Federal Law “On Standardization in the Russian Federation”, the regional legislation of the Eurasian Economic Union, and the norms of the “Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade” of the World Trade Organization. As an example, the work plans of the technical standardization committee 023 “Oil and Gas Industry” for the period from 2009 to 2020 is considered. In addition, the provisions of interstate and national standards in the field of project management prepared by the technical committee 205 "Project Management" were examined, the differences between Russian and international standards in this area were identified. The authors also defined the risks arising from the established differences, presented directions for improving the development of regulatory documents in the field of project management, contributing to the implementation of the tasks of import substitution in the oil and gas sector.
1. Shmal' G.I., Kershenbaum V.Ya., Guseva T.A., Belozertseva L.Yu., New stage of standardization in oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 78–80.
2. Shmal' G.I., Kershenbaum V.Ya., Protasov V.N., Shtyrev O.O., Novel approach to the quality management and standardization of the complex technical systems for oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 145–147.
3. Aronov I.Z., Rybakova A.M., Salamatov V.Yu. et al., Assessing the contribution of the fund of standards of the Russian Federation into the country’s economy. Five years later (In Russ.), Standarty i kachestvo, 2020, no. 1, pp. 10–15.
4. Aronov I.Z., Zazhigalkin A.V., Rakov A.V. et al., The package principle of standards development – An undeservedly forgotten planning technology for standardization (In Russ.), Standarty i kachestvo, 2015, no. 8, pp. 24–30.
5. Guseva T.A., Novikov O.A., Specific features of development of draft national standards for import substitution of oil and gas facilities in Russia (In Russ.), Trudy RGU nefti i gaza (NIU) imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2018, no. 2, pp. 75–83.
6. Guseva T.A., Development of competitive-oriented standards for import substitution programme of oil and gas facilities in Russia (In Russ.), Trudy RGU nefti i gaza (NIU) imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2018, no. 3, pp. 144–152.7. Kershenbaum V.Ya., Moroz A.Yu., The concept of "quality standard" and the development of its item quality indicators for the regulatory framework of the innovative project in the oil and gas engineering (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2019, no. 6, pp. 40–43.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The publication deals with the results of facies analisys and depositional environments reconstructions for the Permian - Jurassic sequences within the area of the eastern Barents Sea, including it’s southern part, the Pechora Sea and adjacent onshore areas of Rosneft Oil Company license areas. The research was based on revision, cutting or slabbing and sedimentological study of the core and logs interpretation from 21 wells. Compilation of biostratigraphic information and examination of ichnofossils, structures and textures of the rocks provided facies identification and environmental interpretation. Non-marine alluvial to coastal plain, marine near shore to relatively deep water facies has been identified. Cruziana è Skolithos ichnofacies, association of Macaronichnus and association typical for brackish-water have been recognized. Permian siliciclastic interval is strongly dominated by regressive deep water to shoreface and deltaic successions. In the Triassic tidal, brackish water and non-marine with alluvial facies were widely spread on the most part of the eastern Barents Sea while northward marine influence increased. Jurassic interval, best represented by the core, is characterized by the tidal to estuary deposits in the Lower Jurassic, shoreface to open marine – in the Middle Jurassic and relatively deep water marine – in the Upper Jurassic. Identified in core and logs facies are regarded as the basis for seismic facies interpretation and space prediction of hydrocarbon bearing plays of Rosneft Oil Company.
1. Ustritskiy V.I., Tugarova M.A., Barents sea – Permian and Triassic reference section, encountered by the well Admiralteyskaya-1 (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2013, V. 8, no. 2, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/2/18_2013.pdf
2. Boggs S. Jr., Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006, 662 p.
3. Boyd R., Dalrimple R., Zaitlin B.A., Classification of clastic coastal depositional environments, Sedimentary Geology, 1992, V. 80 (3–4), pp. 139–150.
4. Pemberton S.G., Spila M., Pulham A.J., Saunders T., MacEachern J.A., Robbins D., Sinclair I.K., Ichnology and sedimentology of shallow to marginal marine systems: Ben Nevis & Avalon Reservoirs, Jeanne d'Arc Basin, Geological Association of Canada Short Course Notes, 2001, V. 15, 343 p.5. Reineck H.-E., Singh I.B., Depositional sedimentary environments: With reference to terrigenous clastics, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, 439 p.
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Today the Eastern Russian Arctic is the least studied region of the world. Anyway there are some sedimentary basins with thick deposits and probable high oil and gas potential. Sedimentary basins mostly filled with Aptian-Cenozoic sediments. In some areas the presence of an older Paleozoic cover is assumed. Terrigenous clinoform complexes of Cretaceous and Cenozoic age are the main target of this study. The sequence stratigraphic analysis is the most suitable method for detailed understanding of the internal geological structure of clinoform complexes today. This analysis was based on reference seismic profiles located in the Northern part of the East Siberian and Chukchi seas. The interpretation was carried out with the use geological and geophysical data for wells of the US sector of the Chukchi sea, Aion-1, ACEX, as well as using the results of the outcrops studies of the continental margins of the Eastern Arctic seas and the islands. Detailed study let to identify sequence boundaries, transgressive and maximum flooding surfaces and system tracts. Using the results of interpretation of reference seismic profiles, Wheeler (chronostratigraphic) diagrams were constructed and synchronous regional events, transgressions and regressions, were identified. Transgressive and regressive cycles in deposits were established. The Cretaceous clinoform complex has a predominantly regressive structure, and the Cenozoic clinoform complex includes two transgressive and regressive cycles. Regressive and transgressive trends allowed to clarify the stratigraphic position of sections. Four major transgressive and regressive cycles divided by regional boundaries were established for the entire sedimentary section. The lower boundary corresponds to a global flooding in Thanetian age (the Paleocene). The coastline moved inside mainland for hundreds kilometers. The second boundary is also consistent with a global flood, set in Lutetian time (middle Eocene), and then the trend became a regressive one. The next regional boundary corresponds to the erosional stage in Barton time (middle Eocene) and marks the end of regression and the beginning of transgression. The upper boundary corresponds to the stage of flooding, established in the Priabonian time (late Eocene). Later the trend of sedimentation became regressive up to the present time. As a result, a comprehensive analysis allowed Rosneft Oil Company to clarify the age and conditions of formation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, as well as the forecast of the presence and distribution of elements of hydrocarbon systems (detecting the intervals of regional reservoirs, source rocks, seals).
1. Malyshev N.A., Obmetko V.V., Borodulin A.A., Hydrocarbon potential of the Eastern Arctic sedimentary basins (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2010, no. 1, pp. 20–28.
2. Popova A.B., Makhova O.S., Malyshev N.A. et al., Construction of an integrated seismic-geological model of the East Siberian Sea shelf (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 4, pp. 30–34.
3. Hubbard R.J., Edrich S.P., Rattey R.P., Geologic evolution and hydrocarbon habitat of the “Arctic Alaska Microplate”, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1987, V. 4 (1), pp. 2–34.
4. Van Wagoner J.C. et al., An overview of the fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 1988, V. 42.
5. Posamentier H.W., Allen G.P., Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy – Concepts and applications, SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, 1999, V. 7.
6. Haq B.U., Hardenbol J, Vail P.R., Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic, Science, 1987, V. 235, pp. 1156–1167, DOI:10.1126/science.235.4793.1156.
7. Golionko B.G., Vatrushkina E.V., Verzhbitskiy V.E. et al., Deformations and Structural Evolution of Mesozoic Complexes in Western Chukotka (In Russ.), Geotektonika = Geotectonics, 2018, no. 1, pp. 63–78.
8. Sokolov S.D., Tuchkova M.I., Ganelin A.V., Bondarenko G.E., Layer P., Tectonics of the South Anyui Suture, Northeastern Asia (In Russ.), Geotektonika = Geotectonics, 2015, no. 1, pp. 5–30.
9. Verzhbitsky V.E., Sokolov S.D., Frantzen E.M. et al., The South Chukchi sedimentary Basin (Chukchi Sea, Russian Arctic): Age, structural pattern, and hydrocarbon potential, Tectonics and sedimentation: Implications for petroleum systems: AAPG Memoir 100, 2012, pp. 267–290.
10. Aleksandrova G.N., Geological evolution of Chauna depression (North-Eastern Russia) during Paleogene AND Neogene (In Russ.), Byulleten' Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytateley prirody. Otdel geologii, 2016, V. 91, no. 6, pp. 148–164.
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12. Slobodin V.Ya., Kim B.I., Stepanova G.V., Kovalenko F.Ya., Raschlenenie razreza ayonskoy skvazhiny po novym biostratigraficheskim dannym (The sectional layering of the Aion well with new biostratigraphic data), Collected papers “Stratigrafiya i paleontologiya mezo-kaynozoya Sovetskoy Arktiki” (Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic of the Soviet Arctic), Leningrad: Publ. of Sevmorgeologiya, 1990, pp. 43–58.13. Stein R., Jokat W., Niessen F., Weigelt E., Exploring the long-term Cenozoic Arctic Ocean climate history: a challenge within the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), Arktos, Arktos 1, 3, 2015, DOI 10.1007/s41063-015-0012-x.
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Oil recourses of continental shelf are estimated about 457 billion tons of oil equivalent. According to International Energy Agency data 1/3 of world’s oil and gas production is produced by marine oilfields and its share will grow in the future. Specific location of marine oil and gas fields put certain limits on all stages of fields development, from well patterns to oilfield infrastructure taking into account producing volumes, its physical and chemical properties, weather conditions, distance to the shore, water depth, onshore infrastructure, transport of oil and gas to consumer and many other factors. At the initial stage of oil field development, geology is the main factor, which defines the amount of proved oil and gas reserves. Uncertainty in parameters such as shape and size of an oilfield, oil-water contact position, fault’s position and transmissibility, collector distribution and concatenation, areas of perspective reserves is quite high. Development projects on marine shelf require substantial investments due to higher cost of prospecting, drilling, construction and service, production transport, environment protection activities. Therefore, uncertainty assessment and creating measures to lower the risks play key role at the initial stage of shelf oilfields development.
This article presents the results of Beluga oilfield reservoir characterization refinement using logs, seismic, production and dynamic well test data. Based on updated geological model, the well patterns and drilling priorities were changed and additional well intervention measures have been taken.
1. Tu Thanh Nghia, Veliev M.M., Le V'et Khay, Ivanov A.N., Razrabotka shel'fovykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy SP “V'etsovpetro” (Development of offshore oil fields of Vietsovpetro JV), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2017, 386 p.
2. Veliev M.M., Shchekin A.I., Osobennosti obosnovaniya optimal'nykh variantov razrabotki shel'fovykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Features of the rationale for the optimal development of offshore oil fields), Collected papers “Energoeffektivnost'. Problemy i resheniya” (Energy efficiency. Problems and Solutions), Proceedings of XII All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference in the framework of the XII Russian Energy Forum, Ufa, 2012, pp. 44–45.3. Akhmedzhanov T.K., Yskak A.S., Osvoenie shel'fovykh mestorozhdeniy (Offshore field development), Almaty: KazTNU, 2008, 259 p.
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Seismic survey data is the basis for geologic modeling and reservoir characterization since they are most evenly and relatively tightly distributed in the zone of interest. The use of modern computational methods in the interpretation process generates a huge amount of secondary data referred to as seismic attributes. The total volume of this data may be hundreds of times greater than the amount of post-processing data. Attributes hide large potentially useful components. Attributes help to more accurately outline faults, selvages, fractured zones, lithological facies and etc. Some of the most useful attributes are the elastic parameters models of the rocks obtained as a result of inverse computational methods. As a result of further mathematical transformations of these models, together with petrophysical models, experts can obtain models of useful engineering and exploration parameters. A huge number of attributes as well as their hidden linear and non-linear dependencies create the Big Data problem. In this article, we propose methods for searching for associations and the corresponding optimal filtering ranges (bandwidth or statistical) of attributes that significantly reduce future computational costs. Despite the fact that the algorithms are quite demanding on computing resources, their efficiency over time can be significantly increased through the use of parallelization methods.
1. Yunsong Huang, Full waveform inversion with multisource frequency selection for marine-streamer or land-streamer data, LAP Lambert, 2017, 116 p.
2. Pisupati P.B., Seismic waveform inversion, Geophysical Journal International, 2017, pp. 1076–1092.
3. Chopra S., Castagna J.P., AVO, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA: Society of Exploration Geophysics, 2014, 304 ð., https://doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560803201
4. Buland A., Kolbjornsen A., Omre H., Rapid spatially coupled AVO inversion in the Fourier domain, Geophysics, 2003, V. 68 (3), pp. 824–836.
5. Francis A. Understanding stochastic inversion. Part 1, First Break, 2006, V. 24, pp. 69–77.
6. Francis A., Limitations of deterministic and advantages of stochastic seismic inversion, Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2005, V. 2, pp. 1–12.
7. Andrieu C.A., Djuric P.M., Doucet A., Model selection by MCMC computation, Signal Processing, 2001, V. 81, pp. 19–37.
8. Brooks S.P., Markov chain Monte Carlo and its application, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series D (The Statistician), 1998, V. 47, no. 1, pp. 69–100.
9. Kemper M.A.C., Waters K., Somoza A. et al., Introducing Ji-Fi – Joint impedance & facies inversion, Proceedings of 6th EAGE Saint Petersburg International Conference and Exhibition, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.20140151
10. Colombo D., De Stefano M., Geophysical modeling via simultaneous joint inversion of seismic, gravity and electromagnetic data: application to prestack depthimaging, The Leading Edge, 2007, March, pp. 326–331.
11. Kubyshta I.I., Pavlovskiy Yu.V., Emel'yanov P.P., Efficient 3D seismic inversion technologies as a basis for creating and updating geoseismic model of the Vendian deposits (in terms of Eastern Siberia oil-and-gas fields) (In Russ.), PROneft', 2016, no. 1, pp. 27–37.
12. Ampilov Yu.P., Barkov A.Yu., Yakovlev I.V. et al., Almost everything about the seismic inversion. Part 1 (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2009, no. 4, pp. 3–16.
13. Eremin N.A., Kondratyuk A.T., Eremin Al. N., About the hydrocarbon resource base in Russian Arctic shelf (In Russ.), URL: http://www.http://oilgasjournal.ru/2009-1/3-rubric/eremin.pdf
14. Kuznetsov V.G., Shcherbich N.E., Sazonov A.I., Kuz'menko S.E., Osobennosti bureniya skvazhin na arkticheskom shel'fe (Features of drilling on the Arctic shelf), Tyumen': TSPU, 2016, 52 p.
15. Castagna J.P., Bazle M.L., Kan T.K., Rock physics – The link between rock properties and AVO response: edited by Castagnaand J.P., Backus M.M., In: Off-set-dependent reflectivity, Theory and practice of AVO analysis, Soc. Expl. Geophys., 1993, pp. 135–171.
16. Sakhautdinov I.R., Vakhitova G.R., Analysis of the results of the restoration and correction of the density properties of rocks (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2018, V. 23, no. 2, pp. 299–304.
17. Vedernikov G.V., Maksimov L.A., Chernyshova T.I., Prognoz zalezhey uglevodorodov po kharakteristikam mikroseysm (Prediction of hydrocarbon deposits by microseismic characteristics), URL: http://geovers.com/base/files/gr11/papers/15_Vedernikov_GV.pdf
18. Voronov M.V., Pimenov V.I., Suzdalov E.G., Prikladnaya matematika: tekhnologii primeneniya (Applied mathematics: Application technologies), Moscow: Yurayt Publ. 2017, 168 p.
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20. Höppner F., Kruse R., Klawonn F., Runkler T., Fuzzy cluster analysis: Methods for classification, Wiley, 1999, 289 p.21. Patrascu V., A generalization of Gustafson-Kessel algorithm using a new constraint parameter, Proceedings of the Joint 4th Conference of the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology and the 11th Rencontres Francophones sur la Logique Floue et ses Applications, Barcelona, Spain, 7–9 September 2005, pp. 1250–1255.
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During the construction of wells, various complications are observed. Despite the experience of drilling in various mining and geological conditions, the costs of eliminating complications during well drilling reach up to 7–10 % of the drilling process itself. This is due to the complication of drilling conditions, an increase in the number of deep, deviated, horizontal and multilateral wells. More than 50 % of the emergency time is spent on eliminating the complications associated with rock instability. These circumstances necessitate an increase in the quality requirements of process fluids, including used in well repair. Caustobiolites – natural organogenic materials (sapropels, peat, brown coals, etc.) are promising for the preparation of process liquids. Such drilling fluids are environmentally friendly, easily cleaned of sludge, after use they can be further applied for the restoration of disturbed lands. To assess the prospects of using organomineral colloid as process liquid for well construction and repair, laboratory studies were carried out to study the basic properties of OMK-1 reagent.
The article presents physicochemical, rheological indicators of an organomineral colloid. Based on the results of studies of the basic properties of OMK-1 reagent dispersions, formulations of mineralized liquids with high density values for high pressure conditions and lightweight liquids for high pressure conditions were selected. The results of bench tests of the blocking action on core material of various types of drilling fluids based on organomineral colloid are reflected. Summarizing the results of the research, we can conclude that the new OMK-1 reagent is recommended for producing highly efficient process fluids for drilling and workover. Based on an organomineral colloid, fresh, inhibited, mineralized drilling fluids, direct and inverse emulsions can be developed. Environmentally friendly process fluids have regulatory structural and rheological properties, help maintain wellbore stability, are characterized by a fairly low water loss, and have a reduced cost.
1. Kosarevich I.V., Bityukov N.N., Shafapenko O.S., Ingibirovannye rastvory na osnove sapropeley (Inhibited solutions based on sapropels), Collected papers “Puti povysheniya skorostey bureniya geologo-razvedochnykh skvazhin v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh” (Ways to increase the drilling speeds of exploration wells in complicated conditions), Minsk: BelNIGRI, 1983, pp. 57–65.
2. Kustyshev A.V., Leont'ev D.S., Investigation of the peat-aLkaLine fluid properties for weLLs drilling in argillaceous rocks (In Russ.), TERRITORIYa "NEFTEGAZ", 2016, no. 3, pp. 56–58.
3. Gasumov R.A., Minchenko Yu.S., Tekhnologicheskie zhidkosti na biopolimernoy osnove dlya povysheniya effektivnosti remonta skvazhin (Biopolymer-based process fluids to enhance well repair), Collected papers “Bulatovskie chteniya”, Proceedings of III International Scientific and Practical Conference, Part 2, Krasnodar, 2019, pp. 64–67.
4. Egorova E.V., Minchenko Yu.S., Simonyants S.L., Justification of the types and properties of drilling fluids for the construction of high-yield wells in difficult mining and geological conditions (In Russ.), Inzhener-neftyanik, 2019, no. 1, pp. 22–26.
5. Gasumov R.A., Gasumov E.R., On the effectiveness of the application of fillers of organic origin to process fluids (In Russ.), Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki, 2016, no. 6 (96), pp. 48–59.
6. Gasumov R.A., Minchenko Yu.S., Process fluids preventing reservoir fluids migration in the annular space during well construction (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2017, no. 6, pp. 21–24.
7. Gasumov R.A., Restoration and improvement of gas and gas-condensate wells flow-rate by physical-chemical methods (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 5, pp. 54–57.
8. Gasumov R.A., Sukovitsyn V.A., Gavrilov A.A. et al., Reagent compositions to reclaim and improve gas well productivity in challenging rock and geological conditions (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 8, pp. 52–57.9. Mosienko V.G., Gasumov R.A., Nersesov S.V., Universal'naya ustanovka dlya ispytaniya gazopronitsaemosti kernov (Universal core gas permeability test rig), Collected papers “Stroitel'stvo gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh skvazhin” (Construction of gas and gas condensate wells), Moscow: Publ of VNIIgaz, SevKavNIPIgaz, 1997, pp. 54–55.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Nonlinear filtration in low-permeable reservoirs is considered. Low-permeable reservoirs are the most important unconventional source of hydrocarbons, and their development is complicated by filtration anomalies. Existing studies consider non-linear filtration similarly to filtration of a viscoplastic fluid with separation of the initial pressure gradient and determine permeability from Darcy's law. The authors here established a new power law relating the filtration rate to the pressure gradient, which excludes the presence of an initial pressure gradient. Permeability in the power law of filtration does not correspond to Darcy permeability and is not a constant value. Assignment of the reservoir to a low permeability class is based on the values of the absolute permeability, which does not take into account physicochemical interactions during the target phases filtration. Absolute permeability characterizes exclusively the structure of the pore space. Phase permeability accounts for the effects of resistance to the motion of the phases during their physicochemical interaction with the skeleton. The relationship between the phase and absolute permeabilities, assuming the power law of filtration, exists only for fixed values of the pressure gradients. It is shown that within realistic ranges of pressure gradients in low-permeability reservoirs, the phase permeability is not constant but increases with an increasing pressure gradient. It is also shown that classical hydrodynamic models are not applicable for the description of filtration in low-permeability reservoirs. The power law of filtration leads to nonlinearity of the mass conservation equation and to an unconventional form of the piezoelectric conductivity equation. The distinctions of the latter lie in the piezoconductivity coefficient and the nonlinearity of the equation. Agreement with the classical equations is observed only in the particular case of the exponent of 1 in the power law of filtration. Thus, the formal use of commercial simulators to predict the development of deposits with low permeability reservoirs is incorrect.
1. Baykov V.A., Galeev R.R., Kolonskikh A.V., Makatrov A.K. et al., Nonlinear filtration in low-permeability reservoirs. Analisys and interpretation of laboratory core examination for Priobskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2013, no. 2, pp. 8–12.
2. Baykov V.A., Galeev R.R., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Nonlinear filtration in low-permeability reservoirs. Impact on the technological parameters of the field development (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2013, no. 2, pp. 17–19.
3. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v prirodnykh plastakh (Movement of liquids and gases in natural reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 211 p.
4. Li Syuanzhan, Non-linear filtration of water in low permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki, 2015, no. 3 (23), pp. 116–121.
5. Baoquan Z., Linsong C., Chunlan L., Low velocity non-linear flow in ultra-low permeability reservoir, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2011, V. 80, pp. 1–6.
6. Fei H., Cheng L.S., Hassan O. et al., Threshold pressure gradient in ultra-low permeability reservoirs, Science and Technology, 2008, V. 26, pp. 1024–1035.
7. Xiong W., Lei Q., Gao S. et al., Pseudo threshold pressure gradient to flow for low permeability reservoirs, Petroleum Exploration and Development, 2009, V. 36, pp. 232–236.
8. Mikhaylov N.N., Fizika neftyanogo i gazovogo plasta (Physics of oil and gas reservoir), Moscow: Maks-Press Publ., 2008, 448 p.
9. Levorsen A.I., Geology of petroleum, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1967, 174 p.
10. Wang X., Yang Z., Qi Y., Huang Y., Effect of absorption boundary layer on nonlinear flow in low permeability porous media, Journal of Central South University of Technology, 2011, V. 18, pp. 1299–1303.
11. Kovalev A.G., Kuznetsov A.M., Baishev A.B. et al., Sopostavlenie velichin pronitsaemosti produktivnykh porod-kollektorov po zhidkosti i gazu (Comparison of permeability values of productive reservoir rocks by liquid and gas), Proceedings of VNIIneft', 2001, V. 125, pp. 61–63.
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The premature breakthrough of the injected water to the producing wells leads to a drastic reduction of oil displacement efficiency and ultimate recovery. This is most typical in the case of fractured carbonate reservoirs with high-viscosity oil. The paper reviews the results of the tracer tests and conformance control operations on a water injection well of Dacnoye field operated by Sheshmaoil LLC. The study features fluorescent tracer tests performed before and after conformance control operations, thus allowing to trace both on the qualitative and quantitative levels the filtration flow patterns between two simultaneously producing targets: the Vereiskian and the Bashkirian sequences. The presented approach to the interpretation of tracer tests differs from the conventional method due to a higher accuracy of the calculated well-to-well reservoir properties and parameters of the identified flow paths. The results of the repeated tracer tests reveal that the flow patterns change when natural and induced fractures are sealed off by an injected cross-linked polymer formed by NGT-Chem-2 chemical in the process of conformance control operations on the injection well. The engineering efficiency of the conformance control operation was evaluated based on the monthly production report using GTM Analysis module within NGT-SMART software in compliance with the applicable industry and company general guidelines for calculation of engineering efficiency of geological and technical measures. The incremental oil produced due to the conformance control operations exceeded 1000 tons over 3 months which indicates displacement of oil from by-passed zones and enhanced recovery.
1. Sokolovskiy E.V., Solov'ev G.B., Trenchikov Yu.I., Indikatornye metody izucheniya neftegazonosnykh plastov (Indicator methods for the study of oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 157 p.
2. Sokolovskiy E.V., Issledovanie zavodneniya neftyanykh zalezhey indikatorami (Study of oil flooding by indicators), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1974.
3. Demidovich B.P., Maron I.A., Osnovy vychislitel'noy matematiki (Fundamentals of computational mathematics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1966, 664 p.
4. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po priemke, analizu i sistematizatsii rezul'tatov trassernykh issledovaniy v organizatsiyakh Gruppy “LUKOYL” (Guidelines for the acceptance, analysis and systematization of the results of tracer studies in the organizations of the LUKOIL Group), V. 1.0, Moscow: Publ. of LUKOYL, 2012, 69 p.
5. RD 39-0147428-235-89, Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po tekhnologii provedeniya indikatornykh issledovaniy i interpretatsii ikh rezul'tatov dlya regulirovaniya i kontrolya protsessa zavodneniya neftyanykh zalezhey (Guidance on the technology for conducting indicator studies and interpreting their results to regulate and control the process of waterflooding of oil deposits), Groznyy: Publ. of SevKavNIPIneft', 1989, 79 p.
6. RD 153-39.1-004-96, Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po otsenke tekhnologicheskoy effektivnosti i primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi (Guidelines for assessing the technological effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery methods), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft, 87 p.
7. Chornyy A.V., Kozhemyakina I.A., Churanova N.Yu. et al., Analysis of wells interaction based on algorithms of complexing geological and field data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 36–39.
8. Mordvinov V.A., Martyushev D.A., Puzikov V.I., Estimation of influence natural fracture reservoir on the dynamics of productivity of wells complex structurally oil reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 120–122.9. Atanov G.A., Vashurkin A.I., Revenko V.M., On the issue of forecasting oil field development from field data (In Russ.), Problemy nefti i gaza Tyumeni, 1973, V. 17, pp. 35–37.
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The methods of improving the technology of acid-proppant fracturing of carbonate reservoirs in the fields of Udmurtneft OJSC are considered that allow performing effective stimulation of wells taking into account the geological features of reservoirs that impede hydraulic fracturing. In Udmurtneft OJSC such geological features include large perforation intervals (up to 200 m from the bottom to the top of the perforation); the presence of undesirable nearby water - or gas-saturated layers; the properties of formations developed simultaneously are significantly different; lack of efficiency of reservoir pressure maintenance system; low reservoir pressures and low temperatures. In the article you can see the engineering solutions to address each factor that complicates performance of frac jobs. For highly partitioned formations with large perforation intervals, hydraulic fracturing is performed with placing sand in bottomhole during the injection process. This method of hydraulic fracturing is implemented according to the following scheme: at first stage the lower penetrated horizon is stimulated, then the proppant agent is put to the bottomhole to the specified interval of perforation, after setting of the sand (proppant agent) in the wellbore the reservoir is stimulated through the upper intervals. In the conditions of undesirable nearby water - or gas-saturated layers it is efficient to perform hydraulic fracturing with stage-by-stage acid injection alternating with shut-in followed by gradual increase of injection rate and subsequent fixing of the created fracture with the proppant agent. To stimulate the simultaneously developed layers with different properties hydraulic fracturing is carried out in accordance with the adaptive design, i.e. the design is changed during the injection process. At low reservoir pressure the optimal method is hydraulic fracturing with blocking composition of cross-linked gel injected at a high flow rate.
The application of the proposed methods to the technology of proppant-acid fracturing makes it possible to increase the efficiency of fracturing, to mitigate the risks during operations, to perform effective stimulation of wells in complex geological conditions, as well as to increase the number of candidate wells for fracturing and to expand the potential for drilling new wells in previously undeveloped areas.
1. Topal A.Yu., Usmanov T.S., Zorin A.M. et al., Introduction of the acid and proppant hydrofracturing technology at Udmurtneft fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 34–37.
2. Nikitin A., Yudin A., Latypov I. et al., Hydraulic fracture geometry investigation for successful optimization of fracture modeling and overall development of Jurassic formation in Western Siberia, SPE-121888-MS, 2009, https://doi.org/10.2118/121888-MS.
3. Wright C.A., Weijers L., Minner W.A., Snow D.M., Robust technique for real-time closure stress determination, SPE-30503-PA, 1996, https://doi.org/10.2118/30503-PA.
4. Plotnikov V.V., Rekhachev P.N., Barkovskiy N.N. et al., The effect of acidic compounds in the elastic-strength properties of clastic reservoir rocks of Perm Region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 100–104.5. Ibatullin R.R., Salimov O.V., Salimov V.G. et al., Hydrofracturing of low-pressure reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 8, pp. 108–110.
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The article describes the comparative characteristics of different repeated hydraulic fracturing technologies in horizontal wells such as one-stage conventional re-fracturing, SpotFrac technology, fracking with diverting agents, and iFrac. We present the results of efficiency analysis of re-fracturing technologies tests in horizontal wells performed by specialists of Slavneft-Megionneftegas in 2015–2018. The successful execution of multistage refracking in horizontal well is justified using estimation of additional in-situ stresses caused by injection of propping agent. First stage fracture creating and propping results in closure pressure increasing in the fracture initiating area. This effect depends proportionally on the fracture geometry and can allow initiating the subsequent fractures in other ports in a horizontal well. Also, an algorithm is proposed to determine the sequential stimulation intervals in horizontal well on each stage of re-fracking and to estimate the number of re-stimulated fracturing ports. This algorithm includes such stages as stress field calculation along the horizontal wellbore and fracture design. All calculations are performed using corporate software RN-GeoSim, RN-GRID, RN-KIN. The algorithm of fracture initiating intervals determination is tested on the well No. 1 of the oilfield in Western Siberia. We show that the same fracturing port was stimulated two times during three fracturing stages. Verification of calculations is made using mini-frac data and the accuracy of calculations is about 1 %.
2. Afanas'ev I.S., Baykov V.A., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Development of ultra low-permeability oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5, pp. 82–86.
3. Fedorov A.I., Davletova A.R., Pisarev D.Yu., Determination of closure pressure for hydraulic fractures using instruments of geomechanical modeling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 50–53.
4. Khalturin E.A., Improving the technology of multistage fracturing and re-fracturing in lateral wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 9, pp. 44–46.
5. Fedorov A.I., Davletova A.R., Kolonskikh A.V., Toropov K.V., Justification of the necessity to consider the effects of changes in the formation stress state in the low permeability reservoirs development (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2013, no. 2(31), pp. 25–29.
6. USSR Patent no. 1782294, MKI F04 D 13/12, Vkhodnoe ustroystvo skvazhinnogo nasosa (Well pump input device), Inventors: Chudin V.I., Popov V.I.
7. Salimov V.G., Nasybullin A.V., Salimov O.V., Prikladnye zadachi tekhnologii gidravlicheskogo razryva plastov (Applied problems of hydraulic fracturing technology), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2018, 380 p.
8. RN-BashNIPIneft: high-tech software, development course (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 12, pp. 84–85.
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Capillary imbibition affects the rate of oil inflow to the production well. Geomechanical properties of the rock are one of the factors determining the rate of capillary imbibition. As a result of elastoplastic deformations of the rock during an oil field development, geomechanical properties change that leads to a decrease in a well production rate. Elastic wave treatment of the bottom-hole formation zone can restore the permeability of the rock to the initial value due to changes in geomechanical properties.
The elastic wave treatment of a bottom-hole formation zone is modelled to evaluate the effect on deformations. The deformation in the model is represented by a change in geomechanical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio). Spontaneous capillary imbibition is used as a flow property. The study is performed on the Perm period sandstone that corresponds to clastic deposits of oil fields in the south of the Perm region. Experiments on static loading on samples of various diameters are carried out using standard equipment. The zones of compaction and elastic deformation are determined. The experimental setup for dynamic loading using a magnetostrictive transducer is designed. Elastic wave treatment of the rock on five modes is studied. Seven frequencies are investigated on each mode. A decrease in the mechanical properties of the rock in the zone of elastic deformation is shown. The effect of elastic wave treatment on flow properties of rocks in the near-wellbore zone of clastic formations is revealed. It is concluded that there is a possibility to increase the permeability of the bottom-hole formation zone and additional oil production during elastic wave treatment in the zone of compaction.
1. Gimatudinov Sh.K., Fizika neftyanogo i gazovogo plasta (Physics of the oil and gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971, 312 p.
2. Zaytsev M.V., Mikhaylov N.N., Borehole zone effect on well deliverability (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 1, pp. 64–66.
3. Dobrynin V.M., Deformatsii i izmeneniya fizicheskikh svoystv kollektorov nefti i gaza (Deformations and changes in the physical properties of oil and gas collectors), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 239 p.
4. Gadiev S.M., Ispol'zovanie vibratsii v dobyche nefti (Using vibration in oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 159 p.
5. Kuznetsov O.L., Simkin E.M., Chilingar J., Fizicheskie osnovy vibratsionnogo i akusticheskogo vozdeystviy na neftegazovye plasty (Physical foundations of vibration and acoustic effects on oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Mir Publ., 2001, 258 p.
6. Prachkin V.G., Galyautdinov A.G., Wave technology stimulation of oil (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 215–235.
7. Simonov B.F. et al., Vibroseismic effect on oil reservoirs from the Earth's surface (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2000, no. 5, pp. 41–46.
8. Muzipov Kh.N., Savinykh Yu.A., New ultrasound technologies of improving the flow rate of producing wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 12, pp. 53–54.
9. Karaketov A.V., Substantiation of effectiveness of vibroseismic stimulation on deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 66–69.
10. Khuzin R.R. et al., Development of completion technology based on shock-wave stimulation of near-wellbore zone (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 104–107.
11. Dyblenko V.P., Kamalov R.N., Shariffulin R.Ya., Tufanov I.A., Povyshenie produktivnosti i reanimatsiya skvazhin s primeneniem vibrovolnovogo vozdeystviya (Increasing productivity and reanimation of wells using vibrowave impact), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 381 p.
12. Kazakov A.A., The mechanism of overcoming capillary barriers in pores of variable cross section (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 1993, no. 6, pp. 35–40.
13. Lyadova N.A., Yakovlev Yu.A., Raspopov A.V., Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Permskogo kraya (Geology and development of oil deposits of the Perm region), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2010, 335 p.
14. Mikhaltsevitch V., Lebedev M., Gurevich B., A laboratory study of the elastic and anelastic properties of the sandstone flooded with supercritical CO2 at seismic frequencies, Energy Procedia, 2014, V. 63, pp. 4289–4296.15. Shchelkachev V.N., Lapuk B.B., Podzemnaya gidravlika (Underground hydraulics), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1949, 523 p.
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Due to the need to finding effective solutions to limit the production of breakthrough gas at the N oilfield in wells No. 1, 2 and 3 pilot works were carried out to test the technology of isolating the gas supply with liquid based on fuel oil F-5. The article presents the results of laboratory study of oil fractional compositions, identified before and after injection of the gas insulating reagent. Studies were performed by the simulated distillation method using a gas-liquid chromatograph Kristall 5000.2 equipped with a flame ionization detector and a capillary column MXT 2887 coated with a non-polar stationary phase, on which hydrocarbon components are separated in accordance which their boiling points. Concentration distribution of hydrocarbon fractions of the studied samples of oil and gas-insulating liquid were plotted, and the dynamics of the fuel oil escape to the surface was traced. Chromatographic method was used to determine the proportion of the gas insulating agent removed from the bottomhole zone. Accuracy of the chromatographic determinations was assessed by comparing the data with the results obtained by measuring the density of stadied samples. According to the study results the treatment by the hydrophobic composition based on fuel oil F-5 did not give positive results on the gas inflow isolation. The analysis of the composition of the liquid removed from the well during development showed the presence of a significant amount of gas insulating mixture. As part of this research, the authors proposed an informative additional method for monitoring the effectiveness of gas isolation technology using dynamics of changes in the hydrocarbon composition of well production when conducting pilot works.
1. Khlebnikov V.N., Mishin A.C., Antonov C.B. et al., Search for technological solutions restoration of oil wells after the breakthrough of gas for oil field development viscous oil (In Russ.), Bashkirskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal, 2013, V. 20, no. 3, pp. 95–98.
2. Deliya S.V., Golenkin M.Yu., Byakov A.P., A new approach to performance evaluation geotechnical activities taking into account the effect of reduced gas production breakthrough (In Russ.), Geologiya, geografiya i global'naya energiya, 2014, no. 3, pp. 84–87.
3. Tomskaya L.A., Krasnov I.I., Marakov D.A. et al., Isolation technologies limiting gas influx in oil production wells in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Vestnik Severo-Vostochnogo federal'nogo universiteta im. M.K. Ammosova, 2016, no. 3, pp. 50–60.
4. Vasil'ev V.P., Analiticheskaya khimiya. Fiziko-khimicheskie metody analiza (Analytical chemistry. Physico-chemical methods of analysis), Moscow: Drofa Publ., 2007, 383 p.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
At the present stage of development of the oil industry, the process of oil production is often accompanied by the manifestation of various complicating factors, which in turn have a detrimental effect on the operation of oilfield equipment. The issue of maintaining the operability of oilfield equipment remains one of the most pressing issues of the oil industry at the moment. Therefore, one of the priority tasks of the oil industry is the selection of the most effective methods of dealing with complicating factors and their timely and high-quality prevention. Despite significant differences in the mechanisms of manifestation of complicating factors, as well as in the intensity of their manifestation and the methods used to deal with them at different oil producing enterprises, the complication management system has a number of general patterns. The effectiveness of the selection of optimal methods for dealing with negative factors in oil production directly depends on an integrated approach to the definitions of these patterns.
To solve this problem, have an accurate idea of the mechanisms of physicochemical processes, as well as the reasons that contribute to the emergence of complicating the operation of factors in various conditions. Particular attention should be paid to both the qualitative and error-free selection of the most effective methods of dealing with complications that allow to achieve the greatest effectiveness in various fishing conditions, and the economic feasibility of the applicability of these methods. Promising measures aimed at combating complications often include the introduction of fundamentally new technical and technological solutions aimed at reducing the negative impact of complications on the technical and economic performance of the enterprise.
1. Gilaev G.G., Strunkin S.I., Pupchenko I.N. et al., Tekhnika i tekhnologiya dobychi nefti i gaza OAO “Samaraneftegaz” (Technique and technology of oil and gas production of Samaraneftegas JSC), Samara: Neft'. Gaz. Innovatsii Publ., 2014, 528 p.
2. Gilaev G.G., Ismagilov A.F., Manasyan A.E. et al., Razrabotka mestorozhdeniy Samarskoy oblasti (ot praktiki k strategii) (Development of deposits in the Samara region (from practice to strategy)), Samara: Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, 368 p.
3. Gilaev G.G., Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Sovremennye metody nasosnoy dobychi nefti (Modern methods of pumping oil production), Ufa: Vostochnaya pechat' Publ., 2016, 412 p.
4. Gilaev G.G., Burshteyn M.A., Vartumyan G.T., Koshelev A.T., Voprosy teorii i praktiki ogranicheniya peskoproyavleniy v neftedobyvayushchikh i vodozabornykh skvazhinakh (Issues of theory and practice of limiting sand problem in oil and water wells), Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban' Publ., 2003, 222 p.
5. Antoniadi D.G., Gilaev G.G., Khabibullin M.Ya., Tukhteev R.M., Dobycha nefti. Nazemnoe i podzemnoe oborudovanie (Oil production. Ground and underground equipment), Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban' Publ., 2003, 320 p.6. Gilaev G.G., Povyshenie effektivnosti vyrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov na slozhnopostroennykh neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniyakh (Improving the efficiency of the development of hard-to-recover reserves in complex oil and gas fields), Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban' Publ., 2003, 304 p.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
Oil fields developed by LUKOIL-Komi LLC differ significantly in their lithology, depth of occurrence, and state of productive formations. To maintain reservoir pressure and enhance the oil recovery Company uses injection of mineralized waste water, surfactants, various chemicals, and high-temperature steam. The high content of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in the fluids of the Usinskoye and Vozeyskoye fields is the cause of abnormally high corrosion damage to oilfield equipment. The corrosion rates of local sections of oil collecting reservoirs are on average 3.5 mm per year. Corrosion of pumping and compressor pipes are developing even more actively: in some localized areas speeds reach 25-30 mm per year. The corrosion situation at the facilities of LUKOIL-Komi LLC is the basis for the development and implementation of a set of anti-corrosion measures, including various methods and technologies for surface protection, aimed at improving the operational reliability of well equipment and pipeline systems.
Increase the reliability of field equipment for oil and gas is possible through in-depth analysis of corrosion and mechanical processes. The solution of the problem of creating and implementing new corrosion resistant materials for field equipment for oil and gas includes comprehensive analysis of operating conditions and potential changes during the implementation of various geological and engineering operations at the oil field, and evaluation of equipment corrosion-mechanical state. The doping system of the source material (powder for spraying) should be selected in accordance with the classical concepts of certain chemical elements influence on strength and corrosion resistance. Selection and adaptation (modification to the required state) of the structural and phase composition of the initial powder material and coating should be made for specific operating conditions. It is necessary to test the resulting coating in the well. Technological solutions should be developed for each field, taking into account the depths and characteristics of field equipment.
Problems of increasing the reliability of oil and gas field equipment in LUKOIL-Komi LLC are common for oil and gas industry enterprises. The article describes an example of the analysis of the applicability of corrosion and wear-resistant thermal spray coatings for various components of oilfield equipment.
1. Bakaeva R.D., Baldaev L.Kh., Ishmukhametov D.Z. et al., Peculiarities of structure formationin gas-flame sprayed coatings producedfrom corrosion-resistant 316L metallic powder (In Russ.), Metallurg, 2018, no. 4, pp. 76–83.
2. Merkushkin E.A., Berezovskaya V.V., Korrelyatsionnaya zavisimost' potentsiala pittingoobrazovaniya i pokazateley PREN i MARC dlya austenitnykh korrozionnostoykikh staley (Correlation between the pitting potential and the PREN and MARC indices for austenitic corrosion-resistant steels), Collected papers “Innovatsii v materialovedenii i metallurgii” (Innovations in materials science and metallurgy), Proceedings of IV International Interactive Scientific and Practical Conference, Yekaterinburg: Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 2015, pp. 355–358.
3. Bakaeva R.D., Baldaev L.Kh., Ishmukhametov D.Z., Rashkovskiy A.Yu., Peculiarities of structure formation of gas-thermal coating formed by hvaf method from powder material based on Fe-Cr14-Ni6-Si3 (In Russ.), Metallurg, 2018, no. 7, pp. 81–86.
4. Bakaeva R.D., Baldaev L.Kh., Ishmukhametov D.Z. et al., Comparison of methods used to assess the porosity of gas-thermal spray coatings (In Russ.), Praktika protivokorrozionnoy zashchity, 2017, no. 4(86), pp. 41–53.5. Khan F., Enzmann F., Kersten M. et al., 3D simulation of the permeability tensor in a soil aggregateon basis of nanotomographic imaging and LBE solver, J Soils Sediments, 2012, V. 12, 86 p., URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-011-0435-3
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Transneft operates four marine terminals nowadays. Due to steady upgrade and ramping up of their throughput capacity, the issues of harbor infrastructure integrity maintenance and safe operation become of a vital importance. In particular, to enhance corrosion reliability of marine harbor and jetty facilities, the cathodic protection system retrofit is implemented. Earlier, for cathodic protection of harbor and jetty facilities sacrificial galvanic anodes were applied. Recently, new technical solutions were applied, and it requires validation of equipment selection. During the designing and searching of optimal technical solutions various difficulties occur: the locations of CP equipment in the offshore area, cable laying, etc. But one of the more urgent issues is the equipment selection for Company’s Register of General Types of Production, meant to provide maintenance reliability.
In order to confirm specifications of CP equipment of various domestic manufacturers, testing of impressed current anodes and long-term reference electrodes in field conditions of jetty facilities maintenance were conducted. Impressed current anodes of various materials were investigated, including widely applied Ti-based with conductive coating of catalytical metals (CM) or mixed metal oxides (MMO). Critical values of electrochemical parameters in field conditions were obtained. Various types of reference electrodes were investigated as a test samples: Ag/silver chloride, bimetallic, and zinc electrodes. In the course of testing parameters were evaluated such as open circuit potential stability and correlation of sample potential with cathodic polarization current.
The article presents testing results and preliminary conclusions on selection of equipment for cathodic protection system retrofit of marine facilities. Testing results will be applied for working out retrofit design solutions for cathodic protection system of Transneft’s harbor and jetty facilities; specifications for CP equipment to be included into the Register of General Types of Production; and updates into corporate regulatory documents in the field of marine facilities corrosion protection.
1. Valyushok A.V., Vladimirov L.V., Zamyatin A.V., Goncharov A.V., Search of engineering solutions for berthing facilities corrosion protection (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, V. 7, no. 6, pp. 82–92.
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7. Popov V.A., Zhelobetskiy V.A., Nikiforov S.V. et al., Potential of a titanium anode with a conductive coating in various soils and seawater at voltages up to 100 V. Influence of sizes of coating defects on the value of potential (In Russ.), Korroziya Territoriya Neftegaz, 2016, no. 2 (34), pp. 68–71.8. Damaskin B.B., Petriy O.A., Vvedenie v elektrokhimicheskuyu kinetiku (Introduction to electrochemical kinetics), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1983, 400 p.
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The article discusses the need of taking into account the thixotropic properties of oils when oil pipeline starts after a long stop, as well as to calculation of the time of its safe stop. To evaluate the parameters of thixotropy, it is proposed to use the results of laboratory experiments of oil samples on a rotary viscometer. Typical properties of the rheological flow curves of thixotropic oils for the starting flow mode are determined. The use of the wave equation of damped vibrations is proposed to describe the rheological flow curve of the forward course of measurements of a rotational viscometer, characterized by the presence of ascents and descents of shear stresses. This equation, supplemented by a model of nonlinear-visco-plastic liquids, allows accurately finding the areas of appearance of thixotropic properties of oils. The article presents the results of experimental studies of the manifestation of thixotropic properties of two oil samples at a lower temperature. The wave equation of damped vibrations allows describing mathematically the ascents and descents of shear stresses observed at low oil temperatures. Experiments have shown that the wave properties of thixotropic oil do not change with a decrease in temperature except for the amplitude of maximum vibrations and are invariant properties of the studied liquid. The presented explanation of the physical mechanism for the manifestation of wave properties based on the hardening of the supramolecular paraffin crystal lattice characteristic of thixotropic oils explains the invariance of the frequency change function and the attenuation coefficient during starting processes at the beginning of the movement of the movable cylinder of a rotary viscometer. The result of laboratory studies allows determining the nature of changes in the contours of the zones of manifestation of thixotropic properties of oil as a dependence on the temperature and shear rate.
1. Dyagterev V.N., Voprosy puska nefteprovoda s parafinistoy neft'yu posle ego dlitel'noy ostanovki. Obzornaya informatsiya (Issues of starting an oil pipeline with paraffin oil after a long stop. Overview Information), Seriya Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov (Series Transport and storage of oil and oil products), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1982, 61 p.
2. Armenskiy E.A., On the issue of oil pipeline shutdowns during the pumping of high-paraffin oils (In Russ.), In: Problemy nefti i gaza Tyumeni (Tyumen Oil and Gas Problems), 1977, V. 37, 60 p.
3. Abuzova F.F., Abramzon L.S., Pressure distribution in a pipeline with hardened oil or oil product (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1968, no. 3, pp. 64–66.
4. Abuzova F.F., Abramzon L.S., An approximate method for calculating the pressure distribution in a frozen oil pipeline (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1968, no. 5, pp. 55–56.
5. Abramzon L.S., On possible mechanisms of pressure propagation in solidified oil pipelines (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1968, no. 9, pp. 63–64.
6. Skripnikov Yu.A., Gubin V.E., Abramzon L.S., Features of the shift of a cooled thixotropic fluid (In Russ.), Transport nefti i nefteproduktov, 1966, no. 7, pp. 3–6.
7. Gubin V.E., Skripnikov Yu.V., Abramzon L.S., On the static shear stress of viscoplastic oils (In Russ.), Transport vysokovyazkikh neftey i nefteproduktov po truboprovodam, 1970, no. ?, pp. 39–50.
8. Tugunov P.I., Novoselov V.F., Gol'yanov A.I., Cooling of oil and oil products in underground pipelines (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 1968, no. 3, pp. 15-18.
9. Tyan V.K., Pimenov A.V., Comprehensive study of solidified paraffin oil shear process in a pipeline (In Russ.), Vestnik Samarskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 4(40), pp. 218–221.
10. Tyan V.K., Degtyarev V.N., Tyan P.V., Pimenov A.V., Mathematical modeling of congelation paraffin oil in transit on pipes (In Russ.), Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2009, V. 11 (27), no. 5 (2), pp. 358–361.
11. Tyan V.K., Reduction of synthesis process of many-dimensional linear control systems to synthesis of one-demensional linear control systems with standart (In Russ.), Novye tekhnologii, mekhatronika, avtomatizatsiya, upravlenie, 2008, no. 4(85), pp. 2–7.
12. Nikolaev A.K., Zaripova N.A., Deminin E.S., Tiksotropiya: izuchenie yavleniya na primere nefti Vostochno-Birlinskogo mestorozhdeniya (In Russ.), Delovoy zhurnal NEFTEGAZ.RU, 2018, no. 2, pp. 92–95.
13. Kondrasheva N.K., Baytalov F.D., Boytsova A.A., Comparative assessment of structural-mechanical properties of heavy oils of timano-pechorskaya province (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2017, V. 225, pp. 320–329.
14. Tashbulatov R., Karimov R., Valeev A. et al., The asymptotic rheological model of anomalously viscous oil, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2018, V. 13, no. 7, pp. 5502–5506, DOI: 10.3923/jeasci.2018.5502.5506
15. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Asymptotic model for describing the rheological curve of the non-Newtonian flow of oil mixtures (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2017, no. 5, pp. 14–23.
16. Tashbulatov R., Karimov R., Valeev A. et al., Modeling rheological properties in blending of anomalously viscous oils, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2018, V. 13, no. 5, pp. 4728–4762, DOI: 10.3923/jeasci.2018.4728.473217. Tashbulatov R.R., Karimov R.M., Valeev A.R., Mastobaev B.N., Approximation of the rheological curve in the low-temperature zones of the anomalous flow of non-Newtonian oils using the asymptotic model (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport: teoriya i praktika, 2017, no. 4, pp. 19–24.
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
The area of Surgutneftegas activity for a long time was limited to the right bank of the Middle Ob River. Over a 50-year period of oil and gas production, hydrocarbon reserves have declined significantly. To maintain the current level of oil production, the company is doing a lot of work to replenish the resource base, including exploration in new territories. Among these territories is the south of the Nefteyugansk region of the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district – Yugra. Currently, the Nefteyugansk region in terms of density of licensed sites ranks first in the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district – Yugra. For a long time, the south and southeast of the region remained poorly studied, but licenses for the search and exploration of hydrocarbons were also issued to this territory. At several licensed sites, exploration work is carried out by Surgutneftegas. Moreover, the environmental impact is even at the stage of exploration. It can be accompanied by a change in the appearance of landscapes and the initial geochemical environment of natural environments. On some components of nature (soil and vegetation cover), the effect is point-like and is limited to construction sites, on others (aquatic environment) it is somewhat larger due to the nature of the natural component.
When working in licensed areas, in accordance with the licensing agreement on the conditions for the use of subsoil, Surgutneftegas PJSC conducts studies to determine the environmental impact through environmental monitoring of natural environments. The research results include the determination of both the background state and the current one, which allows determining the degree and consequences of the impact of oil and gas production on the environment.
1. Atlas Tyumenskoy oblasti (Atlas of the Tyumen region), Part 1, Moscow: Publ. of Main Department of Geodesy and Cartography, 1971.
2. Il'ina I.S., Makhno V.D., Geobotanicheskoe kartografirovanie (Geobotanical mapping), In: Rastitel'nost' Zapadno-Sibirskoy ravniny (Vegetation of the West Siberian Plain), Moscow: Publ. of Main Department of Geodesy and Cartography, 1976.
3. Danilenko L.A., Malyshkina L.A., Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1997, no. 9, pp. 72–74.4. Solodovnikov A.Yu., Soromotin A.M., The ecological condition of Tukan group of licensed sites (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 11, pp. 135–138.
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The current technology for the development of the Yaregskoye viscous oil field, extracted by the mining method, allows free flow of oil in an open groove along the inclined soil of the mine working to the point of collection and further pumping. At the same time, due to the heat exchange of mine air with rocks that enclose the transport mine working, as well as due to the heat exchange of air with the oil flow stream, the air is heating intensively and its temperature exceeds the values permitted by safety rules. These conditions at the workplaces negatively impact on the workers health. An analysis of literary sources has shown that the normalization of thermal conditions in mine workings is an important and urgent task for the oil mines of the Yaregskoye field.
We assessed the influence of oil freely flowing through the soil in an open groove on the thermal regime in oil mine and the necessaty to develop new technical solutions to reduce its intensity. To assess the significance of this heat source the gradients of the heat flow in the mine working with the presence of flowing oil and without it were compared. To describe the process of thermal conditions formation in the mine, a mathematical model was built and a system of differential equations was analytically solved. The absolute and relative errors in predicting the magnitude of the heat flux and temperature at the end of the mine was determined. According to the formulas obtained, calculations were carried out. It was found that errors in determining the heat flux gradient can reach significant values. Moreover, the error in determining the temperature at the end of the mine working can reach high values, significantly higher than permissible in engineering practice. The main findings of the research are as follows. When forecasting thermal conditions in oil mines, one must carefully consider the analysis of the influence of all heat sources. Dependencies are obtained for determining the relative error in determining the temperature gradient and the temperature itself at the end of the transport mine working caused by not taking into account the heat exchange of mine air with the oil transported in the open groove. It has been established that the transportation of oil in open grooves in the mine working soil has a significant effect on the level of heat exchange with ventilation air. An important factor in normalizing the microclimate parameters is the development of technological and technical solutions to reduce the influence of this source or to exclude it from heat transfer processes in mine workings.
1. Chebotarev A.G., Working environment and occupational morbidity of mine personnel (In Russ.), Gornaya promyshlennost', 2018, no. 1 (137), pp. 92–95.
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6. Rudakov M.L., Korobitsyna M.A., On the possibility of normalizing air temperature in the mine workings of the oil mines (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' truda v promyshlennosti, 2019, no. 8, pp. 66–71.
7. Nikolaev A.V., The method for ventilating the slope blocks of oil mines enhancing the energy efficiency of the underground oil production (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 133–136.
8. Alabyev V.R., Kruk M.N., Korobitcyna M.A., Stepanov I.S., Influence of environmental technologies on the economic component in the normalization of thermal conditions in oil-stores, Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 2018, V. 9, no. 1(25), pp. 75–81.
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502.36 : 621.592
Every year in Russia, during operation of gas stations, thousands tons of oil product vapour are discharged into the atmosphere. This circumstance negatively affects the environment. Therefore, reducing hydrocarbon emissions is the most important task of modern engineering.
The present article has proposed and reviewed a technological solution to reduce evaporative losses (tank breathing) at gas station tanks using gasoline vapour capture and recovery, based on in-built vapour cooling devices directly in the breathing lines. The steam-air mixture leaving when filling the tank is cooled in the breathing lines of the tanks by means of a vortex air refrigerating machine. A vortex tube acts as a cooler in this system. The advantage of using a vortex tube is the ease of maintenance and safety. Unlike existing vapour capture and recovery systems, the proposed installation does not require large expenses and operating costs. To test the vortex tube operability, a model of mixture particles motion inside the respiratory line has been created. The process of drop enlargement is considered, as a result drops fix on the walls of the channel and return in the form of films under the influence of gravity to the reservoir. Sufficiently small drops can be carried into the atmosphere by a mixture flow. The installation diagram is considered, the layout of the equipment is given. The installation consists of machines and apparatuses performing functions of cooling the flow of saturated vapour-air mixture, separating liquid fuel from this mixture and returning liquid fuel to the reservoir.
Experience in the operation of the system for capture and recovery fuel vapour at 40 gas stations shows the effectiveness of using this installation.
1. Aleksandrov A.A., Arkharov I.A., Emel'yanov V.Yu., Money down the drain. Overview of existing oil vapor recovery systems (In Russ.), Sovremennaya AZS, 2005, no. 10, pp. 130–133.
2. Kapitonova Yu.B., The relevance of the problem of reducing fuel losses in the oil supply system (In Russ.), Vologdinskie chteniya, 2006, V. 56, pp. 29–31.
3. Kulagin A.V., Prognozirovanie i sokrashchenie poter' benzinov ot ispareniya iz gorizontal'nykh podzemnykh rezervuarov AZS (Prediction and reduction of gasoline losses from evaporation from horizontal underground reservoirs of gas stations): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2003.
4. Kovalenko V.G., Safonov A.C., Ushakov A.I., Shergalns V., Avtozapravochnye stantsii: Oborudovanie. Ekspluatatsiya. Bezopasnost' (Gas stations: Equipment. Exploitation. Security), St. Petersburg: Publ. of NPIKTs, 2003, 280 p.
5. Lukin V.D., Antsipovich I.S., Rekuperatsiya letuchikh rastvoriteley v khimicheskoy promyshlennosti (Volatile solvent recovery in the chemical industry), Leningrad: Khimiya Publ., 1981, 78 ð.
6. Rodionov A.I., Kuznetsov Yu.P., Zenkov V.V., Solov'ev G.S., Oborudovanie, sooruzheniya, osnovy proektirovaniya khimiko-tekhnologicheskikh protsessov zashchity biosfery ot promyshlennykh vybrosov (Equipment, structures, design fundamentals of chemical-technological processes for protecting the biosphere from industrial emissions), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1985, 352 ð.
7. Lukin V.D., Kurochkina M.I., Ochistka ventilyatsionnykh vybrosov v khimicheskoy promyshlennosti (Ventilation emissions purification in the chemical industry), Leningrad: Khimiya Publ., 1980, 232 ð.
8. Patent no. RU94549U1, System for capture and recovery of vapors of fuel from reservoirs, Inventors: Kvashennikov S.A., Kosova A.V., Sidorov S.A., Utyatnikov A.E.
9. Martynov A.V., Brodyanskiy V.M., Chto takoe vikhrevaya truba (What is a vortex tube?), Moscow: Energiya Publ., 1976, 152 p.
10. Lapshin R.M., Makarov G.Yu., Tarasova N.P., Nestatsionarnye rezhimy teploperenosa v isparitel'nykh termosifonakh pri nizkikh davleniyakh (Unsteady modes of heat transfer in evaporative thermosiphons at low pressures), Proceedings of Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 2012, no. 1 (94), pp. 114–119.
11. Tsegel'skiy V.G., Ermakov P.N., Spiridonov V.S., Protection of the atmosphere from hydrocarbon emissions from reservoirs for storage and transportation of oil and oil products (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti, 2001, no. 3, pp. 16–18.
12. GOST R 58404-2019. Petrol filling stations and complexes. Rules of technical operations.
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