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December 2019



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12'2019 ( 1154)


OIL & GAS COMPANIES

372.862:334.75(73):622.276
M.M. Khasanov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), Yu.V. Maksimov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), O.O. Skudar (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.F. Mozhchil (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), R.V. Starostenko (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.A. Vershinin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), L.A. Pashkevich (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.V. Tretiakov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Value-Driven Engineering in Gazprom Neft

Keywords: system engineering, theory of constraints, theory of the resolution of invention-related tasks (TIPS), ideal final result (IFR), technology scouting, technological intelligence, foresight, team, leadership, collaboration, interaction

Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre adapts systems engineering methods and other practices for the oil and gas industry. Unified approaches will be a kind of instruction to manage complex projects throughout the perimeter of the exploration and production block. Value-Driven Engineering (VDE) is a strategic approach to system engineering optimizing multiple disciplines in one model. For example, complex components of the project are break up into simpler ones, because it is easier to find an executor for them. Planning is divided into phases, making it easier to meet deadlines. The final product at the design and control stage can be split into segments and elements to make configuration adjustments without problems. In fact, the VDE approach is more like a step-by-step guide to assembling constructions with many parts - without it correct connection of the elements will be much longer and more difficult. System engineering is successfully used in NASA and the aviation industry at present. This approach combines many interconnected technologies in spacecraft and aircraft. In the oil industry, the leading companies are BP and Shell. Gazprom Nefts specialists conduct several stages of work to adapt the systems engineering approaches to solve the company's applied problems. The first step is a retrospective analysis of projects that touches on all aspects of oil production from seismic exploration to operation of fields. The project team studies specialized literature and experience of related industries, mostly foreign ones, to form the optimal concept. An analysis of existing scientific achievements, best practices and digital tools has already been carried out. Despite the fact that the main object of VDE will be the development of new fields, some practices can be applied on existing assets.

References

1. Guide to the Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge (SEBoK), Ver. 1.9.1, URL: https://www.sebokwiki.org/wiki/Guide_to_the_Systems_Engineering_Body_of_Knowledge_(SEBoK)

2. Batrashkin V.P., Ismagilov R.R., Panov R.A. et al., The integrated conceptual design as a tool of systematic engineering (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 8083.

3. Honour E.C., Technical report: Value of systems engineering. Lean aerospace initiative, October 2004.

4. Introduction to requirements engineering. REBOK. Requirements engineering body of knowledge, REQB, 2013.

5. Al'tshuller G.S., Osnovy izobretatel'stva (Basics of invention), Voronezh: Tsentral'no-chernozemnoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ.,1964, 240 p.

6. Al'tshuller A.G., Algoritm izobreteniya (Algorithm of the invention), Moscow: Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1969, 63 p.

7. Katzenbach J.R., Smith D.K., The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-Performance Organization, Harvard Business Review Press, 2015, 304 p.

8. Sutherland Jeff , Sutherland J.J., Scrum: The art of doing twice the work in half the time, Crown Publishing Group, 2014, 256 p.

9. Appelo J., Management 3.0: Leading Agile Developers, Developing Agile Leaders, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2011, 464 p.

10. Belbin R., Management teams: Why they succeed or fail, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004, 204 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-6-11

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MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW

372.862:622.276
Yu.V. Maksimov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.F. Mozhchil (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.O. Pisarev (University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), O.A. Arzikulov (University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
The integrating role of systems engineer in oil and gas projects

Keywords: systems integrator, systems engineer, systems engineering, systems complexity, multidisciplinarity

A study of world experience in other industries, such as aviation, military and nuclear industry, has shown that non-trivial engineering tasks of creating complex systems require working at the intersection of several technical disciplines. In 1957, G. Goode and R. Macol emphasized the achievements of mathematical science in the system method of designing technical equipment. In their view, the main problem for design engineers is the ever-increasing complexity of systems that cannot be implemented by scaling small system implementation tools. The authors proposed to train specialists with a wide range of disciplines, as well as to form design teams for the implementation of complex projects. The development of system engineering in Russia began in the 1960s under the name of system engineering, the emergence of which was caused by the problems of building complex military systems. A new stage of the development of domestic system engineering came at the beginning of 2010. Problems arising from complex projects have led to a call for systemic engineering practices.

This article focuses on describing the role of the integrator in the project and the requirements for its competencies based on international experience. The formation of a philosophy of system thinking and the introduction of system engineering in the oil and gas industry will improve the efficiency of asset management throughout the life cycle. Creating a new paradigm of thinking and approach to engineering activities inevitably leads to the training of new format specialists who will perform an integrating function that will allow to control safety, technology and project efficiency.

References

1. Vosstanie mashiny. Pochemu Boeing 737 MAX ubivaet lyudey (Rise of the machine. Why the Boeing 737 MAX kills people), https://ria.ru/20190321/1551968367.html.

2. Kitroeff N., Gelles D., Nicas J. et al., After 2 crashes of new Boeing Jet, pilot training now a focus, The New York Times, URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/16/business/boeing-max-flight-simulator-ethiopia-lion-air.html.

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4. Batovrin V., Modern systems engineering and its role in project management (part 1) (In Russ.), Upravlenie proektami i programmami, 2015, no. 4, pp. 250263.

5. Kossiakoff A., Sweet W.N., Seymour S., Biemer S.M., Systems Engineering. Principles and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2011, 560 p.

6. Kostenko K., Brezgulevskiy E., Miroshnichenko E., Kompetentsii sistemnogo inzhenera (System engineer competencies), Collected papers Molodezh' i sovremennye informatsionnye tekhnologii (Youth and modern information technology), Proceedings of XIII International scientific-practical conference of students, graduate students and young scientists, Tomsk, 2016.

7. Porter M., The competitive advantage of nations, The Free Press, A Division of McMillan, Inc., New York, 1990.

8. Batrashkin V.P., Ismagilov R.R., Panov R.A. et al., The integrated conceptual design as a tool of systematic engineering (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 8083.

9. Bazyleva N.Z., Panov R.A., Mozhchil' A.F. et al., Robust approach for conceptual and logistic engineering integration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 104-108.

10. Certificate of state registration of a computer program no. 2017610926 ERA:ISKRA, Authors: Zhagrin A.V., Khasanov M.M., Ismagilov R.R et al..

11. Patent no. RU2670801C9, System of integrated conceptual design of hydrocarbon fields, Inventors: Ismagilov R.R., Panov R.A., Mozhchil' A.F., Gil'mutdinova N.Z., Dmitriev D.E., Kondakov D.E.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-12-15

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

551.263
N.V. Morozov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.Yu. Kalacheva (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), O.A. Zakharova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.V. Bukatov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.A. Pogrebnyuk (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), F.G. Gaynetdinov (Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas LLC, RF, Noyabrsk), M.N. Nikolaev (Gazpromneft-GEO LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Geological and geochemical concept of petroleum system formation on the territory of the project Remote group of fields in the area of operation of Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas LLC

Keywords: Yanov Stan formation, Bazhenov formation, migration, accumulation, hydrocarbons, exploration

Petroleum systems analysis is an effective tool for evaluation risks of generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. In this paper we consider the main results of geochemical studies of the organic matter of rock samples and upper Jurassic fluids in the territory of a remote group of fields which are included in the area of operation of Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas LLC. According to the results of geochemical studies, it was found that the main genetic source for the oil samples within the study area is Bazhenov formation, which indicates that hydrocarbon deposits in the territory of a remote group of fields formed mainly due to lateral migration from the kitchen area of Bazhenov formation in more submerged zones. Based on an in-depth study of the distribution of biomarker hydrocarbons in oil and extract samples, it was possible to establish boundary zones for the hydrocarbon migration range. Using geochemical data, the study area was ranked according to the degree of prospectivity of the presence of hydrocarbons. The study of the work was reducing of geological uncertainties associated with the prediction of the traps filling in an area remote from the generation sources over a considerable distance (more than 115 km). Based on the developed geological and geochemical concept of the deposits formation, the study area was ranked according to the degree of prospect filling the traps in the Yanov Stan and Sigov formations, which allowed us to adjust the exploration program, reassess geological chance of success (GCoS) risks associated with the parameters of oil migration from sediments of Bazhenov formation to a trap in the proposed accumulation zone within the Yanov Stan formation.

References

1. Goncharov I.V. et al., Prospects of shale oil Bazhenov formation in the south-east of Western Siberia, SPE-171170-MS, 2014.

2. Grandtham P.G., Wakefield L.L., Variations in the sterane carbon number distributions of marine source rock derived crude oils through geologic time, Organic Geochemistry, 1988, V. 12, pp. 6173.

3. Kontorovich A.E. et al., Regional'noe issledovanie geokhimii syrykh neftey i otdel'nykh materinskikh porod Zapadno-Sibirskogo basseyna (Regional study of the geochemistry of crude oils and selected parent rocks of the West Siberian basin), GEOMARK RESEARCH, INC., SP Tairus Publ., 1994, 294 p.

4. Goncharov I.V., Oblasov N.V., Smetanin A.V. et al., Genetic types and nature of fluid of hydrocarbon deposits south-east of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 813.

5. El Diasty W.S., Moldowan J.M., The Western Desert versus Nile Delta: A comparative molecular biomarker study, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 2013, V. 46, pp. 319334.

6. Waples D.W., Machihara T., Application of sterane and triterpane biomarkers in petroleum exploration, Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 1990, V. 38, no. 3, pp. 357380.

7. Shashel' V.A., Bukatov M.V., Peskova D.N. et al., New discovery as a result of complex approach to brownfield region evaluation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 2123.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-21-25

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550.834.05
M.A. Kuntsevich (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.S. Goncharov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.A. Nekhaev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Algorithm of structure uncertainty calculation for fields at the exploration stage

Keywords: uncertainty, structural interpretation, seismic, standard deviation

At the stage of transition from deterministic estimates of reserves and resources to probabilistic models, geologists face challenges of estimation and analysis of the uncertainty that exist at different stages of geological modeling. For the hydrocarbon fields at the exploration stage, the key uncertainty is the structural model, as one of the factors that maximally affects the estimated reserves and resources. Most often, the basis for structural constructions is 2D or 3D seismic data, the interpretation quality of which has a significant impact on the output data, and, as a result, common uncertainty of seismic data. The quality of the data, the limitations of the method, and the subjectivity of interpreters make the results of seismic interpretation controversial, which makes the task of estimating the error/uncertainty of seismic data one of the most important stage, which goes as the basis for creating stochastic geological models in the probabilistic geological modeling process. The accuracy of seismic data can be described as the integration of the time correlation error associated with the reflecting horizon, and the error of the velocity model the function of the translation of the interpretation results into the depth domain. The authors propose an algorithm for estimating structural uncertainty for fields at the exploration stage, using all the main factors affecting to the seismic interpretation outputs. The results of a quantitative assessment of structural construction uncertainty is a standard deviation map, which goes as the basis for creating stochastic geological models in the probabilistic geological modeling process, further IIP estimation and the sensitivity analysis of key uncertainties.

References

1. Levyant V.B., Ampilov Yu.P., Glogovskiy V.M. et al., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po ispol'zovaniyu dannykh seysmorazvedki (2D, 3D) dlya podscheta zapasov nefti i gaza (Guidelines for using seismic data (2D, 3D) for calculating oil and gas reserves), Moscow: Publ. of Central Geophysical Expedition, 2006, 40 p.

2. Kiselev V.S. et al., Instruktsiya po otsenke kachestva strukturnykh postroeniy i nadezhnosti vyyavlennykh i podgotovlennykh ob"ektov po dannym seysmorazvedki MOV-OGT (pri rabotakh na neft' i gaz) (Instruction for assessing the quality of structural structures and reliability of identified and prepared objects based on seismic data of CDP seismic reflection method (for oil and gas works)), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIGeofizika, 1984.

3. Averbukh A.G., Ivanova N.L., Quantification and results assessment for 3D seismic-based mapping errors (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2009, no. 3, pp. 6162.

4. Pinto V.R. et al., Seismic uncertainty estimation in reservoir structural modelling, Firstbreak, 2017, October, V. 35, pp. 29862990, DOI: 10.1190/segam2016-13953669.1.

5. Thore P., Shtuka A., Structural uncertainties: Determination, management, and applications, Geophysics, 2002, V. 67 (2).

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-26-29

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550.834.05
A.V. Butorin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.I. Sevostyanov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.K. Stulikov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.A. Timirgalin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
DTW based automated seismicwell tie

Keywords: seismic, tying, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm, synthetic trace, L2-norm, sequence, wavelet

One of the key priorities of the Gazprom Neft Company is routine processes optimization. Nowadays, manual seismic-well tying feature is embedded in most of oil and gas engineers tools, but it is still time consuming task to fit two signals especially with no subjective assessments. At the same time there are a plenty of successful cases of application signals comparing and processing algorithms in a real world tasks such as voice recognition.

Method, described in this article, helps to fit synthetic trace, calculated by reflection coefficient and theoretical signal convolution, to seismic trace in a semi-automatic mode. Dynamic Time Warping, which is the base of proposed approach, has been applied to temporal sequences of video, audio, and graphics data indeed, any data that can be turned into a linear sequence can be analyzed with DTW. Using this algorithm in a pure form helps to obtain perfect fitting of the seismic and well signals in terms of Pearson's correlation coefficient, but at the same time leads to unrealistic time-depth dependency and infinite interval velocity. Considering this, the idea behind proposed in this paper approach includes number of restrictions, which not allows algorithm to fit signals perfectly, but makes the final results more geologically justified. The resulting algorithm was tested on a model data as well as on a real world data.

References

1. Herrera R.H., Fomel S., Van der Baan M., Automatic approaches for seismic to well tying, Interpretation, SD-9-SD17, 2014, DOI: 10.1190/INT-2013-0130.1.

2. Munoz A., Hale D., Automatically tying well logs to seismic data: Center for Wave Phenomena, 2012, pp. 253260.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-30-32

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553.98(470.4/.5)
A.. Vashkevich (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), K.V. Strizhnev (Technological Center Bazhen LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.A. Shashel (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), O.A. Zakharova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.E. Zagranovskaya (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), N.V. Morozov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
The impact of the peculiarities of the geological and geophysical structure of Domanic deposits on the assessment of the hydrocarbons reserves and resources

Keywords: Domanic formation, unconventional reservoir, temporary method of reserves calculation, natural reservoir, organic porosity, interpretation of geological and geophysical studies, geochemical studies

Gazprom Neft Company has been organizing a directed exploration for the study of Domanic formation since 2016. Domanic bituminous deposits is a complex object for predicting and prospects estimation. It is associated with the low state of knowledge and structural features of these deposits, as well as the absence of single valued criteria which determine the prospects of this type deposits. The expansion to new territories is not justified without an accurate definition possible production characteristics of Domanic deposits and oil-producing potential for bituminous formation of Volga-Ural Basin. The article considers the special aspects of geological, geophysical and geochemical parameters, determined to study a reliable estimate of the Domanic deposits reserves and resource potential. The structure conceptual model is proposed, as well as a number of methodological techniques and useful recommendations to study and analysis of the bituminous formation. As a result of Domanic-type sediments studying, a number of geological, geophysical and geochemical uncertainties were identified, including geological-geophysical conceptual solutions, such as ambiguous vertical object boundaries and extension area; reservoir properties, determination of organic porosity, and a number of geological and geochemical parameters that affect the potential of considered deposits. Domanic bituminous deposits are not clearly understood; a number of questions remain that can be solved by performing scientific studies with a number of experiments. Domanic deposits are characterized by a wide range of occurrence with a different number of bituminous packs, ambiguous geological, geophysical and geochemical properties over the extension area. There are a lot of questions to the methodological determination of the studied geological and geophysical parameters without deeply developed methods, norms and determination.

References

1. Temporal guidelines for calculating oil reserves in Domanik productive sediments (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2017, no. 4 (67), pp. 102115.

2. Gorozhanin V.M., Gorozhanina E.N., Artyushkova O.V. et al., Vtorichnoe mineraloobrazovanie v porodakh domanikovogo gorizonta (Secondary mineral formation in rocks of the Domanic horizon), Collected papers Fatsial'nyy analiz v litologii: teoriya i praktika (Facies analysis in lithology: Theory and practice), Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 2019, 172 p.

3. Stupakova A.V., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Domanic deposits of the Volga-Ural basin types of section, formation conditions and prospects of oil and gas potential (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2017, Special Issue, pp. 112124.

4. Vinogradov A.P., The chemical elemental composition of algae (In Russ.), Proceedings of biogeochemical laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1935, Part 1, V. 3, pp. 87201.

5. Degens E.T., Geochemistry of sediments, Prentice-Hall, 1965, 342 p.

6. Boychenko E.A., Saenko G.N., Udel'nova T.N., Evolution of the concentration function of plants in the biosphere (In Russ.), Geokhimiya, 1968, no. 10, pp. 12601264.

7. Ul'mishek G.F., Shalomeenko A.V., Kholton D.Yu. et al., Unconventional oil reservoirs in the Domanik formation of the Orenburg region (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2017, pp. 6770.

8. Zagranovskaya D.E., Korobov A.D., Strizhnev K.V., Zhukov V.V., Determination of the genesis of unconventional reservoirs with the aim of mapping the promising free oil areas in the deposits of Bazhenov horizon example Palyanovskaya area Krasnoleninskoye field (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2017, no. 1, pp. 2435.

9. Korobov A.D., Korobova L.A., Pulsating stress as reflection of tectonic hydrothermal activation and its role in generation of productive collectors cover (West Siberia is taken as an example) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika, razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 6., pp. 412.

10. Vashkevich A.A., Strizhnev K.V., Shashel' V.A. et al., Forecast of prospective areas for sediment type Domanic in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = OilIndustry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 1417.

11. Lafargue E., Marquis F., Pillot D., Rock-Eval 6 applications in hydrocarbon exploration, production, and soil contamination studies, Revue de institut francais du petrole, 1998, V. 53, no. 4, pp. 421437.

12. Schettler Jr P.D. et al., Contributions to total storage capacity in Devonian shales, SPE-23422-MS, 1991.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-16-20

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WELL DRILLING

622.24:336.6
Yu.V. Maksimov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), G.V. Sozonenko (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.A. Karachev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.N. Khomitskiy (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.K. Berezovsky (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.V. Tretiakov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
System engineering approaches to develop software for integrating well cost estimation

Keywords: well cost estimation, software, system engineering, lifecycle, V-model

This article presents applying of system engineering approaches to develop software Drilling Cost Engineering to assess the well cost. V-model of lifecycle was used to develop this product and the following steps were taken: business requirements specification, system requirements specification system design, architecture design, detailed design, coding, unit testing, system testing, integration testing, validation and verification, operations and maintenance. The specific practices and tool were applied at each stages of lifecycle, such as identification and poll of stakeholders, methodology development, prototyping, concept model, functional requirements, database model, external environmental of the system, technical scope and architectural design, testing procedures. Cooperation of drilling engineers, IT architectures, programmers, business analysts, database specialists on each stage of system lifecycle allowed producing unique software to make assessment of well cost on different stages of oil and gas projects at different levels of available information. Using of system engineering approach at project realization helped to pass efficiency of the main gates of project and realize the software for integration well cost estimation. Initial and claimed business effects have been achieved on the stage of verification and validation, what is the result of success of using system-engineering approaches. Next stage is improvement of developed system Drilling Cost Engineering and V-model is transforming to W-model. The main tasks for improving are integration of this system to conceptual engineering process in Gapzrom Neft Company, increasing the detail of input data and the depth of existing system capabilities; development of new functionality of a matrix system for assessing the cost of well construction for ranges of variable conditions, expansion of the organizational volume of the project.

References

1. Rustamov I.F., Sobolev A.O., Sozonenko G.V. et al., Developing software prototype for well cost estimation and its ability (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 24 27

2. Tret'yakov S., Maksimov Yu., Sobolev A. et al., Approaches and instruments for well cost estimation at PJSC Gazprom Neft (In Russ.), SPE-191641-18RPTC-RU, 2018.

3. Mozhchil A.F.,Tret'yakov S.V., Dmitriev D.E., Gil'mutdinova N.Z. et al., Technical and economic optimization of well pads calculation at the stage of integrated conceptual design (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 4, pp. 126129.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-33-37

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.11.4
M.M. Khasanov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.I. Ipatov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.A. Jukovskaia (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.I. Kremenetskiy (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.A. Listoikin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Features of development of oil fields complicated by high conductivity layers

Keywords: horizontal wells, multiple-fractured horizontal wells, production logging, indicator studies, low-permeability and hyper-low-permeable reservoirs, production monitoring, distributed fiber-optic systems

Last years there has been a trend in Russia to develop hard-to-recover oil reserves with low-permeability (less than (1-2)⋅10-3 mkm2) and hyper-low-permeable ((0.1-0.001)⋅10-3 mkm2) fields. The latter primarily include Bazhenov, Domanic and Achimov fields. As a result of the extremely low natural filtration properties of these reservoirs, their development at the present stage of technological development provides for the mandatory completion with multiple-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW). Experience in the development of layers of the specified type for Gazprom Neft PJSC shows that the highest oil production rate is achieved if the MFHW system reveals not only the low-permeability rock matrix, but also captures the highly conductive (typically fractured) streaks, that take place in some cases. The difference in the permeability of such highly conductive layers and the hyper-low-permeable matrix of the host rocks can be very significant, for example, up to 105-106. Highly conductive layers in the section associated with the achievement of high initial oil flow rates in new wells, in the process of further development, negative consequences may arise as a result of premature (and even worse unpredictable) gas and water breakthroughs through narrow fractured layers. The authors dissertate upon how to take into account the risks of loss of well productivity as a consequence of the pronounced geological heterogeneity of these fields, even if the scale of the impact of this heterogeneity is still difficult to assess by modern research methods.

In this regard, this paper analyzes some of the results of core, logging, well-testing and indicator studies with the allocation of characteristic features indicating the presence of local highly conductive layers in the section of the oil complex. In addition, the authors proposed some control solutions to minimize the negative consequences of the development of such heterogeneous fields.

References

1. Bilinchuk A.V., Ipatov A.I., Sitnikov A.V. et al., Evolution of production logging in low permeability reservoirs at horizontal wells, multiple-fractured horizontal wells and multilateral wells. Gazprom Neft experience (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 3437.

2. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Statsionarnyy gidrodinamiko-geofizicheskiy monitoring razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Stationary hydrodynamic-geophysical monitoring of the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow Izhevsk: Publ.of Institute of Computer Science, 2018, 796 p.

3. Chukhlantseva E.R., Kompleksirovanie metodov litofatsial'nogo i geologo-geofizicheskogo modelirovaniya v tselyakh geometrizatsii verkhnesenomanskikh zalezhey Messoyakhskoy zony neftegazonakopleniya (Integration of lithofacial and geological-geophysical modeling methods for geometrization of the Upper Senomanian deposits of the Messoyakha oil and gas accumulation zone): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Tomsk, 2016.

4. Grabovskaya F.R., Zhukov V.V., Zagranovskaya D.E., Structure and formation conditions of the Bazhenovo horizon in the Palyanovo Area, West Siberia (In Russ.), Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye=Lithology and Mineral Resources, 2018, no. 3, pp. 195206.

5. Vol'pin S.G., Lomakina O.V., Afanaskin I.V., Osobennosti geologicheskogo stroeniya i energeticheskogo sostoyaniya zalezhi v otlozheniyakh bazhenovskoy svity (Features of the geological structure and energy status of the deposits in the sediments of the Bazhenov formation), Proceedings of international scientific and technical conference Geopetrol 2014, Exploration and production of oil and natural gas reservoirs new technologies, new challenges, Krakow, 1518.09.14, pp. 8595.

6. Sugaipov D.A., Lyapin V.V., Reshetnikov D.A. et al., Selecting optimal technology for wells completion in the oil rims of continental genesis on the example of layers PK1-3 of the Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye and Tazovskoye fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 4, pp. 6669.

7. Listoykin D.A., Ridel' A.A., Kovalenko I.V., Well test as an adjustment tool for geological modelling and assessments of the impact of underlying waters for the development of the PK1-3 layer at Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2018, no. 1(7), pp. 5257.

8. Ipatov A.I., Kremenetskiy M.I., Geofizicheskiy i gidrodinamicheskiy kontrol' razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Geophysical and hydrodynamic control of development of hydrocarbon deposits), Moscow-Izhevsk: RKhD Publ., 2005, 780 p.

9. Ushmaev O.S., Chameev I.L., Bazhenov D.Yu., Artamonov A.A., EOR gas re-injection optimization at an oil, gas and condensate field (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2016, no. 2, pp. 5460.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-38-43

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622.276.342.003
D.A. Sugaipov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.A. Nekhaev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), I.V. Perevozkin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.A. Reshetnikov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.A. Samolovov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Optimization of well pattern for oil rim fields

Keywords: oil rims development, radial well pattern, analytical solutions for oil rims, optimization of fields development

The article presents well patterns with different orientation of horizontal well against bush for oil rims is considered. Line and radial pattern is compared. Physical processes occurring at oil rim development by such well system is described. When wells are arranged in line pattern, there is uniform gas coning along well bore, but well drilling by line pattern requires relative high investments due to relative high amount of bushes as compared with radial well pattern. When wells are arranged in radial pattern, there is interference between gas cones near the heels of horizontal wells, but such scheme has smaller cost due to possibility of connection in one bush of large amount of well. Also method for determine of optimum well orientation system is presented. Efficiency criteria is NPV, well production profile is calculated using analytical theory based on Butler's model of critical production for horizontal wells in oil rims. Calculation results are presented in the form of areas with optimum well orientation scheme at the chart with coordinates gas cone width and well spacing. Also there is an example of application of this method and comparison with optimum well orientation determination implemented with full-field calculations. Results of this work can be used for express-analysis of greenfield projects.

References

1. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O.S., Samolovov D.A. et al., Estimation of cost effective oil thickness of oil rims developed with horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 4447.

2. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O.S., Samolovov D.A. et al., A method to determine optimum well spacing for oil rims gas-oil zones (In Russ.), SPE-166898-RU, 2013.

3. Samolovov D.A., Technical and economic assessment of optimal well clustering (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 2325.

4. Mozhchil A.F.,Tret'yakov S.V., Dmitriev D.E., Gil'mutdinova N.Z. et al., Technical and economic optimization of well pads calculation at the stage of integrated conceptual design (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 4, pp. 126129.

5. Povyshev K.I., Vershinin S.A., Vernikovskaya O.S., Specifics of development, infrastructure construction and production of oil-gas-condensate fields. Integrated model application experience (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 7, pp. 6871.

6. Sugaipov D.A., Rustamov I.F., Ushmaev O.S. et al., Multilateral wells application in continental facies of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 3536.

7. Sugaipov D.A., Bazhenov D.Yu., Devyat'yarov S.S. et al., Integrated approach to oil rim development in terms of Novoportovskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 6063.

8. Butler R.M., Horizontal wells for the recovery of oil, gas and bitumen, Petroleum Society of CIM, Monograph no. 2, 1994.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-44-46

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622.276.1/.4.001.57
E.V. Yudin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), R.A. Khabibullin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), I.M. Galyautdinov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), N.A. Smirnov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.M. Babin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), G.A. Chigarev (Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Creation of a proxy-integrated model of the Eastern section of the Orenburgskoye oil-gas-condensate field under the conditions of lack of initial data

Keywords: integrated modeling, proxy-integrated model

The paper describes the methodology of the proxy-integrated model, which allows to create and adjust the mathematical model "drainage area - well - oil-gathering system", description of the process of creation and adjustment of the model of the Eastern section of the Orenburg oil-gas-condensate field (ES OOGCF), as well as the convergence of the calculation results with the actual data in the conditions of lack of initial data.

The "reservoir/well/oil-gathering system" integrated model (IM) methodology used in the existing commercial simulators requires a large amount of initial data and deep detailing of individual IM elements. Creating such models requires setting up a reservoir model, well models and surface infrastructure model. Quick creation and configuration is only possible for well models: reservoir model is adapted over the entire period of field development and can require a lot of time and effort to achieve the required predictive convergence; for an above-ground infrastructure model, the level of detail can be severely limited due to the requirement for pressure measurements at each element of the pipeline network. In addition, the calculation of pressure changes resulting from traditional approach has a low rate of calculation. The combination of these factors often makes it impossible to use a classical approach to the creation of IM and necessitates the creation of a method of IM that can be quickly configured, is resistant to the small quantity and quality of raw data and has a high speed of calculations. The authors have developed and tested a comprehensive approach to building such a model. The article presents solutions for creating and automated adaptation of drainage area, wellbore, gaslift valves and production and gaslift gas lines based on typical for gaslift operation low-frequency measurement data that are not synchronized in time, as well as the calculation method of the infrastructure model, which requires only three points of pressure measurements to be made: wellhead, measuring unit and oil processing unit. Solutions for the integration of individual elements into a single computational model and a tool for the filtration of initial data, in general, desynchronized in time, are demonstrated. The implementation of the obtained solution is also shown on the example of ES OOGCF and the convergence of calculations of the obtained proxy-integrated model with the actual data in the retrospective analysis.

References

1. Galyautdinov I.M., Cherepovitsyn A.E., An integrated approach to the selection of candidate wells for geological and engineering operations (using the example of the eastern section of the Orenburg oil and gas condensate field) (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 7, pp. 2333.

2. Khasanov M.M., Khabibullin R.A., Musabirov T.R., Krasnov V.A., Self consistent approach to construct inflow performance relationship for oil well (In Russ.), SPE-160782-RU, 2012.

3. Khabibullin R.A., Burtsev Ya.A., New approach for gas lift optimization calculations (In Russ.), SPE-176668-RU, 2015.

4. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, Vol.17, 1999, 164 p.

5. Lubnin A.A., Yudin E.V., Fazlytdinov R.F. et al., A new approach of gas lift wells production optimization on offshore fields (In Russ.), SPE-181903-RU, 2016.

6. Endres S., Simplicial Homology global optimisation. A Lipshitz global optimization algorithm, 2019, URL: https://stefan-endres.github.io/shgo/files/shgo_slides.pdf

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-47-51

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622.276.1/.4.001.57
E.V. Bogdanov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), I.L. Chameev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.A. Reshetnikov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), I.V. Perevozkin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.V. Tkachuk (Gazpromneft-Yamal LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.N. Shorokhov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie, LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Integrated modeling as a tool to increase the development efficiency of the multilayer oil-gas-condensate field

Keywords: integrated modeling, gas fields development, condensate, gas cap, well model, surface network, facility system, gas pipeline, project value

The article presents the experience and results in constructing a full-scale integrated (reservoir - well - infrastructure) model of a large oil-gas-condensate field, including a set of models of oil rims and gas caps for the main objects of development, gas reservoirs , models of wells and downhole equipment, as well as model of the surface network system for collecting and transporting products to the central processing unit and the gas re-injection system from the gas compressor station of the gas processing facility. The objective of this article is the coverage of the results of creating a full-scale integrated model of gas reservoirs and gas caps of the field. The task including creating, history matching and integration of the reservoir models with surface facility system, the elimination of bottlenecks in the gas facility network system and the determination of the optimal solution to the problem of hydrocarbon production (oil production from oil rims and gas production from gas caps and dry gas formations together). Conducted integrated calculations allowed us to consistently identify and minimize the risks associated with the geological potential of productive formations and throughput capacity of the gas pipeline system in the early stages of project development, which leads to an increase in the value of the project. In addition, up-side cases for optimizing the business case were calculated on an integrated model, which increased potential gas and condensate production and the value of the project.

References

1. Zakirov S.N., Vasil'ev V.I., Gutnikov A.I. et al., Prognozirovanie i regulirovanie razrabotki gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Prediction and regulation of the development of gas fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 295 p.

2. Lee J., Wattenbarger R.A., Gas reservoir engineering, Richardson, Texas: Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1996, 349 p.

3. Bogdanov E.V., Uncertainty quantifying of the green field: integrating experimental design and field development strategy (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 9227.

4. Chameev I.L., Apasov R.T., Varavva A.I. et al., Integrated modeling: a tool to improve quality of design solutions in development of oil rims of multi-zone oil-gas-condensate fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 4649.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-52-55

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622.276.66.001.57
I.Sh. Bazyrov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg; Saint-Petersburg mining university, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.S. Gunkin (Saint-Petersburg mining university, RF, Saint-Petersburg), Yu.V. Ovcharenko (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.V. Lukin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.V. Alchibaev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.A. Shapovalova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), I.P. Bolgov (Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Modeling of a hydraulic fracture initiation in directional and horizontal wellbores in fractured reservoir

The developed analytical model for fracture initiation pressure estimation is described. The model is based on solving the problems of stress tensor transformation, estimation of stress distributions around the boreholes, direction cosines estimation, transforming stress tensor between cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. In the work, the stress state of natural fractures only intersecting the well trajectory is calculated. As criteria for crack initiation, the shear fracture criterion and the tensile fracture criterion are used. The calculation results showed that when the well pressure changes, the stress state at the point of intersection of the fracture and the well changes, including the fracture initiation criterion. A study was made to estimate the influence of the following factors on the magnitude of the fracture initiation pressure: the orientation of the wellbore relative to the main stresses and fracture geometry. Combinations of fracture initiation parameters are determined. The developed technique allows to determine the bottomhole pressure boundaries to prevent fracture initiation near the wellbore. The technique allows to determine the necessary pressure during the drilling or wellkilling operations. On the other hand, it is possible to estimate the bottomhole pressure at which natural fractures will be initiated to assess the risks of hydraulic fracturing, as well as to prevent early water breakthroughs from water-injection wells. Further steps to improve the technique include a more detailed sensitivity analysis of the developed analytical model, estimation of the fracture initiation pressure located at a small distance from the well (without well and fracture intersection), estimation of the fracture initiation pressure in the case of perforation, verification of the results in the field using hydrodynamic tests, as well as geophysical studies.

References

1. Ovcharenko Yu.V., Gumerov R.R., Bazyrov I.Sh. et al., Well killing specifics in conditions of fractured and porous carbonate reservoirs of the Eastern part of the Orenburgskoye oil-gas-condensate field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 52-56.

2. Fjaer E., Holt R.M., Horsrud P. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics, Elsevier, 2008, 492 p.

3. Kirsch G., Die Theorie der Elastizität und die Bedürfnisse der Festigkeitslehre, Zeitschrift des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure, 1898, V. 29, pp. 797-807.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-56-59

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INFORMATION

004.032.26:622.276
O.V. Zotkin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.V. Simonov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.E. Osokina (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg; Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.M. Andrianova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.S. Margarit (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.A. Timoshenko (Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.F. Lebedev (Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
The new approach to improvement oil reservoir proxy model predictions using machine learning algorithms

Keywords: oil field development, waterflooding, reservoir proxy model, machine learning, hybrid mode

One of the crucial components of any oil company successful development is high-quality processing and analysis of a large amount of available data. It is necessary for subsequent solution of forecasting and planning problems for oil, liquid and associated gas production. Among all of the actively developing digital technologies, one should specifically note the machine learning methods that have a great potential for solving time series forecasting problems on a whole variety of datasets of different nature. However, practice has shown that most of the oil engineering challenges cannot be solved effectively using only machine learning algorithms or only mathematical models of physical processes. Solving these problems using only one of these approaches is either more difficult / time-consuming and requires a lot of additional data and deep understanding of physics of the process (in the case of description of all the processes in the system by a complete mathematical model), or allows for a possibility of non-physical solutions and high error (in the case of using only machine learning approaches). In order to resolve these issues, the hybrid method of simplified physical model combined with machine learning model is presented in this paper. The proposed hybrid approach combines machine learning methods and the basic simplified pseudo-2D physico-mathematical model, and allows to minimize calculation errors arising from the impossibility of higher detalization of the basic model using implicit dependencies obtained by the machine learning model, which adjusts the main forecast. Also, the proposed hybrid approach allows, if necessary, to introduce new control parameters that are not taken into account by the physico-mathematical model, but can have a significant influence on the final result. The paper shows that the quality of adaptation to actual data and the quality of the production forecast satisfy the requirements for full-scale hydrodynamic 3D models.

References

1. Yakovlev V.V., Khasanov M.M., Sitnikov A.N., et al., The direction of cognitive technologies development in the Upstream Division of Gazprom Neft Company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 6-9, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-12-6-9.

2. Zotkin O., Osokina A., Simonov M. et al., A novel approach to refinment reservoir proxy model using machine-learning techniques (In Russ.), SPE-198411-MS, 2019, DOI: 10.2118/198411-MS

3. Teplyakov N., Slabetskiy A., Sarapulov N. et al., Application of machine learning methods for modeling the current indicators of operating wells stock of PJSC Gazprom Neft (In Russ.), SPE-191585-18RPTC-MS, 2018.

4. Khatmullin I.F., Tsanda A.P., Andrianova A.M. et al., Semi-analytical models for calculating well interference: limitations and applications (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 3841, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-12-38-41.

5. Hochreiter S., Schmidhuber J., Long short-term memory, Neural computation, 1997, no. 9, pp. 1735-1780, DOI: 10.1162/neco.1997.9.8.1735.

6. Yousef A.A., Gentil P.H., Jensen J.L., Lake L.W., A capacitance model to infer interwell connectivity from production and injection rate fluctuations, SPE-95322-PA, 2009, DOI: 10.2118/95322-PA.

7. Sayarpour M., Zuluaga E., Kabir C.S. et al., The use of capacitanceresistance models for rapid estimation of waterflood performance and optimization, SPE-110081-MS, 2007.

8. Buzinov I.U., Umrikhin S.N., Issledovanie neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin i plastov (Investigation of oil and gas wells and reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 269 p.

9. Stock J.H., Watson M.W., Heteroskedasticity‐robust standard errors for fixed effects panel data regression, Econometrica, 2008, V. 76(1), pp. 155174, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0012-9682.2008.00821.x
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-60-63

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004.41:622.276.6
A.A. Erofeev (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, RF, Dolgoprudny), R.N. Nikitin (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, RF, Dolgoprudny), D.A. Mitrushkin (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, RF, Dolgoprudny), S.V. Golovin (Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch of RAS, Novosibirsk), A.N. Baykin (Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch of RAS, Novosibirsk), A.A. Osiptsov (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow), G.V. Paderin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.V. Shel (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
CYBER FRAC software platform for modeling, optimization and monitoring of hydraulic fracturing operations

Keywords: modeling of fracture growth and proppant transport, optimization of fracturing design, low-permeable reserves, control of multistage hydraulic fracturing operations, software

This article is a review of modular software package, designed to solve all of the problems of technological chain of the operation of hydraulic fracturing: from planning and designing to effectiveness analysis and real-time operation monitoring. The software package was developed by project consortium of specialized universities and institutions of RAS in cooperation with Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre. The process of simulator development was split into two parts: development of modular platform with engineering tool kit for data processing and development of plug-ins, designed to model physical phenomena (processes). At the heart of calculation core lies hierarchy of models of hydraulic fracture development, which allows to model hydraulic fracturing in various geological conditions. For example, to model fracture propagation in uniform reservoir Pseudo 3D model is used. For modelling in reservoirs with various layer-dependent geomechanics and filtration properties Planar 3D model is used. To consider abnormal low or high pore pressure Planar 3D model is supplemented by taking into account the effects of poroelasticity. To model hydraulic fracture propagation in fractured reservoir, a special module is supposed to be used, which takes into account influence of natural fractures on the formation process of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). A chain of sub-models was implemented to model proppant transport processes. These sub-models take into account different effects, such as proppant sedimentation, drift and bridging, which have great impact on final geometry and conductivity of hydraulically induced fracture. Simulator provides various tool kits for downloading, processing and interpretation of field data. Engineer can work with results of geophysical surveys, field injection tests, microseismic monitoring data or actual well productivity history. In the end a digital report is formed based on results of engineering support. It contains both, initial data and information about adjustments, implemented into planned design of hydraulic fracturing operation. Also, fracturing simulator contains a module, developed to optimize economical effectiveness of the operation by taking into account planned oil production. Hydraulic fracturing simulator Cyber Frac has successfully passed validation and approbation stages. Pilot tests were carried on real field data by specialists of Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre. Currently, preparations for first industrial release are being finalized. Soon it will become available for external users.

References

1. Mayer B.R., Frac model in 3D 4 Parts, Oil and Gas Journal, June-July. 1985.

2. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, Wiley, 2000, 824 .

3. Baree R.D., A practical numerical simulator for three-dimensional fracture propagation in heterogeneous media, SPE-12273-MS, 1983.

4. Smith M.B., Klein H.A., Practical applications of coupling fully numerical 2-D transport calculation with a PC-based fracture geometry simulator, SPE-30505-MS, 1995.

5. Adachi J. et al., Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures, International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 2007, V.44, pp. 739757.

6. Crouch S.L., Starfield A.M., Boundary element methods in solid mechanics, George Allen & Unwin, 1983.

7. Garagash D.I., Detournay E., Adachi J.I., Multiscale tip asymptotics in hydraulic fracture with leak-off, J. Fluid Mech., 2011, V. 669, pp. 260297.

8. Dontsov E.V., Peirce A.P., A multiscale Implicit Level Set Algorithm (ILSA) to model hydraulic fracture propagation incorporating combined viscous, toughness, and leak-off asymptotics, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 2017, V. 313, pp. 5384.

9. Osiptsov A.A., Fluid mechanics of hydraulic fracturing: a review // Journal of petroleum science and engineering, 2017, V. 156, pp. 513535.

10. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Two-continua model of suspension flow in a hydraulic fracture (In Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Physics, 2010, V. 31, no. 6, pp. 758761.

11. Carter R.D., Derivation of the general equation for estimating the extent of the fractured area, Appendix I of Optimum fluid characteristics for fracture extension, In: Drilling and Production Practice: edited by Howard, G.C., Fast, C.R., American Petroleum Institute, 1957, pp. 261269.

12. Baree R.D., Conway M.W., Experimental and numerical modeling of convective proppant transport, SPE-28564-MS, 1995.

13. Gadde P.B., Sharma M.M., The impact of proppant retardation on propped fracture lengths, SPE-97106-MS, 2005.

14. Friehauf B.S., Simulation and design of energized hydraulic fractures: Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2009.

15. Dontsov E.V., Peirce A.P., Slurry flow, gravitational settling and a proppant transport model for hydraulic fractures, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2014, V. 760, pp. 567590.

16. Shiozawa S., Mc Clure M., Stimulation of proppant transport with gravitation settling and fracture closure in a three-dimentional hydraulic fracturing simulator, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2016, V. 138, pp. 298314.

17. Garagash I.A., Osiptsov A.A., Boronin S.A., Dynamic bridging of proppant particles in a hydraulic fracture, International Journal of Engineering Science, 2019, V. 135, Feb. 1, pp. 86101.

18. Dontsov E.V., Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Derbyshev D.Y., Lubrication model of suspension flow in a hydraulic fracture with frictional rheology for shear-induced migration and jamming, Proceedings of the Royal Society A., 2019, Jun 19, 475(2226):20190039.

19. Baykin A.N., Golovin S.V., Influence of pore pressure on the development of a hydraulic fracture in poroelastic medium, Int. J. Rock Mech. & Mining Sci., 2018, V. 108, pp. 198208.

20. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Desroches J., Displacement of yield-stress fluids in a fracture, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2015, Nov. 1, pp. 4763.

21. Golovin S.V., Baykin A.N., Application of the fully coupled planar 3D poroelastic hydraulic fracturing model to the analysis of the permeability contrast impact on fracture propagation, Rock Mech. & Rock Eng., 2018, V. 51, no. 10, pp. 32053217.

22. Erofeev A.A., Vostrikova V.A., Sitdikov R.M. et al., Modeling of stimulated reservoir volume by multistage hydraulic fracturing in formation with pre-existing natural fractures, Proceedings of ECMOR XVI 16th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, 2018, September,.

23. Starovoytova B.N., Golovin S.V., Kavunnikova E.A. et al., Hydraulic fracture design for horizontal well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 106110.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-64-68

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FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

622.276.012:69
I.P. Kozhushkov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.P. Smirnov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Block-modular method for the construction of oil and gas facilities

Keywords: block-modular construction, skid modules, superblock, block-box, block-modular equipment, block-complete devices, oil and gas facilities, block-pontoon, industrialization of construction, transportation of superblocks

Today, Gazprom Neft PJSC pays serious attention to the use of new technologies, which would significantly improve the quality of construction, the rate of return on projects and, accordingly, minimize the time required to complete the work. Block-modular construction combines various technologies of erecting objects using skid modules, block-boxes and large-volume blocks (super-blocks). To date, the Gazprom Neft Company has accumulated sufficient experience and achievements, tools and competencies in the development of this method of construction of oil and gas infrastructure. Particular attention to block-modular construction technology is due to the need to achieve specific goals: high-speed construction, the creation of fully functioning temporary mobile buildings and structures; simplification of construction through unification and standardization of installation works of buildings and structures, simplification of design due to the creation of typical series of objects and databases with product catalogs of unified block-modules or block-modular units.

This article reviews the experience of using block-modular construction at Gazprom Neft Company. The main advantages and disadvantages of using this technology are formulated. Issues were voiced within the framework of the Gazprom Neft Company and solutions were described. Examples of successful implementation of block-modular construction are presented and the main conclusions are formulated. New goals have been set for optimizing block-modular construction within the framework of the Gazprom Neft Company in terms of technical regulation, construction planning and the most rational use of technologies. Also, the article presents the historical experience of using the block-modular method for the construction of oil and gas fields in the north of Russia using large-volume blocks (superblocks). The technology of delivery of superblocks and installation is described. The advantages of using this technology were identified and the main problematic issues of implementation within the framework of the Gazprom Neft PJSC were announced. The article discusses the main stages of the development of the technological project Search and implementation of block construction projects, the main task of which is to assess the potential use of Superblocks in major projects of the Company and the expected economic effect.

References

1. Byachkov A.I., Razrabotka konstruktivno-tekhnicheskikh resheniy ob"ektov v superblokakh dlya neftepromyslovogo i magistral'nogo truboprovodnogo transporta v Zapadnoy Sibiri (Development of structural and technical solutions for facilities in superblocks for oilfield and trunk pipeline transport in Western Siberia): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen, 1984.

2. Ogudov A.G., Andrianova L.I., Pneva A.P., Vnedrenie industrial'nogo metoda stroitel'stva s ispol'zovaniem uzlov maksimal'noy zavodskoy gotovnosti (Implementation of the industrial construction method using nodes of maximum factory readiness), Proceedings of International Scientific and Technical Conference dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Tyumen Industrial Institute Neft' i gaz Zapadnoy Sibiri (Oil and gas of Western Siberia), 2013, Part 1, pp. 121123.

3. Sokolov S.M., Strekopytov S.K., Tukaev Sh.G., The problems of large blocks construction of oil-and-gas facilities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 3, pp. 9495.

4. Kozhushkov I.P., Smirnov A.P., Kolonskikh K.V., Rerspective block-modular methods for the construction of oil and gas facilities using superblocks (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 2(12), pp. 7175.

5. Zakharova M.V., Ponomarev A.B., Experience in construction buildings and structures using modular technology (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura = PNRPU Construction and Architecture Bulletin, 2017, V. 8, no. 1, pp. 148155.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-69-73

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622.276.012.05-218
A.V. Malyshkina (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.P. Smirnov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Prospects for the use of building composite structures

Keywords: composite materials, composites market, capital construction, building constructions, fire resistance, quick-assembled structures

In the connection with the increase in the number of short-term projects in the oil and gas industry, a need arose for quick-assembled , lightweight, mobile, and durable structures. Traditional solutions will not cope with this task, so composite structures are being considered to replace metal structures. The widespread use of composites in the construction and other industries is due to the high strength and specific characteristics combined with corrosion resistance and special properties, as well as the convenience of transportation and installation of finished products due to their relatively low weight. The growth rate of the domestic composite market is much higher than the world, but at the same time, the share of the Russian composites industry in relation to the global one still barely exceeds 1%. This is due to a number of restrictions, especially noticeable in the construction industry. The main reasons for the slow development of the composite industry in Russia are the underdevelopment of the domestic market and the lack of trained personnel who are versed in composite materials, as well as the imperfection of the system of regulatory and technical documentation on the use of composite materials.

This article discusses the main constraints to the development of the composite materials industry, technological issues of large companies, prospects, opportunities and limitations of the use and implementation of composites in the field development. Also, the authors consider the advantages of composite structures over metal and innovative methods to increase strength characteristics. In addition, completed projects with the use of composites, promising topics for the development of the industry are presented.

References

1. Dinamika tsen metalloprokata (Rolled metal price dynamics), 2019, URL: http://metalsea.ru/pricesummary

2. Rossiyskiy rynok kompozitov pokazyvaet ezhegodnyy rost na 20 % (The Russian composites market shows an annual growth of 20%), 2017, URL: http://minpromtorg.gov.ru/press-centre/news/#!rossiyskiy_rynok_kompozitov_pokazyvaet_ezhegodnyy_rost...

3. Chernykh M.A., The problems of application of basalt composite products in GOST (In Russ.), KOMPOZITNYY MIR, 2017, no. 6, pp. 36-37.

4. https://standartgost.ru/org/1-4294950630?page=3

5. http://www.fiberpull.ru/

6. Composite fire protection, URL: https://www.tfpglobal.com/products/composite-materials/composite-fire-protection

7. Chereneva V., Fundament v vechnoy merzlote (Permafrost foundation), URL: https://rg.ru/2019/02/06/reg-szfo/peterburgskie-uchenye-razrabotali-svai-dlia-stroitelstva-v-arktike...
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-74-76

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

622.276.8.05 : 665.62
A.I. Vlasov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.V. Mikhailov (Slavneft-Megionneftegas JSC, RF, Megion), V.D. Fedorenko (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.A. Novikov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), M.V. Gorbachevskii (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), D.S. Kopitsyn (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.A. Vinokurov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), M.I. Farahov (EPC Ingehim LLC, RF, Kazan), M.M. Farahov (EPC Ingehim LLC, RF, Kazan)
Condensing separator - a new device and gas preparation system

Keywords: separator, gas, preparation technology, separation, processes and systems for gas preparation, vapor condensation from a gas stream, hydrophilic surface, super-hydrophobic surface, separation packing, structured surface, test of separation devices

The efficiency of the separation process during field processing largely determines the quality of gas and oil, affecting their subsequent transportation, use, and consumption. Separation devices make a significant contribution to separation efficiency. The current level of technological development and accumulated knowledge in the field of materials science allow us to create a design of space-separated separation devices with the inclusion of super-hydrophobic and hydrophilic (biphilic) materials with a given geometric configuration on their surface, thereby changing the wetting parameters and gas-dynamic characteristics of separation elements. Hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic materials have a number of unique functional properties - water resistance, corrosion resistance, biofouling and inorganic pollution, which is why they are of interest for a wide range of technical applications. Super-hydrophobic coatings significantly change the modes of heat transfer and mass transfer, making them promising for industrial applications to improve the thermodynamics, gas dynamics and energy efficiency of various gas preparation processes. The most reliable and scalable method for creating super-hydrophobic surfaces is surface treatment with self-assembly of structures with a hierarchical roughness on it. In this work, a method for producing separation devices with a biphilic surface is investigated. In the course of the work, several combinations of mesh packings with various surface types were tested. The tests were carried out on a bench separation unit in a vertical gas stream. During the study, the change in the separation coefficient was studied. Compared to separation using only a mesh packing, when using two separation elements, the separation coefficient initially exceeds 90%. The best combination was a combination of a hydrophobic heat exchanger and a biphilic mesh packing. Based on the data obtained, a promising pilot industrial product, a condensing separator, was sketched.

References

1. Shirtcliffe N.J., McHale G., Newton M.I., Learning from superhydrophobic plants: The use of hydrophilic areas on superhydrophobic surfaces for droplet control, Langmuir, 2009, V. 25, no. 24, pp. 1412114128.

2. Feng L., Zhang Z., Mai Z. et al., Super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic coating mesh film for the separation of oil and water, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2004, V. 43, no. 15, pp. 20122014.

3. He M., Wang J., Li H., Song Y., Super-hydrophobic surfaces to condensed micro-droplets at temperatures below the freezing point retard ice/frost formation, Soft Matter, 2011, V. 7, no. 8, pp. 3993-4000.

4. Zhang P.A., Lv F.Y.Y., Review of the recent advances in superhydrophobic surfaces and the emerging energy-related applications, Energy, 2015, V. 82, pp. 10681087.

5. Jhee S., Lee K.-S., Kim W.-S., Effect of surface treatments on the frosting/defrosting behavior of a fin-tube heat exchanger, International Journal of Refrigeration, 2002, V. 25, no. 8, pp. 10471053.

6. Chen C.-H., Cai Q., Tsai C. et al., Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness, Applied Physics Letters, 2007, V. 90, no. 17, pp. 173108.

7. Boreyko J.B., Chen C.-H., Self-propelled dropwise condensate on superhydrophobic surfaces, Physical Review Letters, 2009, V. 103, no. 18, pp. 184501.

8. Narhe R.D., Beysens D.A., Water condensation on a super-hydrophobic spike surface, Europhysics Letters (EPL), 2006, V. 75, no. 1, pp. 98104.

9. Wu Y., Zhang C., Analysis of anti-condensation mechanism on superhydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide surface, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2013, V. 58, no. 12, pp. 664669.

10. Liang C., Wang F., Lü Y. et al., Experimental study of the effects of fin surface characteristics on defrosting behavior, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, V. 75, pp. 8692.

11. Sommers A.D., Yu R., Okamoto N.C., Upadhyayula K., Condensate drainage performance of a plain fin-and-tube heat exchanger constructed from anisotropic micro-grooved fins, International Journal of Refrigeration, 2012, V. 35, no. 6, pp. 17661778.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-77-81

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

551.263
J.U. Komilov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.I. Maleev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.Kh. Masagutov (Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, RF, Ufa), V.E. Tomilin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Late Tula delta geology and hydrocarbons occurrences in the Upper Kama depression and adjacent area

Keywords: facies, delta, channel, well, hydrocarbons accumulation, wireline logs, siliciclastic sediments of Tula formation

Since the late 70-ies of the last century, after the first oil discoveries in the shoestring sandstones of the Lower Carboniferous in the north-west of Bashkortostan (Upper Kama Depression and adjacent tectonic zones) additional G&G data have been acquired including 3,0 thousand new wells and extensive areas of 2D and 3D seismic. New findings were used to identify two separate units within the Tula formation. It is also provided significant insight into the lithology, facies and depositional environment of the paleochannels, delta sand bars, prodelta and siliciclastic sediments of the Late Tula. Their tectonic evolution, revealed finer details of the morphology and size of the known sand bodies, their reservoir properties and helped to track the sand play fairway used to locate new exploration targets. The deposition of sands was interpreted as controlled by two capes varying in size within a vast delta plain separated by a shallow-water sea bay with near N-S trend. Size analysis for the shoestring sands and well log data showed that the grains are well-sorted, the coarse fraction is absent and the medium and small-grained fraction is present in small quantities. The average values of porosity and permeability in the delta bar and paleochannel reservoirs are quite high and in the same range however they are much higher than in the flood-plain deposits. Hydrocarbons in delta bars and shoestring sands occur in the domes and anticline flanks, whereas the area of the pool largely depends on the length of the anticline bend at the intersection of the paleochannel and the uplifted structure plan. The research results were used to predict new exploration opportunities in the study area with high hydrocarbons potential and chances of new big discoveries.

References

1. Vissarionova A.Ya., Stratigrafiya i fatsii sredne- i nizhnekamennougol'nykh otlozheniy Bashkirii i ikh neftenosnost' (Stratigraphy and facies of the Middle and Lower Carboniferous deposits of Bashkiria and its oil content), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1969, 222 p.

2. Valiullina R.T., Litologiya i usloviya osadkonakopleniya terrigennykh otlozheniy nizhnego karbona platformennoy chasti Bashkirii v svyazi s ikh neftenosnost'yu (Lithology and depositional environment of the Lower Carboniferous terrigenous sediments of the platform part of Bashkiria in connection with their oil bearing): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Ufa, 1970, 162 .

3. Tsotsur V.S., Zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya zalezhey nefti v terrigennoy tolshche nizhnego karbona platformennoy chasti Bashkirii (Regularities of the placement of oil deposits in the terrigenous strata of the Lower Carboniferous of the platform of Bashkiria): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Ufa, 1975, 226 .

4. Viktorov P.F., On the importance of sleeve-like zones of sandstones in the development of oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1975, no. 11, pp. 2528.

5. Iskhakov I.A., Masagutov R.Kh., Naumov A.V., Lozin E.V., Erozionno-akkumulyativnye obrazovaniya nizhnego karbona i ikh neftegazonosnost' (Erosive-accumulative formations of the lower Carboniferous and their oil and gas potential), Collected papers Gubkinskie chteniya, Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 1999, pp. 105106.

6. Yunusov M.A., Masagutov R.Kh., Arkhipova V.V., Yunusova G.M., Devonian sea-level changes in the Platvorm region of Bashkortostan, Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 1977, V. 199, pp. 6574.

7. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftenosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil content of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.

8. Zaynutdinov R.S., Korobov K.Ya., Shutikhin V.I., Assessment of filtration-capacity properties of Terrigenous collectors on oil-satured sands (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy, 2000, no. 8, pp. 1416.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-86-90

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553.98(470.13)
S.V. Grishechkina (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC, RF, Moscow), E.O. Malysheva (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Obmetko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Visean siliciclastic deposits one of the major prospects in the offshore part of Pechora-Kolva aulakogen

Keywords: Visean siliciclastic deposits, Kozhimsky superhorizon, facies, well data, sedimentation model, depositional environments, deltaic coast, bar-deltaic complex, Pechora Sea

Regional geological studies carried out by Rosneft Oil Company in the offshore of the Pechora oil and gas basin are focused on the study of various petroleum plays, including Lower Carboniferous Visean (C1v) siliciclastic play. This play is of interest because of several confined discoveries of oil and gas fields within onshore part of the basin. Current study was intended to analyze facies distribution and predict most favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation areas and intervals.

The article presents results of the research of considered interval. The interpretation of 2D regional lines and 3D seismic data within license areas, core studied in three wells and logs from nine wells penetrated the Lower Visean were used as the basis of the study. The data from adjacent onshore areas and the results of the previous works were applied as well. Methodological approach comprised seismic stratigraphy, facies and seismic facies analysis and included several stages. Complex interpretation of well and seismic data were followed by time and depth thickness maps, seismic attribute maps, seismic facies analysis and resulted in facies and paleogeographic interpretation of all data. Zones of deep and shallow open shelf , depressions and shoals, deltaic coast and denudation coastal plain have been interpreted. Bar-deltaic complex with thick very likely sandy interval has been identified in the western part of Pechora-Kolva aulokogen. It is regarded as one of the major prospects.

References

1. Prirodnye rezervuary v terrigennykh formatsiyakh Pechorskogo neftegazonosnogo basseyna (Natural reservoirs in terrigenous formations of Pechora oil and gas Basin): edited by Dedeev V.A., Syktyvkar: Publ. of Komi nauchnyy tsentr UrO Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 1993, 151 .

2. Teplov E.L., P.K. Kostygova, Larionova Z.V. et al., Prirodnye rezervuary neftegazonosnykh kompleksov Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii (Natural reservoirs of oil and gas bearing complexes of the Timan-Pechora province), St. Petersburg, Renome Publ., 2011, pp. 176181.

3. Nikonov N.I., Bogatskiy V.I., Martynov A.V. et al., Timano-Pechorskiy sedimentatsionnyy basseyn. Atlas geologicheskikh kart (litologo-fatsial'nykh, strukturnykh i paleontologicheskikh) (Timano-Pechora sedimentary basin. Atlas of geological maps (lithologic-facies, structural and paleontological)), Ukhta: Regional'nyy dom pechati Publ., 2000, 152 p.

4. Margulis E.A., Evolution of the Barents Sea region and its hydrocarbon systems (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2009, no. 4., URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/5/24_2009.pdf
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-91-94

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551.263
K.O. Iskaziev (National Company KazMunayGas JSC, Kazakhstan, Astana), L.A. Savinova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), D.O. Almazov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), U.V. Lyapunov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), M.P. Antipov (Geological Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Facies modeling of the Temir carbonate platform based on the concept and principles of sequene stratigraphy

Keywords: Caspian Depression, sequene stratigraphy, second carbonate stratum, carbonate sedimentation, reef

The article presents results of Temir area study. This area is isolated carbonate platforms type, so sedimentation is controlled by tectonic and eustatic sea level fluctuations. The structure of the Visean-Bashkirian complex of the Temir carbonate platform is considered on the bases of principles of sequential stratigraphic analysis. Seismic-stratigraphic interpretation of regional seismic lines and 3D seimic data including deep drilling data of five wells allowed to determine boundaries and internal structure features of the platform. The section of Visean-Bashkirian deposits is represented by carbonate rocks of various facial zones of an isolated platform bioherms and their margin parts (boundstones, granestones), as well as adjacent lagoon and deep-sea areas (waxstones, packstones, mudstones). The general part of carbonate sedimentation and the formation of high-amplitude bioherms occurs during the period of high sea-level standing (HST), bioherms are formed in the side zones of the platform on the windward side, and small patch-reefs can appear in the central part. To sedimentation modelling, where zones of reef, slope and deep-water facies, as well as zones of high reservoir quality confined to the boundaries of complexes (SB), fundamental principles of carbonate sedimentation were used. A map of the deposits thicknesses between the reflecting horizons 2 and 2-1 has been compiled to estimate the total thickness of the Carboniferous carbonate deposits of the Temir area. Final facies maps, where the forecast of the development of the Visean-Bashkirian bioherms is given, were constructed based on studies conducted as part of this work.

References

1. Orenburgskiy tektonicheskiy uzel: geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' (Orenburg tectonic knot: geological structure and oil and gas potential): edited by Volozh Yu.A., Parasyn V.S., Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2013, 261 p.

2. Sim L.A., Sabirov I.A., Gordeev N.A., The latest stress state of Mangyshlak and its possible impact on the distribution of hydrocarbon deposits (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz = Exposition Oil & Gas, 2019, no. 4(71), pp. 2227, DOI: 10.24411/2076-6785-2019-10040.

3. Abilkhasimov Kh.B., Osobennosti formirovaniya prirodnykh rezervuarov paleozoyskikh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny i otsenka perspektiv ikh neftegazonosnosti (Features of the formation of natural reservoirs of the Paleozoic sediments of the Caspian basin and assessment of the prospects of their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Publ. of Academy of Natural Sciences, 2016, 244 p.

4. Azhgaliev D.K., Peculiarities of formation of carbonated strata in the Upper Paleozoic Era in the East of the Pre-Caspian Basin in view of the prospects of oil-and-gas-bearing capacity (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2017, no. 78, pp. 2236.

5. Gur'yanov A.V., Geneticheskie tipy i vtorichnye preobrazovaniya karbonatnykh porod kak osnova dlya prognozirovaniya ikh kollektorskikh svoystv (Genetic types and secondary transformations of carbonate rocks as a basis for predicting their reservoir properties): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, 1990.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-96-101

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550.834.05
K.O. Iskaziev (National Company KazMunayGas JSC, Kazakhstan, Astana), D.O. Almazov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), L.A. Savinova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), U.V. Lyapunov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), F.M. Bars (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), O.V. Sivalneva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Sedimentary model of the Upper Paleozoic deposits in the Karaton-Birlestik area

Keywords: the Caspian depression, sedimentary model, sequent stratigraphy

In the south-eastern part of the Caspian depression the Devonian-Carboniferous carbonate deposits contain proved commercial oil and gas reserves. The reservoirs are confined to the ancient carbonate platforms which had been developed on the high-amplitude structures of the Primorsky Uplift Zone such as Kashagan, Tengiz, Korolevskaya. An effective developing these reserves needs new discoveries as well as more detailed investigations of old fields. The sub-salt Carboniferous and Devonian deposits contain carbonate rocks of the isolated platform with the high variety of facies: biogenic build-ups, their edges (grainstones, boundstones), lagoons, slope, and deep basin (wackestones, packstones, mudstones). An integrated interpretation of the deep drilling data, 3D and regional 2D seismic survey allowed refining of the carbonate structure internal heterogeneity and the reef zones delineating in the Karaton-Birlestik Area. According to the seismic survey data the Upper Devonian carbonate structure is well distinguished high surrounded by the slopes. In the Visean-Bashkirian deposits a few high-amplitude reef structures (up to 300 m) are recognizable that might contain the traps for hydrocarbons. As concluded the reservoir properties forecast to be more precise, it is necessary to take the environments of deposition in consideration. These properties have a great variation depended on the facies zone belonging to. For example, the grainstones and boundstones of the build-up zones have the highest porosity and permeability values in the result of secondary alterations.

References

1. Abilkhasimov Kh.B., Osobennosti formirovaniya prirodnykh rezervuarov paleozoyskikh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny i otsenka perspektiv ikh neftegazonosnosti (Features of the formation of natural reservoirs of the Paleozoic sediments of the Caspian basin and assessment of the prospects of their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Publ. of Academy of Natural Sciences, 2016, 244 p.

2. Abilkhasimov Kh.B., Osobennosti formirovaniya prirodnykh rezervuarov paleozoyskikh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny i otsenka perspektiv ikh neftegazonosnosti (Features of the formation of natural reservoirs of the Paleozoic sediments of the Caspian basin and assessment of the prospects of their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Publ. of Academy of Natural Sciences, 2016, 244 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-102-106

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WELL DRILLING

622.244.442.063
A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), O.V. Kryukov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Vu Van Hung (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Mai Duy Khanh (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Evolution of drilling mud systems applied for well drilling on Vietsovpetro JV fields

Keywords: drilling muds, recipe improvement, shale inhibition, laboratory tests

The article covers the history and methods of developing and improving Vietsovpetro drilling mud systems, applied for drilling the production and exploration wells. One of the major ways to improve technological and economic efficiency of well construction is to apply high-quality drill mud systems with such properties, which comply the geological conditions of drilling and low costs. Having the corresponding laboratory base at Vietsovpetro disposal, the specialists of the company develop and improve drill mud systems, which conform the geological conditions of Vietsovpetro fields and current requirements on cleaning the wellbore from the cuttings, as well as allowing implementing the modern rotary steerable systems. The improved biopolymer drilling mud systems have been developed from a simple recipe of inhibitive aluminum-potassic mud (IAPM).

The improvement of recipes has been performed by Vietsovpetro specialists own resources with studying contemporary materials, chemicals and performing the significant amount of laboratory tests.

To increase inhibitive and lubricating properties, the IAPM system has been improved by adding such inhibitors, which under a high temperature, generate the emulsion at the bottomhole, helping inhibiting clay shales and reducing the drill tools torque. Further improvement of the mud system included implementation of anionic polymer. Its objective is to inhibit clays and encapsulate solid particles of drilled cuttings. To stabilize pH and improve efficiency of lubricating additives, the alums had been removed from the recipe while polyalkylene glycol was substituted with polyethylene glycol, which is effective under high temperatures above 80 C at the bottomhole. The next stage of improving Vietsovpetro drill muds was application of advanced BASF agents in the recipes. Following the successful lab tests, the pilot tests of such recipes are planned.

The developed recipes containing the advanced chemicals, have high indicators of inhibiting ability, thermal stability and PH stability, and on top of that, may compete with high-quality muds of service companies, but differ by lower costs.

References

1. Ryazanov Ya.A., Entsiklopediya po burovym rastvoram (Encyclopedia of drilling mud), Orenburg: Letopis' Publ., 2005, 664 p.

2. Nasiri A.R., Valizadeh M., Norouzi H., Hemmati M., Investigating the effect of Polythin and Polydrill on the properties of drilling fluids, Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, 2012, V. 2, no. 1, pp. 3742.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-107-111

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622.244.45
V.A. Parfiryev (Oil and Gas Production Department Talakanneft of PJSC Surgutneftegas, RF, Surgut), N.N. Zakirov (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), Yu.V. Vaganov (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), S.A. Paleyev (Oil and Gas Production Department Talakanneft of PJSC Surgutneftegas, RF, Surgut)
Application of hydrocarbon-base mud during the initial opening and drilling of the productive horizon of field in the Eastern Siberia

Keywords: Khamakin horizon, drilling, hydrocarbon-based mud, anhydrite, diesel fuel

Today, the high-quality opening of productive formation during field development in Eastern Siberia is becoming the most urgent problem. The opening of the reservoir with saturated saline and the inability to use the arsenal of technologies used in the regions of Western Siberia to intensify the flow of wells such as hydraulic fracturing makes it necessary to increase the requirements for the drilling of productive horizons. The presence of anhydrite in the rock and its interaction with aqueous solutions significantly worsen the reservoir properties. In order to improve the quality of primary drilling and drilling of a productive horizon, a solution based on diesel fuel (CBM) was developed. Experimental industrial testing of this solution was carried out while drilling production wells at a field in Eastern Siberia. Drilling of intervals for liners in horizontal and directional wells using CBM went without complications. As a result of the pilot tests, the advantage of hydrocarbon-based solutions under these conditions was actually confirmed. The obtained well production rates when opening and drilling of the productive horizon was carried out at the CBM, are almost 2.5 times higher than the production rates of wells constructed by traditional technology using the saturated saline biopolymer drilling mud.

References

1. Konesev V.G., Khomutov A.Yu., Application of oil-based drilling muds in reservoir rocks of Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas JSC fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 4445.

2. Gornaya entsiklopediya (Mountain encyclopedia): edited by E.A. Kozlovskiy, Moscow: Sovetskaya entsiklopediya Publ., 19841991.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-112-114

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622.245.422.4 : 66.022
A.V. Samsykin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.I. Yarmukhametov (Ufa State Petroleum University, RF, Ufa), V.E. Trofimov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), F.A. Agzamov (Ufa State Petroleum University, RF, Ufa)
Improving the structural strength and mechanical properties of plugging material

Keywords: cement slurry, polymers, absorption, foam, admixture

The purpose of this work was to study the current issue of improving the structural strength and mechanical properties of grouting and insulating materials based on cements, including lightweight, used to prevent and eliminate absorption zones of different intensities. The objective of the research is to select promising polymer additives or fillers and study their impact on improving the durability of lightweight cement stone exposed to dynamic influences as a result of various technological operations in the drilling process. To solve this problem in the formulation of the plugging composition, a complex application in two aggregate states of a high-molecular polymer is proposed, which ensures the maintenance of tightness in the formed lightweight cement stone, as well as ensuring its integrity through the manifestation of the self-healing effect. The authors constructed an experimental setup designed for laboratory studies of physical, mechanical and structural properties of samples of lightweight cement-foam grouting compositions. On the basis of the obtained results of experimental studies, formulations of lightweight plugging insulating compositions for eliminating high-intensity absorption of drilling mud were obtained. In addition, partially destroyed samples of lightweight cement-foam compositions containing a high-molecular polymer simultaneously in a hydrophobic and hydrophilic state revealed the ability to regenerate, the so-called self-healing effect, which helps to restore the integrity and maintain the integrity of the cement stone in time under dynamic conditions.

Obtained results may be used both during eliminating absorption zones and in the process of cementing wells by means of lightweight grouting compositions.

References

1. Samsykin A.V., Yarmukhametov I.I., Samsykina A.V., Enhanced cement compositions for varied rate lost circulation control in drilling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 5, pp. 3234.

2. Shaydullin V.A., Levchenko E.A., Valieva O.I., Akhmerov I.A., Selection of grouting compositions for water shut-off in low-permeability intervals (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 6, pp. 9498.

3. Galeev S.R., Lind Yu.B., Khashper A.L. et al., Prognozirovanie parametrov bureniya dlya optimizatsii proektirovaniya stroitel'stva skvazhin (Drilling parameters prediction for optimization of well construction planning), Collected papers Bulatovskie chteniya, Krasnodar, 2018, pp. 6671.

4. Komkova L.P., Pereskokov K.A., Samsykin A.V., Modern isolation composition to control high-intensive fluid circulation loss (In Russ.), Neft'.Gaz.Novatsii, 2018, no. 6, pp. 5758.

5. Galiev A.F., Samsykin A.V., Teoreticheskie aspekty razrabotki tsementno-polimernykh sostavov dlya bor'by s vysokointensivnymi pogloshcheniyami (Theoretical aspects of the development of cement-polymer compositions to combat high-intensity absorption), Collected papers Prakticheskie aspekty neftepromyslovoy khimii (Practical aspects of oilfield chemistry), Ufa, 2014, pp. 5053.

6. Blaiszik B.J., Kramer S.L.B., Olugebefola S.C. et al., Self-healing polymers and composites, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 2010, V. 40, pp. 179211.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-115-117

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.43
A.Kh. Shakhverdiev (Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University, RF, Moscow), Yu.V. Shestopalov (University of Gävle, Sweden, Gävle), I.E. Mandrik (LUKOIL PJSC, RF, Moscow), S.V. Arefiev (LUKOIL Western Siberia LLC, Kogalym)
Alternative concept of monitoring and optimization water flooding of oil reservoirs in the conditions of instability of the displacement front

Keywords: filtration of multiphase fluids, flooding system, regulation of well operation modes, growth models, discriminant analysis

It has always been an urgent issue for the oil and gas industry to improve oil, gas, and condensate recovery at liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fields developed with the use of artificial formation pressure maintenance techniques that involve injection of water or water combined with other displacement agents. Therefore, due to the aforesaid issues, permanent attention should still be paid to the practical problem of optimizing the non-stationary hydrodynamic pressure applied to a reservoir by regulating the operating conditions of the production and injection wells, development process optimization in general, and water flooding in particular. The theory of Buckley and Leverett, does not take into account the loss of stability of the displacement front, which provokes a stepwise change and the triple value of water saturation. Traditionally a mathematically simplified approach was proposed - a repeatedly differentiable approximation to eliminate the jump in water saturation. Such a simplified solution led to negative consequences well-known from the water flooding practice, recognized by experts as viscous instability of the displacement front and fractal geometry of displacement front.

The core of the issue is an attempt to predict the beginning of the stability loss of the front of oil displacement by water and to prevent its negative consequences on the water flooding process under difficult conditions of interaction of hydro-thermodynamics, capillary, molecular, inertial, and gravitational forces. In this study, catastrophe theory methods applied for the analysis of nonlinear polynomial dynamical systems are used as a novel approach. Namely, a mathematical growth model is developed and an inverse problem is formulated so that the initial coefficients of the system of differential equations for a two-phase flow can be determined using this model. A unified control parameter has been selected, which enables one to propose and validate a discriminant criterion for oil and water growth models for monitoring and optimizing.

References

1. Kreyg F.F., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy pri zavodnenii (Applied waterflood field development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 191 p.

2. Buckley I., Leverett M.., Mechanism of fluid displacement in sands, Trans. AIME, 1942, V. 146, no. 1, pp. 107116.

3. Dake L.P., The practice of reservoir engineering, Elsevier Science, 2001, 570 p.

4. Aziz Kh., Settari A., Petroleum reservoir simulation, Applied Science Publishers, 1979, 476 p.

5. Shaohua Gu, Yuetian Liu, Zhangxin Chen, Cuiyu Ma, A method for evaluation of water flooding performance in fractured reservoirs, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2014, V. 120, pp. 130140.

6. Wang Dashun, Di Niu, Huazhou Andy Li, Predicting waterflooding performance in low-permeability reservoirs with linear dynamical systems, SPE-185960-PA, 2017.

7. Yonggang Duan, Ting Lu, Mingqiang Wei et al., Leverett analysis for transient two-phase flow in fractal porous medium, CMES, 2015, V. 109110, no. 6, pp. 481504.

8. Charnyy I.A., Podzemnaya gidrogazodinamika (Underground fluid dynamics), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963, 397 p.

9. Nigmatullin R.I., Dinamika mnogofaznykh sred (The dynamics of multiphase media), Part 2, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 360 p.

10. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Sistemnaya optimizatsiya protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (System optimization of oil field development process), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 452 p.

11. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Dinamicheskie protsessy v neftegazodobyche: sistemnyy analiz, diagnoz, prognoz (Dynamic processes in the oil and gas production: systems analysis, diagnosis, prognosis), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 254 p.

12. Mandrik I.E., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Nauchno-metodicheskie i tekhnologicheskie osnovy optimizatsii protsessa povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Scientific and methodological and technological basis for EOR optimization), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2010, 288 p.

13. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Once again about oil recovery factor (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 4448.

14. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., System optimization of non-stationary floods for the purpose of increasing oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 4450.

15. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Innovative potential of non-stationary flooding for increase in oil recovery of layers (In Russ.), Vestnik Azerbaydzhanskoy Inzhenernoy Akademii = Herald of the Azerbaijan Engineering Academy, 2019, no. 1, pp. 3241.

16. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Qualitative analysis of quadratic polynomial dynamical systems associated with the modeling and monitoring of oil fields, Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics, 2019, V. 40, no. 10, pp. 16951710.

17. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Kachestvennyy analiz dinamicheskoy sistemy podderzhaniya plastovogo davleniya s tsel'yu povysheniya nefteotdachi zalezhey (Qualitative analysis of a dynamic system for maintaining reservoir pressure in order to increase oil recovery), Proceedings of 14 International Conference Novye idei v naukakh o Zemle (New ideas in earth sciences), Moscow, 25 April 2019.

18. Anishchenko V.S., Deterministic chaos (In Russ.), Sorosovskiy obrazovatel'nyy zhurnal, 1997, no. 6, pp. 7076.

19. Arnol'd V.I., Teoriya katastrof (Catastrophe theory), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990, 128 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-118-123

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622.276.1/.4:55
I.S. Vologin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.R. Islamov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), F.N. Nigmatullin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Harisova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.A. Loznyuk (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, Moscow)
Methodology for selecting an analogous object for oil and gas reservoirs to geological and physical characteristics

Keywords: oil and gas reservoir, similar object, geological and physical characteristics, weight coefficient, sensitivity analysis

Models of hydrocarbon reservoirs are highly uncertain mathematical system, because are based on a large amount of information having different levels of error. High uncertainty can lead to large amounts of additional costs for the development of a new field. Therefore, the main goal of designing development objects is to find ways to reduce these risks, including through the correct choice of a reservoir analogue. The task of searching for analogues is often associated with the search for a twin object, i.e. the object most similar in some parameters, characteristics, etc. In the Russian Federation there is a large number of undeveloped oil and gas deposits with varying degrees of exploration, new fields and new deposits are discovered in the developed fields for which an assessment is necessary for commercial use. When developing oil and gas reservoirs, it is necessary to solve a number of problems that are not inferior in complexity to the tasks to be solved when developing deposits with hard-to-recover reserves. Given the uncertainties of a number of initial data necessary for forecasting, as well as due to the complex influence of various geological and physical factors on development indicators, the complexity and duration of correct hydrodynamic modeling of the cone formation process, often many problems are solved using the analogy method. Therefore, to predict the technical and economic indicators of the development of undeveloped oil and gas reservoirs, an important task is the reliable and reasonable choice of reservoir analogue.

The article presents the results of scientific research in terms of the selection of an analogue object for undeveloped oil and gas reservoirs by geological and physical characteristics. This task is important for a reliable choice of analogous reservoirs and is associated with the solution of a number of methodological problems in a limited set of source data. A methodology and software module for selecting an analogous object, applicable for oil and gas reservoirs, depending on their degree of knowledge have been developed. The authors reflect the mathematical description of the algorithm; describe the main tasks that solved in the course of the work, and the results obtained.

References

1. Cosentino L., Integrated reservoir studies, Paris: TECHNIP ed., 2001, 400 p.

2. Altunin A.E., Semukhin M.V., Kuzyakov O.N., Tekhnologicheskie raschety pri upravlenii protsessami neftegazodobychi v usloviyakh neopredelennosti (Technological calculations in the management of oil and gas production in the face of uncertainty), Tyumen: Publ. of TIU, 2015, 187 p.

3. Solodov I.S., Shakshin V.P., Kolesnikov V.A. et al., Statistic approaches towards the disclosure of oil fields analogous to Samara region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 3033.

4. Ikhsanova F.A., Ikhsanov A.I., Primenenie metoda glavnykh komponentov pri ranzhirovanii ob"ektov razrabotki (Application of the method of main components when ranking development objects), Proceedings of International conference Sovremennye tekhnologii v neftegazovom dele 2016 (Modern Technologies in the Oil and Gas Business 2016), Part 2, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2016, pp. 231235.

5. Standard handbook of petroleum and natural gas engineering: edited by Lyons W., Plisga G., Lorenz M., Gulf Professional Publishing, 2015, 1822 p.

6. Rykus M.V., The influence of secondary transformations on terrigenous reservoirs quality (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2018, no. 12, pp. 4045.

7. Shatrov S.V., Zubairov A.V., Stanekzay N.M., Integration of the geological risk into the quantitative assessment of hydrocarbon resources (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 11, pp. 7477.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-124-127

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622.276.6
A.V. Nasybullin (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), Ram.Z. Sattarov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), F.M. Latifullin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), O.V. Denisov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), A.V. Chirikin (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk)
Creation of software tool for long-term investment planning with a view to the effective development of oil fields

Keywords: recoverable reserves, residual reserves, production wells drilling, geological and technological activities, hydraulic fracturing, well workover, optimal planning of geological and technical activities, machine learning, neural network

The article presents the software tool for long-term investment planning for effective development of oil fields created by specialists of the Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, the TatNIPIneft, the Information Technology Center of Tatneft PJSC. Predictive planning of production enhancement operations is carried out on the basis of fields proxy models using highly efficient optimization algorithms and machine learning to form a long-term production program for events under resource constraints. Possibilities of using neural network approaches in solving the issue of clustering the performance indicators of planned measures distributed over the years to reduce the dimension of the optimization problem are considered in development of these tools. Comparative characteristics of the used optimization methods are included. Automated generation of many scenarios of the oil fields development is performed on proxy models of the workstation of the geologist LAZURIT with the calculation of technical and economic indicators of the planned production enhancement operations. Drilling of vertical and horizontal wells, sidetrack, transfer of wells to another horizon, the use of technology for dual completion and production, fracturing are considered as production enhancement operations. The results are used as an input for the system of long-term production program formation, which allows one to choose the most effective set of measures that meet the specified macro/microeconomic and resource constraints using the package of neural network and optimization algorithms. At the same time, the distribution of additional production from operations for a period of up to five years is taken into account, and a multi-scenario assessment of measure sets takes place within each annual planning period.

References

1. Denisov O.V., Application of optimization and network algorithms for effective portfolio of geological and technological activities formation of an oil company (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2019, no. 1(17), pp. 90101.

2. Zvezdin E.Yu., Mannapov M.I., Nasybullin A.V. et al., Stage-wise optimization of project well pattern using oil reserves evaluation program module (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 7, pp. 2831.

3. Certificate of authorship no. 2009616218 RF, Avtomatizirovannoe rabochee mesto geologa LAZURIT (Automated workplace of geologist LAZURIT), Authors: Akhmetzyanov R.R., Ibatullin R.R., Latifullin F.M., Nasybullin A.V., Smirnov S.V.

4. Certificate of authorship no. 2018611091 RF, KIM Ekspert (Complex for hierarchical modeling Ekspert), Authors: Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Ganiev B.G., Nasybullin A.V., Latifullin F.M., Sattarov Ram.Z., Smirnov S.V., Sharifullina M.A.

5. Nasybullin A.V., Latifullin F.M., Razzhivin D.A. et al., Creation and commercial introduction of methods of oil deposits development management on the basis of computer-aided design technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 7, pp. 8891.

6. Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R., Abdulmazitov R.G. et al., Use of information technologies for perfection of system of Tatneft OAO deposits development and development control (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 10, pp. 4649.

7. Latifullin F.M., Sattarov Ram.Z., Sharifullina M.A., Application of lazurit workstation software package for geological and reservoir modeling and well intervention planning for Tatnefts production assets (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 4043.

8. Sharifullina M.A., Butusov E.V., Development of hierarchical modelling software for reservoir simulation, field management and selection of appropriate well stimulation technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2017, no. 4, pp. 116124, URL: http://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/2e67f9_9c3ae734e23f48b3a6f0ec08ae79e9eb.pdf.

9. Ismagilov I.I., Molotov L.A., Katasev A.S. et al., Fuzzy neural network model for rules generating of the objects state determining in uncertainty, Helix, 2018, V. 8(6), pp. 46624667.

10. Mustafin A.N., Katasev A.S., Akhmetvaleev A.M., Petrosyants D.G., Using models of collective neural networks for classification of the input data applying simple voting, The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2018, no. 5, pp. 333339.

11. Katasev A.S., Neuro-fuzzy model of fuzzy rules formation for objects state evaluation in conditions of uncertainty, Computer research and modeling, 2019, V. 11, no. 3, pp. 477492.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-128-131

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622.276.1/.4
I.I. Rodionova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), M.A. Shabalin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.Yu. Kapishev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.I. Bakirov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.F. Khabibullin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.R. Nasirov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Sergeychev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Choosing strategy of development of hard-to-recovery oil reserves at early stage of exploration

Keywords: multi-variant simulation, geological and technological uncertainties, history matching, probability, tight oil, production forecast, enhance oil recovery, horizontal wells, multistage hydraulic fracturing, greenfield

The article presents results of development system optimization a field with hard-to-recover reserves at early stage of exploration. Oil reserves are located in low-permeability Achimov and Tumen formations characterized by a high degree of reservoir heterogeneity and classified as tight oil reservoir.

The authors carried out multivariate calculations various development patterns using a sector of dynamic model represents distal deep water part based on multiple realizations. Different patterns were compared at similar technological conditions for various permeability and oil thickness typical for the area. Then, optimal horizontal well and spacing of selected patterns were defined.

Optimal development pattern is a row-like system of multifractured horizontal 1500-1800 m length wells, 200 m spacing and interwell toe-heel distance is 200 m. Drilling long laterals within such a complex reservoir is complicated and needs special rigs and tools that are under piloting at the current moment. So we recommend completing 1200-1300 m length wells economically and technically efficient as well. Oil production countervailing activities were suggested based on a simulation study. The activities implementation allows to enhance the field development. Increasing fracture stage count and switching over to horizontal injectors will allow to increase a number of horizontal producers at well site. Tightening well spacing from 300 m to 200 m is followed by waterflooding oil production response. Increasing horizontal well length from 1000 m to 1200 m allows to drain additional reserves earlier. Drilling 2000m+ horizontal wells will be necessary for development edge oil layer areas when pilot program is completed.

References

1. Nurlyev D.R., Rodionova I.I., Viktorov E.P. Et al., Tight reservoir simulation study under geological and technological uncertainty (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 6063.

2. Shabalin M., Khabibullin G., Suleymanov E. et al., Tight oil development in RN-Yuganskneftegas (In Russ.), SPE-196753-MS, 2019.

3. Galeev R.R., Zorin A.M., Kolonskikh A.V. et al., Optimal waterflood pattern selection with use of multiple fractured horizontal wells for development of the low-permeability formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 6265.

4. Zorin A.M., Usmanov T.S., Kolonskikh A.V. Et al., Operational efficiency improvement in horizontal wells though optimizing the design of multistage hydraulic fracturing at Priobskoye Northern territory (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 122125.

5. Rodionova I.I., Shabalin M.A., Mironenko A.A., Khabibullin G.I., Field development plan and well completion system optimization for ultra-tight and ultra-heterogeneous oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 10, pp. 7276.

 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-132-135

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276.5.001.5
A.V. Shumilov (Perm State National Research University, RF, Perm)
The study of fluid inflow in horizontal sidetracked well by probabilistic and statistical methods

Keywords: oil producing well with a horizontal end of the borehole, fluid flow, multidimensional mathematical model of fluid flow, regression analysis, correlation

Numerous analytical equations obtained to determine the flow of fluid in horizontal wells demonstrate low reliability and complexity of practical use. This article is devoted to the substantiation of the application of probabilistic and statistical methods in the study of fluid flow in such wells. For research, we used the accumulated operating experience of wells at the Tournaisian-Famennian producing object of the Shershnevskoye field, including data on flow rates and geological and technological parameters that probably affect the values of these flow rates (reservoir, bottomhole and annular pressures, effective oil-saturated thickness, permeability and piezoconductivity, skin factor, as well as the length of the horizontal section of the well). Filtration parameters were determined during the interpretation of pressure recovery curves, and three methods were used: graphoanalytical methods taking into account (Yu.P. Borisov) and without taking into account (tangent) after-flow, and also based on the analysis of the pressure derivative in the logarithmic coordinates (Saphir). The purpose of this interpretation approach is to substantiate the most reliable of the three, in fact, indirect methods for determining filtration parameters in the absence of direct measurements. As a result of a detailed statistical analysis, differences were established in the laws of formation of well production rates horizontal wellbore at the Shershnevskoye field in their various ranges. Next, multidimensional mathematical models have been developed that make it possible to determine the flow rates of wells in the considered conditions by the set of geological and technical indicators used as initial data. The reliability of the models is confirmed by statistical parameters and the high convergence of the calculated and actual flow rates. An analysis of the developed models made it possible to establish patterns of production rates that are individual for the conditions under consideration. The main factor controlling the productivity of relatively high- productive wells is reservoir pressure; conditionally low rate - the length of the horizontal section of the trunk. The creation of multidimensional mathematical models for determining production rates made it possible to solve such an urgent problem as choosing the most reliable of the three indirect methods for determining the filtration parameters of the reservoir.

References

1. Zaytsev R.A., Martyushev D.A., Operating experience with a horizontal wells in various geological and physical conditions (for example Perm edge fields) (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2019, no. 5, pp. 4246.

2. Shumilov A.V., Kostitsyn V.I., Savich A.D. et al., Logging techniques for horizontal wells under drilling and operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 2, pp. 4852.

3. Savich A.D., Chernykh I.A., Shumilov A.V., Efficiency upgrading of geophysical researches in horizontal wells (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2011, no. 5, pp. 7080.

4. Borisov Yu.P., Pilatovskiy V.P., Tabakov V.P., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy gorizontal'nymi i mnogozaboynymi skvazhinami (Oil field development using horizontal and multilateral wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1964, 154 p.

5. Joshi S.D., Augmentation of well productivity with slant and horizontal wells, SPE-15375-PA, 1988.

6. Renard G., Dupuy J.M., Formation damage effects on horizontalwell flow efficiency, SPE-19414-PA, 1991.

7. Nasybullin A.V., Lifant'ev A.V., Vasil'ev V.V., Astakhova A.N., Controlling over the model of liquid stable inflow towards a horizontal well and a crack of endless conductivity (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2014, no. 6, pp. 2732.

8. Khasanov M.M., Mel'chaeva O.Yu., Roshchektaev A.P., Ushmaev O.S., Steady-state flow rate of horizontal wells in a line drive pattern (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 4851.

9. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Chernykh I.A. et al., Methodology for estimating downhole pressure using multivariate model (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 4043.

10. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Repina V.A., Study of oil recovery from reservoirs of different void types with use of multidimensional statistical analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, V. 15, no. 19, pp. 145154, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.19.5.

11. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Koltyrin A.N., Development of probabilistic and statistical models for evaluation of the effectiveness of proppant hydraulic fracturing (on example of the Tl-Bb reservoir of the Batyrbayskoe field) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalʹnogo issledovatelʹskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2018, V. 17, no. 1, pp. 3749, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2018.1.4

12. Martyushev D.A., Ponomareva I.N., Researching features of development of fractured porous reservoirs reserves using well-test data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 102104.

13. Ponomareva I.N., Martyushev D.A., Akhmetova M.I., Evaluation of the optimal duration of the hydrodynamic studies of low-productivity wells on the example of Ozernoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 1, pp. 6063.

14. Ponomareva I.N., Martyushev D.A., Estimating reliability of reservoir properties determination on the basis of production analysis and pressure stabilization curves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 111113.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-136-139

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622.276.031.011.43:51
M.L. Bakhmutsky (Scientific Research Institute of System Development of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.G. Volpin (Scientific Research Institute of System Development of RAS, RF, Moscow), I.V. Afanaskin (Scientific Research Institute of System Development of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Identification of zones of filtration heterogeneity in the inter-well space of producing wells

Keywords: reservoir characteristics estimation, empirical orthogonal functions, bypassed oil reserves

During the field, development wells are regularly tested to measure production rate bottomhole pressure and water cut. Processing an array of these data measured over a sufficiently long period (of the order of a year) allows to get an estimate of the permeability distribution in the reservoir. This processing is based on singular decomposition of matrices, which another name is natural orthogonal functions. As the measurements have a local character the distribution of filtration properties will show good approximation with the reality when the well is located in a large, uniform area of the formation and values of the filtration properties will be rather average over the area, if in the area between wells there will be significant parts with strongly different filtration properties. The purpose of the work is to search the methods for assessing the distribution of the areas with the filtration heterogeneity zones with minimal interference with the reservoir. In the article it is shown that if after processing the production data of the wells an injection well in the vicinity of which it is necessary to explore the reservoir will be stimulated, and at the end of the excitation pulse to repeat data processing using natural orthogonal functions then it is possible to identify the potential areas with filtration heterogeneity. In addition, non-conductive faults in the vicinity of wells can be located. The duration of the exciting pulse is easy to evaluate, knowing the assessment of the permeability of the formation in the area of the well, obtained by processing a stationary case, and the size of the investigated area around the well. Using a model (simulated) example of a totally drilled field the possibility of determining filtration heterogeneity zones (bypassed zones) in the area between the working wells is shown. To obtain this the data from regular measurements of flow rate, bottomhole pressure are used, the flow rate of injection wells is varied and the method of natural orthogonal components using empirical data is applied. The simulated problem was considered, because in this case control is possible of the correctness of the solution of the problem and the validity of assumptions.

References

1. Bakhmutskiy M.L., Vol'pin S.G., Afanaskin I.V., Estimation of reservoir characteristics areal distribution by using bottom-hole pressure and flow-rate data in producing wells (In Russ), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 12, pp. 1217.

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6. Meshcherskaya A.V., Rukhovets L.V., Yudin M.I. et al., Estestvennye sostavlyayushchie meteorologicheskikh poley (Natural components of meteorological fields), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1970, 199 p.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-140-142

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INFORMATION

004.032.26:622.276
A.Z. Zakharian (Cervart Ltd., RF, Moscow), S.O. Ursegov (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow)
From digital to mathematical models: a new look at geological and hydrodynamic modeling of oil and gas fields by means of artificial intelligence

Keywords: oil and gas fields, geological and reservoir modeling, artificial intelligence, machine learning, fuzzy-logical matrices, computer forecasting

The article shows that the traditional version of geological and hydrodynamic models of oil and gas fields based on a computer approach is not the only possible one and it prevents the development of modeling as a whole, since it is not truly mathematical. Considering that computers do not work with images, but with numbers, a new methodology for construction of geological and hydrodynamic models of oil and gas fields is presented, which have an unusual appearance and are not intended for visual analysis, but they are more effective for computer forecasting. New mathematical geological and hydrodynamic models are cascades of fuzzy-logical matrices. The matrices of the geological model are formed from spatial coordinates and geological parameters; the time coordinate is additionally included in the matrices of the hydrodynamic model. The number of fuzzy-logical matrices can reach several thousands. Using the obtained matrices, one can construct membership functions and predict the values of evaluated parameters, for example, the efficiency of new drilling, the distribution of remaining reserves, and the levels of hydrocarbon production.The proposed approach for geological and hydrodynamic modeling from a set of matrix cascades may seem complex. However, the calculation of these cascades is carried out completely automatically, and no one should control it. The matrix cascades are mathematical functions, not illustrations of the geological structure of the studied objects and they are directly used for forecasting calculations. The matrix cascades are a new form of machine learning. To do this, it is advisable to use the big amount of data. The new machine learning method based on the matrix cascades opens up new possibilities for the application of artificial intelligence in the geological and hydrodynamic modeling of oil and gas fields.

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3. Taraskin E.N., Gutman I.S., Rudnev S.A. et al., New adaptive approach to geological and hydrodynamic modeling of fields and reservoirs with long production history (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 7883.

4. Mikhaylovskiy A.A., Application of simplified gas-hydrodynamic proxy models for real-time technological calculations aimed at gas fields and underground gas storages (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki: Aktual'nye problemy dobychi gaza, 2018, no. 1(33), pp. 193202.

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7. Dogru A.H., Fung L.S.K., Al-Shaalan T.M. et al., From mega cell to giga cell reservoir simulation, SPE-116675-MS, 2008.

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10. Bezrukov A.V., Mukharlyamov A.R., Baykov V.A., Savichev V.I., Multivariant modelling support system: uncertainty space analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 11, pp. 14 16.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-144-148

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276.5.054.3
D.V. Medvedev (RN-Uvatneftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen), M.M. Novikov (RN-Uvatneftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Changing wellhead height using equipment and technology for threading casing string at the wellhead

Keywords: change in wellhead height, injury hazard reduction, threading unit, high wellhead, low wellhead

While operating oil fields problems arise due to the change in the wellhead height. The main reasons for changing in the wellhead height that occur in field are an early arrival of the drilling rig on a just-constructed wellpad and swelling / subsidence of soil during operation. When working on a well with a high wellhead, the risk of injuries (falling from the rig floor) increases, as does the time for X-mas tree maintenance and servicing. In addition, difficulties arise when setting up workover rigs, which entail additional costs. When working on wells with a low wellhead, earthwork needs to be done since it is impossible to access the casing head for inspection and repair.

Having studied the practices used to date to change the wellhead height, the author of the article concluded that a threaded connection has to be used to change the wellhead height. It is important that the location of the couplings be selected for a particular well. So, it is necessary to develop a unit that allows to cut the surface casing directly at the wellhead, and then do threading to install the coupling. The article presents new equipment developed by RN-Uvatneftegas LLC together with GROM OJSC, a pipe threading unit of two standard sizes. The threading unit enables to bring the wellhead to the designed position in three stages. The first stage is cutting surface casing, which is done without using hot work. The second stage is shaping the nipple. After the nipple is shaped its size is checked using a caliber gauge. The third stage is threading. Depending on the type of thread, special equipment is selected, for example, a YE4 plate and a replaceable multi-faceted 4ERBUT075 plate manufactured by VARDEX are used to cut trapezoidal threads. Then a proper sized coupling and the zero nipple is installed in the casing head. The units have been put into operation in RN-Uvatneftegas wells. In 2018, 18 wellhead height change jobs were done.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-150-152

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