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MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW

622.276
A.V. Beloshitsky (Bashneftegeofizika JSC, RF, Ufa)
Development forecasts for the largest segments of Russian oilfield services market

Keywords: oil service, planning, forecasting, factor, development, scenario, strategy, trends

The article presents the results of the analysis of the largest segments of the Russian oilfield services market such as drilling, well maintenance and workover, well logging. To analyze and forecast the state of the oilfield services market in Russia, the following sequence of steps was proposed: analysis of a separate segment of the oilfield services business and its indicators; analysis of the energy strategy of Russia; identifying trends affecting the oilfield services market; identification of factors affecting the development of the market; market volume forecasting. A scenario planning method was used to forecast the performance of the oilfield services market. The general factors that must be considered when developing a scenario for the development of the oilfield services industry as a whole are identified, the key ones being: hydrocarbon production; world oil prices; geopolitical situation; level of technology development and innovation; growth rates of prices for oilfield services; government regulation measures. For each of the three market segments (drilling, well maintenance and workover and well logging), specific factors were analyzed that will determine the development scenarios for this segment. Based on the analysis of the factors presented, industry trends, and analytical reviews, forecasts of market volumes in the considered segments of the Russian oilfield service business for the period up to 2030 are given. According to the calculations, drilling volumes will increase by 2030, however, the downward trend in the growth rates of drilling volumes in the medium and long term will continue. In the market for well maintenance and workover by 2030, an increase in the number of repairs and a rise in prices are predicted. The market will grow by an average of 9% annually. Similarly, the well survey market will show steady growth.

References

1. Kleschina M.G., Ekonomicheskoe prognozirovanie (Economic forecasting), Moscow: Publ. of Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, 2012, 88 p.

2. Antropova A.S., Pavlovskaya A.V., Formirovanie effektivnogo rynka neftegazovogo servisa: mirovoy i otechestvennyy opyt (Formation of an efficient market for oil and gas services: global and domestic experience), Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2016, 102 p.

3. Volkodavova E.V., Tomazova O.V., Systematization of the development factors of the Russian market of oilfield services (In Russ.), Gumanitarnye, sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i obschestvennye nauki, 2015, no. 112, pp. 2024.

4. Simonov K., O putyakh razvitiya otechestvennogo nefteservisa (On the ways of development of domestic oilfield services), URL: http://ogjrussia.com/mneniya-ekspertov/Simonov_08_10.

5. Analiticheskiy otchet Delloite: Obzor nefteservisnogo rynka Rossii 2018 (Delloite analytical report: Russian oilfield service market review - 2018), URL: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/ru/Documents/energy-resources/Russian/oil-gas-russia-....

6. Analiticheskiy otchet RPI Sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya nefteservisnogo rynka Rossii (RPI analytical report: Status and prospects for the development of the Russian oilfield service market), URL: http://www.rpi-research.com/content/OFS_Market_sample_RU.pdf.

7. Analiticheskiy otchet kompanii SSK Obzor sostoyaniya nefteservisnogo rynka RF (SSC analytical report: Review of the state of the oilfield services market of the Russian Federation),

URL: http://www.oilgascongress.ru/www_rpgc/files/7c/7c655d18-fb19-47cf-b78a-c40cc57923b8.pdf

8. Technology roundtable: Drilling contractors (In Russ.), ROGTEC. https://rogtecmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/02_Technology-Roundtable-Drilling-Contractors.....

9. URL: https://www.interfax.ru/business/619673.

10. Medvedeva N., Rossiyskiy nefteservis (Russian oil service), URL: https://neftegaz.ru/analisis/view/8496-Rossiyskiy-nefteservis

11. SHamukov R., Drilling map of Russia. Overview of the drilling services market in Russia (In Russ.), Sibirskaya neft', 2017, no. 7/144, pp. 5257.

12. Dinamika tsen na neft' s 1990 g. (The dynamics of oil prices since 1990), URL: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/1572991

13. Tuktarov S.R., Bol'shakova O.I., The state and prospects of development of oilfield services market in Russia (In Russ.), Vestnik universiteta, 2016, no. 12, pp. 3237.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-12-15

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550.8.02:658.012.2
A.A. Chernyi (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Emelyanov (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC, RF, Moscow)
Risk management of geological exploration projects carried out within licensed areas of continental shelf

Keywords: project management, risk management, geological exploration projects

Geological exploration projects performed on the continental shelf are associated with high technological, financial, reputational and environmental challenges. To mitigate and prevent possible negative consequences on project implementation, it is necessary to introduce an up-to-date innovative management systems aimed at enhancement of industrial safety, reduction of financial and technological burden on the project, elimination of environmental risks, and improvement of management decisions. A risk management system is a part of such management systems.

This article is dedicated to an experience of RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC and RN-Exploration LLC (Rosneft exploration affiliates) in developing and implementing a risk management process for exploration projects on the Arctic shelf as well as in the Southern and Far Eastern seas. A process of risk management of geological exploration projects implemented on the continental shelf is described in detail. Implementation of each stage of the process, such as risks identification, qualitative and quantitative assessment, response planning, monitoring and control, has been consistently reviewed. Special attention is paid to analysis of the identified risks, their ranking and prioritization. Areas of analysis, such as risk level, dynamics, and status are also detailed. A form for the consolidated report is presented with a description of its preparation process, examples of risk indicators and graphical representation of the analysis results. The article describes key deliverables and expectations of a risk management system of the projects being an integral part of a project management and financial and economic management system of the above mentioned companies.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-16-20

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

553.98(181>4000)
V.Yu. Kerimov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University, RF, Moscow), A.V. Osipov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), R.N. Mustaev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; Sergo Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University, RF, Moscow), L.I. Minligalieva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), D.A. Huseynov (Institute of Geology and Geophysics of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan, Baku)
Conditions of formation and development of the void space at great depths

Keywords: great depths, kerogen, source rock, unconventional reservoir, organic matter, porosity, hydrocarbons, Rock-Eval

The article shows the effect of organic porosity (or porosity in the texture of kerogen), formed as a result of the transformation of organic matter, on the accumulation of hydrocarbons. According to the classical ideas, the main function of source rocks is the generation of hydrocarbons. However, recently source rocks have been identified, which are not only a source of hydrocarbon formation, but also a place of their accumulation. Organic pores in the texture of the kerogen of these strata contribute significantly to the volume of the void space of newly formed reservoirs and, as a result, increase their resource potential. As an example of this phenomenon in the oil and gas bearing provinces of the Russian Federation, we can name the beds of the Bazhenov and Khadum formations, the Domanic Horizon and others, which are hybrid phenomena that combine both traditional and non-traditional accumulations of hydrocarbons. An example of the analysis of the organic matter of rocks from two wells in the southern part of the Pre-Urals foredeep (wells No. 35 Chiliksaiskaya, 176 Terektinskaya) by the Rock-Eval method examines the reasons for the retention of hydrocarbons by both the mineral matrix and parent rock kerogen, and also shows the effect of the kerogen surface on the retention of hydrocarbons. A quantitative assessment of the organic porosity of the studied rocks is given, which makes it possible to determine the predicted volumes of retention of hydrocarbons generated in the process of catagenesis. According to the results of the research, it has been established that at moderate depths of occurrence of source rocks, the release of hydrocarbons forms a porous surface that, in the first place, retains components of increased molecular mass and polarity. Detached from the surface of the kerogen, in the first place, light and saturated hydrocarbons, and only then heavy. However, in the deep-buried horizons, at an elevated temperature, the process of desorption becomes predominant. In such conditions, the influence of the level of development of pore space is reduced. Higher temperatures intensify the desorption of hydrocarbons to such an extent that the influence on the adsorption of organic pore space is leveled.

References

1. Kerimov V.Yu., Bondarev A.V., Osipov A.V., Serov S.G., Evolution of petroleum systems in the territory of Baikit anticlise and Kureiskaya syneclise (Eastern Siberia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 5, pp. 3942.

2. Kerimov V.Yu., Lapidus A.L., Yandarbiev N.S. et al., Physicochemical properties of shale strata in the Maikop series of Ciscaucasia, Solid Fuel Chemistry, 2017, V. 51, Part 2, pp. 122130.

3. Kerimov V.Y., Rachinsky M.Z., Mustaev R.N., Osipov A.V., Groundwater dynamics forecasting criteria of oil and gas occurrences in alpine mobile belt basins, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2017, V. 476(1), pp. 10661068.

4. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Yandarbiev N.Sh., Movsumzade E.M., Environment for the formation of shale oil and gas accumulations in low-permeability sequences of the Maikop series, Fore-Caucasus, Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2017, V. 33(2), pp. 879892.

5. Kerimov V.Yu., Osipov A.V., Lavrenova E.A., The hydrocarbon potential of deep horizons in the south-eastern part of the Volga-Urals oil and gas province (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 3335.

6. Guliyev I.S., Kerimov V.Y., Osipov A.V., Mustaev R.N., Generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons at great depths under the earth's crust, SOCAR Proceedings, 2017, no. 1, pp. 416.

7. Mustaev R.N., Hai W.N., Kerimov V.Yu., Leonova E.A., Generation and conditions formation of hydrocarbon deposits in Kyulong basin by simulation results hydrocarbon systems, Proceedings of 17th Scientific-Practical Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development Geomodel 2015, EAGE, 2015, pp. 212216.

8. Chen F., Lu Sh., Ding X., Organoporosity evaluation of shale: A case study of the Lower Siluian Longmaxi Shale in Southeast Chongqing, China, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Scientific World Journal, 2014, V. 2014, pp. 19.

9. Modica C.J., Scott G., Lapierre Estimation of kerogen porosity in source rocks as a function of thermal transformation: Example from the Mowry Shale in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, AAPG Bulletin, 2012, V. 96, no. 1, pp. 87108.

10. Loucks R.G., Reed R.M., Ruppel S.C., Jarvie D.M., Morphology, genesis, and distribution of nanometerscale pores in siliceous mudstones of the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 2009, V. 79, pp. 848861.

11. Loucks R.G., Reed R.M., Ruppel S.C., Hammes U., Preliminary classification of matrix pores in mudrocks, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, 2010, V. 60, pp. 435441.

12. Gutman I.S., Potemkin G.N., Balaban I.Yu. et al., Methodical methods for specifying the pyrolytic parameters for an objective oil resources assessment of the Bazhenov formation of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 8085.

13. Gutman I.S., Potemkin G.N., Postnikov A.V. et al., Methodical approaches to the reserves and resources estimation of Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 3, pp. 2832.

14. Batalin O.Yu., Vafina N.G., Forms of free-hydrocarbon capture by kerogen (In Russ.), Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal prikladnykh i fundamental'nykh issledovaniy, 2013, no. 10, pp. 418425.

15. Pepper A.S., Corvi P.J., Simple kinetic models of petroleum formation. Part I: Oil and Gas generation from kerogen, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1995, V. 12, no. 3, pp. 291319.

16. Li Q., Jiang Z., You X. et al., A methodology for estimating the organic porosity of the source rocks at the mature stage: example from the marlstone in the Shulu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2016, V. 9, no. 6, 11 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-4-22-27

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550.834.05(204.1)
A.B. Popova(Arctic Research Centre LLC, RF, Moscow), S.V. Gorbachev (RN-Shelf Arctic LLC, RF , Moscow), M.A. Samarkin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), E.A. Kurin (GEOLAB LLC, RF, Moscow)
Features of 3D data processing in solving complex problems confined to the gas anomalies of Sakhalin Shelf

Keywords: 3D seismic data, signal processing, multiple wave, ghost wave, depth-velocity model building, pre-stack migration, gas anomalies, seismic and geological modeling

In this article presents the results of processing 3D seismic data obtained at one of the license blocks of Rosneft Oil Company, located on the shelf of the Sea of Okhotsk, showing that the use of modern multiple waves suppression algorithms and spreading of the frequency spectrum in the processing graph improve the traceability and dynamic expression reflecting horizons. The presence of anomalies associated with gas-saturated layer complicates the building of a seismic image and the interpretation of data in these areas. "Gas" anomalies are characterized by a low amplitude, deflection and discontinuity of the axes of synphase, impair the dynamics of seismic reflections, affect the structural factor, creating the so-called "shadow areas". In this material there are two types of such anomalies. These are thick and extensive gas-saturated layers and a practically vertical pillar in the center of the northern dome of the field. To solve this problem, seismic geological modeling was applied. It allowed to form an idea of the effect of such anomalies on seismic data and correctly compensate for this influence when building the depth-velocity model and the seismic image of the studied area. The developed graph of 3D data processing, aimed at solving all the above problems, allowed us to obtain final data with preservation of relative true amplitudes for dynamic analysis and with good traceability of reflecting horizons for structural analysis.

References

1. Kharakhinov V.V., Neftegazovaya geologiya Sakhalinskogo regiona (Petroleum geology of the Sakhalin region), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2010, 276 p.

2. Denisov M.S., Kobzov A.A., Muzychenko E.L. et al., Developing a multiple elimination methodology with examples from Barents and Kara seas (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2017, no. 1, pp. 512.

3. Berryhill J.R., Kim Y.C., Deep-water peg legs and multiples: Emulation and suppression, Geophysics, 1986, V. 51, pp. 21772184.

4. Verschuur D.J., Berkhout A.J., Estimation of multiple scattering by iterative inversion, Part II. Practical aspects and examples, Geophysics, 1997, V. 62, pp. 15961611.

5. Filimonov A.V., Gorbachev S.V., Myasoedov N.K., Broadband processing of 3D seismic data on the example of the Black Sea shelf (In Russ.), Vestnik Rosneftʹ, 2016, no. 4, pp. 3639.

6. Gorbachev S.V., Yakovlev A.P., Simulation of seismic surveys - a tool to improve the effectiveness of seismic exploration (In Russ.), Oil & Gas Journal Russia, 2011, no. 10 (54), pp. 8487.

7. Biondi B., Palacharla G., 3-D prestack migration of common-azimuth data: Geophysics, Soc. of Expl. Gephys., 1996, V. 61, pp. 18221832.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-28-32

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WELL DRILLING

622.244.442.063:543
R.R. Akhmetzyanov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), V.N. Zhernakov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
Simulation of the drilling mud properties at various compositions and inorganic salts concentrations

Keywords: drilling mud, mineralization, bischofite, filtrate, osmotic processes, experiments, simulation

Most of the oil and oil-gas-condensate fields in Eastern Siberia are characterized by complex geological factor. Wells drilling with water-based drilling mud, mineralized by sodium chloride, often does not allow to reach the potential productivity of producing wells. Improving the drilling-in quality of productive reservoirs can be achieved by using hydrocarbon-based fluids. However, the use of such fluids requires special measures to ensure industrial and environmental safety, not always economically justified, including due to the presence of complications, typical for the selected well design and drilling technology. The potential for improving water-based mineralized drilling muds, from the point of view of ensuring of the drilling-in quality, has not yet been exhausted. Water-based drilling muds can be improved on the basis of the results of modern scientific research and using new materials and reagents.

The article presents a theoretical justification and the results of physical simulation of the composition of the drilling mud salt base. The work is aimed at using a possible positive effect from the application of magnesium chloride in the composition of the drilling mud as a substance that promotes thickening of the mud filtrate, inhibition of clays and preserving the filtration properties of the productive reservoir. The results of the experiments, laboratory and pilot works indicate the potential of water-based drilling muds to improve the drilling-in quality of oil and gas saturated productive reservoirs of Eastern Siberia fields with complex mining and geological conditions.

References

1. Nikolaeva L.V., Vasenyova E.G., Buglov E.N., Features of drilling in production horizons at oil fields in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Vestnik IrGTU, 2012, no. 9, pp. 6871.

2. Akhmetzyanov R.R., Zhernakov V.N., Improving the drilling fluid composition for drilling-in terrigenous deposits of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 8082.

3. Shokarev I.V., Suleymanov R.N., Gulov A.R. et al., Construction of record breaking multilateral well with extended leg at the field of OAO "NOVATEK" Co. in the waters of Tazovsky Gulf (In Russ.), Neftʹ. Gaz. Novatsii, 2011, no. 12, pp. 2532.

4. Ryabokon' S.A., Tekhnologicheskie zhidkosti dlya zakanchivaniya i remonta skvazhin (Process fluids for completion and repair of wells), Krasnodar: Publ. of NPO Burenie, 2016, 382 p.

5. Angelopulo O.K., Podgornov V.M., Avakov V.E., Burovye rastvory dlya oslozhnennykh usloviy (Drilling fluids for complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 135 p.

6. Gaydarov A.M., Khubbatov A.A., Norov A.D. et al., Inter-particle interaction in water-base drill fluids and recommendations on controlling properties of such (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnika v gazovoy promyshlennosti, 2015, no. 4, pp. 6566.

7. Gudok N.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Martynov V.G., Opredelenie fizicheskikh svoystv neftevodosoderzhashchikh porod (Determination of the physical properties of oil-and-water-containing rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 592 p.

8. Gamayunov N.I., Gamayunov S.N., Mironov V.A., Osmoticheskiy massoperenos (Osmotic mass transfer), Tverʹ: Publ. of TSTU, 2007, 228 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-33-37

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622.24
A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), M.M. Veliev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), V.A. Bondarenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Historical aspects of the offshore exploratory drilling at the rise of Vietnam petroleum industry

Keywords: well construction, structural cross-section, exploratory wells, drilling practices, bit run, drilling muds, oil inflow, well cementing, formations permeability, well tests

One of the major structural elements of South Vietnam offshore is Mekong depression in the shape of asymmetrical fault trough. The depression is limited by Con Son uplift zone from the South and Southeast, and links with it by the regional fault of the Northeast trend. North-westward, the trend merge into monocline, conjugated with Soc Trang uplift of northeast trend. Eastward, the zone of outer uplifts is located, while westward Khorat-Natuna uplift zone.

The authors summarised the data on implemented drilling techniques and bottom-hole assemblies, drilling practices and bit runs. We analysed the types and performance of bits for the certain intervals of structural cross-section, conclusions drawn on the most optimal and effective types of drilling bits. We provided recommendations on application of drilling muds and cement slurries, as well as on well cementing technology. The results and technology of well tests by foreign companies are analysed. A variety of disadvantages in technology tests are defined. We summarized the data, studied variation behaviour of reservoir pressures and temperatures along the cross-section, and obtained data on reservoir properties and well productivity. A preliminary processing of tests data is performed for the second zone of well 5-BT of White Tiger field. Some conclusions are made and recommendations on well testing are given.

The article covers the analysis of drilling techniques and technologies, as well as the tests of wells, drilled by foreign companies in Vietnam offshore during 1974-1980. We characterized the geological factor of drilling and analysed the related complications, which occur during the drilling process. Recommendations on preventing such complications during well construction on the new structures are provided.

It is shown, compilation, study and analysis of exploratory drilling experience at Vietnam offshore, in terms of technical-historical aspect, is important and may contribute into development of drilling and oil production on other offshore oil fields.

References

1. Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' shel'fovykh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy SP V'etsovpetro (Geological structure and oil and gas content of the offshore oil fields of JV "Vietsovpetro"): edited by Tu Than Nghia, Veliev M. M., St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2016, 524 p.

2. Dergunov E.N., Khoy N.D., Barothermal conditions of oil and gas reservoirs in exploration work on the shelf of southern Vietnam (In Russ.), Neftʹ i gaz, 1983, no. 4, pp. 2735.

3. Tu Than Nghia, Veliev M.M., Ivanov A.N. et al., The history of prospecting and exploration for oil and gas on the continental shelf of South of Vietnam (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 1014.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-38-43

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.1/.4
M.S. Antonov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), G.R. Gumerova (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), Iu.I. Rafikova (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), N.N. Salienko (Slavneft-Megionneftegas LLC, RF, Megion), R.V. Kevlich (Slavneft-Megionneftegas LLC, RF, Megion), P.I. Chermyanin (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Improving the efficiency of monitoring oil fields development on the basis of standard displacement characteristics

Keywords: model characteristic of oil displacement, relative permeability, geological-statistical cross-section, Buckley Leverett function, displacement efficiency, oil recovery factor, effective damping, aquifer

This article focuses on choosing the optimal approach to monitoring and analyzing field development in order to improve the efficiency and quality of decisions to optimize development systems. The authors propose to evaluate the water cutting of oil deposits using a setup of standard displacement characteristics. To construct this characteristic of desaturation we use data from penetration tests of core sample (relative permeability, residual oil and water saturation coefficients depending on the reservoir properties), geological - statistic section of the reservoir and development parameters of the field. The joint account of these factors allows us to estimate the differentiation of the attitude of the waterflooding of the layers both in the lateral and in the vertical section. The analysis of the energy state of the development unit is proposed to be carried out using the assessment of the aquifer activity through the material balance. Accounting aquifer allows to evaluate outflows, inflows from the external reservoir boundary, which gives a complete picture of the effectiveness of waterflooding in terms of maintaining reservoir pressure. The reliability of the constructed standard displacement characteristic was estimated from the displacement characteristic obtained using geological and hydrodynamic modeling. Based on the results, was concluded that they were sufficiently correlated under the condition that the formation pressure maintenance system was formed. The technique is used for analyzing and monitoring oil fields development, namely: determining the attitude of the waterflooding the object, the development unit, the dynamics of cutting speed based on the analysis of changes in tilt angles to the graphs and the attitude of reserve recovery. A combined analysis of reserve recovery on the basis of the standard displacement characteristics and the analysis of waterflooding efficiency allows to take the necessary measures according to the formed decision-making matrix.

References

1. Patent no. 2480584 RF, MPK E21B 49/00, E21B 47/00, Method for online forecasting of main parameters of oil deposits development, Inventors: Poplygin V.V., Galkin S.V., Ivanov S.A.

2. Akhmetova Z.R., Strukturizatsiya ostatochnoy neftenasyshchennosti dlya obosnovaniya tekhnologii doizvlecheniya nefti (Structurization of residual oil saturation to substantiate the technology of oil recovery): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2016.

3. Dake L.P., The practice of reservoir engineering, Elsevier Science, 2001, 570 p.

4. Wolcott D., Applied waterflood field development, Publ. of Schlumberger, 2001, 142 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-44-48

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622.276.1/.4.001.57
S.V. Stepanov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), T.A. Pospelova (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
New concept of mathematical modeling for making reservoir engineering decisions

Keywords: numerical modeling, reservoir model, digital core, material balance, capacitance resistive model (CRM)

The paper describes a problem of the quality of reservoir engineering mathematical modeling. It also gives the criteria for the models quality and six case studies based on real fields. The authors show that the practical value of the models is not high; therefore, the quality of mathematical modeling of reservoir engineering should be improved. To solve this problem, the authors suggest to use a new concept of mathematical modeling. This concept is based on hierarchical modeling and it takes into account the different scales of mathematical models and their specific features. Within the framework of the proposed modeling concept, it is assumed that the initial stage of it is to obtain data using the Digital Core technology, and then a gradual transition from one level of modeling to another takes place. The final stage of the concept is modeling the reservoir engineering process using the material balance equations. In the transition between the modeling levels, the obtained data are analyzed and transformed for the next level. Analysis and transformation of data at different levels of modeling implies that their form should reflect the models nature, i.e. spatial dimension, scale of heterogeneity, assumptions used, and other features. The importance of honoring the model features for the formation of a practically valuable result is demonstrated by a synthetic example of evaluating the mutual influence of production and injection wells. A solution to such an inverse problem allows to achieve similarity of the estimated and actual profiles, but this is achieved due to distortions of the mutual influence of wells relative to their true values. A capacitance resistive model (CRM) is used to show that the use of analytical models is an effective way to address complex challenges of reservoir engineering.

References

1. Ivantsov N.N., Stepanov S.V., Stepanov A.V., Bukhalov I.S. Assessment of possibilities of hydrodynamic simulators to imitate the development of high-viscous oil fields. Part 1. Coning (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 6, pp. 5258.

2. Lysenko V.D., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Proektirovanie i analiz (Development of oil fields. Design and analysis), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2003, 638 p.

3. Sayarpour M., Development and application of capacitance-resistive models to water/CO2 floods: Ph.D Dissertation, 2008.

4. Mohaghegh Sh.D., Liu J., Gaskari R., Maysami M., Application of well-based surrogate models (SRMs) to two offshore fields in Saudi Arabia, case study, SPE 153845-MS, 2012.

5. Mohaghegh Sh.D., Amini Sh., Gholami V. et al., Grid-based surrogate reservoir modelling (SRM) for fast track analysis of numerical reservoir simulation models at the grid block level, SPE 153844-MS, 2012.

6. He Qin, Mohaghegh Sh.D., Liu Zh., Reservoir simulation using smart proxy in SACROC unit case study, SPE 184069-MS, 2016.

7. Baykov V.A., Rabtsevich S.A., Kostrigin I.V., Sergeychev A.V., Monitoring of field development using a hierarchy of models in software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik NK Rosneftʹ, 2014, no. 2, pp. 14 17.

8. Gavris' A.S., Kosyakov V.P., Botalov A.Yu., The concept of effective design of hydrocarbon fields development. Software solutions (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 11, pp. 7585.

9. Shandrygin A.N., Digital core analysis for flow process evaluation is myth or reality? (In Russ.), SPE 171216-RU, 2014.

10. Stepanov S.V., Numerical research of capillary pressure and compressibility effect on the drowning dynamics (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 8, pp. 7274.

11. Stepanov S.V., Stepanov A.V., Eletskiy S.V., Numerical-analytical approach towards salvation of the problem relating to on-line prediction of an oil well operation in conditions of a gas cone formation (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 5358.

12. Ruchkin A.A., Stepanov S.V., Knyazev A.V. et al., Applying CRM model to study well interference (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie. Neft', gaz, energetika = Tyumen State University Herald. Physical and Mathematical Modeling. Oil, Gas, Energy, 2018, V. 4, no. 4, pp. 148168.

13. Stepanov S.V., Sokolov S.V., Ruchkin A.A. et al., Considerations on mathematical modeling of producer-injector interference (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie. Neft', gaz, energetika = Tyumen State University Herald. Physical and Mathematical Modeling. Oil, Gas, Energy, 2018, V. 4, no. 3, pp. 146164.

14. Stepanov S.V. Ruchkin A.A., Stepanov A.V., Analytical method of separation of liquid and oil production in reservoirs during their joint development (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 2, pp. 1017.

15. Lysenko V.D., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Proektirovanie i analiz (Development of oil fields. Design and analysis), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2003, 638 p.

16. Holanda R., Gildin E., Jensen J. et al., A state-of-the-art literature review on capacitance resistance models for reservoir characterization and performance forecasting, Energies, 2018, no. 11, 46 p.

17. Chitsiripanich S., Field application of capacitance-resistance models to identify potential locations for infill drillings: Masters Thesis, Texas: University of Texas, 2015.

18. Baykov V.A., Gazizov R.K., Latypov A.R., Yakovlev A.A., Problems of development: from kilo− to nanometer (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2011, no. 23, pp. 3032.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-50-53

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622.276.031.011.43
T.N. Yusupova (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), Yu.M. Ganeeva (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), E.E. Barskaya (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), E.S. Okhotnikova (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), A.Kh. Timirgalieva (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), R.R. Ibatullin (TAL Oil Ltd., Calgary, Canada), G.V. Romanov (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan)
Reservoir rocks wettability and residual oil saturation in heterogeneous clastic Devonian layers of Romashkinskoye oil field

Keywords: wettability, clastic reservoir, clay content, residual oil saturation, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity

Wettability is one of the main parameters affecting the distribution and flow of fluids in a porous medium, and has a great influence on the dynamics of the oil field development, especially when waterflooding and enhanced oil recovery methods are used. The knowledge based on theoretical and experimental studies allowed us to conclude that wettability is determined by the historical interaction of the reservoir rock and fluids, surface properties of reservoir rocks pore channels, and physical and chemical properties of the oil. In this regard, it is extremely important to study the relationship of wettability with the pore space structure, the mineral composition of the reservoir rock and the residual oil saturation in the conditions of intensive fluid displacement by waterflooding.

The core samples were selected in two wells through the crossection of heterogeneous clastic layers D1 in South-Romashkino and West-Leninogorsk areas of the Romashkinskoye oil field. There were determined wettability, the clay content on the structure of the pore space and the model residual oil saturation and oil displacement efficiency in these samples after extraction of organic matter. The insoluble organic substance formed by the irreversible adsorption of oil components on the clay mineral surface and carbene-carboid compounds formed from asphaltenes after prolonged development of the oil reservoir by flooding with insufficiently treated river water was noticed in the rock, the presence of which modified the wettability of the rocks in the direction of increasing hydrophobicity. It was confirmed that hydrophilicity was more typical for rock samples with smaller pore radius. It was shown that the wettability of the reservoir correlated with the permeability and pore size and that the residual oil saturation increased in the more hydrophilic and less permeable parts of the reservoir. No direct correlation between the wettability and clay content was detected. The obtained results should be taken into account in developing technological solutions for waterflooding and enhanced oil recovery.

References

1. Anderson W.A., Wettability literature survey, Part 1. Rock/oil/brine interaction and the effects of core handling on wettability, JPT, 1986, October, pp. 1125-1622.

2. Abdalla V. et al., Fundamentals of wettability (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe obozrenie, 2007, V. 19, no. 2 (Summer), pp. 5475.

2. Ding H., Rahman S., Experimental and theoretical study of wettability alteration during low salinity water flooding-an state of the art review, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2017, V. 520, pp. 622639.

4. Buckley J.S. Liu Y., Monsterleet S., Mechanisms of wetting alteration by crude oils, SPE 37230-PA, 1998.

5. Mikhaylov N.N., Dzhemesyuk A.V., Kol'chitskaya T.N., Semenova N.A., Izuchenie ostatochnogo neftenasyshcheniya razrabatyvaemykh plastov (The study of residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1990, 60 p.

6. Zlobin A.A., Yushkov I.R., About the mechanism of hydrophobization of surface of rock in oil and gas reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Geologiya, 2014, V. 3(24), pp. 6879.

7. Chena Y., Xiea Q., Saria A. et al., Oil/water/rock wettability: Influencing factors and implications for low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs, Fuel, 2018, V. 215, pp. 171177.

8. Chandrasekhar S., Sharma H., Mohanty K.K., Dependence of wettability on brine composition in high temperature carbonate rocks, Fuel, 2018, V. 225, pp. 573587.

9. Zhang Y., Chen M., Jin Y. et al., Experimental study and artificial neural network simulation of the wettability of tight gas sandstone formation, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2016, V. 34, pp. 387400.

10. Yusupova T.N., Ganeeva Yu.M., Romanov G.V., Barskaya E.E., Fiziko-khimicheskie protsessy v produktivnykh neftyanykh plastakh (Physical and chemical processes in the productive oil reservoirs), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2015, 412 p.

11. Yusupova T.N., Romanova U.G., Gorbachuk V.V. et al., Estimation of the adsorption capacity of oil-bearing rock: a method and prospects, J. of Pet. Sci. and Eng., 2002, V. 33, no. 13, pp. 173183.

12. Romanov G.V., Lebedev N.A., Yusupova T.N. et al., Physical and chemical problems of IOR and a combined approach to selection of technologies for hardly recoverable oils, Progress in Mining and Oilfield Chemistry, 2001, V. 3, pp. 175182.

13. Yusupova T.N., Ganeeva Yu.M., Barskaya E.E. et al., Formation of the composition of unrecoverable residual oils in productive Devonian reservoirs of the Romashkinskoe oil field (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2004, V. 44, no. 2, pp. 103109.

14. Mikhaylov N.N., Kol'chitskaya T.I., Dzhemesyuk A.V., Semenova N.A., Fiziko-geologicheskie problemy ostatochnoy neftenasyshchennosti (Physical-geological problems of residual oil saturation), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1993, 174 p.

15. Mikhaylov N.N., Kuz'min V.A., Motorova K.A., Sechina L.S., The influence of the microstructure of the pore space on the hydrophobization oil and gas reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik MGU. Ser. 4. Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2016, no. 4, pp. 6775.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-54-57

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622.276.43"5"
S.P. Rodionov (Tyumen Branch of Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tyumen; CONCORD LLC, RF, Moscow), O.N. Pichugin (CONCORD LLC, RF, Moscow), V.P. Kosyakov (Tyumen Branch of Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Tyumen; CONCORD LLC, RF, Moscow), Ya.V. Shirshov (CONCORD LLC, RF, Moscow)
On the selection of oil fields areas for the effective use of cyclic waterflooding

Keywords: cyclic waterflooding, reservoir simulation, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method

One of the most simple, inexpensive and frequently used hydrodynamic methods of enhanced oil recovery is cyclic waterflooding. Despite the development of hydrodynamic modelling technologies, the prediction of the cyclic flooding efficiency remains a challenge. Due to the rapid flow of filtration processes during cyclical waterflooding, the calculated time step needs to be chosen much smaller than when simulating stationary flooding. Therefore, the simulation of cyclic flooding using a hydrodynamic simulator takes much more time, which may be unacceptable in practice. Without taking into account this limitation on the time step, the calculated efficiency will be unreliable (usually close to zero).

The selection of optimal values of the cyclic waterflooding parameters usually requires multiple simulation runs. To reduce the number of simulation runs that require significant time we proposed an effective technology for simulating cyclic waterflooding based on the top-down concept. The process is divided into stages, including selection of promising areas from the point of view of additional oil recovery and parameters characterizing the cyclic impact on the reservoir. The technology allows us in real time to select prospective areas and perform an assessment of the impact on the additional oil production of the location of the wells, the period and duration of the cyclic action, and the like.

The advantages of the proposed technology in comparison with analogues are demonstrated, as well as the results of its successful application in some oil fields of Western Siberia and Kazakhstan.

References

1. Bokserman A.A., Shalimov B.V., On the cyclic effect on reservoirs with double porosity when oil is displaced by water (In Russ.), Izvestiya AN SSSR, MZhG, 1967, no. 2, . 168174.

2. Surguchev M.L., Tsynkova O.E., Sharbatova I.N. et al., Tsiklicheskoe zavodnenie neftyanykh plastov (Cyclical flooding of oil reservoirs), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1977.

3. Sharbatova I.N., Surguchev M.L., Tsiklicheskoye vozdeystviye na neodnorodnyye neftyanyye plasty (Cyclical effects on heterogeneous oil layers), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 121 p.

4. Langdalen H., Cyclic water injection: MS thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2014, . 140.

5. Rodionov S.P., Kosyakov V.P., Sokolyuk L.N., Shirshov Ya.V., Fast simulation method of cyclic water-flooding using averaged two phase flow equations (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 11, pp. 5963.

6. Rodionov S.P., KosyakovV.P., Pichugin O.N. et al., A new technology based on two-phase flow models for rapid selection of wells for cyclic waterflooding, SPE 187912-RU, 2017.

7. Gavris' A.S., Kosyakov V.P., Botalov A.Yu., The concept of effective design of hydrocarbon fields development. Software solutions (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 11, pp. 7585.

8. Bogachev K.Yu., Effektivnoe reshenie zadachi fil'tratsii vyazkoy szhimaemoy mnogofaznoy mnogokomponentnoy smesi na parallel'nykh EVM (Effective solution of the filtration problem of a viscous compressible multiphase multicomponent mixture on parallel computers): thesis of doctor of physical and mathematical science, Moscow, 2012.

9. Rodionov S.P., Kosyakov V.P. , Pichugin O.N., Musakaev E.N., New rapid modelling technology to select optimal waterflooding options for oil fields, SPE 182004-MS, 2016.

10. Yaroslavov A.O., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie fil'tratsii nen'yutonovskikh zhidkostey v sloisto-neodnorodnykh plastakh i razrabotka metodik staticheskogo analiza geologo-promyslovoy informatsii (Mathematical modeling of filtration of non-Newtonian fluids in layered heterogeneous reservoirs and the development of methods for static analysis of field-geological information): thesis of candidate physical and mathematical science, Tyumen', 2003.

11. Kambarov G.S., Almamedov D. G., Makhmudova T.Yu., Determining the initial recoverable reserves of oilfield (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 1974, no. 3, pp. 2224.

12. Vladimirov I.V., Pichugin O.N., Gorshkov A.V., Experience of application of non-stationary flooding technology at high-viscous deposits of North Buzachi oil field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 11, pp. 4652.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-58-61

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622.337.2
R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), A.M. Evdokimov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), M.M. Kopylova(TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.N. Sudykin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.S. Nurutdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Planning of pilot production on heavy oil test site in the Republic of Tatarstan

Keywords: pilot production, heavy oil, Bitum test site

Given the highly competitive environment of the global oil market due to the ongoing slump in oil demand because of substantial increase of oil production in the world, and a number of other factors, it is critical to improve the overall economics of oil production, and, in particular, to improve the oil recovery factor on mature fields. As light oil reserves decrease, oil companies shift their focus on exploration and production of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves. Republic of Tatarstan possesses considerable unconventional hydrocarbon reserves in tight formations and in domanik sediments, which might be a viable alternative to conventional oil, though more challenging in terms of production and research considering, among other factors, high Russias dependency on import. In conditions of severe competition, technology development and introduction of technological innovations on a wide scale can only be the basis of sustainable development of the oil sector. As innovations have become the main competitive advantages of oil-producing companies, demand for high-tech solutions will never decline. As things stand now on the Russian oil producing market, the sustained oil production, to say nothing of production increase, is only possible on condition of commercial application of advanced technologies. Considering the market development trends, as well as the structure of the Russian hydrocarbon reserves, it seems reasonable to concentrate efforts on research and development (R&D) and innovation activity. This paper presents the Tatnefts experience in pilot production of heavy oil in Companys license areas in the Republic of Tatarstan, and in development of novel reservoir management technologies. An approach to planning of pilot production in complex, heterogeneous, and shallow heavy oil reservoirs is discussed.

References

1. Zaripov A.T., Shaykhutdinov D.K., Khafizov R.I., Zakharov YA.V., Analysis of efficiency of heavy oil production tecnologies in PJSC Tatneft fields (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2016, no. 78, pp. 4250.

2. Khisamov R.S., Abdulmazitov R.G., Zaripov A.T., Ibatullina S.I., Stages of development of bitumen pools in the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 7, pp. 4345.

3. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Sabirov R.K., Ibragimov N.G. et al., Sozdanie i promyshlennoe vnedrenie kompleksa tekhnologiy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkikh neftey (The creation and implementation of technology complex for heavy oil deposits development), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2011, 142 p.

4. Muslimov R.Kh., Romanov G.V., Kayukova G.P. et al., Kompleksnoe osvoenie tyazhelykh neftey i prirodnykh bitumov permskoy sistemy Respubliki Tatarstan (Integrated development of heavy oil and natural bitumen of Permian system of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan: Fen Publ., 2012, 396 p.

5. Khisamov R.S., Bazarevskaya V.G., Tarasova T.I. et al., Classification of geologic cross-section types of Sheshminskian P,ss2 sand sequence (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 2729.

6. Patent no. 2481468 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/24, Development method of high-viscous oil deposit, Inventors: Khisamov R.S., Salikhov I.M., Sayfutdinov M.A., Kormukhin V.A., Kuznetsov A.N.

7. Patent no. 2340768 RF, Method of development of heavy oil or bitumen deposit with implementation of two head horizontal wells, Inventors: Takhautdinov Sh.F., Ibragimov N.G., Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R., Amerkhanov M.I.

8. Patent no. 2563463 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/24, Method of development of stratified oil deposit with high-viscosity oil, Inventor: Khisamov R.S.

9. Patent no. 2578137 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/24, Method for development of high-viscosity oil deposit, Inventors: Khisamov R.S., Zaripov A.T., Shaykhutdinov D.K., Gadelʹshina I.F., Garifullin M.Z.

10. Patent no. 2582256 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/24, E 21 V 43/22, Method for development of high-viscosity oil or bitumen, Inventors: Khisamov R.S., Zaripov A.T., Shaykhutdinov D.K., Zakharov YA.V., Gadelʹshina I.F.

11. Patent no. 2584467 RF, MPK E 21 B 43/24, Method of developing high-viscosity oil field, Inventors: Khisamov R.S., Evdokimov A.M., Sayfutdinov M.A., Zaripov A.T.

12. Patent no. 2584703 RF, MPK E 21 B 36/04, 43/24, 47/00, Method of development of multipay object with high-viscosity oil, Inventors: Khisamov R.S., Akhmetgareev V.V., Khannanov M.T.

13. Patent no. 2588232 RF, MPK E 21 B 43/24, 43/22, Method of developing high-viscosity oil field, Inventors: Khisamov R.S., Salikhov I.M., Akhmadiev R.N., Sayfutdinov M.A., Kormukhin V.A., Badrutdinov I.I.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-62-65

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622.245.723
D.A. Sugaipov (Gazpromneft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.V. Lyapin (Messoyakhaneftegas JSC, RF, Tyumen), D.A. Reshetnikov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), N.N. Pleshanov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.V. Voevoda (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.S. Meledin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Selecting optimal technology for wells completion in the oil rims of continental genesis on the example of layers PK1-3 of the Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye and Tazovskoye fields

Keywords: fishbone, well, oil rim, deposits of continental genesis

The main objects of development of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye and Tazovskoye fields is the PK1-3 formation, composed of deposits of continental genesis, containing significant reserves of oil and gas. The development of such deposits involves regular use of non-standard technologies and high-tech types of wells completion with continuous improvement of drilling strategy, based on new data on the development object. New data made possible to formulate technological and geological criteria for selecting the most effective type of wellbore for different geological zones of the reservoir. At the moment, about 300 wells of various designs (horizontal wells of various lengths, multilateral wells (2 or more trunks), and wells of Fishbone type have been drilled at Vostochno-Messoyakhskoy field. The increase in the efficiency of wells drilled by fishbone and multilateral wells technologies is 80 and 23% relative to the horizontal wells in similar geological conditions. Therefore, the Tazovskoye field is preparing for full-scale drilling. Taking account of the experience of application of horizontal drilling at oil fringe Vostochno-Messoyakhskoy and other analogous fields was formed by the development based on horizontal wells of extended length. At the present time, the Tazovskoye field has 12 horizontal wells with a length of 2000 m and two well sites with a total sinking of about 4000 m each.

References

1. Belozerov B.V., Kovalenko I.V., Nitkaliev I.M. et al., The strategy of taking into account the lateral heterogeneity of the PK13 reservoir during geological support of horizontal wells drilling at the Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), PROneft', 2018, no. 1, pp. 1214.

2. Nitkaliev I.M., Zhuykova N.V., Orlov A.G. et al., Multicontact''s trap origin hypotheses for PK1-3 formation of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 3437.

3. Patent no. 2267009 RF, Oil reservoir development method (variants), Inventors: Sugaipov D.A., Mirsaetov O.M., Savel'ev V.A.

4. Sugaipov D.A., Bilinchuk A.V., Sarvarov A.R. et al., Messoyakha Project: the unique technologies to develop the northernmost oilfield reserves in Russia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 1215.

5. Zagrebel'nyy E.V., Belozerov B.V., Bochko A.S. et al., Benchmarking of techniques for improvement of geological model predictive ability (PK1-3 formation, Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 1215.

6. Sugaipov D.A., Rustamov I.F., Ushmaev O.S. et al., Multilateral wells application in continental facies of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 4951.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-66-69

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622.276.43:678
S.A. Tastemirov (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), R.N. Fakhretdinov (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), G.H. Yakimenko (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), D.Yu. Kolupaev (Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), M.M. Bikkulov (Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), A.I. Islamov (Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk)
The experience of AC-CSE-1313 technology at the Priobskoye field

Keywords: low-permeability reservoir, impact coverage factor, oil displacement factor, filtration tests, oil flow rate, water cut, increment of remaining recoverable reserves

The characteristic property of the current state of the oilfield development is the reduction in the current oil recovery factor due to low reservoir characteristics, which is ahead of the flooding of the production well stock, and the increment of the decline rate in base production. One way aimed to reduction of the production inequality and the development effectiveness is the use of flow-diverting chemical technologies. The influence mechanism used in the industry of chemical technologies involves the change only the sweep efficiency due to the whole or partial blocking of water flushed zones.

The paper considers the effective solution of the problem of the efficiency gains of development of the low-permeability reservoirs of the Priobskoye field. When choosing the impact technologies, there is to consider also the specifics of the deposit rock - a high content of clay components (10-12%). The use of polymer technologies in the development of the objects being examined leads to an increase in injection pressure, which is not specific for AC-CSE-1313 technology. The considered AC-CSE-1313 technology of conformance control has a complex mechanism of action based on both the conformance factors changes and the increase of the oil displacement efficiency. Moreover, according to the filtration tests using the composite different-permeable core models, the average increment of the displacement efficiency made 29.39 - 48.29%, while it was noted that 89% of the average increase of the displacement efficiency made oil, displaced from the low-permeability models. At the Priobskoye field the technology is to apply since 2015 and up to 60-78 well-treatments are carried out annually. As a result of AC-CSE-1313 technology usage the impact areas show the decrease in the decline rate of the base production and the increase of remaining recoverable reserves, that proves the correctness of the method chosen for the efficient reservoir development of the Priobsky field.

References

1. Gimaletdinov R.A., Sidorenko V.V., Fakhretdinov R.N. et al., Criteria for effective application of conformance control technologies under the production climate of Gazprom Neft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 5, pp. 7883.

2. Vinokhodov M.A., Yarkeev A.R., Kuznetsov M.A. et al., Technological efficiency of applying the new gelling AC-CSE-1313 technology in oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 10, pp. 9094.

3. Kuznetsov M.A., Ishkinov S.M., Kuznetsova T.I. et al., The constantly developed research and production programs of industrial adaptation of injectivity profile leveling technologies for low permeability reservoirs of Slavneft-Megionneftegas OJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 106110.

4. Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., Sidorov R.V. et al., Novaya proryvnaya tekhnologiya nefteotdachi plastov (New breakthrough oil recovery technology), Proceedings of VI International Scientific and Practical Conference Prakticheskie aspekty neftepromyslovoy khimii (Practical aspects of oilfield chemistry), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneftʹ, 2016, pp. 2223.

5. Kuznetsov M.A., Ishkinov S.M., Kuznetsova T.I. et al., The technology for water shutoff in producing wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 7, pp. 5860.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-70-73

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622.276.43:678
N.N. Mikhailov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), S.T. Zakenov (Yessenov Caspian State University of Technology and Engineering, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Aktau), K.K. Kiynov (Mangistaumunaigaz JSC, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Aktau), A.V. Bondarenko (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engeneering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), L.K. Nurshakhanova (Yessenov Caspian State University of Technology and Engineering, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Aktau), Li Kai (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow)
The experience of implementation of polymer flooding technology in oil fields characterized by a high degree of salinity of reservoir and injected waters

Keywords: polymer flooding, high salinity of water, viscoelastic polymer compositions, industrial experimental works, physical-chemical properties of polymers and their solutions, increase of oil recovery, reduction of water cuttings of well production

The results of implementation of polymer flooding technology in oil fields characterized by high salinity of water are analyzed: Kalamkas (Kazakhstan), Moskudinskoye, Shagirtsko-Gozhanskoye (Russia, Perm Region). It has been established that application of purely polymer flooding with standard polyacrylamide is ineffective under these conditions, because there is almost no residual resistance factor for water injected after the slug. An additional feature of polymer flooding is the adsorption of some part of the polymer dissolved in the water by rock, and the forward part of the front of the displacing water turns out to be free of polymer, respectively, with the usual water mobility. An increase in the content of sodium chloride, calcium chloride and other electrolytes from 0,5 to 20% repeatedly increases the adsorption of the polymer on the rock. Adsorption by rocks from mineralized solutions is several times higher than from desalinated waters. With high adsorption, the front of the polymer lags far behind the front of oil displacement by water. The increase of technological efficiency can be achieved due to the combination of polymer flooding with the injection of crosslinked polymer systems, the use of which allows effectively to regulate the flooding process in heterogeneous reservoirs, as evidenced by the experience of work at the Kalamkas field. The results of polymer flooding in the Perm Region show that the technology can be effectively implemented in conditions of low and medium permeability of terrigenous reservoirs characterized by a high salinity of waters with a big content of calcium and magnesium ions due to the use of new types of polymers. As a result of the performed analysis, it is recommended to realize the following arrangement for the subsequent increase of the efficiency of polymer flooding in the Kalamkas field. Research work is required on synthesizing and adapting polymers for the geological and physical conditions for each of the development objects that provide the optimum adsorption range and efficient oil displacement.

References

1. Bondarenko A.V., Eksperimental'noe soprovozhdenie opytno-promyshlennykh rabot po obosnovaniyu tekhnologii polimernogo zavodneniya v usloviyakh vysokoy mineralizatsii plastovykh i zakachivaemykh vod (Experimental support of pilot testing on the justification of polymer flooding technology in conditions of high salinity of reservoir and injected waters): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2017.

2. Akul'shin A.I., Prognozirovanie razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Forecasting the oil fields development), Moscow: Mysl' Publ., 1988, 241 p.

3. Dorofeev V.I. et al., Okazanie nauchno-tekhnicheskoy pomoshchi pri vnedrenii tekhnologii polimernogo vozdeystviya i otsenka ee effektivnosti (Rendering scientific and technical assistance in the implementation of polymer impact technology and assessing its effectiveness), Aktau: Publ. of KazNIPIneft', 1996, 110 p.

4. Kiinov L.K., Osobennosti razrabotki mestorozhdeniy parafinistykh i vyazkikh neftey Zapadnogo Kazakhstana v usloviyakh realizatsii energosberegayushchikh tekhnologiy (Features of development of paraffinic and viscous oils deposits in Western Kazakhstan in conditions of realization of energy saving technologies), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 1994, 244 p.

5. Nadirov N.K., Vakhitov G.G., Safronov S.V. et al., Novye nefti Kazakhstana i ikh ispol'zovanie. Tekhnologiya povysheniya nefteizvlecheniya (New oil in Kazakhstan and its use. Enhanced oil recovery technology), Alma-Ata: Nauka Publ., 1982, 276 p.

6. Polishchuk A.M., Eksperimental'noe izuchenie mekhanizma vytesneniya nefti iz plasta rastvorami polimerov (Experimental study of the mechanism of oil displacement from the reservoir by polymer solutions): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1979.

7. Bondarenko A.V., Perspektivy razvitiya tretichnykh metodov povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov na mestorozhdeniyakh Permskogo kraya (Prospects for the development of tertiary methods for enhancing oil recovery in the fields of the Perm region), Proceedings of Scientific and Practical Conference XVI Geologiya i razrabotka mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami (Geology and development of deposits with hard-to-recover reserves), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2016.

8. Bondarenko A.V., Kudryashova D.A., The application of hydrodynamic modeling for predictive effectiveness assessment of polymer flooding technology on Moskudinskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 102105.

9. Bondarenko A.V. et al., Laboratory research on justification of polymer flooding technology for specific geological conditions of oil fields sites development (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2016, no. 10, pp. 3442.

10. Bondarenko A.V., Popova N.S., Geophysical and hydrodynamical researches when projecting and implementing polymer flooding technology in the oil fields of Perm region (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2016, no. 4, pp. 1518.

11. Bondarenko A.V., Farkhutdinova P.A., Kudryashova D.A., Methods for determining the effectiveness of pilot projects on polymer flooding at the Shagirtsko-Gozhanskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 7072.

12. Lyadova N.A., Raspopov A.V., Muzhikova L.N. et al., The experience of tertiary recovery methods on Perm Region reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 7, pp. 9295.

13. Lyadova N.A., Raspopov A.V., Bondarenko A.V. et al., Perspective application of the polymer flooding technology in the Perm region oil deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 6, pp. 9496.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-74-78

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276.53
R.N. Bakhtizin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), K.R. Urazakov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), R.V. Usmanov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), P.M. Tugunov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
The study of the reservoir temperature regime in case of dual pumping wells operation using sucker-rod and electric centrifugal pumps

Keywords: dual completion, oil well sucker-rod pump, electric centrifugal pump, temperature, thermal regime, bottom-hole formation zone heating, heat conductivity

Programs for energy efficiency and increased profitability of field production, implemented by oil companies, in modern market conditions lead to the wide distribution of dual completion technologies using borehole pumping units. Oil production by submersible units, including sucker-rod and electric centrifugal pumps, is one of the most common ways to develop objects with their considerable differentiation in operation performance and formation fluid properties. Features of the upper reservoir production by the pump unit in this dual completion scheme are associated with low productivity of the reservoir, due to the low mobility of reservoir oil in natural temperature-and-pressure conditions. In this regard, the research of possibility of heating bottom-hole zone of upper formation by lower formations thermal energy and heat, derived from sucker-rod and electric centrifugal pumps, is important today.

Mathematical model for calculation of thermal field in system well reservoir sucker-rod pump electrical centrifugal pump, taking into account convective heat transfer, thermal conductivity, thermodynamic effects, and heat generation in electrical centrifugal and sucker-rod pumps, was obtained to evaluate the heat effect of the pumping unit. It is proved that in steady running there is a heating of the bottom-hole zone of upper formation due to the natural thermal energy of the reservoir fluid and the heat, generated by the electric centrifugal pump and a sucker-rod pump, in which the efficiency of heating is mainly determined by the flow rate of upper reservoir. A potential prospect of the implementation of the periodic pump down out of upper reservoir by sucker-rod pump, allowing to increase productivity of upper reservoir and oil recovery factor by effective warming up of upper reservoir, is shown.

References

1. Zabbarov R.G., Dmitriev V.V., Agamalov G.B., Urazakov K.R., The method of calculating the intake pressure at the pump in dual completion and production of well (In Russ.), Interval, 2007, no. 7, pp. 1822.

2. Urazakov K.R., Zhulaev V.P., Bulyukova F.Z., Molchanova V.A., Nasosnye ustanovki dlya malodebitnykh skvazhin (Pumping units for depleted wells), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, UGNTU, 2014.

3. Urazakov K.R., Mekhanizirovannaya dobycha nefti (Mechanized oil production), Ufa: Neftegazovoe delo Publ., 2010.

4. Usmanov R.V., Klyushin I.G., Urazakov K.Kh. et al., Thermal mode of operation of the downhole pumping unit for dual completion recovery (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2016, no. 2, pp. 6871.

5. Zdol'nik S.E., Urazakov K.R., Bondarenko K.A. et al., A comprehensive ESP temperature conditions prediction method (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2010, no. 1, pp. 3641.

6. Ramazanov A.Sh., Akchurin R.Z., Simulation of temperature distribution during drilling (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 21, no. 2, pp. 269273.

7. Topol'nikov A.S., Urazakov T.K., Kazakov D.P., The numerical simulation of flow around the submersible pump with filter (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2009, V. 7, no. 2, pp. 8995.

8. Urazakov K.R., Gabdulov R.R., Usmanov R.V., Thermal mode of operation of equipment for dual completion based on ESP-SRP (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2016, no. 7, pp. 5356.

9. Loytsyanskiy L.G., Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza (Fluid mechanics), Moscow: Drofa Publ., 2003.

10. Ramazanov A.Sh., Islamov D.F., Simulation of transient temperature processes in oil reservoirs at fluid withdrawal and injection (In Russ.), Vestnik Akademii Nauk RB, 2017, V. 24, no. 3, pp. 8491.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-80-83

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622.276.42/.43
V.M. Pestov (NPO Iskra PJSC, RF, Perm), A.V. Yanovsky (NPO Iskra PJSC, RF, Perm), A.N. Drozdov (Peoples Friendship University of Russia, RF, Moscow)
Improving the technology for water-gas mixtures pumping into the reservoir

Keywords: water-gas mixture, pump-ejecting system, water-alternating-gas (WAG) technology

The water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection is the effective method to increase the oil recovery of reservoirs. However, with the help of known technologies it is impossible to solve all the problems of widespread introduction of WAG injection and utilization of associated gas. WAG injection with the use of pump-ejecting systems has good prospects in their solution by simple means. At the Kotovskoye field, a joint injection of high-pressure gas from a gas cap and water using a cavitation-dispersing countercurrent device was used at the entrance of which a liquid-gas ejector was installed. At the Samodurovskoye field, the pump-ejecting system, containing a power pump, an ejector and a booster pump, worked steadily in various modes using low-pressure associated gas, there were no capacity breakdowns of the ejectors and pumps.

In many cases, for the effective implementation of WAG technology, it is necessary to provide simultaneously high values of the gas-water factor and the pressure of the injection of the water-gas mixture when using low-head associated petroleum gas. This can be done with the use of WAG injection unit intended for use in reservoir pressure maintenance systems for oil and gas producing enterprises. The installation will ensure full utilization of associated gas, increasing the recovery of oil from the reservoir and improving the environment. The proposed installation of the injection of water-gas mixture includes ejectors, electric centrifugal pumps and separators. Mixing and compression of the water-gas mixture occurs in ejectors placed consistently. The water is supplied into the nozzles of jet devices by means of electric centrifugal pumps located in pits. After each ejector (compression stage), the water-gas mixture enters a separator in which water and gas are separated. At the same time, the gas with increased pressure enters the ejector inlet of the next stage, and water with higher pressure is fed into the electric centrifugal pump and then into the ejector of the next stage. The suggested installation of the WAG injection allows obtainment the 20% volumetric gas content in the water under reservoir conditions and provides a discharge pressure of up to 35 MPa.

References

1. Drozdov A.N., Problems in WAG implementation and prospects of their solutions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 100104.

2. Drozdov A.N., Investigations of the submersible pumps characteristics when gas-liquid mixtures delivering and application of the results for SWAG technologies development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 108111.

3. Drozdov N.A., Investigation of water-alternating-gas injection (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 11, pp. 8083.

4. Drozdov N.A., Pump-ejector systems for the water-alternating gas process, Lambert Academic Publishing, 2014, 172 p.

5. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Laboratory researches of the heavy oil displacement from the Russkoye fields core models at the SWAG injection and development of technological schemes of pump-ejecting systems for the water-gas mixtures delivering, SPE 157819-MS, 2012.

6. Patent no. 2190760 RF, M. kl. E 21 B 43/20, Manner of water and gas treatment of formation, Inventors: Drozdov A.N., Fatkullin A.A.

7. Shevchenko A.K., Chizhov S.I., Tarasov A.V., Preliminary results of fine-dispersed water-gas mixture injection into the reservoir at a late stage of Kotovskoye field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 100102.

8. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Simple solutions of complex swag injection problems (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2017, no. 3, pp. 4346.

9. Patent no. 2455472 RF, M. kl. E 21 B 43/20, Installation for water-alternated-gas injection to oil formation, Inventors: Pestov V.M., Yanovskiy A.V., Ipanov A.S., Drozdov A.N.

10. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Bunkin N.F., Kozlov V.A., Study of suppression of gas bubbles coalescence in the liquid for use in technologies of oil production and associated gas utilization, SPE 187741-MS, 2017.

11. Drozdov A.N., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (The technology and technique of oil production by submergible pumps in the complicated conditions), Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2008, 312 p.

12. Drozdov A.N., Influence of free gas on submerged pumps characteristics (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 1, pp. 6870.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-84-86

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276:658.58
E.M. Abbasov (OilGasScientificResearchProject, SOCAR, Azerbaijan, Baku ; Institute of Mathematic and Mechanics of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science, Azerbaijan, Baku), Sh.P. Kazimov (OilGasScientificResearchProject, SOCAR, Azerbaijan, Baku), N R. Abdullayeva (OilGasScientificResearchProject, SOCAR, Azerbaijan, Baku), L.G. Hajikerimov (OilGasScientificResearchProject, SOCAR, Azerbaijan, Baku)
Fluid leakage in deep-well sucker-rod pump

Keywords: leakage, fluid, pump, pressure, equation, clearance

Fluid loss reduction between a cylinder and plunger during operation is the most important requirement to the design of a bottom-hole sucker-rod pump. Fluid loss reduction in the clearance between a cylinder and plunger increases the pump efficiency. Current methods for leakage control do not provide the intended effect. As the pump runs, the gap between the cylinder and plunger increases due to wear, resulting in fluid leakage increase. An attempt to use a hydraulic seal does not provide the intended effect as well. Over time, the seal is washed out and loses its functionality. Therefore, there is a need to develop more reliable, simple and effective control methods against this harmful phenomenon.

This paper proposes using the hydrostatic head pressure (which leads to fluid leakage) to reduce leakage. This is achieved by opening the side angle holes in the plunger. Mathematical model is developed and fluid leakage at the clearance between cylinder and piston of the pump with presence of holes on the lateral surface is determined. Numerical calculation is performed and threshold values of lateral holes coordinates are determined, excess of which makes them inoperative. Level of leakage reduction is determined depending on parameters of the lateral holes.

References

1. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Gurbanov R.S. et al., Teoriya i praktika primeneniya glubinnykh nasosov s gidravlicheskim zatvorom (Theory and practice of the use of submersible pumps with a hydraulic gate), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 210 p.

2. Dragotesku N.D., Glubinno-nasosnaya dobycha nefti (Artificial oil lift), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1996, 418 p.

3. Pisarik M.N., Calculation of leaks through the gap of a well pump rod when pumping out of watered oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1982, no. 7, pp. 49-50.

4. Gurbanov R.S, Mamedova M.A, Gurbanova T.G., Development of the sealing method of the pump clearance by well production (In Russ.), Vostochno-evropeyskiy zhurnal peredovykh tekhnologiy = Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2015, no. 5/1 (77), pp. 59-62.

5. Patent no. 2350784 RF, Rod sub-surface pump with side aperture in cylinder plugged with hydraulic overflow valve, Inventors: N Ibragimov N.G., Taziev M.Z., Zakirov A.F., Latfullin R.R., Zubarev S.M.

6. Patent no. 2140571 RF, Sucker rod pump, Inventors: Shurinov V.A., Pykhov S.I., Kozlovskiy A.M., Bezzubov A.V.

7. Patent no. 2309295 RF, Borehole pump plunger, Inventor: Lepekhin Yu.N.

8. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Latypov B.M., Ishmukhametov B.Kh., Fluid leakage in a sucker-rod pump with regular micro-relief at surface of the plunger (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, no. 4, . 3339.

9. Wiggins M.L., Chapter 1. Inflow and outflow performance, In: Petroleum Engineering Handbook, SPE, 2007, 900 p.

10. Shi G.B., Neftyanye emul'sii i metody bor'by s nimi (Oil emulsions and methods of their control), Moscow Leningrad: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1964, 144 p.

11. Levchenko D.N. et al., Emul'sii nefti s vodoy i metody ikh razrusheniya (Emulsions of oil with water and methods for their destruction), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1967, 29 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-87-89

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66.08+54.061
A.N. Markin (Institute of Chemistry, the Far Eastern Branch of RAS, RF, Vladivostok; Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), I.S. Trukhin (Institute of Chemistry, the Far Eastern Branch of RAS, RF, Vladivostok), N.V. Polyakova (Institute of Chemistry, the Far Eastern Branch of RAS, RF, Vladivostok), P.A. Zadorozhny (Institute of Chemistry, the Far Eastern Branch of RAS, RF, Vladivostok), S.V. Sukhoverkhov (Institute of Chemistry, the Far Eastern Branch of RAS, RF, Vladivostok)
Study of the formation of carbonate scale in oilfield equipment of the Piltun-Astokhskoye field (Sakhalin Island)

Keywords: carbonates, dolomite, magnesian calcite, formation water, X-ray spectral analysis

Co-precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates is possible in real oilfield systems. Due to co-precipitation, the amount of salts formed may differ significantly from the amount calculated using saturation indexes for the various carbonates individually. Magnesium, along with calcium, is in the overwhelming majority of cases in the reservoir and in produced water, and its presence may have an effect on the calcite formation. The aim of the work was to study scale formation processes on the basis of experiments with synthetic and real samples of the produced water of the Piltun-Astokhskoye oilfield to confirm the possibility of formation of mixed calcium and magnesium carbonates. The composition of scale from oilfield equipment and sediments formed in laboratory experiments was determined by X-ray spectral analysis. To study the scale formation synthetic brines of Piltun-Astokhskoye field produced water were prepared with the following composition (ppm): Na+ 8140, K+ 170,

Ca2+ 470, Mg2+ 140, Cl- 13000, HCO3- 1500, SO42- 730. The precipitation of mixed Ca and Mg carbonates was also studied on samples of real produced water from the PA-A platform and mixtures of produced and sea water. According to X-ray spectral analysis, the composition of scale from oilfield equipment is more complex than the composition of sediments formed from synthetic brines in laboratory experiments. On the diffractograms of sediments formed from synthetic brines in laboratory experiments, in addition to calcium carbonate, there are signals of mixed calcium and magnesium carbonates (magnesian calcite), with different stoichiometric ratios of these metals, with a significant predominance of the former. The formation of dolomite was not observed in the laboratory experiments. It was shown earlier that the amount of magnesium in the scale from oilfield equipment can reach 6.6%wt. in terms of MgCO3. The magnesian calcite found in the scale has several stoichiometric Ca / Mg ratios, so it is difficult to predict its precipitation. Since in real scales magnesium can be present both in the form of magnesian calcite and in the form of dolomite, the magnesium deposition forecast should be made for the dolomite, for which the thermodynamic characteristics are known, and it is possible to calculate the saturation index.

The results obtained indicate that the formation of magnesium carbonate should be taken into consideration when predicting scale precipitation in oilfield systems.

References

1. Vazquez O., Fursov I., Mackay E., Automatic optimization of oil field scale inhibitor squeeze treatment designs, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 2016, V. 147, pp. 302307.

2. Sydykov Zh.D., Sambaeva D.A., Tolokonnikova L.I., Maymekov Z.K., The formation of aragonite and calcite in the system Ca(OH)2-H2O-CO2 - air with different salinity of the solution (In Russ.), Nauka, novye tekhnologii i innovatsii, 2008, no. 34, pp. 220224.

3. Markin A.N., Nizamov R.E., Sukhoverkhov S.V., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya: prakticheskoe rukovodstvo (Oilfield chemistry: a practical guide), Vladivostok: Dal'nauka Publ., 2011, 294 p.

4. Matusevich L.N., Kristallizatsiya iz rastvorov v khimicheskoy promyshlennosti (Crystallization from solutions in the chemical industry), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1968, 304 p.

5. Reeder R.J., Carbonates: mineralogy and chemistry, Berlin: De Gruyter Publ., 1983, 394 p.

6. Chen T., Neville A., Yuan M., Assessing the effect of Mg2+ on CaCO3 scale formation-bulk precipitation and surface deposition, Journal of Crystal Growth, 2004, V. 275, pp. 13411347.

7. Polyakova N.V., Zadorozhnyy P.A., Trukhin I.S. et al., Determination of the chemical composition of formation and sea waters, inorganic deposits sampled at oilfield platform MOLIQPAK (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 4, pp. 4347.

8. Polyakova N.V., Zadorozhnyy P.A., Trukhin I.S. et al., Modeling of scaling in oilfield equipment of the Piltun-Astokhskaya-A platform (In Russ.), Vestnik DVO RAN = Bulletin of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2017, no. 6, pp. 98105.

9. Modeling of scaling in the system of maintaining reservoir pressure on the Piltun-Astokhskaya-A platform (Sakhalin-2 project) (In Russ.), Vestnik Dal'nevostochnogo otdeleniya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk = Bulletin of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2017, no. 6, pp. 106112.

10. Polyakova N.V., Trukhin I.S., Zadorozhnyy P.A. et al., Comparison of Physicochemical model and real composition of scales in oilfield equipment units of the Platform A-B (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2017, no. 3, pp. 2632.

11. Frigo D.M., SIEP 99-5679. Scaling manual: inhibition of oilfield scales. Hague: Shell International Exploration and Production B.V., 1999, 53 p.

12. Patton C.C., Applied water technology, Oklahoma: Campbell petroleum series, 1991, 369 p.

13. Tishchenko P.Ya., Svininnikov A.I., Pavlova G.Yu. et al., Dolomite formation in the Sea of Japantc "Dolomite formation in the Sea of Japan" (In Russ.), Tikhookeanskaya geologiya, 2001, no. 5, pp. 8492.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-90-93

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622.276.43
R.Z. Nurgaliev (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), K.R. Urazakov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), M.Ya. Habibullin (Branch of Ufa State Petroleum Technological University in Oktyabrsky, RF, Oktyabrsky)
Improving efficiency of packers subjected to alternate axial loads

Keywords: packer, seals, friction, wear, tightness, pressure, contact

In the process of applying pulsed non-stationary flooding of hydrocarbon deposits on the mouth or on the bottom (suspended on the tubing below the packer) of the injection well, hydraulic pulse devices are installed. When they work (creating impulses in the injected liquid), hydraulic strikes occur at the tubing string at a frequency equal to the frequency of the pulses generated, at the output of the devices. As a result, the tubing string and the packer are moved back and forth. Hence, there is a need to ensure the long-term reliability of the sealing elements of the packer and, consequently, the long-term sealing of the annular space for effective liquid injection. Therefore, when constructing seals of movable joints, it is necessary to represent a set of problems of tightness, friction and wear. Several significant factors that affect the durability of the packer seal during long-term pulsed pumping of liquid have been analyzed. When determining the lifetime of the packer, it is necessary to take into account the change in contact pressure with a change in operating temperature and acceleration of the aging process under dynamic conditions due to the vibration of the seating positions (reciprocating packer motion with compaction during continuous impulse pumping of fluids into the well). The combined action of packer movement and pressure pulsation in the compaction intensify the mechanochemical aging processes. To increase the durability of packer seals during long-term pulsed pumping of liquid into the well, in addition to replacing rubber materials with rubber-fabric, it is necessary to use damping equipment complete with impulse devices. Their application will significantly reduce the oscillation amplitude of the packer (the length of the stroke of the sealing element S) and the maximum working time of the seal.

References

1. Khabibullin M.Y., Suleimanov R.I., Selection of optimal design of a universal device for nonstationary pulse pumping of liquid in a reservoir pressure maintenance system, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 2018, V. 54, no. 34, pp. 225232, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10556-018-0467-2

2. Khabibullin M.Ya., Arslanov I.G., Abdyukova R.Ya., Optimization of oil replacement process in case of stationary impulse injection of water (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2014, no. 3, pp. 2428.

3. Kazymov Sh.P., Abdullaeva E.S., Radzhabov N.M., Structure of swelling packers and their applicability in the fields of Azerbaijan (In Russ.), Nauchnye trudy NIPI Neftegaz, SOCAR, 2015, V. 3, no. 3, pp. 4351, DOI: 10.5510/OGP20150300251

4. Khabibullin M.Ya., Suleymanov R.I., Sidorkin D.I., Laboratory-and-theoretical studies of operationof two-equalizer design of the device for pulsed injection of liquid into the well (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neftʹ i gaz, 2016, no. 5, pp. 109113.

5. Khabibullin M.Y., Suleimanov R.I., Sidorkin D.I., Arslanov I.G., Parameters of damping of vibrations of tubing string in the operation of bottomhole pulse devices, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 2017, V. 53, no. 56, pp. 378384, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10556-017-0350-6

6. Khabibullin M.Ya., Sidorkin D.I., Determination of tubing string vibration parameters under pulsed injection of fluids into the well (In Russ.), Nauchnye trudy NIPI Neftegaz GNKAR, 2016, V. 3, no. 3, pp. 2732, http://dx.doi.org/10.5510/OGP20160300285

7. Khabibullin M.Ya., Suleymanov R.I., Sidorkin D.I., Arslanov I.G., Parameters vibration damping columns tubing at workdownhole pulse device (In Russ.), Khimicheskoe i neftegazovoe mashinostroenie, 2017, no. 6, pp. 1923.

8. Kraselʹskiy I.V., Dobygin M.N., Kombalov V.S., Osnovy raschetov na trenie i iznos (Fundamentals of calculations for friction and wear), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1977, 526 p.

9. Arslanov I.G., Khabibullin M.Ya., Raschety v teoreticheskoy i prikladnoy mekhanike (Calculations in theoretical and applied mechanics), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2016, 94 p.

10. Khabibullin M.Ya., Suleymanov R.I., Filimonov O.V., Increasing of efficiency of single-time hydroimpulse processings of bottomhole zone of injection wells (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neftʹ i gaz, 2017, no. 6, pp. 113117.

11. Orlov Z.D., Orlov G.S., Chayskaya L.P., Rezinotkanevye uplotneniya (Rubber-cloth seals), Moscow: Publ. of TSNIITEhneftekhim, 1979, 80 p.

12. Kondakov L.A., Rabochie zhidkosti i uplotneniya gidravlicheskikh sistem (Working fluids and seals of hydraulic systems), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1982, 216 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-94-97

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

681.518:622.276
V.V. Kozlov (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), I.S. Neustroev (Gazprom Dobycha Yamburg LLC, RF, Novy Urengoy), V.M. Spasibov Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), V.G. Logachev Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), L.N. Makarova Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen)
Automated expert system for analysis of failures and signaling systems at the enterprises of the oil and gas industry

Keywords: reliability, durability, technological equipment, oil and gas industry, RCA (Root Cause Analysis), data mining, neural networks, intelligent systems, data analysis

Automated technological complexes in the oil and gas industry are characterized by increasing requirements for the continuity of their equipment. The development of technology, the increasing complexity of the processes, digitalization of production - these are the main reasons for the changes. At the same time, the exponentially growing volume of information circulating in the control system creates a stable platform for using modern data analysis methods in order to identify hidden patterns in them. The revealed patterns, in turn, allow conclusions to be drawn about the causes of emergency and pre-emergency events that occurred at technological facilities. Such an analysis is currently carried out manually, since it requires a highly qualified expert whose functions are difficult to formalize. The essence of the proposed solution is that modern intelligent systems allow, if not completely exclude a person, then significantly reduce his labor costs.

The developed software package implements an approach called RCA (root cause analysis) using the Data Mining method. This is an intensively developing method of analyzing large amounts of information, different from the classical methods of mathematical statistics. It allows detecting previously unknown, non-trivial, but practically useful and accessible interpretations of knowledge necessary for decision-making in raw data. The result of the work is a program written in the Delphi language, which provides the expert with a number of tools that significantly reduce his labor costs and expand opportunities. Among them: the tool for event processing, which allows you to sel ect the most vulnerable positions in the analyzed data file; the tool for constructing histograms of the distribution of alarms over time; the tool for analyzing the dependencies of events fr om previous events; the tool for analyzing failures and determining their criticality.

Further development of the work involves the expansion of the list of supported information systems, as well as the complication of data processing algorithms. Thus, the creation of a common base of failures of an enterprise equipped with an automated expert system will make it possible to predict the development of failure situations at facilities. This will provide an early response to such events and will significantly improve the reliability of automated technological systems in the oil and gas industry.

References

1. Baffers J., Kose M.A., Ohnsorge F., Stocker M., The Great plunge in oil prices: causes, consequences, and policy responses, policy research, World bank group, 2015, 60 p.

2. Kozlov V.V., Lapik N.V., Popova N.V., Optimization of operational costs when operating an electric-centrifugal pumping unit (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2016, no. 6, pp. 4348.

3. Gao C., Rajeswaran R., Nakagawa E., A literature review on smart well technology, SPE 106011-MS, 2007.

4. Barsegyan A.A., Kupriyanov M.S., Stepanenko V.V., Kholod I.I., Metody i modeli analiza dannykh: OLAP i Data Mining (Methods and models of data analysis: OLAP and Data Mining), St. Petersburg: BKhV-Peterburg Publ., 2004, 336 p.

5. MacLennan J., ZhaoHui Tang, Crivat B., Data Mining with Microsoft SQL Server 2008, Wiley Publishing, 2009.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-98-101

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

621.642.075.4+ 621.642.86
R.Z. Gadelshin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
A study on the effectiveness of rim seals operation for external floating roof tanks

Keywords: external floating-roof tank, rim seal, mechanical shoe seal, shoe-mounted secondary seal, secondary seal gap, evaporation loss

Tank storage of volatile organic compounds in above ground tanks is associated with evaporation losses. To reduce product loss from the annular space between the floating roof and the tank shell, a rim seal, which usually includes primary and secondary seals, is used. Earlier studies have shown that secondary seal increases efficiency of reducing losses by mitigating wind flow effect. However, arising of gaps between the secondary seal and the wall during operation reduces the effectiveness and increases the loss. The U.S. EPA documents show that gap increasing between the secondary seal and the tank shell leads to evaporation losses growth up to three to six times. The causes of seal gaps emergences, as well as factors influencing gap increase, however, in previous studies are not given.

In the present paper the influence of operational factors and design features on the gap size between the secondary seal and the tank shell for external floating roof tank with a capacity of 50,000 m³ was evaluated, the causes of gaps were identified, and the method for secondary seal efficiency improving was proposed.

The studies took place with two existing tanks equipped with a primary mechanical shoe seal and shoe-mounted secondary seal. The following parameters were identified: the width of the gap between the floating roof and the tank shell, the width and the length of the gaps between the secondary seal and the tank shell at several liquid levels with subsequent determination of their area, the height of the excess weld metal of the vertical butt welds of the tank shell. It was established that rising of liquid level results in increasing the area of gaps between the secondary seal and the tank shell.

As indicated, the cause of formation of gaps is the insufficient ability of a secondary seal to change its length when filling and emptying the tank. In this article the principle of compatibility of secondary seal and the tank shell operation is formulated: to ensure continued contact between the secondary seal and the shell, the change in the diameter of the shell when filling and emptying the tank should lead to a corresponding change in the length of secondary seal.

References

1. Karavaychenko M.G., Babin L.A., Usmanov R.M., Rezervuary s plavayushchimi kryshami (External floating-roof tanks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992, 236 p.

2. Gadel'shin R.Z., Luk'yanova I.E., Povyshenie nadezhnosti plavayushchikh pokrytiy rezervuarov (Improving the reliability of floating roof tanks), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 1999, 239 p.

3. Gadel'shin R.Z., Gadel'shina A.R., The influence of operating factors on tank floating roof peripheral sealant functionality (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2013, no. 3, pp. 8084.

4. Myers P.E., Above ground storage tanks, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

5. European Parliament and Council Directive 94/63/EC of 20 December 1994. On the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions resulting from the storage of petrol and its distribution from terminals to service stations, 1994, 24 p.

6. Emission factor documentation for AP-42. Section 7.1 Organic Liquid Storage Tanks. Final Report, 2006.

7. Konstantinov N.N., Bor'ba s poteryami ot ispareniya nefti i nefteproduktov (Losses from evaporation of oil and oil products suppression), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1961, 259 p.

8. Rzhavskiy E.L., Glushkov E.I., Investigation of rim seal in external floating roof tanks (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1970, no. 7, pp. 1621.

9. Khafizov F.M., Sokrashchenie poter' ot ispareniya benzinov iz rezervuarov umen'sheniem vzaimodeystviya vozdukha s isparyayushcheysya poverkhnost'yu (Reduction of losses from the evaporation of gasoline from tanks by reducing the interaction of air with the evaporating surface): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1988.

10. Evtikhin V.F., Operation of the Wiggins system seal on a tank with a capacity of 10,000 m3 with a floating roof (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 1971, no. 10, pp. 2628.

11. Evtikhin V.F., Ivanyukov Yu.D., Kochko E.F., Fedorov V.K., Experimental tanks with floating roofs and the need to improve their designs (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 1973, no. 9, pp. 16.

12. Korshak A.A., Resurso- i energosberezhenie pri transportirovke i khranenii uglevodorodov (Resource and energy saving during transportation and storage of hydrocarbons), Rostov-on-Don: Feniks Publ., 2016, 411 p.

13. Runchal A.K., Hydrocarbon vapor emissions from floating roof tanks and the role of aerodynamic modifications, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1978, V. 28, no. 5, pp. 498501.

14. U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, URL: https://www.govregs.com/regulations/expand/title40_chapterI_part60_subpartKa_section60.112a#title40_...

15. RULE 1178. Further reduction of VOC emissions from storage Tanks at petroleum facilities, California Environmental Protection Agency, 2018.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-102-106

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

622.692.4-192
Ya.M. Fridland (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), D.A. Neganov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), V.M. Varshitskii (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Bogatch (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Local collapse of the pipeline wall under combined loading

Keywords: main pipeline, operating conditions, internal pressure, temperature differential, bearing capacity, local collapse, finite element calculation

The article presents the results of computer simulation of the conditions for the formation of a local collapse of the pipeline wall, depending on the ratio of internal forces, which are implemented in the cross section of the pipeline under various operating conditions. The values of the maximum bending moment of the pipeline with the loss of local stability of the wall depending on the internal pressure and axial force associated for the underground pipeline with the internal pressure and temperature differential are obtained. The pipeline bending was simulated using the LS-DYNA software for engineering calculations in a three-dimensional shell formulation using finite elements of the first order of accuracy. The plastic properties of the material of the pipe wall were set by a power-stress-strain diagram. The axial force was set in a wide range of values, overlapping tension and compression. Moment loading was set by turning the pipe ends at a constant speed for fixed values of the internal pressure and axial force. The limiting bending moment was determined at the maximum of the moment dependence on the angle of rotation of the ends. According to the results of a series of calculations, the dependences of the limiting bending moment on the axial force for two values of internal pressure 0 and 3.8 MPa are obtained. Fr om the dependencies obtained, it was concluded that the internal pressure with tensile axial loads increases the resistance of the pipe wall to local collapse, while with compressive pressure it decreases. The resulting effect of internal pressure with compressive axial forces differs fr om the results of P. Schaumann, Ch. Keindorf, H. Brggemann (2005), wh ere a conclusion was made about the supporting effect of internal pressure on the local collapse of the wall with both tensile and compressive axial forces.

References

1. Lisin YU.V., Ermish S.V., Makhutov N.A. et al., Impact of stress-strain state of the pipeline on the lim it state of the pipeline (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologiya truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, V. 7, no. 4, pp. 12-16.

2. Varshitskiy V.M., Zhulidov S.N., Engineering evaluation of the performance of defect-free girth welds of underground pipelines in areas with nonnormative axis curvature (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologiya truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 5, pp. 490-495.

3. Schaumann P., Keindorf Ch., Brggemann H., lasto-plastic behavior and buckling analysis of steel pipelines exposed to internal pressure and additional loads, Proceedings of OMAE2005, 2005, June 12-17, Halkidiki, Greece.

4. Nobuhisa S., Joe K., Junji S., Strain capacity of high-strength line pipes, JFE GIHO, 2007, no. 17, Aug., pp. 3136.

5. Hauch S., Bai Y., Bending moment capacity of pipes, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Offshore, Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE, 1999, Paper no. PL-99-5033.

6. Tsuru E., Agata J., Nagata Y., Analytical approach for buckling resistance of UOE Linepipe with orthogonal anisotropy under combined loading, Proceedings of the 8th International Pipeline Conference IPC2010 September 27 - October 1, 2010, Calgary, Alberta.

7. Nobuhisa S., Tajika H., Igi S., Local buckling behavior of 48 x80 high-strain line pipes, Proceedings of the 8th International Pipeline Conference IPC2010 September 27-October 1, 2010, Calgary, Alberta, 2010.

8. LS-DYNA keyword user's manual, LSTC, Version R7.0, February 2013.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-107-109

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621. 646
F.I. Plekhanov (Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University, RF, Izhevsk), V.P. Grahov (Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University, RF, Izhevsk)
Improving the design and parameters of the drive of the shut-off valves

Keywords: mechanism for overlapping pipeline, planetary gear, strength

Planetary gears are used in many machines and mechanisms, including mechanism for overlapping pipeline, due to their high efficiency and good mass-size indicators. Existing two-speed manual valve actuators comprising speed switches made in the form of a link mechanism or rigidly connected to the sun gear of a polyhedron and the corresponding adapter are difficult to manufacture, non-technological or of large axial dimensions. The design of the two-speed manual drive of the shut-off pipeline armature developed at Izhevsk State Technical University is devoid of these drawbacks. In it, the speed switch is made in the form of a flange rigidly connected to the drive pulley.

An important indicator of the strength of the planetary gear planet and drive assembly as a whole is the load distribution unevenness coefficient in the coupling zone of the satellite axis and the cheek of the carrier, on which the magnitude of the normal contact stresses in the specified zone depends. When studying the stress-strain state of the satellite axis, the latter in the zone of its interface with the cheek's cheek is considered as a beam on an elastic base. The solution of the differential equation of the curved axis made it possible to determine the dependence of the load distribution non-uniformity over the thickness of the driver's cheek and to select the rational parameters of the drive.

References

1. Patent no. 2413114 RF, Manual two-speed drive for multi-purpose accessories, Inventors: Chernov A.V., Chernov P.A., Rotermel' P.V., Luk'janchenko N.A.

2. Plekhanov F.I., Tonkikh A.S., Vychuzhanina E.F., Planetary gear rigs: design features and technical-economic indicators (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 6, pp. 4446.

3. Patent no. 2567973 RF, Toothed planetary gear, Inventors: Plekhanov F.I., Senyutkin P.A., Plekhanov A.D.

4. Plekhanov F., Goldfarb V.I., Rational designs of planetary transmissions, geometry of gearing and strength parameters, In: Theory and Practice of Gearing and Transmissions, Part of the Mechanisms and Machine Science book series, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016, V. 34, pp. 285300.

5. Plekhanov F.I., Suntsov A.S., The influence of stiffness of the planet shafts and bearings on load distribution among the planets in a planetary gear (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Mashinostroenie, 2016, no. 3, pp. 10-16.

6. Akhmetzyanov M.KH., Lazarev I.B., Soprotivlenie materialov (Strength of materials), Moscow: YURAYT Publ., 2011, 299 p.

7. Kudryavtsev V.N., Kirdyashev YU.N., Ginzburg E.G., Planetarnye peredachi (Planetary gears), Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1977, 563 p.

8. Plekhanov F.I., Grakhov V.P., Suntsov A.S., Planetary gear transmissions of build and travelling machines: rational design, cost and performance data (In Russ.), Mekhanizatsiya stroitelʹstva, 2016, no. 4, pp. 2225.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-4-110-112

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