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July 2018




GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

550.8.003
R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), V.G. Bazarevskaya (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.G. Ziyatdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), G.. Lykov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), G.S. Valeeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Evaluation of geological and economic efficiency of prospecting and exploratory drilling at license blocks of Tatneft PJSC

Keywords: prospecting drilling, exploratory drilling, geological and economic efficiency, evaluation

Petroleum industry is the major contributor to the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan ensuring natural resources and energy security of the region and the whole of Russia.  While planning oil and gas geological prospecting activities, just like any other financial and business operation, decisions are made based on their technical and economic efficiency. Efficient planning of geological prospecting activities should also take into account such important figure as total investment per unit increment of hydrocarbon reserves. While planning the evolution of this parameter for quantitative representation of the strategic targets of an enterprise, historical data are also considered. In other words, a look-back analysis of geological and economic efficiency of previous activities is necessary. Of particular importance is exploration drilling success rates expressed as percentage and total costs per unit of reserves increment. From 2013 to 2017, 30 wildcat wells and 15 exploratory wells have been drilled at license blocks operated by Tatneft with total drilling meterage of approximately 77 km. Average success rate of prospecting and exploratory drilling for the same period exceeded 70 %. Incremental recoverable oil reserves of 1+1+2+2 categories from drilling of wildcat wells made, considering the write-off, approximately 4 million tons, from drilling of exploratory wells 2 million tons.  Specific recoverable oil reserves per exploration well slightly exceeded 137 thousand tons, while incremental oil reserves per 1 meter drilled were estimated at about 83 tons. Over the past five years, average total cost per one incremental ton of recoverable oil made 1167 rubbles. Results of drilling success rate estimates imply strong dependence of this parameter on the degree of exploration maturity of the territory and linear dimensions (area and vertical closure) of drilling prospects. Thus, higher drilling success rates in coal formations can be attributed to distinct and better-defined traps associated with such rocks compared to Devonian sediments. Obviously, more information is available to geologists for location of exploratory wells than in the case of wildcat drilling; namely, well logging data from offset wells, refined structural plan based on drilling data, structural correlations and profiles, production rates from offset wells in C1 region of the discovered accumulation and other. All of the above also yield higher drilling success rates.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-6-7

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553.98.048
R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), A.F. Safarov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.M. Kalimullin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.A. Dryagalkina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.V. Ramadanov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Probabilistic-statistical estimation of reserves and resources in Uncertainty_analysis module of ROXAR RMS software

Keywords: risk, probabilistic-statistical estimate, Monte-Carlo method, classification of oil and combustible gases reserves and resources, hydrocarbon reserves and resources management system (SPE-PRMS), comparison between domestic and international reserves estimation techniques

Today, a large variety of hydrocarbon reserves and resources classifications exist in the oil industry, and each of them has its benefits and drawbacks. This paper presents analysis, comparison, and correlation of the results obtained from otherwise different methods of hydrocarbon reserves and resources estimation.

The objective of this paper is to discuss details of reserves estimation by different methods and examine the possibility and practicability of application of probabilistic approach to reserves estimate. Oil reserves have been estimated by volumetric method based on the geologic model generated by IRAP RMS software. Variation of volumetric parameters was assigned in Uncertainty module which makes it possible to build a geologic model with equally probable implementations with limited data on key reservoir characteristics. In estimating the uncertainty, variations were assigned for the following parameters: oil-water level, correction factor, porosity and water saturation. After calculations and search of possible implementations, the software generated the result in three parameters: P10 (possible), P50 (probable), and P90 (proved). To compare the results of reserves estimation, generated net pay maps were used that allow analyzing distribution of in-situ reserves.

The research suggests that input variables and different methods of 3D geological modelling affect the results in distribution of reservoir properties and key parameters for volumetric estimation of reserves. Multi-variant distribution of volumetric parameters in the geological environment provides consistent estimates of reserves (resources).

References

1. Kelliher C.F., Mahoney L.S., Using Monte Carlo simulation to improve long-term investment decision, The Appraisal Journal, 2000, no. 1, pp. 4456.

2. Khisamov R.S., Safarov A.F., Kalimullin A.M., Primenenie litologo-fatsial'nogo analiza pri postroenii geologicheskoy modeli bobrikovskogo gorizonta Sirenevskogo mestorozhdeniya (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2017, no. 6, pp. 1115.

3. Petroleum Resources Management System, URL: http://www.spe.org/industry/docs/Petroleum_Resources_Management_System_2007.pdf.

4. Gert A.A. et al., Stoimostnaya otsenka neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy i uchastkov nedr s uchetom neopredelennosti i riskov (Valuation of oil and gas fields and subsoil blocks taking into account uncertainty and risks), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SNIIGGiMS, 2009, 227 p.    

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-8-11

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550.8:553.98(470.41)
R.S. Khisamov (TATNEFT PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), V.G. Bazarevskaya (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), .P. Bachkov (TATNEFT PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), .G. Ziyatdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), G.. Lykov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Confirmability of geophysical data by drilling and well production testing in the territory of Tatnefts activities

Keywords: confirmability, seismic survey, efficiency, oil, geological exploration activities, discrepancy, well logging, success rate

Under conditions of high degree of exploration maturity and extensive development of hydrocarbon resources in the Republic of Tatarstan there is an urgent need for application and combination of enabling technologies for geological prospecting and exploration, such as areal and downhole geophysical methods. Geophysical survey, in addition to drilling, is the primary data acquisition tool at all phases and stages of geological exploration, which provides insight into the geological structure and evaluates potential of hydrocarbon discoveries across exploration areas. Success of geological exploration activities depends primarily on the quality and accuracy of geophysical data interpretations. Despite obvious advantages of individual geophysical methods, it is impractical to rely on one technology. To make a well-argued decision on further exploration activities a competent geologist should analyze all available geological and geophysical data (conventional core studies, SCAL, well logging, seismic survey, other geophysical survey methods, well tests and so on). Two- and three-dimensional CDP seismic surveys have become firmly established as the main geophysical method used to locate wildcat and exploratory wells. Almost the entire territory of the Republic of Tatarstan is covered by 2D and 3D CDP seismic activities. Efficiency of seismic surveys is evaluated based on exploration drilling results. These are degree to which reflector elevations below sea level obtained fr om seismic data can be confirmed by deep hole drilling data and closeness of agreement with data obtained from wells that yielded oil during production testing. In 2003-2017, discrepancy between 2D CDP seismic results and drilling data was estimated at 8.9 m for Reflector V, 8.4 m for Reflector U and 11.2 m for Reflector D. Out of 46 wells drilled based on 2D CDP seismic data, 37 wells confirmed presence of oil (oil prospecting efficiency exceeded 80%). With 3D CDP seismic method resolution of as high as 5 meters, average data discrepancy for Reflector V made 3.2 m, for Reflector U 5.0 m and 9.4 m for Reflector D. Out of 29 wells drilled based on 3D CDP seismic survey data, 25 wells confirmed presence of oil (oil prospecting efficiency is 93 % without account of two wells at the stage of production testing). In view of high degree of exploration maturity and noticeable depletion of active oil reserves, the majority of geological prospecting efforts over the past years have been focused on unconventional reserves. Tatneft has been awarded a license block wh ere the Company has established a scientific (Domanic) polygon aimed at creation of technologies for prospecting and development of Domanic deposits. Two license blocks have been awarded to create polygons aimed at development and pilot testing of technologies for heavy oil prospecting and production from shallow (10 m) terrigenous reservoirs and Permian carbonate rocks.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-12-14

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WELL DRILLING

622.24.085.22
R.I. Shafigullin (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), A.Ya. Vakula (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), A.A. Mukhametshin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.L. Nasyrov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), F.F. Akhmadishin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Construction of a multilateral well in Shegurchinskoye field of Tatneft PJSC

Keywords: multilateral well, sidetrack, retrievable whipstock, cutters, liner

The paper discusses construction of a multilateral well in two horizons (Vereiskian and Kizelovskian) using a retrievable whipstock and a specialized remover as an alternative to drilling two horizontal wells. Multilateral technology is particularly required for green small fields with non-uniform permeable reservoirs since their development with vertical wells is uneconomical. As for the mature fields, development of secondary targets using multilateral technology is equal to a new field discovery with developed infrastructure.

Ready-to-use equipment can be shipped by any mode of transportation. OI-168 whipstock is assembled at the wellhead by cross-threading and is connected to a cutters assembly. Window cutting is performed in one trip. There is possibility to drill a sidetrack pilot section with a window-cutters assembly. The tools easily passed through the window during sidetrack drilling, casing and conditioning. A specialized remover tool was used for whipstock pulling. OI-168 whipstock can be pulled out of hole as a unit, without any parts left for drilling out.

Once the well was drilled, a dual-completion system was installed and the well was put on stream at initial flow rate of 9.43 t/d, with 5% watercut and 50×50 % distribution of production from the horizons. Application of this equipment during construction of 16070g dual well in the Shegurchinskoye field proved viability of methods and technology developed by TatNIPIneft Institute for drilling multilateral wells with 186-mm and 146-mm casing strings.

References

1. Khakimzyanov I.N. et al., Nauka i praktika primeneniya razvetvlennykh i mnogozaboynykh skvazhin pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Science and practice of using branched and multi-hole wells in the oil field development): edited by Khisamov R.S., Kazan': FEN Publ., 2011, 319 p.

2. Mukhametshin A.A., Zarubezhnyy i otechestvennyy opyt bureniya mnogostvol'nykh skvazhin s sozdaniem germetichnogo soedineniya stvolov (Foreign and domestic experience in multi-barrel wells drilling with the creation of a hermetic joint of wellbores), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft'/PAO Tatneft', 2015, V. 83, pp. 201206.

3. Mukhametshin A.A., Tekhnika i tekhnologiya stroitel'stva mnogostvol'nykh skvazhin (Technique and technology of construction of multilateral wells), Collected papers Innovatsionnoe neftegazovoe oborudovanie: problemy i resheniya (Innovative oil and gas equipment: problems and solutions), Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference, Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2014, pp. 913.

4. Mukhametshin A.A., Ilalov R.Kh., Nasyrov A.L., Razrabotka oborudovaniya dlya stroitel'stva mnogostvol'nykh skvazhin s sokhraneniem prokhodnogo secheniya osnovnogo stvola (Development of equipment for the construction of multilateral wells with maintaining the flow area of the original hole), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft'/PAO Tatneft', 2015, V. 83, pp. 83, pp. 194200.

5. Patent no. 2636608 RF, MPK E 21 V 7/08, 43/10, 33/10, Method for construction of additional well bore of multi-lateral well and device for its implementation, Inventors: Akhmadishin F.F., Mukhametshin A.A., Nasyrov A.L.

6. Patent no. 2414580 RF, MPK E 21 B 7/08, Retractable deflector, Inventors: Zaynullin A.G., Khisamov R.S., Nuriev I.A., Ilalov R.Kh., Mukhametshin A.A., Sabirov M.G., Petlin Yu.I., Malyshev S.G.

7. Patent no. 2415250 RF, MPK E 21 V 31/20, Device for extracting wedge-deflector from well, Inventors: Zaynullin A.G., Nuriev I.A., Polenok P.V., Sabirov M.G., Mukhametshin A.A., Ilalov R.Kh., Petlin Yu.I., Malyshev S.G.

8. Patent no. 2483187 RF, MPK E21V 23/03, Guiding device for introduction of shank to side shaft, Inventors: Zaynullin A.G., Mukhametshin A.A., Ilalov R.Kh., Sabirov M.G., Romanov B.M., Garaev N.A.    

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-15-17

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622.245.124
I.M. Zaripov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), .R. Iskhakov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.I. Kateev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), .. Zaripov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Tatnefts experience in well completion using fiberglass-reinforced plastic casing strings

Keywords: fiberglass casing string, corrosion resistance, cementing

Installation of a conventional steel casing string as the production string during construction of oil production wells has a serious disadvantage - it is associated with potential corrosion problems. Application of fiberglass-reinforced plastic tubulars eliminates expenditures related to corroded casing repair and implementation of cathodic protection systems.

Founded in 2014, Tatneft-Presscomposite Company is engaged in production of tubing, line and casing pipes from fiberglass materials. Active corrosion damage of the tubing has been encountered in injection wells at the Kuakbashskaya production area. Thus the operator, Leninogorskneft Oil-and-Gas Production Division, came up with the solution to re-drill the wells and inject water through fiberglass casing string. In 20162017, fiberglass production strings have been installed in wells Nos. 38400d and 38392d of Kuakbashskaya area. To date, four more fiberglass production strings have been installed and cemented in slim-hole production wells. Test wells are currently in operation: two of them are operated as injection wells while four slim-hole wells are used for production, two wells produce through the casing string so that production tubing is not used. Water is injected through the casing string.

Technological andeconomic efficiency of the application of fiberglass pipes along the entire
wellbore length is attributable to elimination of expenses on the repair of the corroded steel casing strings, implementation of cathodic protection systems and no need to use production tubing

References

1. Perlin S.M., Primenenie stekloplastikov dlya trub neftyanogo sortamenta (The use of fiberglass for oil country tubular goods), Collected papers Mashiny i neftyanoe oborudovanie (Machines and oil equipment), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1965, V. 11, pp. 3-7.

2. Yusupov I.G., Golyshkin V.G., Krylov V.I., Kreplenie skvazhin plastmassovymi trubami (Well casing with plastic pipes), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1977, 75 p.

3. RD 39-0147585-081-92. Instruktsiya po tekhnologii krepleniya skvazhin stekloplastikovymi trubami v intervale produktivnogo gorizonta dlya kontrolya za izmeneniem neftenasyshchennosti v protsesse ekspluatatsii (The instruction on technology of well casing by fiberglass pipes in the interval of productive horizon for the control over change of oil saturation in the course of operation), Bugul'ma, Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 1992, 48 p.    
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-18-19

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.63
N.G. Ibragimov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), M.Kh. Musabirov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.Yu. Dmitrieva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), I.M. Nasibullin (RtsiChimTech Regional Engineering Center), M.T. Khannanov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk)
On necessity of targeted approach to selection of chemical systems for bottomhole zone treatment of Tulskian-Bobrikovskian reservoirs

Keywords: mud acid treatment, alkali, acid, sandstone reservoir, surfactants, Tulskian-Bobrikovskian sediments

Mud acid treatment is a conventional chemical enhanced oil recovery method commonly used in sandstone reservoirs. The paper presents results of analysis of field data, review of domestic and foreign literature, and patent research on chemistry and technologies of bottomhole zone mud acid treatments in sandstone reservoirs. It was found out that application of hydrofluoric acid for treatment of sandstones containing clayey and carbonate rocks initiates adverse physical and chemical processes in situ resulting in formation of reservoir-damaging compounds in the near-wellbore zone. Besides, HF acid is characterized by increased toxicity and corrosivity. The solution of the problem is seen in improvement of efficiency of mud acid treatments through improved design of HF acid-free chemical compositions and advanced injection technologies.

The first stage of the project involved lithological analysis to understand and to describe the mineral composition of the Tulskian-Bobrikovskian core samples. More than 50 core samples (sandstones, siltstones, mudstones) from the Ersubaikinskoye, Arkhangelskoye, Vostochno-Ekaterinovskoye, Tyugeevskoye, Shegurchinskoye have been analyzed, including radiographic and micrographic studies of thin sections. The second stage involved morphological and genetic analysis of clayey minerals to understand the possible effect on the reservoir properties following mud acid treatments. Studies using X-raying, optical and scanning electron microscopes provided quality visualization of pore space, as well as main quantitative core parameters for future model studies and chemical treatment control: volume of pore space, total volume of a core sample, pore space volume to total core sample volume ratio, number of pores in the core sample. The first results of physical modeling studies demonstrated the necessity and the importance of targeted stimulation of various lithological types of reservoirs, even of the same formation.


Based on the results of
the studies, two base chemical compositions have been formulated: inhibited
synthetic hydrochloric acid + complexon based on phosphonic acid + surfactants
for treatment  of the Tulskian reservoirs
represented by siltstones with clayey-carbonate cement, and alkali + complexon
based on derivatives of tetraacetic acid + surfactants for treatment  of the Bobrikovskian reservoirs made of silty
sandstones. These systems are recommended for pilot testing in producing wells
of the Oil and Gas Production Department Yamashneft (test site of the Visean
Tulskian-Bobrikovskian productive formations

References

1. Patent no. 2308475 RF, MPK S 09 K 8/74, Composition for acid treatment of critical zone of formation (Variants), Inventor: Musabirov M.Kh.

2. Glushchenko V.N., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya (Oilfield chemistry), Part 4. Kislotnaya obrabotka skvazhin (Acid treatment of wells): edited by Mishchenko I.T., Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2010, 703 s.

3. Musabirov M.Kh., Sokhranenie i uvelichenie produktivnosti neftyanykh plastov (Preserving and increasing the productivity of oil reservoirs), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 424 p.

4. Magadova L.A. et al., Generation of sedimentation in the interaction with acid compositions of a terrigene reservoir (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 9, pp. 31-36.

5. Patent no. 2182963 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/27, Acid composition for treating terrigenous reservoirs, Inventors: Akhmetshin I.D., Kol'chugin I.S., Limanovskiy V.M., Litvinov M.V., Lyshko O.G., Osenov N.L., Osipov E.V., Samorodskaya N.E., Filipov V.T.

6. Patent no. 2433260 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/27, S 09 K 8/74, Method of sour well intervention in terriogenous reservoir, Inventors:  Grebennikov V.T., Kachalov O.B., Potekhin V.A., Kornilova E.S.

7. Patent no. 2244816 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/27, Acid composition for treating terrigenous oil reservoirs and a method for acid treatment of bottom area of formation, Inventors:  Magadov R.S, Magadova L.A., Nikolaeva N.M., Pakhomov M.D., Gubanov V.B., Magadov V.R., Chekalina Gul'chekhra, Silin M.A., Gaevoy E.G., Rud' M.I., Zaytsev K.I.

8. Kryanev D.Yu. et al., Razrabotka kislotnykh kompozitsiy dlya intensifikatsii dobychi nefti iz terrigennykh kollektorov primenitel'no k usloviyam mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Development of acid compositions for the intensification of oil production from terrigenous reservoirs in relation to the conditions of the fields of Western Siberia), Collected papers Problemy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami nefti (Problems of developing deposits with hard-to-recover oil reserves), Proceedings of VNIIneft' OAO, Moscow,  2006, V. 134, pp. 6-14.

9. Nasibulin I.M., Misolina N.A., Baymashev B.A., Uchet vliyaniya glinistoy sostavlyayushchey na rezul'tativnost' primeneniya metodov intensifikatsii v terrigennykh kollektorakh (Taking into account the influence of the clay component on the effectiveness of the application of intensification methods in terrigenous reservoirs), Collected papers Vysokovyazkie nefti i prirodnye bitumy: problemy i povyshenie effektivnosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy (High viscosity oil and natural bitumen: problems and increasing the efficiency of exploration and development of deposits), Proceedings of Scientific and Practical Conference, dedicated to the memory of Diyashev R.N., Kazan' 5-7 September 2012, Kazan': Fen Publ., 2012, pp. 279-281.

10. Davletov Z.R., Razrabotka i issledovanie ftorsoderzhashchikh kislotnykh sostavov, ne vyzyvayushchikh obrazovaniya osadkov v terrigennom plaste (Development and investigation of fluorine-containing acidic compositions that do not cause precipitation in the terrigenous layer): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow: 2016.

11. Silin M.A. et al., Kislotnye obrabotki plastov i metodiki ispytaniya kislotnykh sostavov (Acid formation treatment and methods for acid compositions testing), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russin State University of Oil and Gas, 2011, 120 p.

12. Ibragimov G.Z., Sorokin V.A., Khisamutdinov N.I., Khimicheskie reagent dlya dobychi nefti (Chemical reagents for oil extraction), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 240 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-20-23

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622.337.2
M.I. Amerkhanov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), .. Zaripov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), .N. Beregovoy (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), N.A. Knyazeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), V.I. Belov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), .R. Razumov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Innovative solution for enhanced of oil recovery at shallow deposits of heavy oil

Keywords: steam-assisted gravity drainage, heavy oil deposits, water producing intervals, thermogelling compositions

Tatneft came up with its heavy oil production program in 2005. In 2006, the pilot project was launched at Ashalchinskoye heavy oil field from drilling of three pairs of dual-wellhead wells with horizontal sections of the length 200-400 m. The first success promoted drilling of conventional single-wellhead horizontal well pairs with steam-assisted gravity drainage becoming the primary production method. In 2012, the project has gained a new momentum after the Russian Government introduced its tax incentives on production of heavy oil with in-situ viscosity of as high as 10,000 mPa×s. From then on, large-scale commercial production of shallow heavy oil has got underway in the Republic of Tatarstan.

Over the course of project evolution, the Companys specialists has met various challenges, starting from selection of the optimal field development system and best strategies for drilling paired horizontal wells with optimal trajectories, selection of downhole equipment and advantageous pump operational characteristics and ending with field treatment and transport of produced oil with development of surface facilities construction projects. To date, the majority of complex challenges have been successfully addressed. This resulted in the increase of daily heavy oil production in Tatneft from several dozens of tones at the beginning of pilot production to more than 5 thousand tones. As of March 2018, cumulative heavy oil production has exceeded 3.8 million tons.

One of the successful examples of innovative solutions is a novel, field proven technology which involves temporary shut-off the unwanted water production in paired horizontal production wells that penetrated water-producing intervals.

References

1. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R., Zaripov A.T., Geological and technological challenges of development of heavy oil reservoir in Ashalchinskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 7, pp. 34-37.

2. Maganov N.U., Ibragimov N.G., Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R., Zaripov A.T., Problems of Tatneft OAO heavy oil project development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 21-23

3. Takhautdinov Sh., Ibragimov N., Khisamov R., Ibatullin R., Amerkhanov M., Zaripov A., Modern SAGD technology From modeling to field monitoring, World Heavy Oil Congress, 5-7 March 2014, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, New Orleans, 2014, WHOC14 257.

4. Shaykhutdinov D.K., Zaripov A.T., Khafizov R.I., Beregovoy A.N., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki zalezhey SVN s primeneniem geleobrazuyushchikh kompozitsiy na gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh (Increasing the efficiency of the development of high viscous oil deposits using gel-forming compositions on horizontal wells), Collected papers Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny i GRP v povyshenii effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Horizontal wells and fracturing in increasing the efficiency of development of oil fields), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference devoted to the founder of horizontal drilling - Grigoryan A.M., Kazan', 6-7 September 2017, Kazan': Slovo Publ., 2017. S. 280-282.

5. Zaripov A.T., Beregovoy A.N., Shaykhutdinov D.K., Khafizov R.I., Zakharov Ya.V., Bisenova A.A., Improving the efficiency of steam-assisted heavy oil production using gel-forming systems (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2018, no. 1, pp. 35-38.

6. Patent no. 2483092 RF, MPK C 09 K 8/42, Composition of polysaccharide gel for killing of high-temperature wells, Inventors: Ibatullin R.R., Amerkhanov M.I., Rakhimova Sh.G., Beregovoy A.N., Zolotukhina V.S., Ibragimov N.G., Fadeev V.G.

7. Patent no. 2522369 RF, MPK E 21 B 43/24, Method for development of high-viscosity oil and/or bitumen deposits with oil-water zones, Inventors: Amerkhanov M.I., Shesternin V.V., Beregovoy A.N., Vasil'ev E.P.



DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-24-27 .

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622.276.61
Sh.G. Rakhimova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.N. Beregovoy (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), N.. Knyazeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), .M. Andriyanova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
A research into effects of water composition on gel formation process and gel stability during on-site preparation of polymer

Keywords: cross-linked polymer systems, viscosity of polymer solution, screen factor, water salinity, iron content, hydrogen sulfide content

Polyacrylamide-based formation treatment technologies have been extensively used to enhance oil recovery at the field operated by Tatneft. These are applicable under various geological conditions encountered at the Companys fields; particularly, they may be used in terrigenous Devonian and Carboniferous deposits and carbonate reservoirs. They help to address a wide range of challenges: from water shut-off operations in production wells to conformance control treatments in injection wells.

Extensive research efforts have led to development of two promising technologies: water shutoff technology relying on application of high strength polymer systems and EOR technology involving injection of high-strength cross-linked compositions to enhance production from heterogeneous waterflooded formations.  These technologies are based on application of polyacrylamide and complex cross linker to produce a cross-linked polymer system (gel) exhibiting high shear strength under reservoir conditions. Laboratory studies of the effects of water composition on formation of cross-linked polymer compositions and stability of the resultant gel systems have been conducted to improve the performance of the above mentioned methods and other polyacrylamide-based technologies. The research consisted in taking samples of formation water from selected fields operated by nine oil-and-gas production departments of TATNEFT Company and a number of studies and experiments. These included determination of the composition of formation water (six-membered analysis, total salt content, content of hydrogen sulphide, and iron content); determination of the impact of water composition on viscosity and screen-factor of polymer solutions; preparation of cross-linked polymer systems with each type of analyzed formation water and examination of gel stability under near real reservoir conditions.

Based on the analysis and summary of the results obtained, possible solutions for reduction of adverse effects of negative factors on the performance of cross-linked polymer systems have been through out together with recommendations on mitigation of such effects.

References

1. Beregovoy Ant. N., Rakhimova Sh.G., Vasil'ev E.P., Afanas'eva O.I., Belov V.I., Razumov A.R., Rezul'taty primeneniya kompleksa tekhnologiy VPSD dlya ogranicheniya vodopritoka v dobyvayushchie skvazhiny (Results of application of high-strength polymer systems for water shut-off), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / PAO Tatneft', 2017, V. 85, pp. 264-272.

2. Beregovoy Ant. N., Vasil'ev E.P., Uvarov S.G., Afanas'eva O.I., Belov V.I., Razumov A.R., Yartiev A.F., Rezul'taty primeneniya tekhnologiy uvelicheniya nefteizvlecheniya v zavisimosti ot geologo-fizicheskikh usloviy na primere tekhnologiy GES-M, VPSK (Results of application of technologies for increasing oil recovery depending on geological and physical conditions on the example of a hydrophobic emulsion composition and high-strength polymer systems), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / PAO Tatneft', 2017, V. 85, pp. 238-248.

3. Patent no. 2382185 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/22, C 09 K 8/90, Method for injection well infectivity profile aligning and water in-flow limitation for production well (Versions), Inventors: Ibatullin R.R., Amerkhanov M.I., Rakhimova Sh.G., Beregovoy A.N., Zolotukhina V.C., Latypov R.R., Khisamov R.S.

4. Patent no. 2424426 RF, MPK E 21 B 43/22, C 09 K 8/90, Procedure for development of non-uniform reservoir, Inventos: Amerkhanov M.I., Beregovoy A.N., Rakhimova Sh.G., Zolotukhina V.S., Fayzullin I.N., Vasil'ev E.P.

5. Patent no. 2431741 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/22, Procedure for development of non-uniform reservoir, Inventors: Ibatullin R.R., Amerkhanov M.I., Beregovoy A.N., Rakhimova Sh.G., Khisamov R.S., Fayzullin I.N., Farkhutdinov G.N.

6. Burdyn' T.A., Zaks Yu.B., Khimiya nefti, gaza i plastovykh vod (Chemistry of oil, gas and formation water), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 215 p.    


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-28-31

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665.61.035.6
A.Kh. Kabirova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), V.M. Khusainov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Structural phase transition and necessity to consider this phenomenon in projects of heavy oil fields development

Keywords: phase transition temperature, rheology, waterflooding, heavy oil

The paper discusses the problem of structural transition of heavy oil found in Carboniferous reservoirsthe strategic reserve of the Republic of Tatarstan. Heavy oil is characterized by increased concentration of high-molecular compounds (asphaltenes, resins, paraffin) and by high viscosity (30-200 mPas). Because of various physical and chemical processes and change of thermodynamic in-situ conditions, rheological properties of oil change at all stages of the oil extraction process. Considering that temperature is the critical parameter that controls oil viscosity, yield strength, pour point, wax crystallization and precipitation, knowledge of the relationship between the temperature and the rheological properties of oil is very important for planning of reservoir management operations. Selection of the efficient field development strategy and production enhancement methods seems impossible without knowledge about phase transition temperature in reservoirs with in-situ temperature approximating to the transition temperature. For the purpose of this study, the transition temperature was calculated by the indirect method from viscosity vs. temperature relationships and the following approximation of the exponent for solid-like and liquid-like states. The exponents crossing is the point (temperature) of phase transition. For laboratory research, we used the rotary rheometer RHEOTEST RN 4.1. Oil rheological properties were determined for the temperature range from 1C to 40C, effective viscosity for each temperature value was determined for the range from 1 to 60 s-1.


The Volga-Ural petroleum basin fields developed by waterflooding were targets of our research. Changes
of transition temperature and concentrations of asphaltenes and resins occurring in-situ in the process of oil reserves development are shown. It was found that in oil fields developed by waterflooding, the transition temperature tends to increase and approximates to the original in-situ temperature, which might result in decrease of the amount of produced oil.

References

1. Zlobin A.A., Analysis of phase transitions in the pore space paraffin reservoir rocks (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 5, pp. 47-56.

2. Iktisanov V.A., Sakhabutdinov K.G., Rheological studies of paraffin-base oil at different temperatures (In Russ.), Kolloidnyy zhurnal = Colloid Journal, 1999, V. 61, no. 6, pp. 776-779.

3. Khusainov V.M., Struktura ostatochnykh zapasov Tatarstana. Problemy i perspektivy razrabotki (Structure of residual reserves of Tatarstan. Problems and prospects of development), Collected papers Trudnoizvlekaemye i netraditsionnye zapasy uglevodorodov: opyt i prognozy (Hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbon reserves: experiences and forecasts), Proceedings of International scientific and practical conference, Kazan: Fen Publ., 2014, 2014. S. 86-89.

4. Kur'yakov V.N., Issledovanie fazovykh prevrashcheniy v uglevodorodnykh flyuidakh metodom staticheskogo i dinamicheskogo rasseyaniya sveta (Investigation of phase transformations in hydrocarbon fluids using static and dynamic light scattering): thesis of candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Moscow, 2016.

 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-32-34

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276.438
N.G. Ibragimov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), R.Z. Sakhabutdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), F.R. Gubaidulin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), A.N. Sudykin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), O.Yu. Antonov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Technology for water separation and re-injection at well pads in Tatneft PJSC

Keywords: highly watered wellstream, well separation at well pad, technology modification

An effective way to decrease operating costs associated with production of highly watered oil in mature fields is to separate the produced water at the well pad and to re-inject the separated water into injection wells at the same well pad. In this case, the operator saves energy needed to pump-over the fluid into oil gathering lines and inject treated water into formation pressure maintenance system, decreases consumption of fresh and formation water injected to support reservoir energy, unloads production and transportation facilities, and minimizes operational and environmental hazards resulting fr om commingled production.

Tatneft PJSC successfully applies the technology of water separation and treatment in three modifications. The choice is dictated by the amount of the produced water, water quality requirements, and availability of infrastructure.


One of the technology modifications provides for separation of produced water in inclined tubular
gravity phase separators. The apparatus is a pipe of a certain ID and length fixed at an angle, wh ere phase separation of the wellstream takes place. Water separation and treatment is based on the principle of autofloatation. The separated oil and gas go to the oil gathering system, while the treated water is pumped into the formation pressure maintenance system. By now, 20 tubular
gravity phase separators have been installed at the Companys fields. Another technology modification provides for separation of produced water in tanks. The assembly includes a surge vessel for initial separation of the associated
petroleum gas, a two-sectional settler for separation and settling of water, and a coalescing filter to improve water treatment to meet the requirements. By now, one system has been put into operation. One more technology modification provides for separation and treatment of produced water in a rathole. The assembly comprises a casing pipe with a blind bottom end installed in a
rathole, wellhead equipment at the top end that fixes a pipe branch needed to maintain the oil level in the casing-pipe branch annulus, and a tubing to take the treated water to the formation pressure maintenance system. By now, 5 systems have been installed at the Companys fields.

References

1. Borisov G.K. et al., Validation of application of technology of water cluster dumping in novo-kievskoe oil field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2011, no. 12, pp. 46-51.

2. Shayakberov V.F., Introduction of installations for unit for discharge and unitutilization of associated water in "NK" Rosneft " PJSC (In Russ.),  Inzhenernaya praktika, 2015, no. 11, pp. 90-92.

3. STO TN 182-2017. Instruktsiya po vyboru ob"ektov i tekhnologii dlya organizatsii kustovogo sbrosa vody (Instruction on the selection of objects and technologies for the organization of cluster water discharge), Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2017, 29 p.

4. Patent no. 2460568 RF, MPK B 01 D 17/00.  Installation for separation and purification of water extracted with oil (Versions), Inventors: R.Z. Sakhabutdinov, Gubaydulin F.R., Sudykin S.N., Sukhova L.N., Smykov V.V., Ryzhikov A.I., Khalimov R.Kh, Khamidullin N.F.

5. Ibragimov N.G., Gubaydulin F.R., Sudykin S.N. et al., Technology of on-the-pad produced water discharge and treatment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 7, pp. 62-64.

6. Gubaydulin F.R., Sudykin S.N., Sakhabutdinov R.Z. et al., Razrabotka i ispytanie tekhnologii sbrosa i ochistki poputno dobyvaemoy vody na kuste skvazhin (Development and testing of the technology of associated water discharge and treating in bush of wells), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft',  2012, V. 80, pp. 265-270.

7. Utility patent no. 106845 RF, MPK B 01 D 17/02, E 21 V 43/00. Skvazhina dlya sbrosa vody (Dump well), Inventors: Shayakberov V.F., Latypov I.A.

8. Sudykin A.N., Ibragimov N.G., Gubaydulin F.R. et al., Tekhnologii kustovogo sbrosa vody v PAO Tatneft' (Technology of water discharge in "Tatneft" PJSC), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2017, V. 85, p. 3.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-35-38

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276.72
M.R. Khisametdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), Z.M. Ganeeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), E.R. Zholdasova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), D.V. Nuriev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), M.I. Amerkhanov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Bugulma)
Development of chemical system to remove inorganic scale from oilfield equipment during heavy oil production

Keywords: heavy oil, inorganic scale, corrosion, acid, chelate, inhibitor, technique, downhole pumping equipment

One of the most common ways of carbonate scale removal is cyclic flushing of pumps and filters with hydrochloric acid which is noted for its high dissolving capacity and low price.

Application of this technique requires considering the effect of high reservoir temperatures which intensify reactivity of typical acid solutions and reduce the efficiency of scale inhibitors, resulting in substantial increase of downhole equipment corrosion rate. Nonaggressive chemicals are available that are used for dissolving inorganic salts of calcium, magnesium, and iron, while simultaneously preventing their re-deposition by aggregating cations in chelates. One of such chemicals is disodium EDTA (Trilon B).

This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments for Trilon B-based solution development to remove scale under high-temperature conditions, as well as the results of corrosiveness reduction tests. Three various solutions were tested for corrosiveness. Minimal rate of corrosion for Trilon B-based solution was determined at 130oC. Quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of scale composition was performed. Pilot tests of a new solution proved its high efficiency in scale removal from downhole pumping equipment.

Laboratory and pilot tests showed that Trilon B-based solution is more efficient in removing inorganic scale from oilfield equipment during heavy oil production, compared to inhibited hydrochloric acid.

References

1. Persiyantsev M.N., Dobycha nefti v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Oil production in complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 653 p.

2. Nikishina L.I., Eksperimental'nye i promyslovye issledovaniya metodov bor'by s otlozheniem soley (Experimental and field research of methods to control the scale), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1977, 99 p.

3. Lyushin S.F. et al., Otlozheniya neorganicheskikh soley v skvazhinakh, prizaboynoy zone plasta i metody ikh predotvrashcheniya (Deposits of inorganic salts in wells, bottomhole formation zone and methods of its prevention), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1983, 99 p.

4. Ibragimov N.G. et al., Oslozhneniya v neftedobyche (Complications in oil production): edited by Ibragimov N.G., Ishemguzhin E.I., Ufa: Monografiya Publ., 2003, 301 p.

5. Kashchavtsev V.E., Mishchenko I.T., Soleobrazovanie pri dobyche nefti (Salt formation in oil production), Moscow: Orbita-M Publ., 2004, 432 p.

6. Kelland M.A., Production chemicals for the oil and gas industry, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. XVIII, 412 p.

7. Kolotyrkin Ya.M., Popov Yu.A., Alekseev Yu.V., Fundamentals of the theory of pitting development (In Russ.), Itogi nauki i tekhniki. Ser. korroziya i zashchita ot korrozii, 1982, V. 9, pp. 88139.

 


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-39-41

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

628.16.067.1
A.S. Nurutdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), L.V. Kudryashova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), F.R. Gubaidullin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.Z. Sakhabutdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), E.S. Buslaev (NTC Tatneft OOO, RF, Bugulma)
Testing of produced water advanced treatment technologies in heavy oil fields

Keywords: produced water, filtration, filtration rate, ultrafiltration, oil content, recovery, fluidizing

Today, all heavy oil production projects involve produced water recycling and reuse for steam generation. The primary and the most important stage of water treatment up to the boiler feed water standards is removal of the residual oil, which is performed in several steps.

This paper presents the results of field tests of two technologies aimed at residual oil removal from water, namely, filtering through the bulk material based on aluminosilicate rocks and ultrafiltration through tubular ceramic membrane. These tests defined the achievable water quality and the most efficient process parameters. Post-filtration residual oil-in-water content has been maximum 0.3 and 1.0 mg/dm3 for the bulk material and the ceramic membranes, respectively. Steady operation of the filtering materials has been observed during the tests without changes in the filtration rate or differential pressure increase within three days. The filtering material recovery by generating a steady fluidized bed with water back flow results in complete removal of the trapped contaminants. The wash water volume was equal to 1.0-1.5% of the treated water. The initial filtering parameters of the ceramic membrane have been restored by its flushing with alkaline and nitric solutions. The service cycle is inversely related to the transmembrane pressure and varies from 4 to 14 days.


The treated water can be used for process needs; for example, it can be further desalted and softened to produce boiler feed water.    

References

1. Buslaev E.S., Kudryashova L.V., Magsumova R.S., Ratsional'noe ispol'zovanie vodnykh resursov pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkoy nefti (Rational use of water resources in the development of super-viscous oil deposits), Proceedings of Scientific and Technical Conference dedicated to the 60th anniversary of TatNIPIneft, 13-14 April 2016, Naberezhnye Chelny: Publ. of Ekspozitsiya Neft Gaz, 2016, pp438-439.

2. Buslaev E.S., Loyko A.V., Itskov S.V., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Abramov M.A., Issledovanie svoystv poputno dobyvaemoy vody na mestorozhdeniyakh sverkhvyazkoy nefti i razrabotka tekhnologii ee podgotovki dlya povtornogo ispol'zovaniya (Investigation of the properties of associated water in super-viscous oil fields and development of technology for its preparation for reuse), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / PAO Tatneft', 2016, V. 84, pp. 247-254.

3. Patent no. 2503806 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/20, F 17 D 1/16,  System for heavy oil and natural bitumen deposit arrangement (Versions), Inventors: Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Fadeev V.G., Akhmadullin R.R., Gubaydulin F.R., Sudykin S.N., Kudryashova L.V., Shakirova L.N., Sudykin A.N. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-42-44

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ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

502.55:622.276
N.G. Ibragimov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), P.N. Kubarev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), O.E. Mishanina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), E.V. Khisamutdinova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), E.V. Shavaleyeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), D.V. Karbov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Environmental monitoring of water sources and soils on territory of Nizhnyaya Kama National Park

Keywords: national park, nature conservation area, environmental monitoring, oil production facilities, man-made impact, recultivation

The authors consider the ecological state of waters and soils in the Nizhnyaya Kama National Park situated on the territory of Elabuga and Tukai administrative districts of the Republic of Tatarstan. There is a potential risk of man-made impact on the ecological system associated with development of the Pervomaiskoye oil field located within the National Park boundaries. When the National Park was established in 1991, the oil production facilities located in the conservation area were neglected, so to be able to continue oil production operations, Tatneft has been committed to mitigation of the environmental hazards and improvement of environment in the conservation area. The National Park and Tatneft have jointly worked out forest management regulations providing for environmentally responsible management on the protected area. This paper shows the water and soil monitoring sites (water springs, lakes, swampy hollows, and soil sites) located in the areas of potential environmental risks, and the sampling points located close to main pollutant sources. Samples are taken on a regular basis all the year round. The paper presents results of chemical-analytical surveys on determination of concentrations of pollutants in soil and water for the period from 2009 to 2017. Based on the results of surveys and analyses, it can be concluded that underway is the process of restoration of soils on the recultivated lands. The current state of surface and subsurface water and soils on the territory of the Nizhnyaya Kama National Park has been assessed.

References

1. Gareev R.M., Mingazov M.N., Mishanina O.E., Khisamutdinova E.V., Evaluation of ecological state of Lower Kama national park under commercial oil production conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2011, no. 7, pp. 7073

2. Lesokhozyaystvennyy reglament lesnichestva NP Nizhnyaya Kama (Forest management regulations of the forest ranger station of National Park "Lower Kama"), 2017. 141 p.

3. Order of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Tatarstan no. 1201-p From 28.10.2016 Ob utverzhdenii regional'nykh normativov Dopustimoe ostatochnoe soderzhanie nefti i produktov ee transformatsii v pochve posle provedeniya rekul'tivatsionnykh i inykh vosstanovitel'nykh rabot na territorii Respubliki Tatarstan (On approval of regional standards "Allowable residual content of oil and its transformation products in the soil after reclamation and other restoration works in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan', 2016, 6 p.


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-45-48

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556.3 + 622.276.652
P.N. Kubarev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), N.A. Aslyamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyvsk), G.I. Petrova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), I.A. Ternovskaya (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.R. Fatkhullin (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), M.A. Badretdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Study of hydrogeological environment in heavy oil reservoirs developed by thermal method

Keywords: hydrological monitoring, heavy oil, man-made impact, ecological water well, baseline monitoring, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical environment

The paper presents results of surveys of hydrogeological conditions of eighteen heavy oil accumulations. The obtained hydrodynamic and hydrochemical background characteristics of the water-bearing formations above and below production targets were used to understand the man-made impact on the subsurface geological environment. The objectives of the system of hydrological monitoring of the Cheremshan-Bastrykskaya zone heavy oil fields are to prevent possible adverse effects of the thermal recovery process, to control risks, and to meet the requirements of license agreement on subsoil use. The main purpose of the environmental and hydrogeological surveys is to obtain background response characteristics and to evaluate hydrodynamic and hydrochemical changes in water-bearing formations above and below the development targets within and outside the oil drainage boundary with particular emphasis on surface and subsurface fresh water sources.

Tatneft system of hydrological monitoring of subsurface water is realized through drilling of observation wells within the extent of the reservoir. Drilling of well pads and testing of water-bearing formations along the cross-section of fresh water zone allowed a conclusion about the inversion of water-bearing intervals of the Sakmarskian and Ufimian formations and made it possible to determine the most water-abundant parts of the cross sections, which can accumulate the injected heat. In terms of chemistry, the range of water types in the zones of active water exchange is very wide from bicarbonate to chloride types. Sodium bicarbonate type of water is, mainly, characteristic of productive formations, while waters of the sandy-argillaceous Sakmarskian and Ufimian formations are, predominantly of the sulfate type. Monitoring of the concentrations of boron, bromine, ammonium, phenols, and hydrogen sulfide is a tool to determine hydrochemical changes in a productive formation, and in the overlying and underlying formations.

References

1. Gareev R.M., Mingazov M.N., Mishanina O.E., Khisamutdinova E.V., Evaluation of ecological state of Lower Kama national park under commercial oil production conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2011, no. 7, pp. 7073

2. Lesokhozyaystvennyy reglament lesnichestva NP Nizhnyaya Kama (Forest management regulations of the forest ranger station of National Park "Lower Kama"), 2017. 141 p.

3. Order of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Tatarstan no. 1201-p From 28.10.2016 Ob utverzhdenii regional'nykh normativov Dopustimoe ostatochnoe soderzhanie nefti i produktov ee transformatsii v pochve posle provedeniya rekul'tivatsionnykh i inykh vosstanovitel'nykh rabot na territorii Respubliki Tatarstan (On approval of regional standards "Allowable residual content of oil and its transformation products in the soil after reclamation and other restoration works in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan', 2016, 6 p.


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-49-52

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502.55:622.276
P.N. Kubarev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), I.. Shaidullina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), R.Z. Sakhabutdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), I.. Degtyareva (Tatar Research Institute for Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Kazan Scientific Centre of RAS, RF, Kazan), E.Sh. Gadieva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Methodological approaches to evaluation of efficiency of new biotechnologies for remediation of soils contaminated with oil and oilfield liquids

Keywords: soils, remediation, biotechnology, oil, oilfield liquid, allowable remaining oil content in soil, hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, humic compounds, phytoproductivity

Currently available is a wide range of biotechnologies for remediation of oil-polluted areas. These are based on application of hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, humic compounds, and sorbents, which have various efficiency depending on the nature of pollution, climatic conditions, grain size distribution, and soil type. The purpose of the present research effort is to summarize the lessons learned in evaluation of the performance of new biotechnologies for remediation of soils contaminated with oil or oilfield liquid. Integrated performance assessment of biotechnologies for soil remediation should include the following diagnostic blocks: determination of oil product content, agrochemical and microbiological parameters, toxicological characteristics, mutagenicity of soil samples and phytoproductivity. Infrared spectrometry is recommended for determination of petroleum product content. This method provides for extraction of petroleum products from soil using tetrachloride carbon, chromatographic separation from associated organic compounds of other classes and quantitative analysis based on intensity of infrared absorption. Determination of agroecological parameters in soil samples involves of aqueous and salt extracts, chlorides, sulfates, dissolved solids of aqueous extract, humic matter, alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen, labile phosphorous compounds and exchange potassium. Microbiological monitoring includes determination of the amount of hydrocarbon oxidizing, heterotrophic microorganisms, micromycetes, total microbial biomass and basal respiration. Analysis of soil mutagenic activity is a part of soil assessment process. Of the several technologies available for identification of mutagenes, the most common are tests on microorganisms, fruit fly, in vitro tests using mammal cell cultures, mammalian in vivo micronucleus tests.

References

1. Mingazov M.N., Petrova G.I., Karimov M.Zh., Ternovskaya I.A., Ecological aspects of development of heavy oil reservoirs in Ashalchinskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 6, pp. 106108.

2. Gareev R.M., Borovskiy M.Ya., Petrova G.I., Kubarev P.N., Bogatov V.I., Shakuro S.V., Filimonov V.N., Razrabotka mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkikh neftey paroteplovym vozdeystviem: ekologo-geofizicheskiy monitoring (Development of super viscous oils deposits using steam-thermal effect: Ecological-geophysical monitoring), Collected papers Osobennosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy netraditsionnykh uglevodorodov (Development of super viscous oils deposits using steam-thermal effect: Ecological-geophysical monitoring), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan', 2-3 September 2015, Kazan': Ikhlas Publ., 2015, pp. 139144.

3. Khisamov R.S., Gatiyatullin N.S., Shargorodskiy I.E., Voytovich E.D., Geologiya i osvoenie zalezhey prirodnykh bitumov. Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology and development of natural bitumen deposits of Tatarstan): edited by Khisamov R.S., Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 295 p.

4. Khisamov R.S., Gatiyatullin R.N., Ibragimov R.L., Pokrovskiy V.A., Gilyazov T.R., Gidrogeologicheskie usloviya mestorozhdeniy tyazhelykh vysokovyazkikh neftey i prirodnykh bitumov (Hydrogeological conditions of deposits of heavy highly viscous oils and natural bitumens), Kazan': Ikhlas Publ., 2016, 176 p.

5. Khisamov R.S., Gatiyatullin N.S., Ibragimov R.L., Pokrovskiy V.A., Gidrogeologicheskie usloviya neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana (Hydrogeological conditions of oil deposits of Tatarstan), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2009, 254 p.

 


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-53-56

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

551+552.5
A.I. Kudamanov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), S.E. Agalakov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.A. Marinov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Transgressive-regressive type of sedimentation in the Western Siberian Coniacian-Santonian (Upper Cretaceous)

Keywords: Berezovo formation, Mjarajakha member, Khejakha member, Coniacian Santonian, gaize, terrigenous material, chemogenic-biogenic sediments, transgression, regression, erosion

Against the background of the general transgressive sequence of the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the West Siberian Plate, local intervals of the regressive structure are distinguished, represented by clastic rocks (siltstones, psammites). In them there are sometimes signs of erosion weathering (clarification along fracture zones, traces of roots, large vegetable detritus). Over the past decades, in the process of exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields in Western Siberia, significant volumes of factual information have been accumulated, many times exceeding the level of study of the mid-1970 years. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of geological and geophysical materials in Western Siberia, the environment and conditions of sedimentation are detailed, the author's conceptual model of the structure of the Western Siberian Upper Cretaceous is proposed. In the section of the Upper Cretaceous, sediments of various genesis are well traced. Transgressive deposits in general are composed mainly of chemogenic-biogenic siliceous-clay sediments of the autochthonous type. Episodes of local regressions are reflected by wedge-shaped packs (for example, late-Turonian Gas-Sale memberk) of clay siltstones and psammites (terrigenous, allochthonous type), rather limited in the east and northeast of Western Siberia. Four sediment stratums have been divided on Western Siberia Turonian Maastrichtian. There are Kuznetsovo (Turonian Lower Coniacian), Nizhneberezovo (Middle Coniacian Santonian), Werkhneberezovo (Campanian) and Gankino (Upper Campanian Maastrichtian) complexes. Schemes of seismic complexes and members are created on seismic data and geophysical wells investigation, with laboratory core analyses results. The composition and structure of stratones is characterized by the results of laboratory core research, with the use of published data.Brief characteristic of Coniacian Santonian siliceous clayey deposits has been done.

References

1. Lisitsyn A.P., Lavinnaya sedimentatsiya i pereryvy v osadkonakoplenii v moryakh i okeanakh (Avalanche sedimentation and interruptions in sedimentation in the seas and oceans), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1988, 309 p.

2. Emel'yanov E.M., Bar'ernye zony v okeane: Osadko- i rudoobrazovanie, geoekologiya (Barrier zones in the ocean: sedimentogenesis and ore formation, geoecology), Kaliningrad: Yantarnyy skaz Publ., 1998, 416 p.

3. German A.B., Al'bskaya-paleotsenovaya flora Severnoy Patsifiki (Albian-Paleocene flora of the Northern Pacific), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2011, 280 p.    


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-58-63

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553.98.001
S.V. Shadrina (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), A.A. Shadrin (University of Oslo, Norway, Oslo)
The application of machine learning methods for predicting porosity of rocks based on data of x-ray fluorescence analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry

Keywords: forecast, porosity, x-ray fluorescence analysis, gamma-spectrometry, machine learning
Developing of the non-traditional hydrocarbon reservoirs and underground water deposits allotted a number of tasks to specialists the solution of which goes beyond the traditional methodologies. The most significant problem among them is unable to predict petrophysical parameters (in particular porosity coefficient) for lithology undifferentiated section. There was examined the dependence of porosity coefficient of rocks upon the chemical composition of weakly differentiable volcanic rocks. It takes much time and much more petrophysical parameters to decide this problem by traditional mathematical-statistical methods. These factors make the topical application of modern mathematical methods to obtain evaluation of porosity based on characteristics of the rock and does not depend on the condition of the core. On the other hand, such approach allows taking into account the collectors and fluid traps geochemical mechanism formation in non-traditional objects to predict its spatial distribution. Comparison of the various modern techniques of machine learning to predict porosity is showed in the article. The best predictive capability showed methods based on decision trees-forest Random forest and Extra trees, providing an average coefficient of determination for test samples equal to 0,52, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient is 0,722 and 0,701 respectively. In addition, these methods allow to rank factors used for predicting porosity of rocks, on the degree of their influence on the accuracy of the prediction. The received results permit to use of the methods of machine learning as a promising approach for predicting porosity through description of mechanisms of secondary mineral formation

References

1. Strontsiy i bariy v endogennykh protsessakh (Strontium and barium in endogenous processes): edited by Pozharitskaya L.K., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973, 215 p.

2. Portnov A.M., Kandinov M.N., Carbon dioxide as an ore deposition controller (In Russ.), Priroda, 1992, no. 11, pp. 6469.

3. Arbuzov S.I., Rikhvanov L.P., Geokhimiya radioaktivnykh elementov (Geochemistry of radioactive elements), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2010, 300 p.

4. Stolbov Yu.M., Fomin Yu.A., Stolbova N.F., Vozmozhnost' primeneniya prikladnoy geokhimii urana pri issledovanii protsessov nalozhennogo epigeneza terrigennykh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (The possibility of applying applied geochemistry of uranium in the study of the processes of superimposed epigenesis of terrigenous deposits of Western Siberia), Proceedings of II International Conference Geokhimicheskoe modelirovanie i materinskie porody neftegazonosnykh basseynov Rossii i stran SNG (Geochemical modeling and parent rocks of oil and gas bearing basins of Russia and CIS countries), St. Petersburg: Publ. of VNIGRI, 2000, pp. 160171.

5. Shaldybin M.V., Geokhimicheskie kriterii otsenki vliyaniya protsessov nalozhennogo epigeneza na fil'tratsionno-emkostnye svoystva oblomochnykh porod-kollektorov (na primere neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Tomskoy oblasti) (Geochemical criteria for assessing the impact of superimposed epigenesis on the reservoir properties of clastic rock reservoirs (for example, oil deposits in the Tomsk region)): thesis of candidate of geological and   mineralogical science, Tomsk, 2005.

6. Bocharov E.I., Stolbov Yu.M., Evaluation of postsedimentational process influence on filtration-capacitor properties of Chalky deposits of the Western Siberia north (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2007, V. 311, no. 1, pp. 6466.

7. Gavshin V.M., Shcherbov B.L., Sukhorukov F.V. et al., Zakonomernosti raspredeleniya mikroelementov v profile vyvetrivaniya Barlakskogo granitnogo massiva (Regularities of distribution of microelements in the weathering profile of the Barlak granite massif), In: Geokhimiya rudnykh elementov v protsessakh vyvetrivaniya, osadkonakopleniya i katageneza (Geochemistry of ore elements in the processes of weathering, sedimentation and catagenesis), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1979, pp. 319.

8. Zhmodik S.M., Geokhimiya radioaktivnykh elementov v protsesse vyvetrivaniya karbonatitov, kislykh i shchelochnykh porod (Geochemistry of radioactive elements in weathering of carbonatites, acidic and alkaline rocks), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1984, 170 p.    
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-64-69

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550.8
N.S .Ismagilov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.S. Mukhamadeev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Application of three-dimensional spectral models for the purposes of geosteering

Keywords: three-dimensional modeling, geosteering, synthetic log, heterogeneous reservoir, spectral stochastic modeling method, sequential Gaussian simulation, random field

Traditionally most software tools for geosteering use the method of comparison of synthetic and actual well logs. The synthetic log is sampled from a two-dimensional reservoir model, which is built based on the log from the nearest (key) well. The actual logging of the horizontal well is compared with the synthetic log and the stratigraphic formation of the model is corrected until the best match of the synthetic and actual logs is obtained. Thus, the estimated stratigraphic position of the wellbore in the reservoir is determined, as well as the forecast of the reservoir structure.

The paper presents a new approach to modeling of highly detailed geological sections of the reservoir along the given horizontal well. The sections are based on three-dimensional geophysical property model, which are simulated by means of spectral simulation method and use data from all surrounding wells. The spectral geological sections of the reservoir provide better estimations of the lithological uncertainty and complexity of reservoir and more reliably predict the distribution of geophysical properties in three-dimensional space.

In order to evaluate the new method an experimental software prototype was developed and tested on real field cases. It was shown that spectral sections provide reliable estimations of real reservoir heterogeneity. Furthermore, comparison of real and synthetics well logs showed high degree of efficiency of the spectral method in geophysical property prognosis along drilled well.

Another important feature of the new method is an ability to build geological sections for horizontal wells with large values of deviation from vertical. Currently these wells are geosteered based on section models build consequently on different key wells. This induces additional task of switching between key wells, which can be non-trivial, and causes violation of geological integrity of full cross-section. A real case of such horizontal well, for geosteering of which four different key wells had been used, was presented. The new method was demonstrated to be able to build models of sections preserving geological integrity and lacking the requirement to perform switching between key wells.

Results presented in the paper prove the new method to have high potential in reduction of financial risks, increase the success of geological and technical actions, particularly passing the borehole through the reservoir with the best filtration properties and to achieve the maximum productivity of horizontal wells

References

1. Baykov V.A., Bakirov N.K., Yakovlev A.A., New methods in the theory of geostatistical modelling (In Russ.), Vestnik Ufimskogo gosudarstvennogo aviatsionnogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2010, V. 14, no. 2(37), pp. 209-215.

2. Griffiths R., Well placement fundamentals, URL: http://www. slb. com/resources/publications/books/well_placement_fund. aspx.

3. Baykov V.A., Bakirov N.K., Yakovlev A.A., Matematicheskaya geologiya (Mathematical geology), Part 1: Vvedenie v geostatistiku (Introduction to geostatistics), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institut komp'yuternykh issledovaniy, 2012, 228 p.

4. Khasanov M.M., Belozerov B.V., Bochkov A.S., Fuks O.M., Tengelidi D.I., Automated lithologic facies analysis based on the spectral theory (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 48-51.

5. Khasanov M.M., Belozerov B.V., Bochkov A.S. et al., Application of the spectral theory to the analysis and modelling of the rock properties of the reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 60-64.


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-70-73

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550.8.072
O.V. Nadezhdin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), N.A. Evgrafov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Markov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.V. Efimov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Development of methods for automated stratigraphic correlation by well log data

Keywords: linking, correlation, stratigraphy, automation, results, rock

Stratigraphic correlation, determining layers in separate strata that are exactly the same age are an important part of geological modelling. Stratigraphic correlation is carried out in order to establish the boundaries of geological layers and to identify and classify them in different wells. The results of stratigraphic correlation have a significant impact on evaluating the spatial distribution of rock properties and estimating reserves in layered formations, creating petro-physical models of such formations and solving some field development problems. Stratigraphic correlation is usually done using manual labor of skilled geology specialists; however, it may become quite labor-intensive when hundreds of wells need to be processed. For some large oilfields consisting of thousands of wells a topic of automated multi-well stratigraphic correlation becomes relevant.

The article further develops methods for automated multi-well stratigraphic correlation, including the analysis of lithofacies generated from well logs.

The aim of this project is to increase the efficiency of geology specialists in solving stratigraphic correlation problems. The task was to carry out stratigraphic correlation of hundreds of wells from multiple oilfields using the automated approach and to compare results with the expert evaluations.

The automated stratigraphic correlation approach includes preparing and analyzing a selection of wells with expert evaluations of stratigraphic intervals of interest (usually it is about 10-15% of wells used for correlation). Next step is choosing a base well and a reference interval for the stratigraphic unit of interest for that well. The reference intervals position will then have to be found for the rest of the wells. Then we use automated multi-well correlation of the reference interval which contains stratigraphic units of interest. A correlation scheme is created based on cluster analysis methods. The approach allows displaying a background of certain well logs from all the wells used in stratigraphic correlation at once and carrying out interactive correlation.

The approach described is an express method for stratigraphic correlation. The last step may be further elaborated by displaying not only well logs but also core data as well as any other data that can help identify different stratigraphic units.

Automated multi-well correlation results stand well against expert evaluations for the majority of wells with 80% of them having an error of less than 5% when compared with expert marks.

References

1. Kovalevskiy E.V., Gogonenkov G.N., Perepechkin M.V., Geological model update using the automatic correlation of wells (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2007, no. 4, pp. 2831.

2. Sharafutdinov T.R., Shaybakov R.A., Testing an algorithm of the well log data autocorrelation on the example of Achimov sequence of Pravdinskoye field (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2012, no. 1, pp. 1822.

3. Gutman I.S. et al., Detal'naya korrelyatsiya dlya postroeniya trekhmernykh geologicheskikh modeley zalezhey UV (Detailed correlation for construction of three-dimensional geological models of hydrocarbon deposits), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2001, 79 p.

4. Forgy E.W., Cluster analysis of multivariate data: efficiency versus interpretability of classifications, Biometrics, 1965, no. 21, pp. 768769.    


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-74-76

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.031.011.43
S.P. Mikhaylov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), M.V. Mavletov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Increasing the informativity of capillarimeter investigations using semipermeable membrane method

Keywords: capillary pressure, residual saturation, shear pressure, investigation methodology, low-permeability reservoirs

The exact determination of water saturation is one of the most important and complex questions for estimation of hydrocarbon reserves. The laboratory test quality influences on the successful solution of this problem. However, at the present there is no single standard for the case of low-permeability reservoirs. The analysis has revealed that the OST 39-204-86 (industrial standard) provisions that were developed in 1986 for good reservoir properties and low clay content in the pore space, not for low-permeability reservoirs. In this paper the experimental protocol for core test using semipermeable membrane is considered. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are pointed out. Recommendations for increasing the informativity were developed. It includes: the sampling from different lithological groups, the scheme for capillary pressure changing for laboratory test in the case of low-permeability rocks (at least 11 steps with a maximum pressure value not less than 1 MPa), an algorithm for the transition between pressure steps (at least 72 hours needed after filtration ceased), individual capillarimeter test necessity (at the atmospheric and reservoir conditions). In addition, the criterion for the capillary pressure curves quality was developed. The most common reasons of poor quality results are considered. The additional useful information from experimental investigations (pore size distribution, wettability parameter, etc.) is discussed.

References

1. Plyusnin G.V., Khizhnyak G.P., Fizika plasta (Reservoir physics), Perm': Publ. of PSTU, 2013, 219 p.

2. Ratnikov I.B., Shul'ga R.S., Romanov E.A., Interpretation of research data curves capillary pressure (In Russ.) Gornye nauki i tekhnologii, 2016, no. 4, pp. 2439.

3. Belov Yu.Ya., Usovershenstvovanie kapillyarimetricheskogo metoda issledovaniya porod-kollektorov dlya opredeleniya ryada parametrov podscheta zapasov nefti i gaza (Improvement of the capillarimetric method for studying reservoir rocks to determine the parameters for calculating oil and gas reserves): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 1980.

4. Hammervold W.L., Skjæveland S.M., Improvement of diaphragm method for drainage capillary pressure measurement with micro pore membrane, Proceedings of EUROCAS meeting, September 1992, pp. 810.

5. Yur'ev A.V., Chizhov D.B., Recommendations on the residual water saturation modeling in laboratory conditions upon whole core samples (In Russ.), Vestnik Severnogo (Arkticheskogo) federal'nogo universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye nauki, 2015, no. 1, pp. 5055.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-78-81

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622.276.65-97
O.A. Morozyuk (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), N.N. Barkovsky (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), P.N. Rehachev (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), A.V. Bondarenko (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), D.V. Andreev (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm), S.A. Kalinin (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Extension of experimental studies of thermochemical EOR in PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm

Keywords: laboratory tests, high-viscosity oil, carbon dioxide, supercritical fluid, thermochemical methods

At present, there is a qualitative change in the structure of proved oil reserves in the direction of increasing the proportion of heavy oils and ultra-heavy oil. World proved reserves of such hydrocarbons significantly exceed the light oil reserves. Russian Federation has significant geological reserves of heavy oil, which average from 6 to 7 billion tons. The great experience in the development of heavy oil reservoirs and application of various EOR technologies was accumulated in the Timan-Pechora province, at two large fields of heavy oil: Permian-Carboni deposit of Usinskoye field and Yaregskoye oilfield. Factors that negatively affected on development indicators were identified. In this connection, there was a need to improve existing and develop new, more efficient technologies for heavy oil production. For solving these problems, was created the new area of laboratory maintenance for research of heavy oil reservoirs on the base of Core Examination Centre at the Division of PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL Engineering LLC in Perm. The main Centre activity is experimental investigations, which aimed at studying and selecting new technologies for extraction of high-viscous and ultra-viscous heavy oils, including thermochemical technologies, for the fields which developed by LUKOIL company. In 2018-2019, a number of research works are plan in this direction: bed stimulation mixed technologies such as by heat-transfer agent, carbon dioxide and a multifunctional chemical composition based on surfactants.

The article presents the results of previous experimental studies, describes the equipment of the laboratory complex, and its technical characteristics. The stages of the planned studies of combined thermal treatment technology, 2 and surfactants composition are briefly described.

References

1. Anishchenko L.A., Valyaeva O.V., Prots'ko O.S., Razmanova O.F., Heavy oils of Timan-Pechora Province (In Russ.), Vestnik instituta geologii Komi nauchnogo tsentra UrO RAN = Vestnik IG Komi SC UB RAS, 2014, no. 9, pp. 1114.

2. Bashkirtseva N.Yu., High-viscosity oil and natural bitumen (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2014, V. 17, no. 19, pp. 296299.

3. Konesev S.G., Khakim'yanov M.I., Khlyupin P.A., Kondrat'ev E.Yu., Modern technologies of high viscosity oils production (In Russ.), Elektrotekhnicheskie sistemy i kompleksy, 2013, V. 21, pp. 301307.

4. Iskritskaya N.I., Makarevich V.N., The necessity of accelerating the development of highly viscous oil in Russia (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2014, no. 4, pp. 3539.

5. Bikmukhametova G.K., Abdullin A.I., Emel'yanycheva E.A. et al., Natural bitumen. Perspectives of use (In Russ.), Vestnik tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 19, no. 18, pp. 3136.

6. Ruzin L.M., Chuprov I.F., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., Tekhnologicheskie printsipy razrabotki zalezhey anomal'no vyazkikh neftey i bitumov (Technological principles of development of deposits of abnormally viscous oil and bitumen), Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2015, 476 p.

7. Heddle G., Herzog H., Klett M., The economics of CO2 storage, USA: Eds Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003, 111 p.

8. Arzhanov F.G., Antoniadi D.G., Garushev A.R. et al., Termicheskie metody vozdeystviya na neftyanye plasty (Thermal methods for impact on oil reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1995, 192 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-82-85

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622.276.65
M.T. Baigaziyev (Satpayev Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan, Almaty), N.D.Sarsenbekov (Kaspiymunaigas Scientific Research Institute, Kazakhstan, Atyrau), G.I. Boyko (Satpayev Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan, Almaty), R.G. Sarmurzina (Association KazEnergy, Kazakhstan, Astana), N.P. Lubchenko (Satpayev Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan, Almaty), U.S. Karabalin (Association KazEnergy, Kazakhstan, Astana), B.U. Akchulakov (Association KazEnergy, Kazakhstan, Astana)
Research of influence of activated aluminum alloys for the cores saturated with oil of Kazakhstan fields

Keywords: oil, activated aluminum alloy, hydrogen, hydrogenolysis, core

A new regent on the basis of activated aluminum Rau-85 was suggested for thermal gaseous chemical treatment of bottom hole formation zone of oil wells. Experimental research of studying Rau-85 effect on oil saturated cores was carried out. By modeling formation conditions, thermal gaseous chemical treatment of oil saturated Uaz oilfield natural cores of terrigenous rock was handled. Filtration-volume properties of cores were studied. Its shown that during reaction of activated aluminum with formation fluids, a large amounts of heat, atomic hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases are generated. Group composition analysis of the oil before and after thermal gaseous chemical treatment by reagent Rau-85 was conducted. We observed a decrease in the content of hydrocarbons from C33 to C40 by 2.83% and an increase of light hydrocarbons ranging from C11 to C32 by 10.74% in the oil composition. This evidences that hydrogenolysis of oil by atomic hydrogen is occurred directly in the core.

Its implemented a comparison of oil displacement efficiency from core by gases generated during thermal gaseous chemical treatment by reagent Rau-85 and the displacement of water.

Based on the results of a laboratory experiment the displacement of formation water and heavy oil thermal gaseous chemical influence by reagent Rau-85 in the oil-saturated core, we can conclude about the prospects of the use of activated aluminum alloys Rau-85 for bottom hole formation zone treatment to enhance oil recovery.

References

1. Varshavskiy I.L., Energoakkumuliruyushchie veshchestva i ikh ispolzovanie (Energy storage substances and their use), Kiev: Naukova dumka Publ., 1980, 240 p.

2. Certificate of authorship no. 535364 SSSR, Splav na osnove alyuminiya dlya polucheniya vodoroda (Alloy on the basis of aluminum for hydrogen production), Authors: Sokol'skiy D.V., Kozin L.F., Barmin V.P., Podgornyy A.N., Varshavskiy I.L., Sarmurzina R.G., Ospanov E.

3. Sarmurzina R.G., Presnyakov A.A., Morozova O.I. et al., Relation between the structure of activated aluminum and the kinetics of hydrogen evolution in the interaction of an alloy with water (In Russ.), Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii = Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry , 1984, V. 57, no. 4, pp. 975976.

4. Sarmurzina R.G., Sokolskiy D.V., Vozdvizhenskiy V.F., Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy aktivatsii alyuminiya s tselyu polucheniya vodorodnogo topliva (Physical and chemical basis for aluminum activation to production of hydrogen fuel), Collected papers Voprosy atomnoy nauki i tekhniki. Atomno-vodorodnaya energetika i tekhnologiya (Issues of atomic science and technology. Atomic hydrogen power engineering and technology), 1985, no. 2, pp. 2932.

5. Sarmurzina R.G., Presnyakov A.A., Morozova O.I., Mofa N.N., Structure and properties of activated aluminum (In Russ.), Fizika metallov i metallovedenie, 1988, V. 66, no. 3, pp. 504508.

6. Bersh A.V., Kleymenov B.V., Mazalov Yu.A., Nizovtsev V.E., Prospects for the development of hydrogen energy based on aluminum (In Russ.), Radioelektronika i telekommunikatsii, 2005, no. 2, pp. 6266.

7. Sheydlin A.E., Zhuk A.Z., Aluminum hydrogen energy (In Russ.), Vestnik Rossiyskoy Akademii nauk = Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2010, V. 80, no. 3, pp. 218224.

8. Kravchenko O., The use of hydrogen in chemical and thermochemical technologies for the intensification of hydrocarbon production (In Russ.), Promyshlennost Kazakhstana, 2013, no. 6, pp. 5863.

9. Lyubchenko N.,  Baygaziev M., Moldabekov B., Boyko G., Sarmurzina R. et al., Thermochemical treatment of Kumkol oil with the reagent based on activated metals (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazakhstansko-Britanskogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2015, no. 3, pp. 6671.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-86-89

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622.276.66
A.A. Akhmetova (Bashneft-Petrotest LLC, RF, Ufa), E.D. Pimenov (Bashneft-Petrotest LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Gorin (INNC CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), A.M. Khaidar (INNC CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), I.R. Yamalov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.Sh. Khasanov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow; MGIMO University, RF, Moscow)
Evaluation of the applicability mini-frac data to determine reservoir pressure and transmissibility

Keywords: well test analysis, hydraulic fracturing, productive capacitive of the reservoir, transmissibility, pressure drop curve, skin factor, wellbore zone, stimulation treatment, mini-fracturing test, fracture half-length, reservoir pressure.

Currently hydraulic fracturing is an integral part of measures aimed at intensifying the influx. At the stages of the hydraulic fracturing program implementation, given the uncertainties in the evaluation of the reservoir's energy and productive capacity, well testing is recommended. Moreover, the goal of the well testing may be to refine and validate the fracture parameters obtained as a result of the fracturing activities: fracture half-length and its conductivity. Besides, testing in producing wells can lead to significant downtime and losses in production, therefore, planning and carrying out well testing for this category of wells is essential. The task of optimizing the time spent on research, as well as the search for methods of processing information obtained during the hydraulic fracturing, is particularly relevant. An example of such an efficient and economical method for solving similar problems can be the interpretation of mini-fracturing data in order to obtain information on reservoir pressure and transmissibility of the formation. Mini-fracturing is a short pressure test, which must be performed before the main hydraulic fracturing to obtain the parameters necessary to correct the geomechanical models and make corrections to the main hydraulic fracturing program.

Today the interpretation of these mini-fracturing data is actively used to determine reservoir pressure and hydraulic conductivity of the formation both in foreign and domestic practices.

This paper explores the experience of processing mini-fracturing data. It also describes the processing results, gives the results analysis, and considers the main problems in interpreting the data of mini-fracturing in order to determine formation pressure and transmissibility of the formation. The economic feasibility of using these mini-fracturing is analyzed in comparison with the data of standard well testing.

References

1. Castillo J.L., Modified fracture pressure decline analysis including pressure-dependent leakoff, SPE 16417-MS, 1987, DOI:10.2118/16417-MS.

2. Nolte K.G., Maniere J.L., Owens K.A., After-closure analysis of fracture calibration tests, SPE 38676-MS, 1997, DOI:10.2118/38676-MS.

3. Usmanova A., Smith P., Rylance M., After closure analysis as an appraisal approach (In Russ.), SPE 181968-RU, 2015, DOI:10.2118/181968-RU.

4. Barree R.D., Miskimins J., Gilbert J., Diagnostic fracture injection tests: common mistakes, misfires, and misdiagnoses, SPE 169539-PA, 2015, DOI:10.2118/169539-PA.

5. Barree R.D., Barree V.L., Craig D., Holistic fracture diagnostics: Consistent interpretation of prefrac injection tests using multiple analysis methods, SPE 107877-PA, 2009, DOI:10.2118/107877-PA.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-90-94

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OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY

622.276
A.N. Drozdov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Developing schemes of field benches for tests of submersible pumps at liquid and gas delivering

Keywords: submersible pump, field bench, gas-liquid mixture, well operation

The operation of submersible centrifugal pumps is currently the main method of oil production in Russia. Most wells equipped with submersible pumps are operated at inlet pressures, lower saturation pressures, and a mixture of liquid and gas enters the pump. Increasing of submersible pumps efficiency when pumping liquid and gas is one of the important areas of research in artificial lift methods.

When developing new types of submersible equipment for efficient pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, bench tests of the characteristics of experimental pump samples are necessary. For a more complete approximation to real operating conditions, it is advisable to use field benches with the possibility of investigating the characteristics of pumps when pumping out well production. Therefore, an important practical task is the development of schematic diagrams of field benches that provide adequate modeling of well conditions when pumping liquid and gas by submersible pumps.

In this paper, two schemes of benches are presented. One of the proposed basic hydraulic circuits involves placing an experimental pump sample on the surface of the earth near the wellhead of the production well. This bench can be made in the mobile version and move if necessary from one well to another. For testing, it is advisable to sel ect wells with different water cuttings of the liquid. In another developed schematic diagram, a field test bench for testing the characteristics of pumps is located on a preliminary water discharge facility. It is also possible to carry out tests on a field bench with regulation of not only gas content but also water cut.

It is shown that the problem of pump operation in wells and testing on field benches at high gas contents is relevant not only for the oil industry, but also for the gas industry. In the process of watering the gas deposits, a mechanism of water-alternated-gas effect (WAG) can be manifested as the main factor for extracting a part of condensate deposited in the reservoir. Therefore, the mechanized operation of watered gas condensate wells with submersible pumps will make it possible to realize WAG in the formation, not only with an increase in gas production, but also with an increase in the condensate recovery of reservoirs.

References

1. Drozdov A.N., Influence of free gas on submerged pumps characteristics (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 1, pp. 6870.

2. Drozdov A.N., Wells operation technologies with submersible pumps at low bottom-hole pressures (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 6, pp. 8689.

3. Drozdov A.N., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (The technology and technique of oil production by submergible pumps in the complicated conditions), Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2008, 312 p.

4. Lyapkov P.D., Drozdov A.N., The change in saturation pressure and the degassing curve of the reservoir oil due to partial gas separation at the entrance to the ESP (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1987, no. 6, pp. 47.

5. Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Dimaev T.N., Technical equipment and technology for production and transfer of hydrocarbons (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 7, pp. 66-68.

6. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Klimenko K.I., Demidov A.V., Pump systems modeling for oil production (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 9, pp. 5456.

7. Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Mulenko V.V., Pump system modeling (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2013, no. 11, pp. 6668.

8. Mokhov M.A., Sazonov Yu.A., Dimaev T.N., Gryaznova I.V., New technical solutions in the development of pumping systems for multiphase flow lifting (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2013, no. 7, pp. 5455.

9. Verbitskiy V.S., Drozdov A.N., Den'gaev A.V., Rabinovich A.I., New technology of the electrocentrifugal pump unit protection from harmful effect of mechanical impurities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 12, pp. 7881.

10. Drozdov A.N., Terikov B.A., Application of submerged jet pumps systems with dual-string lift for the sticky holes operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 6, pp. 6872.

11. Orlov D.G., Terikov V.A., Drozdov A.N. et al., Field testing of experimental samples of the packerless hydraulic jet pump arrangement with a double-lift tubing in the Samotlor field (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2003, no. 11, pp. 2024.

12. Drozdov A.N., Operation of low-pressure gas and gas-condensate wells by artificial lift  methods (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2010, no. 13, pp. 6367.

13. Drozdov A.N., Egorov Yu.A., Telkov V.P. et al., Technology and technique of SWAG injection impact on oil reservoirs (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 2, pp. 5459.

14. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Laboratory researches of the heavy oil displacement fr om the Russkoye fields core models at the SWAG injection and development of technological schemes of pump-ejecting systems for the water-gas mixtures delivering, SPE 157819, 2012.

15. Burakov Yu.G., Ulyashev V.E., Guzhov N.A., Analysis of the efficiency and mechanism of the WAG effect on the condensate deposited in the formation (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 1991, no. 7, pp. 2930.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-96-99

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622.276.52
Yu.A. Sazonov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), M.A. Mokhov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), Kh.A. Tumanyan (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), M.A. Frankov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), K.I. Azarin (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
The study of a technology with cyclic operation of ejector during oil and gas production

Keywords: oil and gas production, ejector, compressor, well, producing formation

While producing oil and gas from the fields, creation of cost-effective and efficient compressing technologies for compression and pumping of gas and gas-liquid mixtures is an important objective nowadays. The perspective study of the jet equipment with application of ejectors is described in the article. Compressing equipment gas output pressure might be increased multiply due to implementation of cyclic operation of the ejector. The aim of the conducted studies is to create new principles of gas compression using ejectors. It is showed that due to cyclic operation of the ejector ratio of gas pressure to power pump pressure reaches 1 and that conclusion is proved in laboratory conditions during bench tests of ejector systems. This ratio is between 0,15 and 0,3 for the optimal ejector operation regimes. The assembly of new compressing equipment for providing ejector cyclic operation regime might be completed using serial produced ejectors, pumps and separation elements. Objective of gas compression from 10 to 20 MPa is considered for the cyclic operation of ejector. There is a potential for increase of gas pressure from 20 up to 40 MPa. Considered technical solution might be used both for offshore and onshore oil and gas production. Results of scientific studies and construction works might be used for the creation of gas compressing and gas pumping technologies, for gases like methane, associated gas, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air, hydrogen or other gas depending on the applied technology.

 

Acknowledgments. The study is carried out with financial support of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. Unique identification number RFMEF157417X0152.

References

1. Sazonov Yu.A., Osnovy rascheta i konstruirovaniya nasosno-ezhektornykh ustanovok (Basics of calculation and design of pump-ejector systems), Moscow: Neft i gaz, 2012, 305 p.

2. Lea J.F., Winkler H.W., Whats new in artificial lift. Part 1. Introducing developments in natural gas well dewatering, World Oil, 2010, March, pp. 51 59.

3. Brink M., Jet pump technology for artificial lift in oil and gas production, The Elomatic Magazine, 2014, no. 1, pp. 40-43. 

4. Singh M.K., Prasad D., Singh A.K., Jha M., Tandon R., Large scale jet pump performance optimization in a viscous oil field, SPE 166077-MS, 2013.

5. Patent no. 2100662. MKI F04 F5/54, Jet compressor plant, Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Shmidt A.P., Eliseev V.N., Malov B.A., Trishin A.S.

6. Patent no. 2130132. MKI F04 F 5/54, Jet compressor plant, Inventors: Sazonov Yu.A., Shmidt A.P., Eliseev V.N., Malov B.A., I Yudin.S.

7. Podvidz L.G., Impulse pumping plant (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Mashinostroenie, 1980, no. 9, pp. 51-56.

8. Eliseev V.N., Sazonov Yu.A., First tests of models of pulsed jet compressor installation, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 2000, V. 36, no. 5, pp 292293, DOI: 10.1007/BF02463383.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02463383

9. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Ejector system development for hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbon reserves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 110112, DOI: 10.24887/00282448201710110112.

10. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Prospects of application of two-chamber pump-compressor units for pumping of multiphase medium (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 137139, DOI: 10.24887/00282448201711137139.

11. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Mishchenko I.T. et al., Development of jet-powered devices for energy effective oil and gas production technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 138141, DOI: 10.24887/00282448201712138141.

12. Patent no. 2642198, Well equipment for processing the bottom zone of formation, Inventors: Dmitrievskiy A.N., Sazonov Yu.A.

13. Drozdov A.N., Terikov B.A., Application of submerged jet pumps systems with dual-string lift for the sticky holes operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 6, pp. 68-72.

14. Drozdov A.N., Egorov Yu.A., Telkov V.P. et al., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika vodogazovogo vozdeystviya na neftyanye plasty (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 2, pp. 54-59.

15. Drozdov A.N., Investigations of the submersible pumps characteristics when gas-liquid mixtures delivering and application of the results for SWAG technologies development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 108-111.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-100-102

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276.53.054.23:621.67-83
M.G. Volkov (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Modeling heat transfer process from a submersible electric motor to flowing producing fluid at intensive scaling conditions

Keywords: diffusion, fouling, heat transfer surfaces, solid material, crystallization of calcium sulphate, mass transfer of solution, concentration, rate constant

When operating the Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) in conditions of intense scaling deposition, a dispersed dense stone-like precipitate forms on their working parts and surfaces, which thickness reaches 0.6-1 mm, and disrupts heat transfer and leads to a "thermal shock" of the electric motor. At the moment the development of artificial lift methods of oil production the problem of ESP failures due to the thermal shock of the electric motor due to the formation of a mineral deposits layer on the motor housing is relevant. Generally time to failure of downhole pumps in the presence of scaling is reduced by 3 5 or more times.

A significant role in formation of the ESP motor temperature is played by such factors as the producing fluid temperature past it, the heat transfer coefficient of the gas-liquid mix, depending on the flow regime and water-cut, the scaling thickness on the motor housing, the motor shaft load, etc. Operational experience has shown that the most common motor failure root-cause is wear or damage of the stator winding insulation of the motor.

A mechanism of scales deposition on the motor surface is considered. The models of bulk scales crystallization from solutions and deposition on the surface are given. A procedure for temperature rise of the submersible asynchronous electric motor under different loading operational conditions and taking into account the total heat transfer coefficient change due to the depositing scale minerals on the ESP external surface is developed. Dependences of cooling fluid heat transfer coefficient on pump intake pressure for various flow rates, cooling fluid heating depending on the net motor power at different degrees of production water-cut, the motor temperature on net power, at different scale layer thicknesses on the motor housing are given.

A method for surface deposition of CaSO4 on the motor housing has been developed, which allows calculating the growth rate of the scale thickness, depending on the cooling liquid flow rate and the salts concentration in the solution.

The developed methods allow carrying out a model forecasting of risks associated with the motor operating conditions in wells with scaling problems.

References

1. Kanzafarov F.Ya., Dzhabarova R.G., Ermolaeva A.N., Gradov V.A., Features of solid deposits formation in downhole equipment at Verkhne-Tarskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 2, pp. 7274.

2. Ragulin V.V., Smolyanets E.F., Mikhaylov A.G., Effect of scaling on the operation of pumping equipment in Yuganskneftegaz OAO (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2001, no. 7, pp. 2326.

3. Semenovykh A.N., Markelov D.V., Ragulin V.V. et al., Experience and prospects of salt deposition inhibiting ; at Yuganskneftegaz OAO deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 8, pp. 9497.

4. Perekupka A.G., Elizarova Yu.S., Efficiency and prospects of application of multicomponent mixtures of inhibitors of salt accumulation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 6, pp. 8284.

5. Hasan A.R., Kabir C.S., Heat transfer during two-phase flow in wellbores. Part 1. Formation temperature, SPE 22866, 1991.

6. Caetano E.F., Upward vertical two-phase flow through an annulus, The University of Tulsa, 1985.

7. Kashchavtsev V.E., Mishchenko I.T., Soleobrazovanie pri dobyche nefti (Salt formation in oil production), Moscow: Orbita-M Publ., 2004, 432 p.

8. Mullin J.W., Crystallization, London: Butterworth-Ytinemann, 2001.

9. Levins D.M., Glastonbury J.R., Particle-liquid hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a stirred vessel. 2. Mass transfer, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 1972, V. 50, p. 15.

10. Bott T.R., The fouling of heat exchangers, Elsevier Science, 1995, 546 p.

11. Konak A.R., A new model for surface reaction-controlled growth of crystals from solution, Chem. Eng. Sci., 1974, V. 29, pp. 15371543.

12. Fahiminia F., Watkinson A.P., Epstein N., Experiments and modeling of calcium sulphate precipitation under sensible heating conditions: Initial fouling and bulk precipitation rate studies, The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2016, pp. 175184.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-104-109

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622.276.72
A.V. Kovalev (Zarubezhneft-Production Samara LLC, RF, Samara), R.T. Miftakhov (Zarubezhneft-Production Samara LLC, RF, Samara), M.S. Ryakhin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Kolyvanov (ELKAM, RF, Perm)
Equipment for flushing of wells complicated by asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits using hollow sucker rods

Keywords: asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits, methods for removal of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits, heat treating, hollow sucker rods, sucker rod pump (SRP)

The article is devoted to warm-up and flush equipment set with hollow sucker rods designed and manufactured by ELKAM Company. This equipment is applied for hot flushing of oil wells equipped by downhole sucker rod pumps and complicated by asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits, where tubing is used as a production string and hollow sucker rods with couplings are used as a heat transfer agent channel. Hot flushing agent (oil or water, superheated steam, chemical agents) is injected through the high-pressure hose to the hollow sucker rods string, and from there through the special washing coupling it flows above the pump and below the ARWD accumulation zone. Flow of hot agent to the wellhead provides dissolution of ARW deposits. Also the article contains the detailed description of warm-up and flush equipment set operation and the results of field trial in the oilfields of Ulyanovskneftegas LLC during which operability this technology was confirmed and oil production targets were reached: decrease of flushing fluid volumes, refusal of usage of oil as a flushing agent, decrease of expenses for special vehicles for flushing, exception of downhole equipment failure because of ARW deposition. According to the findings of the commission of Ulyanovskneftegas LLC, ELKAMs warm-up and flush equipment successfully passed field testing and corresponds to the requirements of industrial and ecological safety requirements.

References

1. Persiyantsev M.N., Dobycha nefti v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Oil production in complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 653 p.

2. Tronov V.P., Mekhanizm obrazovaniya smolo-parafinovykh otlozheniy i bor'ba s nimi (Mechanism of formation of resin-paraffin deposits and its control), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 192 p.

3. Kayumov M.Sh., Tronov V.P., Gus'kov I.A., Lipaev A.A., The account of asphalt-tar-paraffin deposits formation features at a late stage of development of petroleum deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 3, pp. 4849.

4. Sorokin S.A., Khavkin S.A., Features of physical and chemical mechanism of production asphalted, resinous and of paraffin formations in the wells (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2007, no. 10, pp. 3031.

5. Sorokin A.V., Tabakaeva A.V., Influence of the gas content in petroleum on ARDO formation in the well lift (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2009, no. 2, pp. 2526.

6. Zevakin N.I., Mukhametshin R.Z., Parafinootlozheniya v plastovykh usloviyakh gorizonta D1 Romashkinskogo mestorozhdeniya (Paraffin deposits in the formation conditions of the horizon D1 of the Romashkinskoye oilfield), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2008, 472 p.

7. Sharifullin A.V., Baybekova L.R., Suleymanov A.T., Features of composition and structure of oil deposits (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2006, no. 6, pp. 1924.

8. Khokhlov N.G., Vagapov R.R., Shagitov Z.M., Mustafin A.S., Asphalt-resin substances and paraffin removal in Yuzharlanneft NGDU oil pipelines (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 1, pp. 110111.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-110-112

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OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT

622.276.8
E.R. Bashirova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.G. Mikhaylov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), I.M. Khusnullin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Modeling of oil treatment process at R. Trebs oil field

Keywords: oil, oil treatment, physicochemicall oil properties, kinetics of destruction of oil-water emulsion

The modeling of an efficiency of oil treatment process at the Central Processing Facility (CPF) of R. Trebs oil field, taking into account the increase in share of wells exploiting D3src2 reservoir has been considered. The influence of oil from D3src2 reservoir on response in the physicochemical composition of oil, the kinetic of water-oil emulsion destruction and the possibility of oil treatment process was determined. It has been established that an increase in share of oil from this reservoir in total production will lead to an increase in the density of oil from 0.818 to 0.837 g/cm3, an increase in the content of asphaltenes in oil from 0.8 to 2.0 %, and an increase in the dynamic viscosity of the resulting emulsion from 38.7 to 196 mPa.s as well. A change in the type of water-oil emulsion stabilizer has been predicted, which will pass from the paraffinic to the mixed type, that will lead to an increase in resistance to the destruction of water-oil emulsion.

Based on the results of simulation of oil dehydration and desalting process, the necessary parameters have been obtained for the oil treatment process and for possibility obtaining of oil for the first quality group. Reagents for the study of de-emulsification were taken by those that are currently used at CPF. After carrying out the thermal calculation of the CPF equipment it was noted that the projected heaters quantity would not allow liquid to be heated to a temperature that would effectively separate the water and produce commercial grade oil. The heat recuperation technology for oil treatment at CPF without increasing capacity and heating equipment is proposed. The installation of the heat exchanger, due to heat transfer from commercial oil, will increase inlet flow temperature at the inlet of oil heating furnaces by an additional 8-15C.

References

1. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Kosmacheva T.F., Osobennosti formirovaniya i razrusheniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Features of formation and destruction of oil-water emulsions at a late stage of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of OAO VNIIOENG, 2005, 324 p.

2. Pozdnyshev G.N., Stabilizatsiya i razrushenie neftyanykh emul'siy (Stabilization and destruction of oil emulsions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 221 p.

3. Baykov N.M., Pozdnyshev G.H., Mansurov R.I., Sbor i promyslovaya podgotovka nefti, gaza i vody (Gathering and field treatment of oil, gas and water), Moscow: Nedra Publ, 1981, 261 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-117-119

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PIPELINE TRANSPORT

621.791:621.643.1/2
D.A. Neganov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), N.G. Goncharov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Yushin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), O.I. Kolesnikov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Special structures for pipelines selective repair

Keywords: repair structures, welded seams, defects, main pipelines, welding, pipe, heat affected zone, thermal cycle of welding, mechanical properties

Russia has built the world's largest system of trunk pipelines, which has been in operation for several decades. In the process of long-term operation in the metal of pipes and welded joints, according to the results of in-line inspection, external and internal defects are detected, which are considered to be dangerous under the current rules of non-destructive testing. The nature of defects is different. Basically, these are defects of corrosion origin associated with the impact of corrosive media, mechanical damage to pipes and welded joints, welding defects formed during the production of welding and installation works during the construction of pipelines.

In order to ensure reliable and safe operation, in some sections of pipelines, perform the elimination of defects using various technologies. A special place among the repair technologies is occupied by repair technologies with the installation of repair structures, the main of which are steel and composite couplings, split tees, etc. Repair structures are used in cases where the use of other technologies is ineffective. The main requirement for repair is to prevent accidents and restore the bearing capacity of the pipeline for the entire period of operation of the repair facility. Preference to this or that method is given based, first of all, on the technical characteristics of the repair structure, simplicity, performance and manufacturability of repair, the volume of earthworks. In each case it is necessary to choose the best method of repair.

The article deals with topical issues of repair of oil pipelines with diameter from 159 to 1220 mm, as well as methods of testing of full-scale samples of pipes with installed repair structures.

References

1. Goncharov N.G., Gobarev L.A., Kolesnikov O.I. et al., Main pipelines linear part repair by means of cutting flanged tees (In Russ.), Truboprovodnyy transport: teoriya i praktika, 2010, no. 4, pp. 2830.

2. But V.S., Velikoivanenko E.A., Oleynik O.I., Peculiarities of application of split tee-joints in repair and reconstruction of main pipelines in service conditions  (In Russ.), Avtomaticheskaya svarka = The Paton Welding Journal, 2009, no. 9, pp. 3238.

3. But V.S., Gretskiy Yu.Ya., Rozgonyuk V.V., Substantiation of a new approach for performing welding operations on pressurised pipelines (In Ukr.), Naft. i Gaz. Promyslovist, 2001, no. 4, pp. 3339.

4. Makhnenko V.I., But V.S., Velikoivanenko E.A. et al., Determination of the permissible sizes of welded seams when installing tees and couplings on operating main pipelines (In Russ.), Avtomaticheskaya svarka = The Paton Welding Journal, 2003, no. 8, pp. 712.

5. Milne I., Ainsworth R.A., Dowling A.R., Stewart A.T., Assessment of integrity of structures containing defects, CEGB Report R/H/R6, Revision 3, 1986, April.

6. Shafikov R.R., Experimental substantiation of repair of main pipelines using welding technologies without stopping gas pumping (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2009, no. 4, pp. 4851.

7. Shafikov R.R., Repair of trunk gas pipelines using welding and related technologies without stopping the transfer of gas (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2009, no. 6, pp. 8083.

8. Mazel' A.G., Gobarev L.A. et al., The efficiency of welded couplings for the repair of defect of pipeline under pressure (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo truboprovodov, 1996, no. 1, pp. 1622.

9. Mazel' A.G., Gobarev L.A., Nagornov K.M., Rybakov A.I., Welded couplings for pipeline repair (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 1996, no. 910, pp. 5557.

10. Zandberg A.S., Lopatin E.V., Gobarev L.A., Goncharov N.G., Evaluation of resistance of cylindrical couplings to axial loads during repair of annular joints of pipelines (In Russ.), Tekhnologiya mashinostroeniya, 2003, no. 1, pp. 3235.

11. Zandberg A.S., Lopatin E.V., Gobarev L.A., Goncharov N.G., Evalution of the resistance of cylindrical couplings to axial loading in repair of circumferential joints in hihtlines, Welding International, 2003, V. 17, no. 10, pp. 813816.

12. Goncharov N.G., Yushin A.A., Sudnik A.V., Development of repair components for selective repair of the pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, V. 7, no. 4, pp. 5461.

13. Patent no. 2097646, Method of prevention of development of flaws in pipe line walls, Inventors: Golovin S.V., Goncharov N.G., Lopatin E.V., Mazel' A.G., Romanova I.A., Khomenko V.I., Gobarev L.A.

14. Goncharov N.G., Kolesnikov O.I., Yushin A.A., Filippov O.I., Study of the impact of low ambient temperatures on welding technology and properties of welded joints of main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 1, pp. 6267.

15. Goncharov N.G., Kolesnikov O.I., Yushin A.A., A study of the impact of low ambient temperatures on weld technology and the properties of welded joints in trunk pipelines (In Russ.), Pipeline Science and Technology, 2017, V. 1, no. 1, pp. 5763.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-120-123

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

681.518:621.311
N.A. Ostankov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), S.A. Kozlov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), D.A. Frolov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), A.V. Cherepanov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), A.V. Rtischev (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara)
Automated system of energy saving control and monitoring in Samaraneftegas JSC

Keywords: energy saving program, energy efficiency, efficiency factor, specific energy consumption

The paper presents the description of information system the main objective of which includes the growth in productivity at the stage of development and performance of measures to increase the energy efficiency of production. At present in view of macro-economic processes and state policy in oil and gas industry the issues of energy cost reduction and energy efficiency growth are one of the main priorities in the activity of Rosneft Oil Company. The Company now is following the focused efforts in analyzing thermal power resources, planning of measures and efficiency evaluation of performed actions. 

Samaraneftegas JSC has taken a decision on designing the automatic energy saving control and monitoring system to regulate and categorize the processes in the area of energy management. As the result of completed measures Samaraneftegas has designed and applied it its practical activity the software in a form of web-appendix that provides the possibility in organizing multi-user access to the specialists engaged in planning process and actualization of measures included into energy and power management sphere. The target area that covers the functional aspects of this automated system includes the following main process units and blocks as artificial lift, surface infrastructure, water shut-off jobs, etc. This software package enables to define specific sets of completed measures and efficiency evaluating methods versus their implementation at each individual above-mentioned block.

Results of practical experience in applying this energy saving control and monitoring system in specific subdivisions of Samaraneftergas showed the efficiency of selected approach to creating the information flows in the areas of energy management of the Company. 
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-7-124-126

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INFORMATION



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