|OIL & GAS COMPANIES|
As it is evident fr om multiple research findings many R&D projects in oil and gas companies fail to reach full-scale implementation phase due to inability to provide profitable outcome for business units. This can be explained by lack of full alignment and support between technology development and business units (end users of technology). The balance between technology ‘push’ and ‘pull’ fully depends on the level of involvement of business units at early stages of technology development, correct goal and key performance indicator setting at each stage-gate and specification of necessary result delivery time.
Considering current macroeconomic situation of world oil and gas industry, maximisation of return on investment in technology becomes more important for stable long-term company development. In order to facilitate profitable innovation implementation throughout the company, Gazprom Neft developed and introduced a transparent mechanism for business unit involvement into the process of R&D development. Business unit, as the end user of new technology sets the priorities for upstream technology and key parameters for desired technology solutions. Therefore, if at any stage business driven technology needs change, this should have a direct effect on technology portfolio as early as possible.
Current article focuses on mechanisms and instruments that were implemented to ensure and stimulate full alignment of business needs and technology abilities in Gazprom Neft at any stage of new technology development process.
1. Sequeira M., What to cut and where to invest: developing a “ruthless” approach to R&D management, OTM Consulting, 2016, URL: https://www.otmconsulting.com/insight/what-to-cut-wh ere-to-invest-developing-a-ruthless-approach-to-...
2. Spath J., Transforming the Upstream service industry to increase operator margins, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 2016, V. 68-05, pp. 54–57.
3. Roussel P.A., Saad K.N., Erickson T.J., Third Generation R&D: Managing the link to corporate strategy, Harvard Business Press, 1991.
4. Yakovlev V.V., Khasanov M.M., Prokofiev D.O. et al., Technology development in upstream division of Gazprom Neft, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 2017, V. 69-4.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The methodological approaches used to assess the resource potential of basins in which there are sills intrusions significantly differ from basins without intrusions. The source rock maturity in these basins is caused not only by the intensity of the heat flow and burial depth of deposits, but also, to a large extent, by the intense temperature influence of the sills on the host rock. In addition, it was found that timing of the intrusion has a great influence on the maturity of the underlying source rocks.
The purpose of this study is to improve the methodology for modeling oil and gas basins which are influenced by intensive intrusive processes. The South America’s sedimentary basin is used as an example.
To determine the timing of the sill intrusions in the overlying formations and to forecast oil and gas potential, the basin modeling method was applied. Its essence lies in the detailed modeling of the basin’s evolution correlated with the processes of generation, migration, accumulation of hydrocarbons, and oil and gas losses. Based on the results of basin modeling, it has been established that the thickness of the sediments between sill's bottom and top of source rocks is one of the key factors controlling the maturity and phase composition of hydrocarbons in the traps. It was found that the sills intensively deform the overlying, rather than underlying, sediments. Positive and negative structural deformations that are absent in the underlying sediments are observed above the sills. The correlation analysis of the sills' thickness makes it possible to determine the timing of their intrusion into the sedimentary cover. As a result it was determined that the lowest intrusion was the earliest.
The obtained results became the scientific basis for building a three-dimensional digital geological model of the studied basin.
1. Magoon L.B., Dow W.G., The petroleum system, AAPG Memoir 60, 1994, pp. 3–24.
2. Hantschel T., Konerauf A.S., Fundamentals of basin and petroleum system modeling, Springer, 2009, 476 p.
4. Mello M.R., Goncalves G.T., Babinsky N.A., Miranda F.P., Hydrocarbon prospecting in the Amazon rain forest: application of surface geochemical, microbiological and remote sensing methods, AAPG Memoir 66, 1996, pp. 401–411.
5. Meyn S.V., Vvedenie v teoriyu stratigrafii (Introduction to the theory of stratigraphy), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1989, 216 p.
6. Khusnitdinov R.R., “Trappovyy magmatizm” kriteriy prognoza treshchinovatosti karbonatnykh otlozheniy dokembriya na Kuyumbinskom mestorozhdenii («Trap magmatism» is the criterion for predicting the fracture of Precambrian carbonate deposits in the Kuyumbinskoye field), Proceedings of EAGE Geomodel’’ 2013, pp. 1–5.
7. Levinson-Lessing F.Yu., Ginzberg A.S., Dilaktorskiy N.L., Trappy Tuluno-Udinskogo i Bratskogo rayonov v Vostochnoy Sibiri (Trappes of Tuluno-Udinsky and Bratsk districts in Eastern Siberia), Proceedings of Council for the Study of Production Forces, 1932, 82 p.
8. Starosel’tsev V.S., Tektonika bazal’tovykh plato i neftegazonosnost’ podstilayushchikh otlozheniy (Tectonics of basalt plateaus and oil and gas content of underlying deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 257 p.
9. Migurskiy A.V., Popelukha G.F., Starosel’tsev V.S., Khomenko A.V., Vliyanie trappovogo magmatizma na neftegazonosnost’ oblastey Sibirskoy platformy (Effect of trap magmatism on the oil and gas potential of the Siberian platform), Collected papers “Flyuidodinamicheskiy faktor v tektonike i neftegazonosnosti osadochnykh basseynov” (Fluid dynamic factor in tectonics and petroleum potential of sedimentary basins), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1989, pp. 85–89.
10. Starosel’tsev V.S., Lebedev V.M., Svyaz’ intruzivnogo magmatizma s tektonikoy Tungusskoy sineklizy (The relationship of intrusive magmatism with tectonics of the Tunguska syneclise), Proceedings of SNIIGIMS,1975, V. 217, pp. 100–108.
11. Filho J.R.W., Travassos W.A.S., Alves D.B., O diabasio nas bacias paleozoicas amazonicas heroi ou vilao?, Boletim de Geociencias Petrobras, 2006, V. 14, no. 1, pp. 177–184.
12. Holford S.P., Schofield N., Jackson C. et al., Impacts of igneous intrusions on source and reservoir potential in prospective sedimentary basins along the western Australian continental margin, Australia, Perth: Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia special publication, 2013, 12 p.
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The article deals with the implementation of the seismic-stratigraphic analysis for carbonate deposits. The analysis is based on the sedimentation simulation conducted using paleogeomorphological analysis data. The seismic stratigraphic analysis was performed from the time section of the reflected waves obtained by the method of the common depth point on one of the deposits of the north-western part of the western slope of the South Tatar arch.
For the reconstruction of sedimentation and subsequent diagnosis of carbonate sediments were carried out seismic-stratigraphic binding reflections (reflections identification) using the well logging data within the study area. Density and acoustic logs were used and synthetic density and acoustic velocity curves were calculated for wells in which these logs were not performed. We traced all seismic reflections identified in the seismic-stratigraphic reference throughout the study area. We mapped time of the seismic wave run to the horizon of interest. Seismic attributes were calculated for the prediction of the distribution of facies in the study area. Forecast of seismic facies zones was carried out on the basis of well data and well logging. Paleogeomorphological and seismic facies analysis were performed based on predicted depositional facies zones and logic. To perform these analysis, well log data, seismic wave travel time maps, paleogeographic maps of the interest horizons, and seismic attributes were used.
Presented geological interpretation has allowed to identify promising area in carbonate rocks with improved reservoir properties – bioherm formed in almost all carbonate sediments represented by the section.
1. Seismic stratigraphy — Applications to hydrocarbon exploration: edited by Payton Ch.E., Publ. of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1977.
2. Shlezinger A.E., Regional’naya seysmostratigrafiya (Local seismic stratigraphy), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 1998, 138 p.
3. Zhemchugova V.A., Rezervuarnaya sedimentologiya karbonatnykh otlozheniy (Reservoir sedimentology of carbonate deposits), Moscow: Proceedings of EAGE, 2014, 232 p.
4. Boganik G.N., Gurvich I.I., Seysmorazvedka (Seismic survey), Tver’: AIS Publ., 2006, 744 p.
5. Ampilov Yu.P., Ot seysmicheskoy interpretatsii k modelirovaniyu i otsenke mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (From seismic interpretation to modeling and evaluation of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Spektr Publ., 2008, 348 p.
6. Khisamov R.S. et al., Geologiya karbonatnykh slozhnopostroennykh kollektorov devona i karbona Tatarstana (Geology of carbonate complex reservoirs of Devonian and Carboniferous of Tatarstan), Kazan’: FEN Publ., 2010, 283 p.
7. Khamidullina G.S., Ziganshin E.R., Minnibaeva E.I., Khaliullin R.R., Study of reservoir properties of carbonate rocks based on analysis of reservoir quality index (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 64–66.
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Surgutneftegas OJSC systematically increases the volume of oil production at the fields in Eastern Siberia. The company's specialists study the structural conditions of the localization of hydrocarbon traps in areas with developed fold-thrust tectonics to replacement the mineral raw materials base and to increase the success of exploration drilling. The paper presents the results of studying the influence of fold-thrust dislocations on the formation and conservation of hydrocarbon deposits in the territory of Eastern Siberia. The study area is located within the boundaries of the Predpatomskiy fold-thrust belt and is limited by the territory of Surgutneftegas. The search for oil and gas in this region is due to the division of the sedimentary cover into the allochthonous and autochthonous parts. The main conclusions are made on the basis of the analysis of the latest 3D seismic data and prospecting wells within the Pilyudinskoye field. The integration of materials for geophysical studies of wells, cores and 3D seismic data allowed to construct an actual geological model of the field, which is much more complex than the earlier concept of the structure of the area. Based on a detailed study of the structure of the Pilyudinskiy field, the features of hydrocarbon traps have been established and described in the conditions of fold-thrust dislocations (the allochthonous part of the vertical section), which are widespread throughout the all territory of Predpatomskiy fold-thrust belt. Evidences of the productivity of the Cambrian oil and gas complex (the Belsky suite), a new exploration prospect, within the boundaries of the site are given. The obtained results and conclusions are applicable at the planning and design of geological exploration work within the boundaries of the Predpatomskiy fold-thrust belt. Further study of the features of the hydrocarbon traps in the allochthon and the improvement of the prospecting technique are necessary to improve the efficiency of prospecting and exploration.
1. Migurskiy A.V., Large scale lateral displacements of rocks and fluids on the Siberian Platform (In Russ.), Geologiya i mineral'no-syr'evye resursy Sibiri, 2010, no. 1, pp. 33–37.
2. Cooper M., Structural style and hydrocarbon prospectivity in fold and thrust belts: a global review, Deformation of the Continental crust. London. – 2007. – P. 447–472.
3. Gayduk V.V., Prokop'ev A.V., Metody izucheniya skladchato-nadvigovykh poyasov (Methods of fold-thrust belts studying), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1999, 160 p.
4. Migursky A.V., Efimov A.S., Staroseltsev V.S., New trends of petroleum exploration in Pre-Patom regional trough (Siberian platform) (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2012, no. 1, pp. 19–27.
5. Gzovskiy M.V., Osnovy tektonofiziki (Fundamentals of tectonophysics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 536 p.6. Yaroshevskiy V., Tektonika razryvov i skladok (Tectonics of breaks and folds), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 245 p.
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553.98 : 556.314
Petroleum hydrogeology of Bashkortostan represents the first results of determining the weight concentration of Cu, Ni, V, and Co in highly mineralized reservoir waters of oil and gas fields. The authors proposed atomic-absorption algorithm of determining the elements in graphite furnace with electrothermal atomization by standard addition method for samples with complex matrix structure. High selectivity and accuracy of this method allows to make measurements without preliminary sampling and get the results having low error of about 20%. The proposed method will allow to study highly mineralized reservoir waters of the upper Paleozoic cover of Bashkortostan with a view to their classification and possible selection of search features for the exploration of hydrocarbon.
The results obtained with the help of the proposed methodologic approach on the micro or trace elements quantities found in reservoir waters may be successfully applied as the basis for systematic classification of reservoir waters by metal content, for exploration and appraisal of oil and gas fields, for determining oil-water contact, for estimating rock porosity and permeability, for tracer tests and identification of new perspective areas for further evaluation. Moreover reservoir waters reflect their interaction with oil pools in the subsurface and in their turn influence the composition and properties of in-situ oil. The data on concentrations of such micro elements in produced fluids is also used for analysis of sources for water breakthrough to producing wells, for estimation of potential by-passed pay or oil-bearing intervals when planning new wells in underdeveloped zones, sidetrack drilling or recompletions.
1. Chakhmakhchev V.A., Punanova S.A., Lositskaya I.F., Geokhimiya mikroelementov v neftegazopoiskovoy geologii (Geochemistry of microelements in oil and gas prospecting geology), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1984, 56 p.
2. Babaev F.R., Punanova S.A., Geokhimicheskie aspekty mikroelementnogo sostava neftey (Geochemical aspects of microelement petroleum composition), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2014, 181 p.
3. Reznikov A.A., Mulikovskaya E.P., Sokolov I.Yu., Metody analiza prirodnykh vod (Methods of analysis of natural waters), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 488 p.
4. Ermachenko L.A., Ermachenko V.M., Atomno-absorbtsionnyy analiz s grafitovoy pech'yu (Atomic absorption analysis with graphite furnace), Moscow: PAIMS Publ., 1999, 220 p.
5. Pupyshev A.A., Atomno-absorbtsionnyy spektral'nyy analiz (Atomic absorption spectral analysis), Moscow: Tekhnosfera Publ., 2009, 345 p.
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Carbonate reservoirs are usually characterized by extremely variable pore space structure, which has to be taken into account during formation evaluation from the well-logging data. The most efficient tool for studying such reservoirs is the implementation of specially-dedicated core studies with simulation of formation conditions. Such studies take a long time. As an alternative, a reliable estimation of reservoir poroperm properties and saturation may be obtained with the use of extended logging program which includes special wireline log-suite.
The subject of study in this paper is Devonian carbonate formation of the Kharyaga field, represented by products of reef decay and characterized by mostly intergranular porosity. In one of the wells drilled within a poorly-studied block of the field to estimate its prospects and identify potential water encroach, in addition to standard log-suite, special wireline tools were used: Multifrequency Dielectric Logging (MDL) DielectricScanner and High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) CMR Plus.
As result of MDL data processing, the rock water capacity and the MN exponent (coincides with the exponents of Archie Low at m=n) were obtained. Based on the difference of porosity and water capacity the residual oil saturation was determined, whose values are confirmed by core-data from other wells. The MN exponent turned out to be substantially higher than the saturation exponent n from core analysis data. Lower values of saturation exponent n from core data may be related to changes in rock wettability occurred during extraction of core plugs before the measurements. As result of interpretation, oil saturation obtained by using the adopted exponents from core analysis turned out to be overstated compared to oil saturation values calculated with use of MN exponent. Irreducible water saturation based on NMR data was obtained with use of relaxation time cut-off estimated through factor analysis of wireline NMR log data (since there were no special core studies done for this purpose). The total sum of oil saturation values from MDL data and residual water saturation values from NMR is practically equal to 100% of the rock pore space within studied interval, and, consequently, there is no mobile water in the formation. The expected inflow is defined as ‘oil’ – it was confirmed by formation sampling in open hole (by MDT tool) later on. Thus, the use of special wireline tools allowed obtaining the reliable estimates of oil saturation and accurate determination of expected fluid inflow.
1. Hizem H., Budan H., Devillé B. et al., Dielectric dispersion, SPE 116130, 2008.
2. Kenyon W.E., Texture effects on megahertz dielectric properties of calcite rock samples, J.Appl.Phys., 1984, V. 55, no. 8, pp. 3153-3159.
3. Sen P.N., Scala C., Cohen M.H., A self-similar model for sedimentary rocks with application to the dielectric contrast of fused glass beads, Geophysics, 1981, V. 46, no. 5, pp. 781-795.
4. Mungan N., Moore E.J., Certain wettability effects on electrical resistivity in porous media, J. Cdn. Petr. Technol., 1968, V. 7, no. 1, pp. 20-25.
5. Swanson B.F., Rationalizing the influence of crude wetting on reservoir fluid flow with electrical resistivity behavior, JPT, 1980, Aug., pp. 1459-1464.
6. Jain V., Chanh Cao Minh, N. Heaton et al., Characterization of underlying pore and fluid structure using factor analysis on NMR data, Proceedings of SPWLA 54th Annual Logging Symposium, 2013, V. 54.
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Recent years the finite element method is used for simulation of cutting processes, including cutting of rocks due to its simplicity and efficiency. Modern software (Ansys Explicit) allows to implement this method for optimizing the design of the drilling tool, including PDC drill bits. This approach is particularly relevant in connection with large costs of drill bits, their elements, and experiments in general. The task of this work was the finite element simulation of different shapes of PDC drill bit cutters with linear and round cutting to determine the shape of the cutter, which causes the minimal fluctuation of cutting force. Because of absence of relevant experimental data for simulation verification, qualitative simulation data are of interest. The feature of this approach is the dynamic formulation of the problem. To solve this problem there were given: spatial forms of cutters; elements of cutting conditions: cutting speed, depth of cut; rheological model of the processed material; friction model.
Based on the presented model it was considered the PDC drill bits cuttings design influence on rock cutting indexes for linear and round cutting process. This approach is available for PDC drill bit cutters simulation for rock mass cutting due to its efficiency and possibility to use for designing a drilling tool. It made possible to obtain qualitative characteristics of the process for the all period of cutter operation, and also obtain the distribution of rock mass stresses and rock reaction forces fluctuation for computational experiment period.
1. Pei Ju, Zhenquan Wang, Yinghu Zhai et al., Numerical simulation study on the optimization design of the crown shape of PDC drill bit, J. Petrol. Explor. Prod. Technol., DOI 10.1007/s13202-013-0091-9
2. Jaime M., Numerical modeling of rock cutting and its associated fragmentation process using the finite element method: PhD thesis, Pittsburg, University of Pittsburgh, 2012, 275 p.
3. Hallquist J.O., LS-DYNA Theoretical manual, Livermore: LSTC, 1998, 498 r.
4. Zaloga V.A., Krivoruchko D.V., Khvostik S.N., The simulation model of the rectangular free cutting (In Russ.), V³snik Sums'kogo derzhavnogo un³versitetu. Ser³ya: Tekhn³chn³ nauki, 2005, no. 11, pp. 55-66.
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The current research is devoted to the comparative examination of the properties of oil-based drilling fluid which are stabilized by condensation product of fatty and resin acids of tall oil with the ethanolamines. It is proved that the chemical nature of the emulsifier has a crucially different impact on the properties of oil-based drilling fluid. The drilling fluids which contain fatty acid diethanolamide or triethanolamine ethers as emulsifiers, ranging from 4 to 40 g/dm³, have similar rheological and filtration properties. At the same time, diethanolamide based drilling fluids with regard to mean and high density of the emulsifier, demonstrate strong electrical stability performance and can be up to 450–480 V. On the contrary, monoethanolamides of the fatty acids form oil-based drilling fluid which exhibit much higher structural-mechanical properties: having virtually the same plastic viscosity such muds demonstrated characteristics of the dynamic and gel strength which are 2–3 times higher than the similar indicators of the drilling fluids, stabilized by diethanolamide or by triethanolamine ethers. The nature of the emulsifiers under study also leads to the fundamental differences in the filtration properties of oil-based drilling fluid. The filtration of the drilling fluids on the base of diethanolamide and triethanolamine ethers is on average 4–6 cm2 (per 30 min) and tends reduce gradually when the concentration of the emulsifier is increased. On the contrary, the analogous drilling fluids containing monoethanolamide demonstrate the increase of the filtrate loss (up to 15–22 cm2) which is observed in high emulsifiers concentration region.
1. Glushchenko V.N., Obratnye emul’sii i suspenzii v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Inverted emulsions and suspensions in oil-and-gas industry), Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2008, 725 p.
2. Kravchuk M.V., Bliznyukov V.Yu., Ulyasheva N.M., Logachev Yu.L., Experience of formulation simulation of hydrocarbon-based weighted drilling solutions with specified process parameters (In Russ.), Stroitel’stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2016, no. 2, pp. 19-23.
3. Arslanbekov A.R., Lutfullin A.A., Medentsev A.V., Mosin V.A., Korolev A.V., Drilling in oil-wet reservoirs with oil based mud systems (In Russ.), Burenie i neft’, 2014, no. 9, pp. 29-32.
4. Grigor’ev M.S., Sidorov D.N., Vlasov E.N., Korolev A.V., Ryabtsev P.L., RUO UNIDRIL for drilling wells with abnormally high pressure in the Yamal - Nenets autonomous district recipe development (In Russ.), Burenie i neft’, 2017, no. 3, pp. 46-48.
5. Konesev V.G., Khomutov A.Yu., Application of oil-based drilling muds in reservoir rocks of Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas JSC fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 44-45.
6. Shishkov S.N., Koshelev V.N., Shishkov V.S., Zavorotny V.L., Unwater-base drilling fluids. Problems, prospects of development and domaine of application (In Russ.), Burenie i neft’, 2008, no. 3, pp. 26-29.
7. Minaeva E.V., Nedelko E.S., Skotnov S.N., Yarovenko O.I., Vafin R.F., Malakhova R.D., Developing and implement high-weighted muds. oil based drilling muds with a flat rheology profile for penetration of productive horizons with high pressures (In Russ.), Neft’. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, no. 9 (188), pp. 30-33.
8. Il’yasov S.E., Popov S.G., Orgomelidze G.V. et al., Emulsion drilling fluids - trends in technology development (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2011, no. 11, pp. 14–17.
9. Yanovskiy V.A., Churkin R.A., Andropov M.O., Kosova N.I., Synthesis and study of properties of emulsifiers for reverse emulsions based on derivatives of acids of tall oil distillate and ethanolamines (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2013, V. 370, pp. 194–199.
10. Yanovsky V.A., Andropov M.O., Fakhrislamova R.S., Churkin R.A., Minaev K.M., Ulyanova O.S., Rheological properties of inverse emulsions stabilized by ethanolamides of tall oil fatty acids, MATEC Web Conf., 2016, V. 85, pp. 1-7.
11. Minaev K., Epikhin A., Novoseltsev D., Andropov M., Yanovsky V., Ulyanova O., Research of inverted emulsions properties on the base of new emulsifiers, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ., 2014, V. 21, pp. 1-6.
12. Mäki-Arvela1 P., Tkacheva A., Dosmagambetova I., Chapelliere Y., Hachemi I., Kumar N., Aho A., Murzin D.Y., Thermal and catalytic amidation of stearic acid with ethanolamine for production of pharmaceuticals and surfactants, Top. Catal, 2016, V. 59, pp. 1151-1164.
13. Maag H., Fatty acid derivatives: Important surfactants for household, cosmetic and industrial purposes, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1984, V. 61, no. 2, pp. 259-267.
14. Kroll H., Nadeau H., The Chemistry of lauric acid-diethanolamine condensation products, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1957, V. 34, no. 6, pp. 323-326.
15. Hermoso J., Martinez-Boza F., Gallegos C., Influence of aqueous phase volume fraction, organoclay concentration and pressure on invert-emulsion oil muds rheology, J. Ind. Eng. Chem, 2015, V. 22, pp. 341-349.
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The authors substantiated a need of evaluation the influence of thermobaric conditions on the rheological properties of magnesian cement slurries in oil and gas well casing with water-soluble salts. It is shown that measuring only slurry consistency and thickening time is not enough for estimating this influence. Measuring rheological properties, which are used for hydraulic calculations of cementing process, is necessary for choosing an optimum regime of oil-well slurry replacement in the annular space. For magnesian oil-well cement slurries, which rheological behavior is described by Bingham – Shvedov model, these properties are plastic viscosity and yield point.
A review of studies on the processes that occurs in oil-well cement slurries with temperature and pressure variation is accomplished. Methods and results of laboratory research, considered the influence of temperature and pressure on rheology of magnesian oil-well cement slurries, are adduced. Ranges of factors are chosen based on real conditions in oil wells where magnesian oil-well cements are used and on opportunities of instrumental base. The range of the temperature was 10-30 °C, for pressure – 0.1-14 MPa. Comparative results of evaluation of the influence of factors on rheology of portland and magnesian cement slurries are shown. It is established that temperature variation influences the rheological properties of magnesian oil-well cement slurries more than pressure variation. It is necessary to take into account both of these factors for choosing valid optimum regime of oil-well slurry replacement in annular space of well.
1. Tolkachev G.M., Kozlov A.S., Anisimova A.V. et al., Primenenie magnezial’nykh tsementov pri kreplenii glubokikh neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Usage of magnesia cements for oil and gas deep well casing), Proceedings of SWorld, 2013, V.14., no. 3, URL: http://www.sworld.com.ua/konfer32/479.pdf
2. PB 07-436-02. Pravila promyshlennoy bezopasnosti pri osvoenii mestorozhdeniy nefti na ploshchadyakh zaleganiya kaliynykh soley (The rules of industrial safety in the development of oil fields in the areas of occurrence of potassium salts).
3. Kozlov A.S., Pastukhov A.M., Plugging material for cementing casing in the range of perennially frozen rocks (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2014, no. 10, pp. 42–48.
4. Tolkachev G.M., Kozlov A.S., Devyatkin D.A., A method to reduce chemical activity of magnesite cements to ensure safety in casing cementing in oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2013, no. 9, pp. 49–56.
5. Bulatov A.I., Upravlenie fiziko-mekhanicheskimi svoystvami tamponazhnykh sistem (Management of physical and mechanical properties of oil-well systems), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 248 p.
6. Makovey N., Gidravlika bureniya (Hydraulics of drilling), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 536 p.
7. Anisimova A.V., Tolkachev G.M., Osobennosti reologicheskikh kharakteristik magnezial’nykh tamponazhnykh rastvorov (Features of rheological characteristics of magnesian oil-well slurry solutions), Proceedings of 70th jubilee international youth scientific conference, Moscow, 18-20 April 2016, Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2016, pp. 42–52.8. Danyushevskiy V.S., Aliev R.M., Tolstykh I.F., Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po tamponazhnym materialam (Reference guide for plugging materials), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 373 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
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The development of the Ashalchinskoye bitumen deposit using steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology associated is with suffosion processes in bitumen-saturated sandstones layers. Based on model experiments it was shown that influence of the water vapor on bituminous sandstones leads to a decrease in their mechanical parameters. As result of this reaction will decrease of cohesive forces between rock fragments due to the dissolution of bitumen and carbonate cement. The parallel lateral injector and exploitation wells which located in weakly cemented sandstones will lead to dissolution of their cement and destruction of the mineral skeleton to mouldy state. In the conditions of stabilized filtration flowing between paired wells, a part of very fine-grained terrigenous material will be washed out, promoting to formation of suffosion cavities in reservoir layer.
Based on existing technological parameters for development of the Ashalchinskoye bitumen-saturated deposit was carried math modeling of this process development. As examples we used two horizontal wells of 200 and 400 m in length, with minimal and maximal flow rates 20 and 34 tons per day, respectively. Estimation of the suffosion cavity size, as well as the time of its formation is carried out taking into account the physical filtration rate of the fluid in the pores of each rock type, which characterizes the degree of cementation of the rock. Mathematical calculations have shown that the development of such sandstone reservoirs in the field of filtration flow between paired lateral wells can lead to the formation of suffosion cavities. The intensity of the cavity development will be determined by the degree of sandstones cementation and technological parameters of exploration system. Mainly suffosion process depends from horizontal well exploration length and recovery rate of formation fluid. Sign of the suffosion cavity beginning formation can be considered the appearance of terrigenous material in hole of exploitation well.
1. Romanov G.V., The objective republican program for the heavy oils and natural bitumen fields integrated development in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2012, no. 4 (46), pp. 34–36.
2. Korolev E.A., Bakhtin A.I., Eskin A.A., Khanipova R.R., Diagenetic changes of sandstone reservoir of Ashalchinskoye bitumen deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 10, pp. 26–28.
3. Zakirov T.R., Galeev A.A., Korolev E.A. et al., Estimation of sandstone reservoir properties using X-ray CT studies in Ashalchinskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 36–40.
4. Kurochkin B.M., Baldenko D.F., Rogachev O.K., Studenskiy M.N., New technologies of heavy crudes and bitumens production at simultaneous drilling on depression (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 6, pp. 82–84.
5. Boek E.S., Hall C., Tardy P.M.J., Deep bed filtration modelling of formation damage due to particulate invasion from drilling fluids, Transp. Porous Med., 2012, V. 91, pp. 479–508.
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According to theoretical and experimental studies, the oil recovery of a formation under thermal action depends mainly on the temperature of reservoir heating. In turn, the temperature reservoir heating depends on the volume of steam injection per unit of the heated volume and the thermal efficiency of the process. Also, the geological and technological parameters of the reservoir exert no less significant influence on the degree of production of reserves. Thus, the quantitative determination of the influence degree of these parameters on the oil recovery at different stages of thermal development is an extremely important task. Its solution will allow to effectively control the process of thermal impact in the conditions of the Yaregskoye field.
At present, reserves of Yaregskoye field are developing by thermal methods. During operations a number of problems arise, one of them is the determination of the optimal technological regimes of thermal impact on the formation at each stage of development. Under optimal regimes we understand rates and volumes of steam injection necessary to achieve the maximum oil recovery ratio and minimum steam oil ratio.Based on the results of physical and mathematical modeling and core research we conducted studies to determine the optimal strategy for injecting steam. The results of laboratory and numerical experiments show that the greatest oil recovery can be achieved with a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of injection of the heating agent and optimization of this process. Based on the numerical experiments on oil displacement, a clear dependence was established with the results of laboratory core studies. So in order to achieve optimal values, it is required to introduce the maximum possible amount of energy into the formation in the first stage and subsequently gradually reduce the vapor injection pressure to prevent the vapor from breaking through.
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The Yaregskoye oil and gas field includes Yaregskaya, Lyaelskaya and Vezhavozhskaya areas. At present, only Yaregskaya and Lyaelskaya areas are in industrial development. Yaregskoye deposit is represented by a terrigenous type of reservoir. This field is unique not only in terms of the rheological characteristics of the saturating fluid (the viscosity of the oil exceeds 12,000 mPa·s), but also by the development method. At Yaregsskaya area two alternative systems of thermo-drafting are used: underground-surface and one-horizon. For the extraction of heavy oil and natural bitumen using thermal methods, one of the most effective is the one-horizon development system, which is being implemented at the Yaregskoye field since the 1970s.
In the article strengths and weaknesses of the applied one-horizon system are considered. A modernized one-horizon system is proposed. The results of pilot works in the oil mine No. 2 of the Yaregskoye deposit are given (average lengths of underground producing and injection wells were 250 m). Comparison of the field data obtained with the use of various development systems showed that the modernization of the one-horizon system resulted in significantly increase of the oil recovery factor. The obtained results made it possible to start new pilot works in the oil mine No. 3. To improve efficiency, the modernized one-horizon system was modified by using new designs for injection and production wells up to 800 m in length, closed system for collecting production of wells, as well as regulating the rate of injection of steam into the system of injection wells and extraction from producing wells.
The geological-filtration model of the mine block 2T-4 of the oil mine No. 3 was developed. The model allowed to substantiate the design, the optimal location of producing and injection wells up to 800 m long.
1. Ruzin L.M., Chuprov I.F., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., Tekhnologicheskie printsipy razrabotki zalezhey anomal’no vyazkikh neftey i bitumov (Technological principles of development of deposits of abnormally viscous oil and bitumen), Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2015, 480 p.
2. Tyun’kin B.A., Konoplev Yu.P., Opyt podzemnoy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy i osnovnye napravleniya razvitiya termoshakhtnogo sposoba dobychi nefti (Experience of underground mining of oil fields and the main directions of development of thermal mining method for oil extraction), Ukhta: Publ. of PechorNIPIneft’, 1996, 160 p.
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Salym Petroleum Development N.V. is executing a Pilot project associated with experimental injection of ASP (alkali, anionic surfactant, and polymer) solutions into the reservoir to enhance oil recovery. Pilot ASP flooding project means using high-quality chemicals and specially treated water with specific quality. Polymer solution stability and target properties strongly depend on hardness divalent cations, iron and dissolved oxygen presence in water. To avoid oxygen effect set of actions is implemented both for direct current dissolved oxygen concentration reducing and avoid oxygen ingress during operation: commodities unloading, mixing with water and dissolution. Chemical dissolved oxygen scavenging was selected as the most effective in terms of reactivity and cost reduction. Nitrogen blanketing for volumetric equipment (all vessels and tanks) is being used to oxygen ingress avoid. As critical parameter dissolved oxygen concentration in water and solutions control is being controlled both by online industrial instruments and laboratory instruments based on the amperometric method selected as one of more applicable for measurements in multi-components water solutions and special express tests visual kits. This paper focused on all activities on the fight with oxygen during West Salym ASP pilot project from definition of the oxygen presence criticality, methods of removal and control for future ASP projects.
1. Seright R., Skjevrak I., Effect of dissolved iron and oxygen on stability of HPAM polymers, SPE 169030-MS.
2. Vega I., Hernández M.I., Masiero D. et al., IOR: Improving polymer selection, connecting lab results with field operation, Search and Discovery, 2015, Article no. 41642.
3. Klaassen R., Feron P.H.M., Jansen A.E., Membrane contactors in industrial applications, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 2005, no. 83, pp. 234–246.
4. Battino R. et al., The solubility of oxygen and ozone in liquids, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1983, V. 12, no. 2.
5. Fischer K., Wilken M., Experimental determination of oxygen and nitrogen solubility in organic solvents up to 10 MPa at temperatures between 298 K and 398 K, J. Chem. Thermodynamics, 2001, V. 33, no. 10, pp. 1285–1308.
6. Baird W.R., Foley R.T., Solubility of oxygen in selected organic solvents, J. Chem. Eng. Data. Solubility of oxygen in selected organic solvents, 1972, V. 17 (3), pp. 355–357.
7. ASTM D 888-87, Dissolved oxygen in water, Test Method A. Gilbert, T.W., Behymer, T.D., Castañeda, H.B., Determination of dissolved oxygen in natural and wastewaters, American Laboratory, 1982, March, pp. 119-134.8. ASTM D5543-09, Standard test methods for low-level dissolved oxygen in water: standard by ASTM International, 10/01/2009.
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Based on oil and gas fields discovered by LUKOIL PJSC, a new oil-producing region of the Russian Federation is being formed in the northern part of the Caspian Sea. To increase the technical and economic efficiency of field development under the conditions of technical, technological and environmental restrictions at sea, and to overcome adverse mining and geological conditions of occurrence of petroleum reserves, a proposal of a large-scale application of field development systems with horizontal wells was put forward.
The article describes the main results of the development of the Kravtsovskoye (D-6) oil field discovered in 1983 and set by the Company in 2004 into the operation and located in the Baltic Sea. The entire production well stock, implemented at the field, consists of wells with horizontal wellbores. At the Neocomian and Volgian deposit of Yu. Korchagin (Northern Caspian) field, set into operation in 2010, all production wells have a horizontal completion as well. The length of several wellbores along the reservoir reaches 4,900 m.
The operational experience obtained from these development targets became the basis for project solutions for new fields in the Northern Caspian. At the largest production target of this region - the Neocomian deposit of V. Filanovsky field - production drilling was started in August 2016. All project production wells and injection wells (except for one) of this deposit are horizontal ones.
To develop other production targets of the V. Filanovsky field (Aptian and Albian), all exploitation targets of the satellite deposits (Rakushochnoye field, S. Kuvykin field, 170 km field), the development strategy with horizontal wells has also been planned. Their feasibility and efficiency are demonstrated by detailed simulation using modern methods and tools and confirmed by the conclusions of the state expertise.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The article presents the results of the development and practical application of DM5007MP digital pressure sensor when it is used as part of KP-90 the perforation control device (ACS-EXPERT LLC, Tomsk). This equipment was used while exploring oil wells at the facilities of the Siberian Geophysical Company. The developed sensor meets the strict requirements of operational and metrological characteristics: the extended operating temperature range from 5 to 120 °Ñ; the sensor response rate (the measured pressure value must be transmitted with a period of 80 ms via the digital interface); the sensor consumption should not exceed 5 mA; the total error reduced to the pressure measurement range should not exceed 0.5% over the entire operating temperature range. Operating conditions: working environment: reservoir oil, water, water with solid particles; range of ambient temperatures from 5 to 120 °Ñ; the maximum hydrostatic pressure is 60 MPa.
The restriction to the sensor size in the downhole equipment: diameter is less than 60 mm; the length is less than 100 mm.One of the main elements of the sensor that provides its metrological characteristics reliability and stability under the specified operating conditions is the pressure sensor. As a pressure sensor, a strain-gauge type D (VIP Company, Ekaterinburg) was selected. Another important component of the sensor design is a microcontroller. A thorough review of the existing microcontrollers was carried out and XEMICS XE88LC05 microcontroller was selected. In economy versions of the sensor, STM32F373CCT6 microcontrollers are also used. In addition, based on the import substitution, principle we studied the modification of the device with the K1986BE92QI microcontroller that was manufactured in Russia. This microcontroller is close by its main performance characteristics to the foreign analog. The method developed by the authors to reduce the measurement error and based on the calibration algorithms and the sensor model use made it possible to obtain the required metrological and operational parameters of the sensor.
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In the oil and gas industry, the tubing string is used to transport oil or gas and operates under extreme operating conditions. Ensuring the reliability of threaded joints during operation is an urgent task.
The purpose of this work is to find out the causes of the destruction of the threaded joint of the pipe and coupling in the course of operation at the well.
For the study, separate fragments of the pipe and the coupling were provided. During the work, a complex of studies was carried out, including: 1) metallographic analysis; 2) evaluation of the contamination of the pipe metal with non-metallic inclusions; 3) mechanical test of the metal of the pipe and the coupling by tension; 4) hardness measurement of threads of pipe and coupling; 5) study of geometric parameters of thread and joint. The work was performed in the research laboratory of mechanical testing and metallographic analysis of materials at the Department of Materials Science and Metal Technology of Tomsk Polytechnic University.
The analysis of the destroyed threaded joint of the pipe and the coupling of grade N80 was carried out. In the course of the research it was found that there were neither significant deviations in the properties of the metal of the pipe and the coupling, nor other specific defects that would reduce the structural strength and provoke the accelerated destruction of the threaded joint. When analysing the relative location of the threads of the coupling and pipe, a discrepancy between GOST R 53366-2009 and the length of screwing was revealed. Macro analysis of the threads on the pipe and the coupling showed the presence of seizure and scoring areas. This led to a skew and wedging of the not tightened properly threaded joint; before the operation, there was no leak tightness in the joint. The combination of high pressure and a small flow area of the gap provided a high speed of abrasive flow of the driving fluid and intensive wear of the threaded surfaces of the pipe and the coupling at the point of flow. The appearance of through washouts led to a drop in pressure in the tubing string.
It was found that the failure was caused by the mechanical damage to the threaded surface during screwing in the absence or lack of lubricant.
1. Proskurin E.V., Petrov I.V., Zhuravlev A.Yu. et al., The ways of improvement of operational reliability and extension of service life of threaded joints in oil-country tubes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 102–104.
2. Kushnarenko V.M., Repyakh V.S., Kushnarenko E.V. et al., The analysis of failure causes of equipment and conduits (In Russ.), Vestnik OGU, 2010, no. 10, pp. 153–159.
3. Bozhko G.V., Split hermetical compounds (In Russ.), Vestnik TGTU, 2010, V. 16, no. 2, pp. 404–420.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The work is devoted to the study of seismic resistance of the vertical steel tank RVS-20000 taking into account the response of the "foundation-tank-liquid" system, performed on the basis of the finite element method, modal analysis and linear-spectral theory. Calculations are performed for the tank model with a high degree of detailing of metal structures: walls, fixed roof, bottom, stiffening rings. To determine the external seismic effect, generalized broadband seismic response spectra were used.
The results of the calculation of the most representative natural oscillation frequencies of RVS-20000, completely filled up to the design mark, are presented. In total, 400 modes (frequencies of natural oscillations) were calculated.
The dependences of the maximum stresses in metal structures on the magnitude of oil loading in earthquakes with a magnitude of 7, 8, 9 points are obtained. Areas with maximum values of operating stresses in RVS-20000 metal structures are established; in all considered cases they are dislocated in zones 5-8 of the belt of the tank wall. In contrast to the previously considered RVSPK-50000 with a floating roof, where under seismic action the maximum stress level is at an altitude of 1–2 belts; in this work the tank with a fixed roof has other stiffness parameters. This confirms the assertion that in the calculation of stress-strain state in a non-axisymmetric setting, the simplification of geometry (by imposing a restriction on the degrees of freedom for elements of the upper edge of the wall) of the upper tank node is unacceptable.
1. Tarasenko A., Chepur P., Gruchenkova A., Study of deformations in a large-capacity oil storage tank in the presence of subgrade inhomogeneity zones, MATEC Web of Conferences, 2016, p. 01025.
2. Vasil'ev G.G., Tarasenko A.A., Chepur P.V., Yukhay Guan', Seismic analysis of vertical steel tanks RVSPK-50000 using a linear-spectral method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 120–123.
3. Youhai Guan, Tarasenko A.A., Sining Huang, Rulin Zhang, Shaking table test on failure mechanism of RC frame with exterior corridor, World Information on Earthquake Engineering, 2016, V. 32, no. 1, pp. 219–227, DOI: 10.6052/j.issn.1000-4750.2015.06.0473.
4. Belostotskiy A.M., Akimov P.A., Kaytukov T.B. et al., Finite element formulation and analysis of fluid – structure interaction problems (In Russ.), Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2014, no. 5 (256), pp. 21– 28.
5. Sinel'shchikov A.V., Panasenko N.N., Sinel'shchikova L.S., A mathematical model of the seismic response spectra for design basis of constructions with crane loads (In Russ.), Vestnik Astrakhanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2012, no. 1, pp. 66–74.
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To the problem of improving the energy efficiency of the oil pipelines operation has traditionally been paid close attention in achieving the strategic goal of increasing the competitiveness of the Russian economy by reducing the energy intensity of the gross national product in general, and the operating costs of electricity in the pipeline transport of crude oil and petroleum in particular. In the context of the sustained trend of the crude oil rheology deterioration, the optimization of the oil mixture composition in units formed for trunk pipeline batching according to the criteria of the lowest energy costs is of practical interest, as well as the development of a methodology for assessing the efficiency and analysis of the possibility of layout for the batches of planned volumes of crude oil in the future supply from each producer.
There is a method for justifying the practicability of forming crude oil batches by the criteria of energy efficiency of pumping based on: the analysis of the viscosity isotherm of a binary oil mixture; relations for composition optimization of the mixture in oil batches formed for transport using batching technology; a method developed for assessing the efficiency of dividing the scheduled oil supplies into a system of trunk oil pipelines in the article. In case study of oil binary mixtures flow characteristics obtained experimentally, an estimation of the segregating batches efficiency was performed depending on the share of each sort of oil in the planned pumping, the scope of the proposed approach was defined, and results of calculations were presented. There is showed the possibility of reducing the energy consumption for pumping up to 4.5% subjected to the pumping target.
1. Aliev R.A., Razrabotka tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta anomal'nogo i nestabil'nogo uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Development of pipeline transport technology for anomalous and unstable raw hydrocarbons): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 1989.
2. Iskhakov R.G., Povyshenie effektivnosti truboprovodnogo transporta vyazkikh neftey s pomoshch'yu razbaviteley (Increasing the efficiency of pipeline transport of viscous oils with diluents): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1978.
3. Iskhakov R.G., Tugunov P.I., Abramzon L.S., Akhatov Sh.N., Uvelichenie propusknoy sposobnosti nefteprovodov s pomoshch'yu razbaviteley (Increasing the pipeline capacity using diluents), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1976, 72 p.
4. Maron V.I., Gidrodinamika odnofaznykh i mnogofaznykh potokov v truboprovode (Hydrodynamics of single- and multiphase flows in a conduit), Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2009, 344 p..
5. Aliev R.A. et al., Povyshenie effektivnosti perekachki neftey s razbavitelyami: obzornaya informatsiya (Increasing the efficiency of pumping petroleum with diluents: overview information), Collected papers “Neftyanaya promyshlennost'. Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov” (Oil industry. Transport and storage of oil and oil products), 1987, V. 4, 60 p.
6. Rodin A.A., Optimizatsiya transporta vysokovyazkikh neftey s podogrevom i primeneniem uglevodorodnykh razbaviteley (Optimization of transport of high-viscosity oils with heating and the use of hydrocarbon diluents): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2009.
7. Khasanov I.Yu., Transport vysokozastyvayushchikh neftey v potoke malovyazkikh uglevodorodnykh produktov po truboprovodam (Transport of high pour point oil in a stream of low-viscosity hydrocarbon products through pipelines): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1976.
8. Shammazov A.M., Kutukov S.E., Arsent'ev A.A. et al., Complex investigation of rheological and adhesion properties of oils in the range of crystallization temperatures (In Russ.), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Neft' i gaz, 1998, no. 4, pp. 63–72.
9. Pavlov V.V., Matveev G.N. et al., Improvement of pipeline operation efficiency at oil and oil products batching (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 2 (18), pp. 26–35.
10. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., The survey of the theory of solutions (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 1(28), pp. 70–81.
11. Kutukov S.E., Fridlyand Ya.M., Shmatkov A.A., Vliyanie vyazkosti nefti na energoeffektivnost' perekachki po magistral'nym nefteprovodam (Effect of oil viscosity on energy efficiency of pumping through main oil pipelines), Proceedings of Scientific and technical conference “Truboprovodnyy transport – 2017” (Pipeline transportation - 2017), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2017, pp. 425–429.12. Kutukov S.E., Brot R.A., Garris N.A. et al., Sbornik zadach po gidravlike (Collection of tasks on hydraulics), Ufa: Neftegazovoe delo Publ., 2007, 120 p.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
502.62 + 502.6 : 622.276.5
Replenishment of oil and gas resources is connected with the geologic study of new license areas which could be adjacent to the natural areas of protection. The specifics of new license areas development were examined. The necessity to research common allowable interests of natural resources usage process participants to which public authorities, subsurface user, local residents and general public are referred was substantiated. The requirements to environment protection were determined and main fields of environmental safety ensuring in the course of development of license areas adjacent to natural areas of protection were conceived. Real-life experience of environment protection in the course of hydrocarbon field reserves development within the areas of restricted conditions of natural resources use was proposed. Specific example of the development of a license area located on the left bank of the river Volga in the Volgograd region is described. The area coincides with the reserve created for protection of bustard listed in the Red Book.
A complex of biodiversity protection activities has been proposed for the construction at the license area Volgogradskoye Zavolzhie. It included minimum size of the drilling site, pitless drilling, etc. Author supervision over the implementation of the nature protection activities and regular reporting to supervisory bodies on the results of ecological and bird control is prescribed. Bird monitoring is a specific nature protection activity. Its duration exceeds the whole cycle of the well drilling by 875 days.
Ban on exploration in nature reserves is not effective, because when ecological norms are strictly followed contamination of the environment is minimum, but the losses related to the impossibility to extract oil and gas are very significant.
1. Okhranyaemye prirodnye territorii v Rossii: pravovoe regulirovanie. Analiticheskiy obzor federal’nogo zakonodatel’stva (Protected natural territories in Russia: legal regulation. Analytical review of federal legislation): edited by Shestakov A.S., Moscow: KMK Publ., 2003, 204 p.
2. Federal Law no. 33-FZ of 14.03.1995 “On specially protected natural reservations”
3. Bezrodnyy Yu.G., Stekol’nikov L.N., Frolov V.G., Environmental problems associated with prospecting for oil and gas in specially protected natural areas and ways to solve them (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2000, no. 6, pp. 32–36.
4. Bezrodnyy Yu.G., Minimizing the negative impact of the construction of exploration wells in specially protected natural areas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 3, pp. 98–102.
5. Razrabotka Wytch Farm i priroda (from Schlumberger materials) (In Russ.), Neft’ i gaz Evraziya, 2003, no. 4, pp. 32–37.
6. Wasserstrom R., Reider S., Oil firms in environmentally sensitive areas learning to balance stakeholder interests, Oil & Gas J., 1997, August 18, V. 95, no. 33, pp. 23–27.
7. Abraham K.S., Wytch Farm development stresses environmental responsibility, World Oil, 1990, April, V. 210, no. 4, pp. 85, 86, 88–92, 94.
8. Perkins A.F., Gagliano M.H., Moses P., Monitoring and education help seismic crew protect environment in transition-zone survey, Oil & Gas J., 1999, February 22, V. 97, no. 8, pp. 33–37.
9. Bezrodnyy Yu.G., Akimova A.A., Glozman S.M., Designing and construction of the well at Black Trough area, close to natural reserve grounds (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1999, no. 8, pp. 50–52.
10. Bezrodnyy Yu.G., Novikova V.V., Ensuring environmental safety of drilling wells in the Saratov Volga Region (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii, 2002. , no. 7, pp. 19–23.
11. Shagarova L.B., Razrabotka metodiki kompleksnoy otsenki ekologicheskikh resheniy dlya promyshlennykh ob»ektov neftegazovogo kompleksa (Development of a methodology for the integrated assessment of environmental solutions for industrial facilities in the oil and gas industry): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2000.
12. Bezrodnyy Yu.G., Razrabotka metodov obespecheniya okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy pri proektirovanii i stroitel’stve neftegazovykh skvazhin (Development of methods environmental protection when designing and construction of oil and gas wells): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2009.
13. Bezrodnyy Yu.G., Environmental safety control of hydrocarbons deposits exploration at left-bank part of Volgograd region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 6, pp. 126–131.
14. Bezrodnyy Yu.G., Glozman S.M., Results of the complex ecological supervision of well 1 Chernaya Padina drilling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2001, no. 6, pp. 82–85.
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502.36 : 622.276.012
The article deals with waste management in oil and gas fields of the north and east regions of Russia, such as East Siberia, Timan-Pechora region, Yamal peninsula and Far East. Rough climatic conditions, absence of transport infrastructure, remoteness of stations for waste deactivation, disposal and processing, and vulnerability of natural ecosystems cause the production and consumer waste management and handling operations to rise in value. One of the ways to handle this issue is to build industrial waste landfills directly at field sites. Landfill’s capacity shall be determined based on total waste quantity throughout field production period. Waste handling technology used at landfills shall be determined based on waste type and may include their neutralization, recycling and/or disposal. For the less developed regions of the Far North and territories equated to them the best waste deactivation technology is burning in pyrolysis incinerators. Incineration helps to minimize waste volume and its hazardous features. Consideration shall be given to selection of proper site for landfill. The chosen site should ensure the safe functioning of the landfill and minimal impact on the environment. An important point is to identify the zones of environmental constraints before the design of waste landfill.This article provides criteria for choosing waste landfill site, main technological steps, landfill production and service facilities.
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|The index of articles published in the Neftyanoye Hozyaystvo magazine in 2017.|
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