February 2017

Economy, management, law

A.M. Mastepanov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
The influence of oil prices on the world oil and gas industry development priorities

Keywords: world oil market, prices, forecasts, the global economy and energy, the costs and expenses, of development priorities
The article deals with the complex of issues related to the prioritization of the global oil and gas industry development in the conditions of high and low energy prices. It shows the change in these priorities in a slowing global economic growth and falling oil prices. At the high oil prices in the global balance of liquid fuels the resources of expensive oil began to be actively attracted (deepwater fields, Arctic shelf, tight oil and oil of low-permeability reservoirs of the United States, oil sands in Canada, extra heavy oil of Venezuela, and others). Were actively working on the. In the corresponding projections made in 2012 - early 2014, the world's leading analytical centers provided a significant increase in the production of these expensive hydrocarbons. However, in the recent years the situation has changed dramatically. The slowdown in 2014 of the global economic growth has caused the weakening of demand for oil, and in September 2014, the prices began to decline, and then completely collapsed. It is shown that the reaction to falling oil prices from its manufacturers was to be expected: the rejection of costly new projects and improving of technology in order to reduce production costs. The low oil prices firstly affected the developing deepwater and Arctic resources of traditional hydrocarbons, as well as oil-bearing sandstones, and heavy oil. Based on the analysis of various factors, including macroeconomic, it was concluded that the period of low prices would last at least 5-7 years. In these conditions we can expect further fierce competition for the place in the energy mix (balance) of the hydrocarbons, produced on the Arctic shelf, made as a result of improving oil and gas producing fields and development of deep-water and unconventional oil and gas. Each of these areas has a significant resource base, corresponding to the "pros" and "cons" associated with the conditions of production and delivery of products to the markets. Therefore, the priorities in their development in the first place will be determined by the latest technical and technological solutions, allowing cost effective production of hydrocarbons with acceptable environmental risks and impacts.


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role of shale oil in the process (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2016, no. 9, pp. 610.

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312 p., URL: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/pdf/0484(2013).pdf

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8. Gromov A., Perspektivy razvitiya rossiyskoy neftyanoy otrasli v usloviyakh

nestabilnosti na mirovom neftyanom rynke (Prospects of development of

the Russian oil industry in the conditions of instability of the world oil market),

Proceedings of Scientific seminar on energy economics and the environment

of MSE of MSU., 17 March 2016, URL: http://mse-msu.ru/11/

9. EIA report shows decline in cost of US oil and gas wells since 2012, 30 March

2016, URL: http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=25592

10. Ivanov N.A., Slantsevye tekhnologii i neftyanaya konyunktura: v

poiskakh vykhoda (Shale oil technology and market conditions: in search

of a way), URL: http://www.fief.ru/img/files/2016.04.20_N.A.Ivanov.pdf

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forecasts (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2016, no. 2, pp. 720.

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http://www.iea.org/bookshop/700-World_Energy_Outlook_2015 .

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-8-12

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I.V. Burenina, V.V. Biryukova, E.V. Evtushenko, D.V. Kotov E.M. Abutalipova, A.N. Avrenyuk (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
The efficiency increasing program of oil and gas industry

Keywords: stocks, investments, methods of increasing efficiency, the volume of oil and gas
The proposed methodological approach to the formation of programs to improve the efficiency of oil and gas production in contrast to the existing includes: programs improve the efficiency of oil and gas production and the algorithm of formation programs management, economic and mathematical tools, which allows to take into account the strategic and tactical objectives of the enterprise development in the operation fields late stage of development. It has been shown that most of the reserves of commercial categories are in already developed fields with developed industrial infrastructure. Companies operating in the Exploration and Production segment faced with the problem of depletion of the extremely high costs of exploration and production. This key point strategy for effective development of oil and gas companies is to create an environment allowing for effective interaction of all personnel, processes and technology required to optimize the financing of measures to enhance the cost effectiveness of solutions. Multi-criteria approach makes it possible to take into account the whole range of interests (goals) of the enterprise and provide it with sufficient information to make the best decision. Considering this factor, we proposed a methodical approach to economic evaluation and optimization of the structure of the budget of technical and economic measures (TEM). Based on the identified priorities of the dependencies can be placed between TEM complexes formed by the nature of work. In accordance with the priorities selected, the size can be determined by investment in each direction TEM. The proposed multi-criteria model allows to take into account investment: funding constraints limit the activities included in the portfolio; limiting the objectives pursued by the enterprise; TEM to take into account interoperability; costs associated with the change in portfolio composition; influence of environment on the results of the portfolio and other aspects


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kompaniy (Russian and foreign experience in evaluating of companies

development programs), Collected papers Sovremennoe sostoyanie i

perspektivy razvitiya nauchnoy mysli (Current state and prospects of development

of scientific thought), 2016, pp. 3942.

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for improve the efficiency of oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Elektronnyy

nauchnyy zhurnal Neftegazovoe delo = The electronic scientific journal

Oil and Gas Business, 2006, no. 1.

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proektov (Methodical recommendations according to efficiency of investment

projects), Moscow: Publ. of Ministerstvo ekonomiki RF, Ministerstvo

finansov RF, 2008, 221 p.

6. Biryukova V.V., Management of the balanced development of the enterprises

of oil industry (In Russ.), Vestnik SibADI, 2016, no. 1 (47), pp. 8794.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-13-17

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I.V. Butsaev, N.S. Abramova (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), D.N. Maximov (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Construction cost specific indicators as a tool of capital cost optimization in development of Central Khoreyverskoye Upheaval fields cluster

Keywords: construction cost estimation, specific per unit indicators, capital cost optimization, investment cycle

Capital investment is the main cost element for Russian oil and gas upstream companies. It is the size of capital expenditures that determines the choice of one option or another in field facilities and transport infrastructure. As practice shows, key performance indicators for oil and gas development projects are most sensitive to the amount of capital costs. Giprovostokneft JSC has long-term experience in implementation of capital cost optimization system based on specific per unit indicators used on the early stages of investment process.

The article reviews the main principles for construction and appliance of per unit indicators: monitoring of innovative technologies and changes of resource intensity in order to adjust the resource model, on which the per unit indicator is based; availability and constant updating of the objects database; monitoring of precision and reliability of cost estimation based on the per unit indicators and their resource models; correct specification of the model and competent selection of significant parameters for each object; decomposition principle; establishing and adjustment of objects passports at different stages of investment cycle. The economic effect is demonstrated on specific examples of capital cost optimization in development of Central Khoreyverskoye Upheaval fields cluster.

There are identified further ways of improvement of estimation precision and capital cost optimization in oil and gas projects: 1) permanent filling of per unit database with extension of range of objects and classification attributes; 2) recognition of significant parameter set that helps to construct accurate cost models and provide wide opportunities for optimization.


1. Gilaev G.G., Gladunov O.V., Ismagilov A.F. et al., Monitoring the

quality of design solutions and optimization of the designed structures

of capital construction objects in the oil industry (In Russ.),

Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 9497.

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cost of capital construction objects (In Russ.), Izvestiya Peterburgskogo

universiteta putey soobshcheniya, 2013, no. 3,

pp. 134141.3. Stewart R.D., Cost estimating, New York: John Wiley

& Sons, 1991.

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v raschetakh stoimosti i planirovanii kapitalnogo stroitelstva (The

system of specific indicators in the calculation of the cost and

planning of capital construction), Moscow: Geo Publ., 2006, 485 p.

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the innovations in to construction (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe

delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2011,

no. 2, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Shabaeva/Shabaeva_1.pdf.

6. Kudryashov S.I., Belkina E.Yu., Ismagilov A.F. et al., Cost monitoring

in oilfield construction at different stages of the investment

cycle (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11,

pp. 7275.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-18-21

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Z.S. Podoba, Yu.S. Lobareva (Saint-Petersburg State University, RF, Saint-Petersburg
Assessment of sustainable development of major oil and gas transnational corporations

Keywords: sustainable development, oil and gas transnational corporations

This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis of major oil multinationals sustainable development and to improve existing methodology of measuring sustainability of companies. The study investigates the effects of the sustainable development concept on business society. By proposing a composite index of sustainable development of companies, the authors examine the level of economic efficiency, environmental and social responsibility of the largest transnational oil and gas corporations, according to the Forbes Global 2000 in 2014, during the period 2010-2014.

The research findings illustrate the difference between the companies from developed countries, primarily, the USA (ExxonMobil, Chevron), and emerging economies, such as Russia and China (Gazprom, PetroChina), in the pursuit of sustainable development. The ranking of the considering companies according to the degree of sustainable development commitment is the following (from less to more sustainable): PetroChina, Gazprom, British Petroleum, Royal Dutch Shell, Chevron, ExxonMobil. The proposed approach enables the determination of the etalons of the most successful sustainable development strategies of companies in the industry, as well as the weak sides of oil and gas transnational corporations in terms of of sustainable development.


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(In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2011, no. 11, pp. 610.

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(Evaluation of corporate performance in the fuel and energy complex of

Russia: methodology and results): edited by Bushuev V.V., Moscow: Energiya

Publ., 2014, 188 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-22-25

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Standardization and technical regulation

V.G. Martynov, I.Yu. Eremina, S.V.Kibovskaya (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), G.G. Rudenko (Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, RF, Moscow), Yu.V. Dolzhenkova (Academy of Labour and Social Relations, RF, Moscow)
Professional standards in the system of qualifications of workers of oil and gas complex

Keywords: national system of professional qualifications, sectoral qualifications frameworks, professional standard, independent system of assessment of qualifications

Development and implementation of a national system of vocational qualifications, other than operating from the Soviet era, will allow Russia to become a full member of the world's labor markets and education. The central element of this system is the professional standard, which describes the skills of workers and is a multifunction instrument designed for use in the field of labor and employment, and vocational training. Its implementation requires a significant change in the definition of a qualifying level of workers (they will now nine), which will have to certify each employee qualifications in the independent assessment centers and receive a certificate.

Currently a great work in this direction, with contributions from the Council for Vocational Qualifications in the oil and gas sector, includes: the creation, testing and implementation of the sectoral qualifications framework, regulation of procedures for confirming the qualification, etc. However, as the analysis of the practice of professional standards, there were serious problems in their implementation. Thus, the developed standards do not always meet the requirements in terms of content production, are not fully worked out methodical and information technology available to determine whether the employee's qualifications professional requirements of the standard, there are serious problems associated with these innovations and in vocational training. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that before the oil and gas sector is facing serious problems of transition to the new system of vocational qualifications of workers. These problems include the development of a methodological framework for the implementation of professional standards, taking into account the requirements of legislation, formation of sectoral qualifications framework, the establishment of independent centers of qualifications assessment. In addition, it is necessary to develop a system of informing employees about the introduction of the industry of professional standards, and which therefore there are new requirements for each employee using the corporate sector and periodicals.


1. Zaytseva N.A., Ushanov Yu.V., Natsionalnaya sistema professionalnykh

kvalifikatsiy: organizatsionno-metodicheskie osnovy sozdaniya (National

system of professional qualifications: organizational and methodical bases

of creation), Moscow: RUSAYNS Publ., 2016, 184 p.2. The Labour Code of the

Russian Federation

3. Russian Federation Government Resolution no. 23 O Pravilakh razrabotki,

utverzhdeniya i primeneniya professionalnykh standartov (On the

Rules of the development, approval and implementation of professional

standards), 22.01.2013, URL: http://rk.gov.ru/file/File/Profstandart.pdf

4. URL: http://www.rosmintrud.ru/docs/mintrud/payment/128

5. URL: http://www.spkngk.ru/about/work-plan/2016/.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-26-29

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works

D.K. Nourgaliev, I.I. Nugmanov, E.V. Nugmanova, E.A. Yachmeneva, K.M. Karimov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Assessing the role of natural fracturing by multiscale geophysical investigation

Keywords: world stress map, hydraulic fracturing, microseismic monitoring, well logging, fracture, remote sensing
The article presents an estimation of tectonic fracturing role in terrigenous and carbonate blocks containing hydrocarbon deposits. Geological and geophysical datasets of different scale were used to characterize the fracturing of rocks. The good convergence is found between the orientation of natural fracturing by formation microimagers in wells, three-dimensional surface seismic survey, microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing propagation and regional lineament analysis by satellite imagery. The article contains examples of comparison between the direction of maximum horizontal stress axis and stress state and the direction of horizontal wells and fluid flow. New factors of unsuccessful multistage hydraulic fracturing operations in carbonate rocks are considered in the context of natural fracturing systems kinematics. Complex data analysis of the fracturing at different scales allowed to divide fracturing systems basing on the kinematics. It is shown that the method of structural and geomorphic lineament analysis detected on the satellite images allows to determine the orientation of regional stress field axes for the platform areas with small number of geological outcrops. It is found that during the hydraulic fracturing the main fracture is developed following the system of tectonic fractures and the propagation of the fracture tip is not linear - the fracturing follows both the shear and tensile cracks. It is suggested that the reorientation of the principal stress axes within one field is associated with gently sloping low-amplitude tectonic deformation. The main fundamental conclusion obtained as a result of studies is a justification of the leading role of modern tectonic stress field in the fracturing kinematics. The practical conclusion is a necessity of a selective stimulation of fractured rock blocks to achieve the maximum production for the redeveloped of oil fields.


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development in the Bakken formation, Nesson Anticline area, North Dakota,

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/ Geomechanics Symposium, 2427 June 2012, Chicago, IL, USA.

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(Problems of gas producing regions resource support in Russia until 2030),

Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom VNIIGAZ, 2012, pp. 8696.

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fracturing and fluid dynamic activity in sedimentary cover, Neftyanoe

Khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2015, V. 11, pp. 8488.

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zapiska k strukturno-tektonicheskoy karte Timano-Pechorskoy neftegazonosnoy

provintsii Tektonika Timano-Pechorskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Explanatory

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Stress Map Project, The Leading Edge, 2005, December, pp. 12761282.

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the horizontal shear zones (In Russ.), Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid

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andmagnitude in deep wells, International Journal of Rock Mechanics

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-30-35

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I.V. Yazynina, E.V. Shelyago, A.A. Abrosimov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), O.N. Veremko (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Grachev, D.A. Bikulov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow)
Testing a new approach to petrophysical trend determination from X-Ray tomography

Keywords: X-ray tomography (MCT), porosity, permeability, virtual cubes

Paper presents existing possibilities for calculation of reservoir properties from X-ray tomography (MCT) data. Basic problems at hydrodynamic modeling stage are: agreement between calculation and laboratory measurements; insufficient memory of graphics processors needed to perform calculations.

Paper is devoted to testing of a new approach for calculation of reservoir rock properties based on MCT data. Main idea is allocation of several fragments of porous medium (virtual cubes) for each 3D rock model, calculation of reservoir properties for each virtual cube and plotting petrophysical relationship. Flow calculations are carried out on small-sized virtual cubes that are allocated using samples lithology characteristics. New techniques are available to personal computers users. Our decision is especially important for studying of small (non-representative) collection of core material, poorly consolidated core samples. Paper also presents a comparison of the calculated and laboratory measured dependencies between porosity and permeability for deposits of various oil and gas provinces.

We present that using of novel approach allows receiving "porosity - permeability" dependencies inside one physical rock sample. Calculated values for several core samples allow obtaining data array that is close to actual laboratory measured values for the whole geological object. Scaling procedure for flow processes at micro- and macroscale is verified by the fact, that calculated values for little virtual cubes have strong bonds with measured values received in laboratory for plug samples.


1. Zakirov T.R., Galeev A.A., Konovalov A.A., Statsenko E.O., Analysis of the

representative elementary volume sandstones reservoir properties using

the method of X-ray computed tomography in Ashalchinskoye oil field (In

Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 5457.

2. Culligan K.A., Wildenschild D., Christensen B.S.B. et al., Interfacial area

measurements for unsaturated flow through a porous medium, Water resources

research, 2004, V. 40, pp. 112.

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for quantifying pore-scale structure and processes in subsurface porous

medium systems, Advances in Water Resources, 2013, no 51, pp. 217246.

4. W. Nur Safawati Bt W Mohd Zainudin, Md. Zain, Zahidah, Riepe L., Application

of Digital Core Analysis (DCA) and Pore Network Modeling (PNM)

based on 3D Micro-CT Images for an EOR project in a Mature oil field in East

Malaysia, Proceedings of International Petroleum Technology conference,

Doha, Qatar, Kuala Lumpur: Offshore Technology Conferences,

2014, pp. 112.

5. Dvorkin J., Derzhi N., Fang Q. et al., From micro to reservoir scale: Permeability

from digital experiments, The Leading Edge, 2009, December,

pp. 14461453.

6. Yazynina I.V., Shelyago E.V., Abrosimov A.A. et al., Novel approach to

core sample MCT research for practical petrophysics problems solution (In

Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 1923.

7. Sok R.M., Varslot T., Gihous A. et al., Pore scale characterization of carbonates

at multiple scales integration of micro-CT, BSEM and FIDSEM,

Petrophysics, 2010, no. 51, pp. 379387.

8. Chugunov S.S. Kazak A.V., Integration of X-ray micro-computed tomography

and focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy data for

pore-scale characterization of Bazhenov formation, Western Siberia

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 4449.

9. Gerke K.M., Vasil'ev R.V., Korost D.V., Karsanina M.V., Modelirovanie v

masshtabe por po dannym rentgenovskoy tomografii (Pore scale modeling

in according to X-ray tomography), Proceedings of All-Russian sonference

Prakticheskaya tomografiya (), Moscow, 2013, pp. 2327.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-36-40

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553.98 (470.13)
.N. Danilenko (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), .. Savelieva, N.I. Borschevskaya (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Ukhta, RF, Ukhta)
New data on geological structure and oil-and-gas bearing perspectives of deposits in the Upper Devonian reefs of the Denisov depression

Keywords: oil, Denisov depression, Devonian period, reef, organic matter

According to petroleum-zoning license area of Denisovskaya Depression owned by LUKOIL-Komi refers to Lay - Lodma oil and gas zone of Pechora-Kolva oil and gas region, tectonically it refers to Denisov deflection of Pechora-Kolva aulacogene. The main oil-and-gas bearing perspectives of this license area are associated with carbonate deposits of Domanic-Tournaisian reefs. Within the license area we fixed zones of Fransian and Famennian reefs evolution. These zones consolidate group of Ipatsk structures in the south of the license area, Bayandy structures in its central part and Lambeyshor stucture in the north. The results of seismic researches and the exploration drilling allowed to open oil reservoirs in Low Famennain reefs (Zadonian horizon) at Bayandyskoye, Vostochno-Lambeyshorskoye, Yuzhno-Bayandyskoye and A.A. Alabushina fields that confirms high prospects of oil-and-gas bearing of objects in structural reef traps.

We identified the genetic type of petroleum fluids. There are two genetic types of bitumen - Silurian and Domanic. We associate prospective exploration works with Silurian and Devonian strata.

Oil Company LUKOIL devotes a great attention to exploration works as a source of replenishment of hydrocarbon. The main tasks within exploration program of the 2016-2018 are 3D seismic exploration works covering the entire license area of Denisov depression, data processing and interpretation using data fusion. These works are aimed to correct geological and tectonic structure and to develop an innovative infrastructure in order to hydrocarbon commercial reserves increment and production increase.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-41-45

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N.G.Nurgalieva, E.A. Anikina, N.M. Khassanova (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The Tournesian reservoir limestones on core petrophysical and geochemical data (Southern slope of South-Tatarian Arc)

Keywords: Tournesian oil saturated limestones, progradation, grainstones, geochemical labels alternation

This paper presents core data on the composition and reservoir properties of the Tourneisian carbonate rocks in typical well section on the southern slope of South-Tatarian Arc. The core data include structures, minerals, reservoir properties measurements from previous studies and geochemical signs, just received by method of electron spin resonance (ESR).

Investigated interval of 12 m thickness belongs to an upper part of the Tourneisian stage. It is composed of two layers: upper grainstone layer (5 m) and lower packstone layer (7 m). The granulated fossils predominate in the studied limestones. A porous space is controlled by primary structures and also by leaching processes, a secondary calcite mineralization and stylolites.

ESR data have been obtained on 21 samples collected with a step 0.4-0.6 m along the section. ESR spectra are characterized by narrow lines, pointing on a marine genesis of the carbonates. Paramagnetic centers of Mn2+ and SO2- have been observed as typical features of the rocks due by primary processes of carbonate sedimentation.

A spatial distribution of limestones types, its geochemical and reservoir signatures is explained by the sedimentary succession of progradation type. The calcite mineralization and a distribution of Mn2+ and SO2- paramagnetic ions have been determined along the section profile simultaneously with reservoir zoning due by facies and a history of hydrocarbons.



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2013 Session: Carbonate Depositional Environments & diagenesis. 10 June

2013 DOI: 10.3997/2214 4609.20130687.

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no. 1, pp. 107115.

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on the Vyatka River), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2001, pp. 5668.

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Lower Kazanian substage in the key section: lithologies and paleoenvironments

based on the ESR data (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta,

2015, V. 157, no. 3, pp. 87101.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-46-48

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Drilling of chinks

I.F. Rustamov, A.V. Cherepanov, K.V. Kulakov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.A. Makarov, S.V. Esipov, D.I. Balan, V.V. Koryabkin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.A. Cherevko (Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), S.A. Olimpiev (Gazpromneft-Angara LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Proactive approach to improving the efficiency of real-time well drilling support and management

Keywords: high tech wells, drilling operations support, increase in efficiency, automating, real-time drilling operations support

Prevention of accidents and complications in the process of wells drilling is a cornerstone task. It is impossible to achieve the maximum efficiency of drilling operations without solution of this task. The solution of this task depends on many factors, key of which are applying relevant resources of collection, storage and processing information from rig site; unity of engineering services involved in the drilling process; standardization of procedures and the high degree of automation of processes during well construction; applying of advanced techniques in the field of well construction technologies; engineering support around the clock. Responsiveness to the signals about possible complications in the early stages depends on the skills of drilling engineers, coherence of their interaction, used communication tools and applying of contemporary software for the real-time drilling operations support around the clock. The efficiency of processing of real-time drilling data multiple significantly increased due to intensive development of information technologies, creation of preventive alert systems, development specialized engineering software, improvement stations of mud loggers. That allows drilling engineers to analyze a wide range of incoming signals about drilling efficiency and possible complications, react to these signals in good time and provide high efficiency of the project at each stage. Continuous work on the prevention of accidents and complications in the process of drilling a well, based on the search for and testing of new techniques and technologies that enables the company to maintain its leadership in operational efficiency.


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350 p.

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of mechanical specific energy, SPE 92194-MS, 2005.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-50-53

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D.Iu. Rusinov, A.A. Melekhin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Study of cement stone with micro-cement corrosion resistance

Keywords: oil-well, cement slurry, micro-cement, cement stone corrosion

For reliable and durable design of the oil well the integrity of the stone cement under conditions of long-term exposure of formation waters corrosion should be provided. One of the effective methods for decreasing corrosion failure of cement stone is reducing the cement stone permeability by filling the space between the cement particles with sealants.

The article describes results of the study of cement stone with micro-cement resistance to corrosion aged in tanks with corrosive environment for two years. Because of the complex chemical composition of formation water it is not possible to describe the mechanism of rock destruction due to interference of individual ions, therefore, in practice the predominant type of corrosion is evaluated and studded on the single-component solutions in tanks and autoclaves. Samples were kept in tanks with 5% sodium chloride brine (NaCl), with 5% magnesium sulfate solution (MgSO4), with a 5% magnesium chloride solution (MgCl2), 5% sodium sulfate solution (Na2SO4) and formation water from Padunskie oilfield Perm region, and also in the tank with fresh water to benchmarks.

The results of two years laboratory studies show that the of the use of micro-cement to protect the well casing from the corrosive influence of sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate is expedience. The loss of samples strength with micro-cement and without it in sodium sulphate and sodium chloride solutions are almost the same, but cement stone with micro-cement is better in other equal conditions because of high-strength. It can be stated that the cement stone structure influences on its resistance to corrosion. The durability of the well casing could be increased by reducing the contact area between cement stone and corrosive environment and reducing the porosity and permeability.


1. Nikolaev N.I., Lyu Kh., Kozhevnikov E.V., Issledovanie vliyaniya polimernykh

bufernykh zhidkostey na prochnost kontakta tsementnogo kamnya s porodoy

(In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo

universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of

Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering

& Mining, 2016, V. 15, no. 18, pp. 1622, DOI 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.18.2.

2. Melekhin A.A., Krysin N.I., Tretyakov E.O., Analysis of factors affecting the

life time period of cement stone behind a casing string (In Russ.),

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grouting mortars (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo

politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe

i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University.

Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015, V. 14, no. 16, pp. 4653,

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well with horizontal profile (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo

issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe

i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University.

Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2014, V. 13, no. 11,

pp. 2936, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2014.11.3.

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of aerated grouting mortars with hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (In

Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo

universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of

Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering

& Mining, 2015, V. 14, no. 14, pp. 1317, DOI: 10.15593/2224-


6. Ashrafyan M.O. et al., Sovremennye tekhnologii i tekhnicheskie sredstva

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2003, 368 p.

7. Brandl A., Cutler J., Seholm A. et al., Cementing solutions for corrosive

well environments, SPE 132228-MS, 2010.

8. Bulatov A.I., Corrosion of the cement stone in the well (In Russ.), Burenie i

neft, 2016, no. 5, pp. 2731.

9. Samsonenko A.V., Simonyants S.L., Dvukraev K.S. et al., Data of studies of

cement stone stability against corrosion in aggressive media (In Russ.),

Stroitelstvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2011, no. 1,

pp. 4143.

10. Dorovskikh I.V., Substantiation of application and development of corrosion-

resistant oil well cements with the condensed solid phase for well site

construction (In Russ.), Stroitelstvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na

sushe i na more, 2011, no. 5, pp. 3436.

11. Gazizov Kh.V., Akhmatdinov F.N., Gazitov Sh.Kh., Corrosion stability of

backfill compositions in the formation water (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 8, pp. 2425.

12. Akhrimenko V.E., Akhrimenko Z.M., Pashchevskaya N.V., Timofeeva

I.Yu., Effect of silica-containing additives nature on cement stone corrosion

resistance (In Russ.), Stroitelstvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i

na more, 2012, no. 7, pp. 4446.

13. Kunitskikh A.A., Chernyshov S.E., Rusinov D.Yu., Influence of mineral additives

on the strength characteristics of the cement stone (In Russ.),

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14. Storchak A.V., Melekhin A.A., Development of plugging compositions

based on fine-grained cement (In Russ.), Stroitelstvo neftyanykh i

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well and sidetrack cementing (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsionalnogo

issledovatelskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe

i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University.

Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015, V. 14

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-54-56

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

A.Kh. Shakhverdiev (Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, RF, Moscow)
Some conceptual aspects of systematic optimization of oil field development

Keywords: improved oil recovery (IOR), enhanced oil recovery (EOR), development project selection, technological efficiency evaluation

It is important to identify ways and approaches to the well-known conceptual aspects of system optimization of the hydrocarbons development. The "cornerstones" are three fundamental problems: an objective assessment and prediction of oil recovery - a key indicator of rational use of hydrocarbon reserves and reservoir development; quantitative and qualitative forecast evaluation based on few-parameter mathematical model of technological efficiency of the oil field development; the choice of an optimum variant of reservoir management, including the most effective technologies selection.

The proposed design algorithms allow to objectively evaluation of the quantitative impact of the technological features of hydrocarbons production on the ultimate oil recovery factor. Comparative analysis shows that the estimates of technical efficiency using the displacement characteristics be followed by significant error. The proposed unified method has a high accuracy and reliability in the evaluation of technical efficiency of field operations, especially EOR technologies, has a software support (SAKHMET) (certificate of State registration 2002611922, 2008).

Thus, based on the use of probabilistic-statistical and heuristic minimax criteria of fuzzy logic we proposed the technique of a choice of an optimum variant of oil field development under information shortage and risks. With all the complexity of decision-making, proposed methodology has features that allow scientifically valid and clearly define the optimal variant of the development project.

It should be noted that the relevance and importance of the presented research is determined by several aspects: first, the need of systematization of the decision problems related to rational use of mineral resources, reliable forecasts and increase the oil recovery factor, evaluation of technological efficiency and selection of technologies in the context of the natural deterioration of the structure of hydrocarbon reserves and depletion of productive strata.


1. Prigozhin I.R., Ot sushchestvuyushchego k voznikayushchemu. Vremya i

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in the physical sciences), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1985, 327 p.

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neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (System optimization of oil field development

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neftegazodobyche: sistemnyy analiz, diagnoz, prognoz (Dynamic

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Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 254 p.

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methods for stochastic feature of oilfield development parameters

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10, pp. 6669.

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i tekhnologicheskie osnovy optimizatsii protsessa povysheniya nefteotdachi

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hardly recoverable hydrocarbons reserves output on an oil-recovery ratio

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 5, pp. 7679.

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efficiency of bed stimulation at intrastratal gas generation

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 11, pp. 76-80.

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for impacts on hydrocarbons deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 4, pp. 6568.

10. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Once again about oil recovery factor (In Russ.),

Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 4448.

11. On Subsoil: RF Law number 2395-1.

12. Zadeh L.A., Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems

and decision processes, IEEE Trans. Systems, Man and Cybernetics,


DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-58-63

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Yu.M. Ganeeva, T.N. Yusupova, G.V. Romanov, O.G. Sinyashin, L.N. Punegova, V.A. Alfonsov (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), L.V. Fedonina (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan), O.V. Lukyanov (NIIneftepromchim JSC, RF, Kazan)
Monitoring the development of carbonate reservoir by observing the changes in the composition and properties of the produced oil

Keywords: carbonate reservoir, acid complex agent AFK, new technology, oil composition and properties

Many technologies for enhanced oil recovery in case of the complex carbonate reservoirs are based on acid treatment of bottomhole formation zone, and creation of new channels of filtration through rock dissolution. Disadvantages of acid solution practice are widely known. This work was aimed to test new technology for acid treatment of carbonate reservoirs and a new method of its injection into the formation. The new acid technology is based on acid composition containing complex agent AFK.

It was found that the oil produced from carbonate reservoir before application of the new technology was characterized by a practically constant density, viscosity and composition during the reservoir development. At the initial stage of new technology application (first six months) the increase in the density and viscosity and the proportion of resinous-asphaltenic components was periodically registered.

Long-time impact of new technology has led to the stabilization of the composition and properties of oil produced, as well as to the increase of the production enhancement. Earlier it was found that carbonate rocks with higher porosity and permeability contain heavier oil, and the carbonate rocks with the worst reservoir properties contain lighter oil. Taking this into account, the following assumption can be made: the new technology primarily acts to areas of a reservoir rock with high permeability and releases the heavy oil. Then the zones of reservoir rock with low permeability are involved, from which the lighter oil is displaced.

The results of the investigation can be used to develop the criteria of efficiency and duration of the application of new technologies to enhance oil recovery, as well as to define and predict the product characteristics of the produced oil.


1. Voytovich S.E., Akhmanova T.P., Tikhanova N.P., Analiz izmeneniya sostava

i fiziko-khimicheskikh svoystv vysokovyazkoy nefti na mestorozhdeniyakh

Respubliki Tatarstan (Analysis of changes in the composition and physical

and chemical properties of heavy oil in the fields of the Republic of

Tatarstan), Collected papers Problemy povysheniya effektivnosti

razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy na pozdney stadii (Problems of increasing

the efficiency of oil field development at a late stage), Proceedings

of International scientific and practical conference, Kazan: Fen Publ.,

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obrabotki plasta na raspredelenie i sostav geteroorganicheskikh soedineniy

v tyazhelykh neftyakh Usinskogo mestorozhdeniya (Influence of thermal-

steam treatment of the formation on the distribution and composition

of heteroorganic compounds in the heavy oil of the Usinskoye field), Proceedings

of conference Khimiya nefti i gaza (Chemistry of oil and gas),

2009, pp. 455459.

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uvelicheniya nefteotdachi na sostav izvlekaemoy nefti Usinskogo

mestorozhdeniya (Influence of enhanced oil recovery methods on the composition

of the recovered oil of Usinskoye field), Proceedings of conference

Khimiya nefti i gaza (Chemistry of oil and gas), 2012, pp. 314316.

4. Khanipova Yu.V., Amerkhanov M.I., Issledovaniya izmeneniya sostava i

svoystv sverkhvyazkoy nefti v protsesse razrabotki Ashalchinskogo

mestorozhdeniya metodom parogravitatsionnogo vozdeystviya (Studies

changes in the composition and properties of high-viscosity oil in the

process of Ashalchinskoye field development by steam assisted gravity effects),

Proceedings of International scientific and practical conference,

Kazan, 3-4 September 2014, pp. 362368.

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sostava tyazheloy nefti Mordovo-Karmalskogo mestorozhdeniya v

protsesse vyrabotki zapasov (Changes in the composition of heavy oil

Mordovo-Karmalskoye field in the process of its development), Collected

papers Uvelichenie nefteotdachi prioritetnoe napravlenie vosproizvodstva

zapasov uglevodorodnogo syrya (Enhanced oil recovery - a priority

direction of reproduction of hydrocarbon reserves), Proceedings of International

scientific and practical conference, Kazan: Fen Publ., 2011,

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evaluation of influence of industrial enterprises on the water (In Russ.),

Georesursy = Georesources, 2011, no. 2(38), pp. 2124.

9. Yusupova T.N., Petrova L.M., Ganeeva Yu.M. et al., Use of thermal analysis

in identification of tatarstan crude oils (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum

Chemistry, 1999, no. 4, pp. 254259.

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pp. 3233.

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13. Bordovskaya M.V., Gadzhi-Kasumov A.S., Kartsev A.A., Osnovy

geokhimii, geokhimicheskie metody poiskov, razvedki i kontrolya za

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heavy oil and natural bitumen): thesis of doctor of chemical science,

Kazan, 1998.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-64-67

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E.A. Nikitina, S.I. Tolokonsky, P.A. Grishin (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Specificities of thermal exposure on kerogen-containing rock samples of Bazhenov formation

Keywords: in-situ combustion, differential scanning calorimeter, combustion tube, kerogen

A development of the productive strata of Bazhenov formation relating to hard-to-recover and unconventional reserves is one of the most promising alternate options while continuously reducing of conventional oil resource base in Russia. According to estimates of Federal`s Agency for subsoil use, Bazhenov formation may contain 180-360 billion barrels of recoverable reserves.

The prospective development of Bazhenov formation with a high degree of organic matter enrichment may be associated with the injection of air under high pressure into the producing formation leading to the emergence of a highly miscible with the oil displacing agent being formed by in-situ oxidation and thermodynamic processes.

Based on the results of VNIIneft JSC studies the features of thermal exposure on the kerogen-containing rock samples of Bazhenov formation have been defined. The oxidation process of kerogen-containing disintegrated rock samples takes place both in the low- and in the high-temperature areas with relatively low values of activation energy which is characterizing the high reactivity of organic matter contained in the reservoirs of Bazhenov formation. The oxidation process researches in-situ of the large samples of Bazhenov formation revealed a strong dependence between the rate of oxidation and filtration and capacity properties of kerogen containing breed. Despite the high rate of the oxidizing reactions of the kerogen due to its low activation energy compared with oil, organic matter contained in the rock are not exposed to complete destruction by the low filtration and capacity properties of the rock of Bazhenov formation. Accordingly, the combustion front in-situ of kerogen-containing breed leaves a "tail" zone of the burning organic matter inconsistent with the classical idea of in-situ combustion in the common reservoir not containing kerogen.


1. Rodova N., Will Russia replicate US success in tight oil development,

Platts, 2012, 23 August.

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3. Vasilevskiy A.V., Nikitina E.A., Tolokonskiy S.I., Charuev S.A., An integrated

approach to the study of the processes of air-injection for enhanced oil

recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11,

pp. 102104.

4. Nemova V.D., Conditions of reservoir formation in deposits of bazhenov

strata whithin the junction of Krasnolenin arch and Frolov megadepression

(In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V.7, no. 2,

URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/4/23_2012.pdf

5. Nemova V.D., Litologiya i kollektorskie svoystva otlozheniy bazhenovskogo

gorizonta na zapade Shirotnogo Priobya (Lithology and reservoir properties

of Bazhenov horizon sediments in the west of Ob River Region): thesis

of candidate of geological and mineralogical sciences, Moscow, 2012.

6. Grishin P.A., E.V. Zhidkova, E.A. Nikitina, Tolokonskiy S.I., Kinetics of the oxidation

processes of the kerogen-containing rocks under the thermal treatment

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 2, pp. 5961.

7. Morozov N.V., Belenkaya I.Yu., Zhukov V.V., 3D modeling of Bagenov fm.

hydrocarbon system: details of physicochemical properties of hydrocarbons

prognosis (In Russ.), PROneft, 2016, no. 1, pp. 38-45

8. Plynin V.V., Fomkin A.V., Urazov S.S., Chemical transformation model for

numerical simulation of the oxidation of oil in the reservoir (in situ combustion)

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 12,

pp. 100103.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-68-71

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B.F. Borisov, A.V. Koren, O.Yu. Lepeshkina, G.N. Karchevskaya (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), E.S. Kalinin (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara)
Generalized correlation function to define residual saturation and displacement efficiency for high-viscosity and ultra-viscous oil in the fields of Samara region

Keywords: ore, reservoir, porosity, permeability, viscosity, residual oil saturation, water oil displacement factor

This paper provides general correlations to define residual saturation and displacement efficiency for high-viscosity and ultra-viscous oil of B2 (CI) formation in Samara region. Dependences were defined using sufficient representative core material sampled in the fields in Melekess depression, Sok upfold and South-Tatar arch, where oil viscosity varies from 30.5 mPas to 956 mPas. When plotting the curves it was important to make a reasonable sampling of the data that was acquired by different companies in different conditions. We used the results of the laboratory modelling of high-viscous and ultra-viscous oil displacement by water performed with the maximum compliance with industry standard. When dubious definitions were rejected 258 core samples remained and were used to establish a generalized correlation between residual oil saturation, efficiency of flood displacement of high-viscosity and ultra-viscous oil vs permeability and mobility. As viscosity of oil in place varies considerably, special attention should be given to generalized correlations that make allowance for mobility.

Generalized correlation provided in this paper can be applied in the estimation of oil and gas in place, and in reservoir engineering projects with the lack of information. It can be used for B2 (1) formation in the fields of above tectonic elements (e.g. Melekess depression, Sok upfold and South-Tatar arch), because Bobrikovsky deposits, according to lithologic research and laboratory tests, are represented by the same type of rocks having similar structural characteristics. B2 (1) formation is made with sand rocks, siltstones with the bands of clays and carbon-clay shales. Oil reservoirs are sand rocks and seldom siltstones. Sand rocks are fine-grained, seldom medium-grained, silty, porous, poorly consolidated and loose; some bands are dense and hard. Mineral composition of rocks: quartz with isolated grains of feldspar, zircon, muscovite, biotite etc. Reservoir is porous. Average porosity of reservoir rocks of B2 (C1) formation varies for different oil pools within 0.14-0.28, average permeability 0.062-3.032 mkm2, initial oil saturation factor 0.72-0.97. 


1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po primeneniyu klassifikatsii zapasov i

resursov nefti i goryuchikh gazov (Guidelines on the application of oil and

combustible gas resources and reserves classification), Moscow: Publ. of

Russian Ministry of Natural Resources, 2016.

2. Borisov B.F., Lepeshkina O.Yu., Kuznetsov A.M., Generalization of the

data on the efficiency of waterflood high-viscosity oil displacement from

the layer A 4 of the Bashkirian stage of the Samara and Ulyanovsk regions

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 2, pp. 6668.

3. Borisov B.F., Lepeshkina O.Yu., Kuznetsov A.M., Researching the waterflooding

of high-viscosity oil reservoir B,, of the Turnaisian stage in Samara Region

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 7, pp. 104106.  

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-72-74

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M.V. Chertenkov (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow)
Approaches to planning multi-stage fracking operation on the example of Jurassic formation of Uryevskoye field

Keywords: acoustic logging, Poisson's coefficient, geomechanical model
With the deterioration of the structure of reserves, the development of new types of complicated reservoir with permeability heterogeneity both along strike and vertically, the irregularity of placement remaining oil reserves increases. To enhance the coverage and improve the uniformity of reserves development technology of horizontal wells is applied. The practice shows that drilled horizontal stems not completely work over its entire length. Multi-zone fracturing technology allows to involve not previously drained oil reserves. According to the experience of multi-zone fracturing the orientation of the hydraulic fracture (subparallel to the trunk or subperpendicularly to wellbore) determines the success of the operation is. When designing multi-zone fracturing it very important to use geomechanical models for monitoring the direction of propagation of cracks. Period of water-free operations depends on location of cracks relative to the front of flooding. Analysis of microseismic monitoring data shows cracks shielding effect during the multi-zone fracturing operations. This effect is based on the change in hydraulic fractures direction as a consequence of the presence of perturbed stress field from the first operations. This effect is especially intensive in formations with little contrast between the minimum and maximum stress, as well as in case the of significant tectonic component absence. These properties characterize the majority of fields in Western Siberia. In this article on the example of field Uryevskoye the author shows the approaches to reduce the effect of turning the cracks when multi-zone fracturing.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-76-77

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Technics and technology of oil recovery

M.R. Yakubov (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), M.I. Amerkhanov, R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft JSC, RF, Almetyevsk), Yu.V. Khanipova (TatNIPIneft, Bugulma)
World experience of solvents injection for extraction of heavy oil and solvent-based processes potential in TATNEFT PJSC heavy oil fields

Keywords: heavy oil recovery, bitumen, solvent injection process, asphaltenes deposits

Well-known technology of solvent-based recovery of heavy (extra-viscous) oils and bitumens has a number of indisputable advantages. They include the possibility of development of thin oil reservoirs, reduced or zero water consumption, significant decrease in the capital and operating expenditures, and reduction of the overall power consumption up to 85%. The results of the current pilot projects show that this technology is competitive even in conditions of low oil prices. Physical simulation of the oil displacement process in conditions corresponding to the Ashalchinskoye field allows evaluating the applicability of composite solvents based on light aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. It was established that application of the composite solvent based on the light saturate hydrocarbons only leads to deposition of the oil residues enriched with asphaltenes (up to 50-60%) in the pore space. With the increase of proportion of aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene) in the composite solvent, precipitation of asphaltenes is decreased proportionally. Experimental simulation revealed the optimal concentration of aromatic hydrocarbon in the composite solvent based on pentane-hexane fraction for effective displacement of the extra-viscous oil. The velocity of the oil displacement and the volume of recoverable oil are both increased when the amount of asphaltenes deposited in the pore space is decreased. Various synthetic and natural amphiphilic substances behaving as inhibitors of asphaltene deposition process can be used in the composite solvent instead of toluene and other aromatic hydrocarbons. 


1. Rassenfoss S., A tricky tradeoff can adding a little solvent yield a lot

more heavy crude, JPT, 2012, no. 6, pp. 5864.

2. Orr B., ES-SAGD: Past, present, and future, SPE 129518, 2009.

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recovery of heavy oil, SPE 150706, 2011.

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to a bitumen reservoir, SPE 145052, 2011.

5. Gupta S., Gittins S., Semi analytical approach for estimating optimal solvent

use in solvent aided SAGD process, SPE 146671, 2011.

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by genetic optimization, JCPT, 2010, no. 49 (09), pp. 3441.

7. Sharma J., Gates I.D., Dynamics of steam-solvent coupling at the edge

of an ES-SAGD chamber, SPE 128045, 2010.

8. Gates I.D., Design of the injection strategy in expanding-solvent steamassisted

gravity drainage, Proceedings of Second CDEN International

Conference on Design Education, Innovation, and Practice Kananaskis,

Alberta, Canada, 18-20 July 2005.

9. Jamaloei B.Y., Dong M.Z., Mahinpey N., Maini B.B., Enhanced cyclic solvent

process (ECSP) for heavy oil and bitumen recovery in thin reservoirs,

Energy&Fuels, 2012, no. 26(5), pp. 28652874.

10. Jiang T., Zeng F., Jia X., Gu Y., An improved solvent-based enhanced

heavy oil recovery method: cyclic production with continuous solvent injection,

Fuel, 2014, no. 115, pp. 268281.

11. Jia X., Zeng F., Gu Y., Gasflooding-assisted cyclic solvent injection (GACSI)

for enhancing heavy oil recovery, Fuel, 2015, V. 140, pp. 344353.

12. Yakubov M.R., Borisov D.N., Rakhimova Sh.G. et al., Effect of solvent

composition on heavy oil displacement while modeling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 10, pp. 106109.

13. Khisamov R.S., Amerkhanov M.I., Khanipova Yu.V., Change of properties

and composition of heavy oil in the process of Ashalchinskoye field development

by steam-assisted gravity drainage method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 7881.

14. Patent no. 2274742 RF, Method for high-viscous oil or bitumen field development,

Inventor: Khisamov R.S.

15. Rakhimova Sh.G., Amerkhanov M.I., Khisamov P.C., Capabilities of petroleum

solvents use in technologies of thermal-steam treatment (In Russ.),

Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 2, pp. 3437.  

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-78-81

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V.V. Sushkov (Nizhnevartovsk State University, RF, Nizhnevartovsk), M.K. Veliev, (Giprotyumenneftegas, PJSC, RF, Tyumen), V.V. Timoshkin (National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), T.D. Gladkih (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen)
Optimum control for multiple computer complex of oil field formation pressure maintenance system

Keywords: well pad pump station (WPPS), power efficiency increase, pumping unit technical condition, artificial neural network

Technical condition of pumping units being reduced during operation as a consequence of normal wear exerts influence on electrical power consumed by the formation pressure maintenance system; it appears in increasing of electrical power losses in the pump.

A method defining optimum structure of the operating pumping units have been developed to reduce electrical power losses caused by the technical condition of pumping units. The efficiency of the developed method to a large extent depends on accuracy of determination of the current technical condition of pumping units.

A diagnostic system based upon the artificial neural network (ANN) and the database obtained from flow sensors of head and temperature at the pump outlet and inlet has been developed for assessing the technical condition of pumping units. For correct operation of the diagnostic system based upon the operation data, neural network training is conducted in order to set the weights between the neurons in such a way, that the INS output signal summary error tends towards zero. Training is executed in Matlab software environment using the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. Weights are adjusted depending on the value of the obtained error.

Efficiency factors for two pumps ESP 500-1900 and one pump ESP 180-1900 have been defined using the developed diagnostic system based upon the operational data. The calculation results showed that the estimation error of the efficiency factor obtained using the suggested diagnostic system does not exceed 6%.


1. Frayshteter V.P., Nissenbaum I.A., Veliev M.K., Improvement of process and

power efficiency of well pad pump stations within oil fields reservoir pressure

maintenance system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013,

no. 3, pp. 86-88.

2. Sushkov V.V., Veliev M.K., Procedure for determination of the optimum

structure of operating pump units at well pad pump stations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 125-127.

3. Haykin S., Neural networks - A comprehensive foundation, Pearson Education,

Inc, 1999, 832 p.

4. Medvedev V.S., Potemkin V.G., Neyronnye seti. Matlab 6 (Neural networks.

Matlab 6), Moscow: Dialog-MIFI Publ., 2002, 496 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-82-84

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Yu.V. Vaganov, A.V. Kustyshev, D.S. Leontyev (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen)
Emergency works in abnormal operating conditions of oil and gas wells operations

Keywords: workover, accident, well, methodology, coiled tubing, fluid loss, abnormal low reservoir pressure, reservoir properties, classification

A multifaceted approach to oil and gas wells workover on the last stage of field development is considered. One of methods aimed to oil and gas well recovery is a coiled tubing technology that is recently widely being used during the well workover. Existing technologies of well workover by means of coiled tubing unit usage become often complicated because of the pipe sticking and further twist-off due to limited technical capacities of the coiled tubing unit that leads to irretrievable consequences during emergency works. On this basis, a necessity of technical accident risks estimation on the stage of well workover design aimed to reduce labor, material and financial resources is justified. 

On the base of well workover experience analysis the authors determined a probability of coiled tube twist-off during squeeze cementing works with the help of coiled tubing unit. This method permits to estimate and to compare different danger risks within the same indicators and gives a possibility to determine numerically a frequency of negative events; this will permit to reduce significantly risks of the accident initiation and in general will improve the well workover quality. Taking into account the specificity of the well workover and the possible coiled tube sticking and further twist-off, the authors suggested a technology of coiled tubes removal with the help of the coiled tubing unit. This method permits to make emergency works in a well without such operations as well killing and replacement of the coiled tubing unit by a mobile hoist that represents quite a difficult task (sometimes unreal) during the tubes twist-off elimination operations in conditions of abnormal low formation pressures and high formation permeability.

An addition to the
structure of the current workover classification, that characterizes a workover
according to its type and method of realized works in a well, is justified.
With the help of the proposed information block, the companies specializing in
well workovers will be able to justify a workover period and consequently its
cost that is the most important indicator in current conditions of the
contractors tendering process. 
1. Vaganov Yu.V., To the issue of methodological support of wells overhaul at the present-day stage of fields development (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2014, no. 6, pp. 1922.
2. Kustyshev A.V., Vaganov Yu.V., Dolgushin V.A., Arrangement of wells overhaul repair operation under present-day conditions of oil and gas fields development (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2015, no. 6, pp. 1925.
3. Kustyshev A.V., Slozhnye remonty gazovykh skvazhin na mestorozhdeniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Complex gas well servicing in Western Siberia), Moscow: Gazprom EKSPO Publ., 2010, 255 p.
4. Molchanov A.G., Vaynshtok S.M., Nekrasov V.I., Chernobrovkin V.I., Podzemnyy remont i burenie skvazhin s primeneniem gibkikh trub (Well servicing and drilling with coiled tubing), Moscow: Publ. of Akademii gornykh nauk, 1999, 224 p.
5. Vaganov Yu.V., Methodology of well workover realization under presentday conditions of Cenomanian reservoir development (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2016, no. 1, pp. 3438.
6. Kustyshev A.V., Vaganov Yu.V., Zhuravlev V.V., Risk assessment for oil and gas wells workover (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' truda v promyshlennosti, 2013, no. 9, pp. 7682.
7. Vaganov Yu.V., Kustyshev A.V., Leont'ev D.S., Gagarina O.V., Fishing operations in oil and gas wells using coiled tubing (In Russ.), Vremya koltyubinga, 2015, no. 2, pp. 4652.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-85-87

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I.I. Tseplyaev (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), P.A. Maltsev (Oil and Gas Production Department Nizhnesortymsckheft, RF, Nizhnesortymscky)
Operation analysis of wells with a low flow rates equipped with ESP in Oil and Gas Production Department Nizhnesortymsckheft

Keywords: wells with a low flow rates, hard-to-recover reserves, bottomhole pressure, energy efficiency

Many fields developing by Oil and Gas Production Department Nizhnesortymsckheft are currently characterized by an increase in the share of hard-to-recover reserves. These reserves are concentrated in low-productivity strata, strata with unfavorable conditions of occurrence of oil or containing oil with abnormal physical and chemical properties. The number of oil wells, the operation of which is unprofitable due to low production rate, is increasing every year with the change in the oil reserves structure. In the future the number of marginal wells will grow rapidly.

To solve the problems, associated with the operation of marginal well stock, the works on implementation and qualitative selection of submersible equipment, testing various kinds of pumps and preventive measures with application different scale inhibitors and hydrochloric acid treatments are carried out under the supervision of the Surgutneftegas OAO Production Division on the oil recovery and reservoir pressure maintaining at Nizhnesortymsckheft fields.

The operation of marginal wells, equipped with electric submersible pump units, is analyzed. The description of the factors, that complicate their work, is given. The features of the periodic operation of mechanized well stock are considered. Results of screw pumps EOVNB5-6-2000 tests that were carried out in 2014-2015 at the well stock with complicated operating conditions. The data, obtained at the realization of the program of pilot projects on the carrying out of short-term periodic operation of wells, equipped with electric submersible pump units, at the Ai-Pimskoye field, are presented. It was noted, that one of the advantages of short-term intermittent operation is the ability to change the pumping rate without lift and unit size change only by varying the pumping and accumulation time ratio. The pump units were equipped with submersible electric motors with thermomanometric systems in order to timely control and operational decision-making on the selection of a harmonized operation regime.

It is concluded, that the use of short-term intermittent operation mode of electric submersible pump units operation in conjunction with redundant check valve KOSh-73 and soft start control system is currently one of the most promising ways of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs and objects with large compartmentalization.


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neftyanykh skvazhin (Rational exploitation of marginal oil wells),

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operation mode in Rosneft Oil Company OJSC (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya

praktika, 2014, no. 11, pp. 2226.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-88-90

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Information technology

R.M. Yusupov, I.I. Mugalev, S.K. Kurnosov (OT-OIL JSC, RF, Moscow)
An integrated approach to reservoir information in the Intelligent Field project

Keywords: intelligent field, integrated asset modeling, integrated continuous field production analysis, geological and geophysical data, multilevel data storage system

As part of the scientific and technical program of research and development of high-performance data-processing technologies to increase and effective use of the resource potential of hydrocarbons of the Union State SKIF- NEDRA perform research and development of information technologies for creating high-performance multilevel storage systems of geological and geophysical data, providing information lifecycle management in solving geological and geophysical problems.

The article deals with a conceptual solution Intelligent field as the direction of the using and developing of OT-OIL Company's IT solutions under the brand ATOLL IV, which are used in the software and hardware complexes family SKIF- NEDRA. Functional architecture of solutions and innovative approaches to the operations management problems are described. For example, the system for implementation of the technology of continuous field production analysis is offered as the technology adequate to integrated activities planning procedures. New approaches are required to solve the problems of collecting data from various sources, including real-time throughout the life cycle of an asset from the exploration to the release of production.


1. Michel P., Jean-Fran􀀀ois R., Shared Earth modeling: Knowledge driven solutions

for building and managing subsurface 3D geological models, Paris:

Edition Technip, 2013.

2. Mandrik I.E., Guzeev V.V., Yusupov R.M. et al., Oil Field Exploration, Development

and Operation Corporate Information System (In Russ.),

Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 10, pp. 1622.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-92-95

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A.N. Murizhnikov, A.R. Ramazanov, T.G. Zagurenko (Ufa SciTechCenter LLC, RF, Ufa), I.G. Alkin (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), K.F. Tagirova (Ufa State Aviation Technical University, RF, Ufa)
Pilot tests of SRP and ESP power saving technologies for economic constrained automation projects for oilfield operation

Keywords: oil well control system, electrical energy consumption metering, gaging of oil well, ZigBee equipment

The article considers a realization of power consumption measurement system for oil wells without modern automation tools. Solution to the problem of support power saving mode is based on representing oilfield as an energy independent object. Evolution of automated power consumption measurement system is refrained by high cost of object controllers and transmission modules. Main goal of this work is checking possibility of implementation of power consumption measurement system for oil well with sucker rod pump (SRP) or electric submersible pump (ESP) based on hardware and software suite with low energy consumption and without replacement existing equipment.

Design of power consumption measurement system is based on electric motors controllers for SRP and ESP with ZigBee modems. This solution provides many transmission channels for controllers data. Efficiency of this solution is proven on constructed testbed. Electric motors controller was installed in telecommunications cabinet.  Vandal-resistant antenna was mounted on the top of cover of the cabinet. Such construction solves the problem of resistance to explosions and vandalism actions. Operational control of electric current and voltage, monitoring of the uptime and downtime, account of electric consumption was provided by access to energy parameters of SRP and ESP through of the operators PC.

System provides possibility to set the schedule of the equipment remotely for control of oil well operation mode.


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9. Muryzhnikov A.N., Alkin I.G., Latypov I.R., Muryzhnikov A.A., Application

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khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 104107.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-96-99

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Transport and oil preparation

622.276.8: 537.868
L.A. Kovaleva, R.Z. Minnigalimov, R.R. Zinnatullin, V.N. Blagochinnov, A.I. Mullayanov (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa)
Study of integrated effects microwave electromagnetic radiation in the field of centrifugal forces on the water-oil emulsion

Keywords: stable water-oil emulsions, microwave electromagnetic radiation, the centrifugal force field, the integrated effects
The authors consider the problems of stable oil-water emulsions genesis during field based oil processing. Stability of such emulsions form is associated with armoring shells consisting of natural and synthetic surfactants. We study the impact of combined microwave electromagnetic radiation and the field of centrifugal forces at the water-oil emulsions of increased stability. Microwave electromagnetic radiation and the field of centrifugal forces were implemented in two ways: consequently and simultaneously. Laboratory setup and test procedure are described. For test we selected emulsions with different composition and water content. The studies were conducted at varying parameters of microwave electromagnetic radiation and the field of centrifugal forces. We varied the time and the power of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation frequency was fixed at 2.4 GHz. Rotational speed of the separation chamber was 2500 min-1. Tests results showed the effectiveness of the combined treatment of oil-water emulsions by microwave electromagnetic radiation in the field of centrifugal forces. We defined optimum processing parameters for each emulsions samples according to their physic-chemical properties. Optimal modes and parameters of the combined effect on the water-oil emulsions are developed. Recommended modes and processing parameters will be used in further studies and numerical calculations in the development of design and technical documentation for the manufacture of pilot plant of oil dehydration.


1. Rakhmankulov D.L., Bikbulatov I.X., Shulaev N.S., Shavshukova Yu., Mikrovolnovoe

izluchenie i intensifikatsiya khimicheskikh protsessov (Microwave radiation

and intensification of chemical processes), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 2003, 220 p.

2. Utility patent no. 40925 RF, Ustroystvo razdeleniya vodoneftyanoy smesi (The device

for separating oil-water mixture), Inventors: Ibragimov N.G., Mukhametgaleev

R.R., Nosov S.K., Nurmukhametov R.S., Gabdrakhmanov R.A.,

Khamidullin M.S., Gimadeev R.M., Morozov G.A., Vorobev N.G., Salikhov A.M., Morozov


3. Patent no. US7705058, Method for the microwave treatment of water-in-oil

emulsions, Inventors: Coutinho R.C. et al.

4. Patent no. 2402370 RF, Method of emulsions separation, Inventors: Anderson K.,

Fanzelov M., Kholbri D.D.

5. Patent no. US7914688, Method for separating emulsions, Inventors: Kris A.,

Fanselow M., Holbrey J.D.

6. Kovaleva L.A., Zinnatullin R.R., Minnigalimov R.Z., Technology of oils dehydration

with the use of electromagnetic field energy (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe

delo, 2009, no. 5, pp. 5458.

7. Kovaleva L.A., Minnigalimov R.Z., Zinnatullin R.R., Study of water-oil emulsion

stability in the electromagnetic field depending on its dielectric properties (In

Russ.), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Neft i gaz, 2010, no. 2, pp. 5963.

8. Kovaleva L.A., Minnigalimov R.Z., Zinnatullin R.R., Determination of water-oil

emulsion settling time in electromagnetic field (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza,

2010, no. 2, pp. 20-21.

9. Kovaleva L.A., Zinnatullin R.R., Minnigalimov R.Z., Destruction of water-in-oil

emulsions in radio-frequency and microwave electromagnetic field, Energy

Fuels, 2011, no. 25 (8), pp. 7313738.

10. Kovaleva L.A., Zinnatullin R.R., Mullayanov A.I. et al., Microstructure evolution

of water-oil emulsions in high-frequency and microwave electromagnetic fields

(In Russ.), Teplofizika vysokikh temperatur = High Temperature, 2013, V. 51, no. 6,

pp. 952955.

11. Fatkhullina Yu.I., Musin A.A., Zinnatullin R.R. et al., Numerical simulation of microwave

electromagnetic heating of emulsion droplet (In Russ.), Vestnik

Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2012, V. 17, no. 4, pp. 1666-1670.

12. Patent no. 2494824 RF, Method of oil sludge processing using microwave electromagnetic

effects, Inventors: Kovaleva L.A., Akhatov I.Sh., Zinnatullin R.R., Minigalimov

R.Z., Musin A.A., Blagochinnov V.N., Valiev Sh.M.

13. Patent no. US5911885, Application of microwave radiation in a centrifuge for

the separation of emulsions and dispersions, Inventors: Owens L.T.

14. Kovaleva L.A., Zinnatullin R.R., Minnigalimov R.Z. et al., Dehydration of wateroil

emulsions and sludges by complex effects of super high frequency of electromagnetic

field in a centrifugal force field (In Russ), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013,

no. 6, pp. 4548.

15. Utility patent no. 134988 RF, Ustroystvo dlya integrirovannogo obezvozhivaniya

vodoneftyanykh emulsiy (The device for the integrated dehydration of water

emulsions), Inventors: Kovaleva L.A., Akhatov I.Sh., Blagochinnov V.N.,

Valiev Sh.M., Zinnatullin R.R., Fatkhullina Yu.I.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-100-102

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Pipeline transport of oil

A.S. Didkovskaya, M.V. Lurie (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Oil leakage through a hole in surface of a pipeline

Keywords: pipeline, accident, issue, leakage, transient, elastic supply, the mirror of liquid, liquid column break, volume of leakage, numerical calculation
This paper presents the main aspects of fluid leakage through a hole in surface of a pipeline. In the general case, this problem has not yet been solved. In the classical theory of unsteady flows of a weakly compressible fluid in the pipe, the ascending its origins to the famous work of N. Zhukovsky "On the water hammer in water pipelines" (1899), is tacitly assumed that the pipeline is completely filled with liquid, so discharge wave spreads from the site of depressurization conduit in both directions. However, such an assumption in most practical cases is wrong. Profile of an oil pipeline usually has a large level difference, so the pressure in the propagating discharge wave may be reduced to elasticity of the saturated liquid vapor, which leads to the formation of steam-gas cavities inside pipe. Such cavities are insurmountable obstacles for the passage of pressure waves, so the transient process in the pipeline is developed in a different scenario than the one that is determined by the classical theory. The focus of the work is based on the fact that process of fluid leakage through a hole has transient character and is accompanied by the formation of voids in the pipeline, i.e. discontinuities liquid column due to the reduction of fluid pressure in some pipeline sections up to the value of elasticity of the saturated vapor. There are pipeline sections on which the fluid moves with full cross section but alternates with the pipeline sections in which the fluid moves with only partially filled cross section of the pipe. The pressure in these gravity flow sections is equal to elasticity of the saturated vapor. Thus, a complete solution to the problem of leakage of fluid through a hole is possible only on the basis of the general theory of transient processes taking into account the possibility of formation of voids and the gravity flow sections. The basic equations of the theory and examples of calculations are presented in this paper.


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S.M., Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2004, Part 2, 621 p.

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shock waves in relief crude- and refined oil product pipe-lines (In Russ.),

Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2000, no. 8, pp. 6668.

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possible formation and disappearance of vapour-gas cavities (In Russ.),

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2011, no. 4, pp. 5862.

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transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Mathematical modeling of oil

and gas pipeline transport), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University

of Oil and Gas, 2012, 456 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-104-107

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Ecological and industrial safety

E.S. Belik, L.V. Rudakova, I.S. Glushankova, A.A. Surkov, Ya.I. Vaysman (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), V.G. Berlizova (ProfStroyAlyans LLC, RF, Perm)
Investigating bioremediation and detoxification of oil-contaminated cuttings and soil using bacterial preparation Rekoyl

Keywords: oil-contaminated soil, remediation, detoxification, bacterial preparation
Bioremediation is a commonly used soil treatment technology in case of crude and petroleum derivatives contamination. This technology is based on the principle of self-purification of oil-contaminated soil and ground in presence of hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms form. Using special bacterial drugs is a promising direction for the intensification of the cleaning of the environment from oil with the help of microorganisms. This increases the efficiency of removal of petroleum hydrocarbons by increasing the number of hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms. Currently, these bacterial preparations developed enough. Bacterial preparations which reduce not only the amount of oil in the soil, but also the content of heavy metals are of great interest. The authors present a biological product Rekoyl which consists of a consortium of oxidizing microorganisms immobilized on brown coal. It is show that the bacterial preparation Rekoyl is effective for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (reduction of oil content in the 63-93 %). In addition, this product helps detoxify contaminated cuttings and soils from heavy metals (reduction of mobile forms of heavy metals cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, chromium at 29-66%). Bioremediation technology using bacterial preparation Rekoyl is developed for cleaning oil-contaminated soils and drill cuttings based on laboratory and pilot-scale studies. Experimentally determined that the dose of the biopreparation - 0.1 g/kg.


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based on hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms immobilized on hydrophobized

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and heavy metal contaminated soil using Rhodococcus biosurfactants

and immobilized rhodococ-cal cells (In Russ.), Agrarnyy vestnik

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sorbent for water purification from oil pollution (In Russ.), Ekologiya i

promyshlennost Rossii, 2011, no. 12, pp. 3435.

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khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3, pp. 96-97.

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An overview, Biotechnology Research International, 2011, 13 p.

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uglevodorodokislyayushchikh mikroorganizmov v pochve, zagryaznennoy

neftyu i nefteproduktami (Prospects for the use of microorganisms for the

biodegradation of oil polluted soils), Proceedings of 1st International congress

Biotekhnologiya sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya (Biotechnology

the state and prospects of development), Moscow, 2002, p. 476.

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aromaticheskimi uglevodorodami: khimicheskie i toksikologicheskie aspekty

(The interaction of humic acids with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons:

chemical and toxicological aspects): thesis of candidate of

chemical science, Moscow, 2000, 153 .

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dlya detoksikatsii i biodegradatsii neftyanogo zagryazneniya (The use of

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6. Ivanov A.A., Yudina N.V., Maltseva E.V., Matis E.Ya., The study biostimulating

and detoxifying properties of humic acids of various origins in a oilpolluted

soil (In Russ.), Khimiya rastitelnogo syrya, 2007, no. 1, pp. 99103. 
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-108-111

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