October 2023

10/2023 ( 1200)


O.V. Zhdaneev (Technology Development Center for Fuel and Energy Complex under the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, RF, Moscow; The Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, RF, Moscow), K.N. Frolov (Technology Development Center for Fuel and Energy Complex under the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, RF, Moscow)
Scientific and technological priorities of the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation until 2050

The analysis of scientific and technological priorities of the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation has been carried out. The authors used a number of methods to study ensuring the technological sovereignty of the energy sector in the context of the global energy transition and the climate agenda, taking into account the levels of technological development of basic and promising domestic technologies in the oil and gas industry, the coal industry and the electric power industry, taking into account ensuring business continuity of companies, the current localization of equipment production, components, materials and specialized software. Separately, end-to-end technologies used in each of the branches of the fuel and energy complex were considered. The features of the development of energy transition technologies, namely hydrogen energy, CCUS, electric energy storage systems, waste disposal and use, bioenergy, monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions and permafrost, have been established. The features of scientific and technological priorities in the oil and gas sector for vertically integrated oil companies, oil service companies, oil and gas processing enterprises are established. In the energy sector, the priorities are divided into generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, in the coal industry - into mine and open pit coal mining. To achieve the priorities of the technological development of the Russian fuel and energy complex presented in the article, a number of measures are proposed, including the possibility of integrating Russian science, engineering and production with the programs for the development of the energy sector of the BRICS countries. For example, one of the vectors for the development of the oil and gas industry is calculated and justified - the creation of a high-tech oilfield service industry.


1. Zhdaneev O.V., Technological sovereignty of the Russian Federation fuel and energy complex (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo Instituta, 2022, no. 7(57), pp. 3237,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.31897/PMI.2022.107

2. Brás G.R., Pillars of the Global Innovation Index by income level of economies: longitudinal data (2011-2022) for researchers use, Data Brief, 2023, V. 46,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2022.108818

3. Kryukov V.A., On the interconnection and interaction of economic, industrial and scientific-technological policies (In Russ.), Upravlenie naukoy: teoriya i praktika = Science Management: Theory and Practice, 2020, V. 2, no. 2, pp. 15-46, DOI: https://doi.org/10.19181/smtp.2020.2.2.1

4. Oksenoyd E.E., Isaev V.I. et al., Problems of oil and gas potential realization in Bazhenov-Abalak play in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug Yugra (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2023, no. 2(1), pp. 5159, DOI: https://doi.org/10.18599/grs.2023.1.6

5. Novikova S.P., Nurgaliev D.K., Sudakov V.A. et al., The main features of the geological modeling process of a shallow deposit of super-viscous oil in aspect of development strategy planning with the use of steam‑assisted gravity drainage method (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2017, V. 19, no. 4, Part 1, pp. 331-340,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18599/grs.19.4.5

6. Zhdaneev O.V., Frolov K.N., Drilling technology priorities in Russia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 5, pp. 4248,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-5-42-48

7. Groenendijk D.J., Bouts S., van Wunnik J.N.M., Performance improvement of chemical enhanced oil recovery by divalent ioncomplexing agents, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 2022, V. 215, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2022.110609

8. Wanasinghe T.R., Wroblewski L., Petersen B.K. et al., Digital twin for the oil and gas industry: Overview, research trends, opportunities, and challenges, IEEE, 2020, V. 8, pp. 104175104197, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2998723

9. Meribout M., Azzi A., Ghendour N. et al., Multiphase flow meters targeting oil & gas industries, Measurement, 2020, V. 165,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2020.108111

10. Bin Pan, Xia Yin, Weiyao Zhu et al., Theoretical study of brine secondary imbibition in sandstone reservoirs: Implications for H2, CH4, and CO2 geo-storage, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2022, V. 47, no. 41, pp. 1805818066, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.03.275

11. Litvinenko V., The role of hydrocarbons in the global energy agenda: The focus on liquefied natural gas, Resources, 2020, V. 9, no. 5, p. 59,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.3390/resources9050059

12. Zhdaneev O.V., Korenev V.V., Rubtsov A.S., Key technology development priorities for the oil refinery sector in Russia (In Russ.), Zhurnal prikladnoy khimii = Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2020, V. 93, no. 9, pp. 1314-1325, DOI: https://doi.org/10.31857/S0044461820090029

13. Golysheva E.A., Zhdaneev O.V., Korenev V.V. et al., Petrochemical industry in Russia: State of the art and prospects for development (In Russ.), Zhurnal prikladnoy khimii = Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2020, V. 93, no. 10, pp. 1499-1507, DOI: https://doi.org/10.31857/S0044461820100126

14. Zhdaneev O.V., Zuev S.S., Challenges for the Russian energy sector until 2035 (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2020, no. 3(145), pp. 12-23, DOI: https://doi.org/10.46920/2409-5516_2020_3145_12

15. Milošević N.D., Popović Ž.N., Kovački N.V., A multi-period multi-criteria replacement and rejuvenation planning of underground cables in urban distribution networks, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 2023, V. 149, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2023.109018

16. Bazhenov S., Dobrovolsky Y., Maximov A., Zhdaneev O., Key challenges for the development of the hydrogen industry in the Russian Federation, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 2022, V. 54, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2022.102867

17. Filippov S.P., Zhdaneev O.V., Opportunities for the application of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in case of global economy decarbonization (Review) (In Russ.), Teploenergetika, 2022, V. 69, no. 9, pp. 637-652, DOI: https://doi.org/10.56304/S0040363622090016

18. Rövekamp P., Schöpf M., Wagon F. et al., Renewable electricity business models in a post feed-in tariff era, Energy, 2021, V. 216,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119228

19. Xingjian Dai, Kunpeng Wei, Xiaozhang Zhang, Analysis of the peak load leveling mode of a hybrid power system with flywheel energy storage in oil drilling rig, Energies, 2019, V. 12, no. 4, DOI: http://doi.org/10.3390/en12040606

20. Yatsenko V.A., Lebedeva M.E., Demand forecasting in world rare earth metals market (In Russ.), Mir ekonomiki i upravleniya = World of Economics and Management, 2021, V. 21(4), pp. 124-145, DOI: http://doi.org/10.25205/2542-0429-2021-21-4-124-145

21. Farhadian A., M.A. Varfolomeev, A. Kudbanov et al., Waterborne polymers as kinetic/anti-agglomerant methane hydrate and corrosion inhibitors: A new and promising strategy for flow assurance, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2020, V. 77, pp. 103235, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2020.103235

22. Voprosy tekhnicheskoy politiki otrasley TEK Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Technical policy issues of the fuel and energy complex of the Russian Federation): edited by Zhdaneev O.V., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2020, 304 p., DOI: http://doi.org/10.7868/9785020408241

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V.V. Kulchitsky (Research and Design Center of Gas and Oil Technologies JS, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), Parkhomenko A.K. (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
The role of the scientific and technical social movement of oil and gas workers in the innovative development of the oil and gas industry

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Nikolay Aleksandrovich Malyshev

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I.D. Latypov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Markov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa University of Science and Technology, RF, Ufa), L.E. Koltanovskiy (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa), M.O. Chernykh (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa)
Development of algorithms and methods for joint fluid-mineral and rock-physics modeling based on logging and core data

Due to high depletion of classical reservoirs of oil and gas fields, there is an increasing need to study and model reservoirs with a complex mineralogical and structural composition, as well as marginal areas with deteriorated reservoir porosity and permeability. The methods of attribute analysis and rock physics modeling are widely used to predict lithology and reservoir properties for such reservoirs.

A common approach to rock physics modeling is to build a fluid-mineral model and then build a rock physics model based on the fluid-mineral model. This is due to the fact that the fluid-mineral and rock physics models are usually built by different specialists, and the tools for solving these problems in commercial software are separated. When building a fluid-mineral model for a complex section, there is often not enough well logging data to determine the main mineral composition. To obtain a solution, the total number of mineral components should not exceed the number of equations. In this case, simple equations based on acoustic logging data such as mean time are used. Rock physics modeling is based on complex theoretical models for elastic moduli, i.e. there is a contradiction with the equations used to build the mineral model using acoustic logging.

In order to maintain a more detailed mineral component composition and have self-consistent mineral and rock physics models, a joint solution approach has been implemented. Moreover, due to the limited number of logs, the components of the mineral composition are combined, which requires fine-tuning of the tabular constants. Therefore, a mechanism for automatic adjustment of model parameters and fine-tuning (under constraints) of tabular petrophysical constants is implemented in the joint mineral-rock physics modeling.


1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003, 261 p.

2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu podschetnykh parametrov zalezhey nefti i gaza po materialam geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin s privlecheniem rezultatov analizov kerna, oprobovaniy i ispytaniy produktivnykh plastov (Guidelines to determine the calculation parameters of oil and gas using well logging data with the involvement the results of core analysis, sampling and testing of productive formations): edited by Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Kozyar V.F., Yatsenko G.G., Kalinin: Soyuzpromgeofizika Publ., 1990, 260 p.

3. Instruktsiya po primeneniyu materialov promyslovo-geofizicheskikh issledovaniy s ispolzovaniem rezultatov izucheniya kerna i ispytaniy skvazhin dlya opredeleniya i obosnovaniya podschetnykh parametrov zalezhey nefti i gaza (Instructions for the use of field geophysical research materials using the results of core studies and well testing to determine and justify the calculated parameters of oil and gas deposits), Moscow: Publ. of VNIGNI, 1987, 20 p.

4. Nadezhdin O.V., Latypov I.D., Markov A.V. et al., Development of algorithms for isotropic petroelastic models adjustment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 6, pp. 1319,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-6-13-19

5. Nadezhdin O.V., Latypov I.D., Elkibaeva G.G. et al., Sovershenstvovanie metodov atributnogo analiza i petrouprugogo modelirovaniya (Improving the methods of attribute analysis and petroelastic modeling), Moscow: Publ. of Rosneft, 2019.

6. Nadezhdin O.V., Efimov D.V., Minikeeva L.R., Markov A.V., Experience with using data analysis technologies in identification of lost production zones (In Russ.), SPE-191597-18RPTC-MS, 2018,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/191597-18RPTC-MS

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Yu.S. Matrekhina (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), O.I. Belous (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), L.V. Torbokova (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), T.V. Linichenko (Centre for geological support of Surgutneftegas PJSC activities, RF, Surgut)
Identification of promising zones of the U2 reservoir at the fields of the eastern slope of the Surgut arch based on facies analysis

Permanent geological and hydrodynamic models allow solving the problem of increasing the efficiency of field development. The quality and reliability of the geological basis directly depends on the lithofacies component with the integration of sedimentological factors, which makes it possible to assess the level of knowledge of the object and is the basis for planning geological exploration at all stages, including additional exploration. The purpose of this work is to identify promising zones U2 deposits of the eastern slope of the Surgut arch based on the reconstruction of the facies environment of sedimentation. The main prospects are associated with the upper part of the Tyumen formation the U2 and U3 layers. Despite the large amount of accumulated data on formation rocks, the degree of deposits study is still insufficient due to the complexity of the geological structure, unevenness of the deposits and the lack of clear predictive criteria for identify zones of industrial productivity against the backdrop of conflicting test results and technological problems of stripping and development. The identification and zoning of reservoirs with increased properties is fraught with difficulties due to the peculiarities of the formation of sediments in continental and coastal-marine sedimentation environments. The composition and the structure of sedimentary system of different ranks were studied, the mechanism and conditions for their formation were determined, followed by an analysis of post-sedimentary changes in rocks, which made it possible to predict the spatial distribution of sedimentary bodies with different reservoir properties with varying degree of detail. When reconstructing sedimentation settings, a wide range of features was taken into account: the mineral composition of rocks, textural and structural features, the nature of the boundaries between lithological units, the mineral neoformation, faunal and floristic remains. The paper presents the lithological and facies characteristics of the deposits of the studied reservoir, establishes the patterns of the distribution of the distinguished facies-lithological types of rocks along the section and area, establishes promising zones for the development of the best reservoirs of the studied reservoir.

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E.V. Yakovenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), D.Yu. Gundorin (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), Pham Van Hieu (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), Dinh Van Ngoc (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), I.I. Karavka (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.H. Uvaysov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), Nguyen Van Bao (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.L. Rozgon (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), Nguyen Dang Ngoc Nam (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Vung Tau), R.R. Naboka
Experience of performing naval operations during preparation and docking a jack-up rig for repairs under a limited accessibility to the dry dock

For over 40 years, Russian-Vietnamese Joint Venture Vietsovpetro has been performing its operation in the shelf area of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Company possesses a large number of technological vessels and mobile offshore drilling units. Mobile offshore drilling fleet consists of five self-elevating mobile offshore drilling units (jack-up rigs): Tam Dao-01, Tam Dao-02, Tam Dao-03, Tam Dao-05 and Cuu Long. To ensure the absolute safety while operating the drilling units and to comply with the requirements of the Supervising Register of Shipping, the scheduled and major repairs of jack-up rigs are performed consistently, including the repairs in a dry dock. In 2023, the dry-docking was scheduled for Tam Dao-01 jack-up rig. However, the massive size of the rig and existing Vietnam dock infrastructure allows performing such operations for the mobile offshore rigs only at Qung Quat shipyard, which is located in the Central Vietnam, 400 sea miles away from Vietsovpetro production facility. Considering an actively developing and steadily increasing fleet that operates at Vietnam offshore, Dung Quat dry dock is highly demanded and, consequently, very busy. The distance and limited availability of Dung Quat dock led to the fact, that Tam Dao-01 repair operations required not only high level of Vietsovpetro competence in terms of naval operations, but also elaborating the unique solutions for repair-docking the rig under the conditions when the dry dock access is limited. As the result, Tam Dao-01 has been safely transported and docked for repair with due dispatch.

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M.. Khasanov (Gazprom Neft PJSC, RF, Saint Petersburg), R.R. Bakhitov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), I.A. Lakman (Ufa University of Science and Technology, RF, Ufa), V.M. Timiryanova (Ufa University of Science and Technology, RF, Ufa)
Spatial modeling of production well connectivity

Exact production capacity is a bottleneck that limits the distribution of oil fields, especially in the context of unresolved existing problems and newly created wells. The difficulty in obtaining such estimates lies in the uncertainty of reservoir conditions, including the nature of the mutual influence of wells. The purpose of the study is to analyze reservoir connectivity based on the results of assessing the mutual influence of wells in dynamics. The empirical basis for the modeling was daily data on fluid production, in-situ and bottomhole pressure for 82 production wells of one field over time from January 1997 to October 1999. The analysis included assessing the spatial autocorrelation of the daily fluid flow rate of production wells using the Moran's index and constructing a spatial panel model with spatial and lagged components with fixed effects. The choice of model specification was based on the Baltagi Song Koch and Hausman tests. Calculations showed the presence of a positive spatial autoregressive relationship between the average fluid production of a well and the production of neighboring wells, which is more pronounced at 750 m rather than 1000 m. The constructed model showed a negative spatial relationship between well productivity, in the presence of factors not taken into account in the model, which have a positive spatial impact on neighboring wells under the influence of in-situ and bottomhole pressure. The authors concluded that spatial models based on panel data are suitable for forecasting and can account for both spatial and temporal variability in the productivity of nearby wells.


1. Montgomery J.B., OSullivan F.M., Spatial variability of tight oil well productivity and the impact of technology, Applied Energy, 2017, V. 195, pp. 344355,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.038

2. Zhang Y., Hu J., Zhang Q., Application of locality preserving projection-based unsupervised learning in predicting the oil production for low-permeability reservoirs, SPE-201231-PA, 2021, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/201231-PA

3. Ahmadi M.A., Galedarzadeh M., Shadizadeh S.R., Low parameter model to monitor bottom hole pressure in vertical multiphase flow in oil production wells, Petroleum, 2016, V. 2(3), pp. 258266, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2015.08.001

4. Chong Cao, Pin Jia, Linsong Cheng et al., A review on application of data-driven models in hydrocarbon production forecast, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2022, V. 212, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2022.110296

5. Attanasi E.D., Freeman P.A., Growth drivers of Bakken oil well productivity, Natural Resources Research, 2020, V. 29, pp. 1471-1486, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11053-019-09559-5

6. Bakhitov R.R., Application of machine learning algorithms in tasks of well productivity index forecasting for carbonate oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 9, pp. 8285, DOI: http://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-9-82-85

7. Lolon E., Hamidieh K., Weijers L. et al., Evaluating the relationship between well parameters and production using multivariate statistical models: a Middle Bakken and Three Forks case history, SPE-179171-MS, 2016, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/179171-MS

8. Wigwe M.E., Watson M.C., Giussani A. et al., Application of geographically weighted regression to model the effect of completion parameters on oil production Case study on unconventional wells, SPE-198847-MS, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/198847-MS

9. Wigwe M.E., Bougre E.S., Watson M.C., Giussani A., Comparative evaluation of multi-basin production performance and application of spatio-temporal models for unconventional oil and gas production prediction, Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 2020, V. 10(8), pp. 30913110,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-020-00960

10. Malanichev A., Limits of technological efficiency of shale oil production in the USA, Foresight and STI Governance, 2018, V. 12(4), pp. 7889,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.17323/2500-2597.2018.4.78.89

11. Millo G., Piras G., Splm: Spatial panel data models in R, Journal of Statistical Software, 2012, V. 47(1), pp. 138, DOI: http://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v047.i01

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R.D. Kanevskaya (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), P.V. Kuznetsov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.A. Pimenov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), L.L. Ryzhova (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), F.A. Isbir (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Computer technology for oil production optimization from nature-fractured oil and gas reservoir with bottom water

The article presents a computer technology for well group oil production optimization with reservoir and surface constraints. The technology is based on "reservoir well surface infrastructure" system integrated modeling, which covers the entire hydrocarbon field development management cycle. The integrated model includes a hierarchical filtration model describing a multiphase inflow to well group in fractured reservoir, an oil production optimization model with water and gas production restrictions, a surface field development model, a multiphase flow model in the well group gathering system and wellbore with its equipment restrictions. The integrated model is implemented as a production optimization calculation module in the RN-KIN software package. This module is a useful tool for well operation mode express-management. The calculation module intended for bottom-hole pressure and phase flow rates history matching and forecast, operation modes management with considering reservoir and surface interference and well operation modes optimization which best way consistent with reservoir and the surface system. The technology was tested at one of the largest Russian Federation oil and gas fields (fractured carbonate reservoir). An example of using the technology is presented for a well group: optimal flow rates and accumulated oil, water and gas production, and the well equipment parameters are calculated.


1. Razyapov R.K., Sorokin A.S., Vol'pin S.G. et al., Detailing Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye deposit geology using well interference testing data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 8, pp. 8084.

2. Bagrintseva K.I., Krasil'nikova N.B., Sautkin R.S., Formation conditions and properties of the Riphean carbonaceous reservoirs of the Yurubcheno-Tokhomsk deposit (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2015, no. 1, pp. 2440.

3. Kiselev V.M., Kozyaev A.A., Korotysheva A.V., Analysis of natural fracturing systems of the Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2018, no. 6, pp. 2225.

4. Kontorovich A.E., Izosimova A.N., Kontorovich A.A. et al., Geological structure and formation conditions of the giant Yurubcheno-Tokhomskaya zone of oil and gas accumulation in the Upper Proterozoic of the Siberian Platform (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 1996, V. 7, no. 8, pp. 166-195.

5. Kutukova N.M., Shuster V.L., Pankov M.V. et al., Integrated approach to the modeling of the carbonate reservoir with complicated trap structure in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 2327, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-11-23-27

6. Koshmanov P.E., Isbir F.A., Stabilization of the energy state of the formation by balancing the extraction of oil and gas of gas cap in the conditions of a carbonate cavernous-fractured reservoir of Yurubchenskaya deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 5, pp. 8084, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-5-80-83

7. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1982.

8. Charnyy I.A., Podzemnaya gidrogazodinamika (Underground hydraulic gas dynamics), Moscow Leningrad: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963, 396 p.

9. Bazaraa M.S., Shetty S.M., Nonlinear Programming. Theory and Algorithms, John Wiley and Sons, 1979.

10. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, V. 17, 1999.

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E.V. Yudin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint Petersburg), I.O. Poroshin (Nedra LLC, RF, Saint Petersburg), I.E. Gruzdev (Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, RF, Saint Petersburg), N.S. Markov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
New approaches to rapid performance evaluation of wells in heterogeneous reservoirs

When analyzing well performance, resource-intensive hydrodynamic models are often used, the alternative to which are simple analytical models. To build an accurate hydrodynamic model, numerical calculations require correct initial data, which may not be available, and large computing power, so the use of such a model is not always justified. On the other hand, the analytical approach, having a high speed of calculation, does not consider a few parameters of the system under study. In the simplest cases, a homogeneous isotropic reservoir with single-phase filtration is considered. The Green's function for an infinite flat homogeneous isotropic reservoir can be given as an example of solving a homogeneous problem. This approach is not always acceptable from the point of view of practical application; at least it is necessary to model a finite heterogeneous reservoir. There is also a class of inverse problems of well hydrodynamic studies, dynamics adaptation and similar tasks, where both high speed of calculations and consideration of many peculiarities of the considered domain are required, but existing commercial software and analytical approaches cannot always satisfy these conditions for the reasons mentioned above.

The article consider an approach that incorporates the advantages of both numerical and analytical approaches in modeling filtration and well performance. The idea is to numerically search for a correction term to the simplest analytical models of wells and fractures to account for the inhomogeneity of the filtration region. The correction term includes the physical and capacitive properties of the formation and considers the boundary conditions, which allows us to significantly accelerate complex hydrodynamic calculations. Based on this approach, a program is implemented that promptly calculates well productivity in heterogeneous formations and calculates the matrix of mutual productivities to evaluate well performance.


1. Basquet R. et al., A semi-analytical approach for productivity evaluation of wells with complex geometry in multilayered reservoirs, SPE 49232-MS, 1998,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/49232-MS

2. Blasingame T., Shahram A., Rushing J., Evaluation of the elliptical flow period for hydraulically-fractured wells in tight gas sands - Theoretical aspects and practical considerations // SPE-106308-MS, 2007, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/106308-MS

3. Henk A. vander Vorst, Iterative Krylov methods for large linear systems, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 230 p.

4. Kikani J., Modeling pressure-transient behavior of sectionally homogeneous reservoirs by boundary-element method, SPE-19778-PA, 1993, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/19778-PA

5. Kuchuk F.J., Habashy T., Pressure behavior of laterally composite reservoirs, SPE-24678-PA, 1998, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/24678-PA

6. Levitan M.M., Crawford G.E., General heterogeneous radial and linear models for well-test analysis, SPE-78598-PA, 2002, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/78598-PA

7. Jin Y., Chen K.P., Chen M., Analytical solution and mechanisms of fluid production from hydraulically fractured wells with finite fracture conductivity, Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 2015, V. 92, pp. 103122, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s10665-014-9754-x

8. Yudin E., Gubanova A., Krasnov V., The method of express estimation of pore pressure map distribution in reservoirs with faults and wedging zones, SPE-191582-18RPTC-MS, 2018, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/191582-18RPTC-MS

9. Yudin E., Lubnin A. et al., Differential approach to determination of compartmentalized reservoir properties, SPE-161969-MS, 2012, http://doi.org/10.2118/161969-MS

10. Yudin E., Poroshin P., Korikov D. et al., Analysis and prediction of well performance in heterogeneous reservoirs based on field theory methods, SPE-201955-MS, 2020, http://doi.org/10.2118/201955-MS

11. Oliver D.S., The averaging process in permeability estimation from well test data, SPE-19845-PA, 1990, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/19845-PA

12. Ilin A.M., A boundary value problem for the elliptic equation of second order in a domain with a narrow slit. 1. The two-dimensional case (In Russ.), Matematicheskiy sbornik = Mathematics of the USSR-Sbornik, 1976, V. 99(141), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1070/sm1976v028n04abeh001663

13. Ilin E.M., Features of weak solutions of elliptic theory with discontinuous leading coefficients. II. Corner points of the break line (In Russ.), Zapiski nauchnogo seminara LOMI, 1974, V. 47, pp. 166169.

14. Ladyzhenskaya O.A., Uraltseva N.N., Lineynye i kvazilineynye uravneniya ellipticheskogo tipa (Linear and quasilinear equations of elliptic type), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973, 576 p.

15. Nazarov S.A., Plamenevskiy B.A., Ellipticheskie zadachi v oblastyakh s kusochno-gladkoy granitsey (Elliptic problems in domains with piecewise smooth boundaries), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1991, 335 p.

16. Oganesyan L.A., Rukhovets L.A., Variational-difference schemes for linear second-order elliptic equations in a two-dimensional region with piecewise smooth boundary (In Russ.), Zhurnal vychislitelnoy matematiki i matematicheskoy fiziki = USSR Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, 1968, no. 8:1, pp. 97114,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-5553(68)90008-6

17. Izmailov A.F., Solodov M.V., Chislennye metody optimizatsii (Numerical optimization methods), Moscow: FIZMATLIT Publ., 2005. - 304 .

18. Prats M., Hazebroek P., Strickler W.R., Effect of vertical fractures on reservoir behavior Compressible-fluid case, SPE-98-PA, 1962,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/98-PA

19. Ramey H.J., Approximate solutions for unsteady liquid flow in composite reservoirs, JCPT, 1970, 70-01-04, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/70-01-04

20. Rosa A.J. et al., Pressure transient behavior in reservoirs with an internal circular discontinuity, SPE-26455-PA, 1996,DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/26455-PA

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O.N. Zoshchenko (ZARUBEZHNEFT-Dobycha Kharyaga LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Avvakumov (ZARUBEZHNEFT-Dobycha Kharyaga LLC, RF, Moscow), S.I. Gusev (ZARUBEZHNEFT-Dobycha Kharyaga LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Karpekin (PomorNefteGazGeophysics LLC, RF, Iskateley), B.S. Serkerov (PomorNefteGazGeophysics LLC, RF, Iskateley)
Controlling of hydraulic fracturing in directional wells by seismoacoustic study

During hydraulic fracturing in an inclined well, the hydraulic fracture plane develops in a vertical plane and diverges from the wellbore above and below the initiation site. Estimation of the fracture height in this case is impossible using shallow geophysical methods, and has never previously been performed in inclined wells. The method of borehole seismoacoustic sounding using reflected waves, with a research depth of up to 30 m, was used for the first time to determine the height and extent of a hydraulic fracture. The method include recording the complete wave pattern along the directions of the instrument axis, filtering and summing the data, isolating the useful signal and its interpretation based on data on the well curvature and the position of the instrument at the time of the study. The article describes the research method, its limitations, provides experience from actual work performed and compares the results with the original fracturing model for which these studies were calibrated. The data obtained demonstrated high convergence of the parameters of the actual fracture with the design calculated by analytical methods. Verification of the model used made it possible to develop a hydraulic fracturing strategy for subsequent wells of the P1ar formation and achieve high starting flow rates with minimal inflow water cut values associated with fracture breakthrough into the underlying sediments. At the same time, the limitations of the method include the current lack of a mathematical basis for assessing the fracture opening and half-length. Further testing of the technology, taking into account the degradation of hydraulic fractures over time, will likely overcome these limitations and make the presented technological solution an economically viable alternative to microseismic monitoring methods.


1. Karpekin E., Orlova S., Tukhtaev R. et al., Borehole acoustic reflection survey in horizontal wells: High resolution reservoir structure to guide properties distribution (In Russ.), SPE-196958-RU, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/196958-MS

2. Bennett N., Donald A., Endo T. et al., Revisiting sonic imaging with 3D slowness time coherence, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, 2020, pp. 83943,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1190/segam2019-3213539.1

3. Bennett N., Donald A., Ghadiry S. et al., Borehole acoustic imaging using 3D STC and ray tracing to determine far-field reflector dip and azimuth, SPWLA, 2018, pp. 48-56,

DOI: http://doi.org/10.30632/PJV60N2-2019a10

4. Pistre V., Sinha B., Kinoshita H., A new modular sonic tool provides complete acoustic formation characterization, SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, 2005, pp. 12611265, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1190/1.2144344

5. Hirabayashi N., Beamform processing for sonic imaging using monopole and dipole sources, Geophysics, 2020, V. 86(1), pp. 158, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2020-0235.1

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O.A. Morozyuk (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), D.G. Afonin(Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Kobyashev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.A. Dolgov (Angaraneft LLC, RF, Irkutsk)
Laboratory studies as a key component of gas EOR projects

Recently, there has been a closer attention of the scientific community to gas-enhanced methods of increasing oil recovery (EOR) which is primarily due to the need to increase the oil recovery at brown fields, to practice rational use of petroleum gas, and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, gas EOR projects can at the same time represent very promising and potential methods of extracting hard-to-recover reserves (low-permeable and low-productive reservoirs, highly-viscous oil reservoirs, etc.). Currently many oil and gas companies are conducting scientific research to evaluate the performance of such projects. The main challenge is the development of scientifically based approaches to assessing the performance of gas EOR projects and selecting appropriate subsurface targets. A key and significant stage of the scientific research is laboratory testing which allows to study the physical processes occurring in a reservoir system, to capture the oil recovery mechanisms, and to obtain experimental data necessary to build compositional models to perform further feasibility study of projects.

The article describes the methodology and laboratory and methodological base for conducting comprehensive experimental studies within scientific support of gas EOR projects, as well as the results of studies of petroleum gas performance to increase oil recovery from one of the East Siberian fields. The methodology of laboratory research provides for the sequential execution of the following set of activities: making up and measuring the properties of core and reservoir fluids, making up recombined fluid samples, running routine and special set of PVT studies, evaluating parameters of interaction of reservoir fluids and a gas agent, running core flow studies, assessing risks and negative factors during gas injection, performing flow simulation runs on linear reservoir models. The main purpose of laboratory studies is an early assessment of petroleum gas performance to increase oil recovery of a particular reservoir and to obtain the necessary input data for further scaling-up and making a feasibility study of an EOR project. The comprehensive studies have confirmed the high potential of gas agents for the reservoir under study. The proposed comprehensive studies methodology will be rolled out within the perimeter of the Tyumen Petroleum Research Center with scientific support of gas EOR projects.


1. Grushevenko E., Kapitonov S., Mel'nikov Yu. Et al., Dekarbonizatsiya v neftegazovoy otrasli: mezhdunarodnyy opyt i prioritety Rossii (Decarbonization in the oil and gas industry: international experience and Russian priorities): edited by Mitrova T., Gayda I., Moscow: Publ. of the Low-carbon and circular economy Lab, 2021, 158 p., URL: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_Decarbonization_of_oil_a...

2. Eder L.V., Provornaya I.V., Filimonova I.V., The recovery and utilization of associated petroleum gas as the direction of comprehensive exploitation of mineral resources: The role of the state and business, technology and ecological limit (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2016, no. 10, pp. 815.

3. Balint V., Ban A., Doleshan Sh., Primenenie uglekislogo gaza v dobyche nefti (The use of carbon dioxide in oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 240 p.

4. Ryazantsev M.V., Lozin E.V., Carbon dioxide flooding: history of world and local investigations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 7, pp. 100-103,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-7-100-103

5. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.

6. Surguchev M.L., Gorbunov A.T., Zabrodin D.P. et al., Metody izvlecheniya ostatochnoy nefti (Residual oil recovery methods), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 347 p.

7. Stepanova G.S., Gazovye i vodogazovye metody vozdeystviya na neftyanye plasty (Gas and water-gas methods of influence in oil reservoirs), Moscow: Gazoil press, 2006, 200 p.

8. Vashurkin A.I. et al., Ispytaniya tekhnologiy gazovogo i vodogazovogo vozdeystviya na Samotlorskom mestorozhdenii (Testing of gas and water-gas stimulation technologies at the Samotlor field), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1989, 37 p.

9. Afonin D.G., Levagin S.A., Morozovskiy N.A. et al., System approach to ranking potential objects for applying gas methods of enhanced oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 10, pp. 69-75, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-10-69-75

10. Arzhilovskiy A.V., Afonin D.G., Ruchkin A.A. et al., Express assessment of the increase in the oil recovery as a result of water-alternating-gas technology application (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 9, pp. 63-67, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-63-67

11. Zakharenko V.A., Kobyashev A.V., Pyatkov A.A. et al., Efficiency of water-alternating-gas process in water-wet and oil-wet reservoirs by results of core flooding experiments on long core samples (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2021, no. 4, pp. 136-154, DOI: https://doi.org/10.25689/NP.2021.4.136-154

12. Kobyashev A.V., Zakharenko V.A., Pyatkov A.A. et al., Comparison of efficiency of different agents of influence (water, water-gas impact) under geological conditions of the cavernous-porous reservoir of B5 formation of the North Danilovskoe field by the data obtained during laboratory experiments (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2021, no. 10, pp. 14-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.33285/0207-2351-2021-10(634)-14-22

13. Morozyuk O.A., Barkovskiy N.N., Kalinin S.A. et al., Experimental study of heavy oil displacement by carbon dioxide from carbonate rocks (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2019, no. 6, pp. 5156, DOI: https://doi.org/10.30713/2413-5011-2019-6(330)-51-56

14. Kalinin S.A., Morozyuk O.A., Laboratory studies of carbonate reservoirs in high-viscosity oil fields using carbon dioxide (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2020, V. 20, no. 4, pp. 369-385,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15593/2712-8008/2020.4.6

15. Morozyuk O.A., Kalinin S.A., Kalinin S.A. et al., Estimation of the influence of associated petroleum gas with a high carbon dioxide content on the oil displacement regime in the development of the Tolumskoye field (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie, 2021, V. 21, no. 1, pp. 42-48, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15593/2712-8008/2021.1.7

16. Mardamshin R.R., Sten'kin A.V., Kalinin S.A. et al., Laboratory investigations of using high CO2 associated petroleum gas for injection at the Tolum field (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie, 2021, V. 21, no. 4, pp. 163-170, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15593/2712-8008/2021.4.3

17. Shung F.T.H., Jones R.A., Nguyen H.T., Measurements and correlations of the physical properties of CO2/Heavy-crude-oil mixtures, SPE-15080-PA, 1988,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/15080-PA

18. Wu R.S., Batycky J.P., Evaluation of miscibility from slim tube tests, The Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 1990, V. 29, no. 6, pp. 6370, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/90-06-06

19. Farouq Ali S.M., Thomas S., Steam and CO2 combination flooding of fractured cores: Experimental Studies, PETSOC-95-80, 1995, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/95-80

20. Rao D.N., Lee J.I., Evaluation of minimum miscibility pressure and composition for Terra Nova offshore project using the new vanishing interfacial tension technique, SPE-59338-MS, 2000, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/59338-MS

21. Zhang Yunjun, Shen Dehuang, Gao Yongrong et al., Physical simulation experiments on CO2 injection technology during steam assisted gravity drainage process, Acta Petrolei Sinica, 2014, V. 35, no. 6, pp. 11471152, DOI: http://doi.org/10.7623/syxb201406012

22. Lyan Men, Fizicheskoe modelirovanie vytesneniya nefti gazom (rastvoritelem) s ispol'zovaniem kernovykh modeley plasta i slim tube (Physical modeling of oil displacement by gas (solvent) using reservoir core models and slim tube): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2017.

23. Petrakov A.M., Egorov Yu.A., Lebedev I.A. et al., Gas and WAG methods for oil recovery Methodological principals of the laboratory study (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 6063.

24. Sabanchin I.V., Titov R.V., Petrakov A.M. et al., Physical simulation of gas injection at oil-gas-condensate fields of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 9296, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2017-6-92-97

25. Kalinin S.A., Povyshenie effektivnosti izvlecheniya sverkhvyazkoy nefti putem vozdeystviya na plast teplonositelem i dioksidom ugleroda (Increasing the efficiency of extra-viscous oil extraction by exposing the formation to coolant and carbon dioxide): thesis of candidate of technical science, Perm, 2022.

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N.N. Andreeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Engineering standards for oil and gas facilities

Transition to immediate engineering of capital construction projects in the digital environment and the creation of informational model (IM) affects all industries. To create an IM, it is necessary to encode a reflection of the structure and elements of technological process. The basic elements of reflection of oil and gas industrial facility processes are PFDs and P&IDs, developed by appliance of modern calculation and automation tools. Development of a safe technological process is regulated by industrial safety standards for oil and gas facilities. Elaboration of the standards in five areas (refineries, gas processing plants, LNG, development of oil and gas fields) had demonstrated that they do not contain description of the rules for calculation of technological processes, requirements for the graphic design of processes, requirements for symbolic displays of equipment, requirements and principles for constructing P&ID diagrams, which are scientific and technical basis of the information model (IM - digital twin). The standards are replete with prohibitive positions and do not contain recommendations for creating an IM object. It is proposed to carry out a total revision and introduce into the Standards, the concepts of PFD and P&ID diagrams development, standard symbols used for graphical reflection of the technological process for smooth transition to a machine-readable format of design documentation developed for state review.


1. Konstantinov M.Yu., Panov E.S., Filippovskiy A.Yu., Manukyan T.S., For suppliers and customers (In Russ.), Gazovyy biznes, 2021, no. 4, pp. 62-68.

2. Andreeva N.N., Sivokon I.S., Podderzhanie infrastruktury mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza. Upravlenie tselostnost'yu opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektov (Maintaining the infrastructure of oil and gas fields. Integrity management for hazardous production facilities), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2015, 207 p.

Stewart M., Arnold K., Surface production operations, Volume 1: Design of oil
handling systems and facilities, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2008, 768 p.

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V.A. Lavrentev (Samaraneftekhimproekt JSC, RF, Samara), I.V. Aleksandrov (Samaraneftekhimproekt JSC, RF, Samara), A.V. Komogorov (Samaraneftekhimproekt JSC, RF, Samara), K.I. Kozlova (Samaraneftekhimproekt JSC, RF, Samara), Ya.E. Dvurekov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Restoring the operability of advanced process control systems

One of the key tasks facing refining and petrochemical production facilities is to improve the quality of the most marginal petroleum products, as well as improving the economic viability of their production. These parameters can be improved by reducing fluctuation in process variables using the advanced process control system (APCS). APCS is one of the ways to increase production efficiency. The main goals are reducing the instability of process variables by calculating control input transmitted via communication channels to the server of the APCS of the process facility once every minute, as well as forecasting the process behavior. At present, many of the previously implemented systems need to be updated. This is caused by the withdrawal of foreign vendors and the lack of qualified specialists on the labor market. The article addresses the problem of familiarizing technical and engineering employees with the logic of updating and upkeep of APCS. A description of an APCS at a modern oil refinery is provided as well as the likely degradation premises. The article also describes an approach to restoring system performance. The approach includes the following steps: examination of the processing unit, devising a logic for optimizing the units operating procedure, developing a program for step-by-step testing of the process unit, identifying target optimization tasks, developing the control loop, step-by-step testing of the process unit, developing models of virtual analyzers, implementing the models of control loops and virtual analyzers on the APCS server. The following recommendations are given in the paper: to introduce monthly monitoring of APCS run capability to reveal the facts of lower efficiency, and to assess operation of control loops and virtual analyzers. A recommendation is also made to update virtual analyzer models at least once every six months. The changes in the process equipment resulting from major overhauls, cleaning procedures, etc. should also be taken into account when scheduling virtual analyzer models update.


1. Nedelchenko S.I., Gayfullin M.S., Golovina E.S. et al., Criteria for choosing a process control system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 9093, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-2-90-93

2. Nedelchenko S.I., Gayfullin M.S., Golovina E.S. et al., Applying dynamic advanced process control models in processes at Bashneft Oil Company refineries (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 6, pp. 108112, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-6-108-112

3. Strizhov V.V., Krymova E.A., Metody vybora regressionnykh modeley (Methods for selecting regression models), Moscow: Publ. of CC RAS, 2010, 60 p.

4. Tugashova L.G., Virtual analyzers indicators of the quality of the rectification process (In Russ.), Informatsionnye kompleksy i sistemy, 2013, V. 9, no. 3, pp. 97103.

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U.S. Poverenniy (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), A.D. Dubrov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), S.S. Medyanik (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), S.V. Mazurov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), E.V. Zenkov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), A.A. Popov (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), N.G. Gilev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Design of foundations of overhead line supports using DMOL technology

The article presentes the methodology for automating the design process of pile foundations of overhead power transmission towers using the digital model of overhead power lines (DMOL) software. The design technology proposed by Rosneft Oil Company has a number of advantages: automated data collecting of loads and geotechnical conditions, calculation of pile foundations using the certified software package Svaya-SAPR Pro, high speed of calculations and tracking individual loads and geological conditions for each support, selection of optimal solutions for pile foundations, the formation of text and graphic parts of the working documentation of architectural and construction solutions (AC brand) using typified drawings of foundations, formation of a bill of quantities for the preparation of estimate documentation. The use of DMOL provides a reduction in the labor intensity and timing of foundation design by 30 % of the typical approach and reduces the cost of building foundations of facilities by 1015 %.The optimal decision is made based on the results of calculations during enumeration of different construction options for foundations: the number of piles in the grillage, the length and cross-section of piles, the presence of thermal stabilizers of soil. The following types of pile foundations are involved in the enumeration: steel from round pipes, square reinforced concrete or screw. At the same time, the cost of the installing of possible variants of foundations is calculated and their technical and economic comparison is performed.

The DMOL technology was developed in NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, a subsidiary of Rosneft Oil Company. As part of its implementation, the software products DMOL -6 Pro and DMOL-35 Pro have been developed. DMVL-6 Pro allows designing single-column foundations with a voltage of 6-10 kV and has the corresponding typed drawings of foundations. DMOL -35 Pro allows designing foundations for lattice overhead line supports with a voltage of more than 35 kV. These software products unify the schemes for fastening overhead line supports in the ground based on standard drawings stored in libraries. The programs interact with the Svaya-SAPR Pro software package, which performs calculations of foundations and pile foundations in full compliance with the requirements and methods given in the relevant construction norms and specifications.


1. Poverennyy Yu.S., Dubrov A.D., Gilev N.G. et al., Application of a digital model of a linear object for the design of pipelines in the conditions of construction on permafrost soils (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 8, pp. 106109, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-8-106-109

2. Certificate of official registration of a computer program no. 2022615198 TsMLO Pro, Authors: Dubrov A.D., Medyanik S.S., Poverennyy Yu.S., Lakhin M.Yu.

3. Nazarkin D.S., Filimonov A.A., Lipikhin D.V. et al., The use of a neural network for geotechnical monitoring at oil and gas facilities located in the far north (In Russ.), Neft. Gaz. Novatsii, 2020, no. 10, pp. 7882.

4. ertificate of official registration of the computer program no. 2020618505 Svaya-SAPR Pro, Authors: Medyanik S.S., Kesiyan G.A, Dubrov A.D., Zenkov E.V., Zagumennikova A.V., Poverennyy Yu.S., Fedoseenko V.O., Gilev N.G.

5. Dubrov A.D., Poverennyy Yu.S., Medyanik S.S. et al., Calculations of pile foundations using the Svaya-SAPR Pro software (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 3, pp. 82-86, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-3-82-86

6. Gilev N.G., Zenkov E.V., Poverennyy Yu.S. et al., Optimization of capital costs for pile foundations during construction of oil and gas production facilities on permafrost soils (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 4649, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-11-46-49

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P.A. Sinshinov (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk), S.N. Kalyakin2, (Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the RAS, RF, Krasnoyarsk; Siberian Federal University, RF, Krasnoyarsk), O.P. Kalyakina (Siberian Federal University, RF, Krasnoyarsk), O.V. Yuzhakov (Kharampurneftegas LLC, RF, Gubkinskiy)
Studying influence of reagents with oxidizing properties on organochlorine compounds formation in reservoir conditions of the Kharampurskoye and Festivalnoye fields

Organochlorine compounds are undesirable components of oil. Under certain conditions they can form chloride salts and hydrochloric acid, which are sources of corrosion of equipment. Organochlorine compounds can form or get into oil both at the production stage and during its processing. In principle, organochlorine compounds in oils can be divided into two groups: natural (native) and technogenic. This article describes studies with modeling in reservoir conditions of interaction of the multicomponent system oil-reservoir water core-drilling mud/chemical reagent. The components of the multicomponent system (oil, reservoir water, core, drilling mud, chemical reagent) are studied. The presence of components, which potentially can lead to generation organochlorine compounds or catalyst reaction of generation organochlorine compounds, is identified. The methodology of providing of model experiments is described. The possibility of organochlorine compounds formation under high oxidative potential of the medium is considered. The mechanism of the chlorination reaction involving active (molecular) chlorine is proposed. The thermodynamic calculations with using standard reduction-oxidation potentials are presented. Conditions of the process of generation significant amount of active (molecular) chlorine are calculated depend on nature of oxidant, concentration of chloride ion and pH. It has been shown that with increasing acidity of reservoir waters, a number of substances capable to oxidize chloride ion with the formation of molecular chlorine grow. These conditions can be realized both during acid treatment of wells and as a result of certain reduction-oxidation processes that occur with the formation of acids. Moreover, some oxidizing agents, for example, persulfate ions, are capable to generate molecular chlorine at any pH value. The performed calculations allow to make an approximate assessment of the conditions for the generation of chlorine in an acidic environment. To predict the processes of organochlorine compounds formation it is necessary to provide a detailed study of the systems core - formation water - oil - reagents / drilling fluids.


1. Akhmetov S.A., Serikov T.P., Kuzeev I.R., Bayazitov M.I., Tekhnologiya i oborudovanie protsessov pererabotki nefti i gaza (Technology and equipment for oil and gas processing processes), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2006, 278 p.

2. Levchenko D.N., Bergshteyn N.V., Nikolaeva N.M., Tekhnologiya obessolivaniya neftey na neftepererabatyvayushchikh predpriyatiyakh (Technology for oil desalting at oil refineries), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1985, 168 p.

3. Kam'yanov V.F., Aksenov B.C., Titov V.I., Geteroatomnye soedineniya neftey (Heteroatomic compounds of oils), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1983, 240 p.

4. Hermann C.K.F., Morrill T.C., Shriner R.L., Fuson R.C., The systematic identification of organic compounds, John Wiley & Sons, 1980, 604 p.

5. Spravochnik khimika (Chemist's Handbook), Part 3: Khimicheskoe ravnovesie i kinetika. Svoystva rastvorov. Elektrodnye protsessy (Chemical equilibrium and kinetics. Properties of solutions. Electrode processes), Leningrad: Khimiya Publ., 1964, 1005 p.

6. Giger F.M., The reservoir engineering aspects of horizontal drilling, SPE-13024-MS, 1984, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/13024-MS

7. Lur'e Yu.Yu., Spravochnik po analiticheskoy khimii (Handbook of analytical chemistry), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1989, 480 p.

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A.A. Rybakov (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), R.R. Zakirov (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), V.D. Zimin (PJSC TATNEFT, RF, Almetyevsk), N.N. Sadykov(PJSC TATNEFT, RF, Almetyevsk)
Application of the IR spectroscopy method for the analysis of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits formed during the interaction of oil and acid compositions

The article presents the results of the analysis of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits (ARPD) formed during the interaction of oil and acid compositions using IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Oil samples from three wells were mixed with acid compositions of different concentration. The studies were carried out using an IRAffinity-1S IR Fourier spectrometer with a spectral range on a wave number scale from 7800 to 350 cm-1. The spectral resolution was no less than 0.5 cm-1. Limits of permissible absolute measurement error were 1.5 cm-1. Spectra of optical density of studied oil control sample and mixtures of oil with acid compositions in the range of 700-1700 cm-1 were obtained. Based on these data, the indexes of aliphaticity, branching and aromaticity were calculated. It has been established that aliphaticity index and branching index increase as the compositions react, and the aromaticity index decreases. This indexes change indicates a significant decrease in the asphaltenes content (their precipitation in the acid emulsion). The results obtained were confirmed by filtration of acidic compounds through a metal sieve. It has been shown that spectral coefficients calculated on the basis of the IR spectra of oil make it possible to describe its group chemical composition and provide additional information on a structure of aliphatic part of oil hydrocarbons when interacting with acidic compositions. The authors concluded that implementation of the considered research method will make it possible to prevent complications caused by the formation of emulsions that are poorly filtered in the oil-saturated formation, and bottomhole zone clogging by ARPD formed during acid composition and oil interaction.


1. Ivanova L.V., Safieva R.Z., Koshelev V.N., IR spectrometry in the analysis of oil and petroleum products (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2008, V. 13, no. 4, pp. 869874.

2. Yakubov M.R., Minikaeva S.N., Borisov D.N. et al., Composition and properties of the reaction products of heavy oil asphaltenes with sulfuric acid (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2010, no. 7, pp. 227233.

3. Bellamy L.J., The infra-red spectra of complex molecules, London, Methuen; New York, Wiley, 1954.

4. Petrova L.M., Abbakumova N.A., Foss T.R., Romanov A.G., Structural features of asphaltene and petroleum resin fractions (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2011, V. 51, no. 4, pp. 262266.

5. Petrova L.M., Sostav i svoystva ostatochnykh neftey (na primere mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana) (Composition and properties of residual oils (using the example of Tatarstan fields)): thesis of doctor of technical science, Kazan, 1998.

6. Sergienko S.R., Taimova B.A., Talalaev E.I., Vysokomolekulyarnye neuglevodorodnye soedineniya nefti. Smoly i asfal'teny (High molecular weight non-hydrocarbon petroleum compounds. Resins and asphaltenes), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 269 p.

7. Pokonova Yu.V., Khimiya vysokomolekulyarnykh soedineniy nefti (Chemistry of high molecular weight petroleum compounds), Leningrad Publ. of LSU, 1980, 172 p.

8. Pokonova Yu.V., Potashov V.A., Asphaltene concentrates as a base for carbonaceous adsorbents (In Russ.), Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel = Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 2002, no. 3, pp. 4449.

9. Yurkevich I.A., Razumova E.R., Sravnitel'noe izuchenie vysokomolekulyarnoy chasti neftey i bitumov (v aspekte problemy nefteobrazovaniya) (Comparative study of the high molecular weight part of oils and bitumens (in terms of the problem of oil formation)), Mocosw: Nauka Publ., 1981, 160 p.

10. Petrova L.M., Formirovanie sostava ostatochnykh neftey (Residual oil composition), Kazan: Fen Publ., 2008, 204 p.

11. Rybakov A.A., Zakirov R.R., Zimin V.D., Review of acid hydraulic fracturing, ir spectroscopy techniques and interim research results (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2023, no. 1(33), pp. 95108, DOI: https://doi.org/10.25689/NP.2023.1.95-108

12. Okhlopkov A.S., Svoystva tovarnoy syroy nefti, pozvolyayushchie identifitsirovat' istochnik neftyanogo zagryazneniya okruzhayushchey prirodnoy sredy (Properties of commercial crude oil, allowing to identify the source of oil pollution of the environment): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Nizhniy Novgorod, 2015.

13. Petrova Yu.Yu., Tanykova N.G., Spasennykh M.Yu., Kozlova E.V., The possibility of using IR spectroscopy in the estimation of oil-generating potential of oil shales (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Ser. 2 Khimiya = Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin, 2020, V. 61, no. 1, pp. 3442.

14. Ivanova L.V., Koshelev V.N., Vasechkin A.A., IR-spectrometry in oil analysis (Volgograd oils were taken as example) (In Russ.), Butlerovskie soobshcheniya, 2012, V. 29, no. 3, pp. 120-124.

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A.R. Rakitin (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), K.Kh. Pappel (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), S.A. Kiselev (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk
Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of domestic oilfield demulsifiers in current use

Widespread application of water injection for reservoir flooding invariably leads to increasing water cuts of Russian oilfields. High water cuts account for a substantial fraction of overall operating costs associated with bringing crude oil to export quality by dehydration and desalting. Treating produced fluids using gravity separation combined with chemical demulsification is the industry standard for crude oil processing. Understanding demulsifier structure-activity relationship is important for optimum performance and design of treatment facilities. Composition analysis is not part of the current testing protocols in oil companies for this category of production chemicals, necessitating massive and laborious performance evaluations during contracting procedures. Knowledge of the chemical nature of active bases together with field application history would allow to narrow down the list of potential candidates by excluding inherently incompatible and identical products. Numerous researchers have pointed out that hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of polymeric non-ionic surfactants comprising the active base is key to understanding demulsifier activity. HLB value is proportional to the percentage of hydrophilic units in the polymer. The study describes application of infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for determining the composition of a representative set of 25 oilfield demulsifier samples from domestic suppliers. Methanol, water, toluene, and o-xylene are used to formulate solvents ensuring the required stability of the commercial products. Active base of nearly every sample consists of ethylene oxide propylene oxide block copolymers, in some cases supplemented with 1-10% Neonol (alkyl phenol ethoxylates) and/or esters. Deconvolution of the 3000-2800 cm-1 CH IR stretching vibration region and interpretation of 13C NMR spectra have led to ethylene oxide content in 24 active bases varying from 6 to 46 % with an average of 23 % which for most of the samples translates to HLB of 3-7 on a number scale introduced by Griffin. This corresponds to hydrophobic surfactants, with plausible benefits for demulsification process offered by preferential distribution into the oil phase of high water cut emulsions found in most oilfields.


1. Levchenko D.N., Bergshteyn N.V., Khudyakova A.D., Niko N.M., Emul'sii nefti s vodoy i metody ikh razrusheniya (Oil-water emulsion and methods for their destruction), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1967, 200 p.

2. Berger P.D., Hsu C., Arendell J.P., Designing and selecting demulsifiers for optimum field performance on the basis of production fluid characteristics, SPE-16285-RA, 1988, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/16285-PA

3. Kim Y.H., Wasan D.T., Effect of demulsifier partitioning on the destabilization of water-in-oil emulsions, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 1996, V. 35, no. 4, pp. 11411149, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ie950372u

4. Yuming Xu, Jiangying Wu, Dabros T. et al., Optimizing the polyethylene oxide and polypropylene oxide contents in diethylenetriamine-based surfactants for destabilization of a water-in-oil emulsion, Energy & Fuels, 2005, V. 19, no. 3, pp. 916921, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ef0497661

5. Pasquali R.C., Sacco N., Bregni C., The studies on hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB): sixty years after William C. Griffins pioneer work (1949-2009), Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 2009, V. 28, no. 2, pp. 313317, URL: http://www.latamjpharm.org/resumenes/28/2/LAJOP_28_2_4_1.pdf

6. Rakitin A.R., Bozhenkova G.S., Kiselev S.A. et al., Infrared spectroscopy for quality control of corrosion inhibitors (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2022, no. 11, pp. 6976, DOI: https://doi.org/10.33285/0207-2351-2022-11(647)-69-76

7. Stevanovich E., Rakitin A.R., Stoyanovich K., Correlation between the stretching vibrations of aliphatic groups and the structural and geochemical properties of crude oils of the same genetic type using the case of the Turija-sever oil field, Pannonian basin, Serbia (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2021, V. 61, no. 5, pp. 620631,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S0965544121090024

8. Hernández E.I., Castro-Sotelo L.V., Avendaño-Gómez J.R. et al., Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of petroleum demulsifiers of multibranched block copolymers, Energy & Fuels, 2016, V. 30, no. 7, pp. 53635378, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00419

9. Knyazev N.S., Alsynbaeva F.L., Muratova I.D., Askarov N.I., Destruction of oil emulsions in an oil collection reservoir using oil-soluble nonionic surfactants (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1976, no. 7, pp. 7475.

10. Xianhua Feng, Mussone P., Song Gao X. et al., Mechanistic study on demulsification of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions by ethylcellulose, Langmuir, 2010, V. 25, no. 5, pp. 30503057, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/la9029563

11. Shehzad F., Hussein I.A., Kamal M.S. et al., Polymeric surfactants and emerging alternatives used in the demulsification of produced water: a review, Polymer Reviews, 2018, V. 58, no. 1, pp. 63101, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15583724.2017.1340308

12. Jiangying Wu, Yuming Xu, Dabros T., Hamza H., Development of a method for measurement of relative solubility of nonionic surfactants, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2004, V. 232, no. 2-3, pp. 229237, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2003.10.028

13. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Kosmacheva T.F., Osobennosti formirovaniya i razrusheniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Features of formation and destruction of oil-water emulsions at a late stage of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of OAO VNIIOENG, 2005, 324 p.

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T.N. Gafarov (SAKHALIN ENERGY LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), R.G. Oblekov (SAKHALIN ENERGY LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), A.M. Akhmetdinov (SAKHALIN ENERGY LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Yu.A. Pestsov (SAKHALIN ENERGY LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), A.V. Moiseenkov (SAKHALIN ENERGY LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), N.V. Semendyaev (SAKHALIN ENERGY LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), D.A. Leskina (SAKHALIN ENERGY LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)
Method to determine TRSSSV control line operating envelope in production and water injection wells

Tubing retrievable subsurface safety valve (TRSSSV) is protective blowout barrier and the main safety critical element, which plays a vital role in well integrity and is the part of government requirements for well equipment. The TRSSSV is located in the upper part of the wellbore and is necessary for tubing shutdown in the event of a critical emergency. The TRSSSV includes flow gate, controlled sliding sleeve, spring mechanism and pressure relief chamber. The valve operation principle is to create counteraction to the spring by supplying liquid (oil) through the control line. Due to the pressure in the control line, the TRSSSV flow gate position maintained in the open state. Properly selected valve operating parameters provide additional fault resiliency to the safety unit and allow to: 1) mitigate risk of the valve seals damage; 2) prevent low pressure in the control line that leads to flapper dangling (flow gate frequent cyclic opening and closing of the valve); 3) prevent control lines overpressure in the event of TRSSSV failure, what could lead to a rupture of the tube at the surface.

In article TRSSSV control line pressure calculation principle and setting operating envelope are described taking into account wellhead pressure, fluid gradient pressure (in the tubing in front of TRSSSV), control line system surface pressure, TRSSSV nominal operating pressure. For real-time monitoring MS excel based PI Process Book Data Link tool was developed that allows auto calculation based on current well parameters and triggers if when control line pressure is out of defined operating envelope.


1. Dashkov R.Yu., Gafarov T.N., Singurov A.A. et al., Features of control over field development from offshore platforms (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2022, no. 7, pp. 28-38.

2. Anufriev S.N., Oil production by mechanized methods on the shelf - Prirazlomnaya offshore ice-resistant platform (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2015, no. 1718, pp. 9293.

3. Order of the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision No. 105 of March 18, 2014 Ob utverzhdenii Federal'nykh norm i pravil v oblasti promyshlennoy bezopasnosti "Pravila bezopasnosti morskikh ob"ektov neftegazovogo kompleksa" (On approval of Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety "Safety rules for offshore oil and gas complex facilities"), URL: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/499086258?marker=6560IO

4. Baraka-Lokmane S., Charpentier T.V.J., Neville A. et al., Comparison of characteristic of anti-scaling coating for subsurface safety valve for use in oil and gas industry, IPTC-17953-MS, 2014, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17953-MS

5. Schaefer H., Subsurface safety valves, OTC-1295-MS, 1970, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4043/1295-MS

6. Gazaq N.M., Hedjazi A-K.G., Hilts R.L., Modified SSSV for oil wells with sanding tendency, SPE-25552-MS, 1993, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/25552-MS

7. Barnes J. A., Snlder P. M., Swafford Ch.V., Deep-set subsurface safety valve actuated by jet-pump differential pressure, SPE-18202-PA,1990,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/18202-PA

8. Bane D., Subsurface safety valve control system for ultradeepwater applications, OTC-19870-MS, 2009, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4043/19870-MS

9. Shmelev G.A., Vnutriskvazhinnoe protivovybrosovoe oborudovanie fontannykh skvazhin. Klapan otsekatel' (Downhole blowout prevention equipment for flowing wells. Shut-off valve), Proceedings of VI All-Russian Conference Molodezh' i nauka: nachalo XXI veka (Youth and science: the beginning of the 21st century), Krasnoyarsk: Publ. of SFU, 2011, URL: https://elib.sfu-kras.ru/handle/2311/4196

10. Going W.S., Pringle R.E., Safety valve technology for the 1990s, SPE-18393-MS, 1988, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/18393-MS

11. Sloan J., Darren B. Safety valve for ultradeepwater applications, SPE-136867-MS, 2010, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/136867-MS

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A.R. Husnutdinov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.A. Charkin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.E. Averyanov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.B. Agaltsov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), M.D. Gizitdinov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.R. Karimov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Application of downhole units with mobile oil treatment facilities at late stages of field development

Currently, the search for optimal solutions in the field of collecting and preparing well products in the fields is a very important task. The main problem in the development of the assets of extractive companies is the need to improve the systems of arrangement and development of technological schemes, aimed at optimizing capital and operating costs in the later stages of field development. One of the effective ways to increase capacity and eliminate the shortage in the preparation and transportation of well products in the fields, both at the later stages of development and at the stages of pilot development, is the installation of mobile oil treatment units (MOTU). MOTU have a modular layout, which accelerates the start of well production by reducing the time required for construction and installation work and commissioning work. An additional effect from the use of MOTU is achieved in combination with downhole preliminary water discharge units, which makes it possible to reduce the volume of water pumping and increase the energy efficiency of production and transport of high water cut oil emulsions.

The authors compared two options for collecting and treating oil in the field: 1) gathering and dehydration of the gas-liquid mixture at the well preliminary water discharge unit with oil treatment at MOTU; 2) gathering and separation of the gas-liquid mixture at the preliminary water discharge plants in a stationary version (capital construction facility). The main objective of the comparison is selecting the optimal option for primary oil treatment to ensure a sustainable production profile and maximum hydrocarbon production. The article presents the necessary conditions, features and advantages of the use of well preliminary water discharge unit. A comparison of the economic efficiency indicators of the above-described options for oil treatment at the fields is given.


1. Khasanov F.F., Islanova G.Sh., Zeygman Yu.V., Well-installations for preliminary fault of in passing produced waters (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2006, V. 4, no. 1, pp. 9194.

2. OST 39-225-88. Voda dlya zavodneniya neftyanykh plastov. Trebovaniya k kachestvu (Water for flooding oil reservoirs. Quality requirements), Moscow: Publ. of Minnefteprom, 1982.

3. Shayakberov V.F. et al., Technology of cluster disposal and utilization of associated waters (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2013, no. 1, pp. 5558.

4. Shayakberov V.F., Ismagilov R.R., Latypov I.A., About new technologies of older well clusters' reconstruction (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2010, no. 1, pp. 811.

5. Shayakberov V.F., Well waste water installation for multiple drilling wells (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2009, no. 3, pp. 1516.

6. Lutoshkin G.S., Sbor i podgotovka nefti, gaza i vody k transportu (Collection and processing of oil, gas and water), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 157 p.

7. Shayakberov V.F., Latypov I.A., Ismagilov R.R., Belykh D.N., The technology of cluster pre-release of water by using decommissioned wells (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2011, no. 3, pp. 637.

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A.A. Korshak (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Pshenin (Saint Petersburg Mining University, RF, Saint Petersburg)
Modeling of water slug removal from oil pipelines by methods of computational fluid dynamics

During the lifecycle, the operation of oil pipelines is associated with multiple inherent problems which include water and gas slugs forming at low and high points of the pipeline elevation profile. The multifactorial nature of the hydrodynamic interaction with the main flow makes the behavior of these structures difficult to predict, but at the same time they significantly affect the performance and safety of main pipelines increasing the pumping power consumption, hampering the operation of leak detection systems, causing oil metering issues, and corrosion-related risks. A rational way to avoid the complications associated with the water slugs is purging by pumped liquids since this method does not require the introduction of any additional equipment or chemical reagents in the internal cavity of the pipeline. The proper planning of these activities requires sufficient dependencies describing the conditions and intensity of water removal by the pumped fluid based on a solid scientific ground of carefully conducted experiments with qualified processing of the results. The problem of most studies in this area is that small-diameter pipelines are used for the experiments and additional justifications are required to scale up the results for industrial pipelines.

The article describes a unique test bench for studying behavior of water slugs in pipelines with variable profiles including DN100 pipe spools. Some experimental results from the test bench are presented. The computational fluid dynamics methods are proposed to simulate the processes of water slug removal by the flow of pumped liquid. Some equations applicable to the subject problem are also provided. The test runs of the resultant algorithms demonstrate a high level of agreement between the computed results and the data from the experimental studies on the test bench. The successful tests support the claim that the developed methodological basis is valid for scaling up experimental data to the existing oil pipelines.


1. Klimovskiy E.M., Kolotilov Yu.V., Ochistka i ispytanie magistral'nykh truboprovodov (Cleaning and testing of main pipelines), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 173 p.

2. Chernyaev D.A., Soshchenko E.M., Removing water from main pipelines after pressure testing using mechanical separators (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1962, no. 5, pp. 5458.

3. Kontorovich Z.L., Experience in commissioning a main oil product pipeline (In Russ.), Novosti neftyanoy i gazovoy tekhniki. Seriya. Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1962, no. 5, pp. 711.

4. Akhatov Sh.N., Karimov Z.F., Technology for displacing water from main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1972, no. 2, pp. 1418.

5. Maslov L.S., Removing water and air from pipelines during the startup period (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo truboprovodov, 1963, no. 7, pp. 1315.

6. Osipov V.A., Dergacheva A.E., Stratification of the flow into oil and water when moving along the oil product pipeline Aleksandrovskoye Anzhero-Sudzhensk (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1975, no. 7, pp. 1315.

7. Lur'e M.V., Removal of water accumulations from the pipeline with the help of the pumped oil flow (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 1(28), pp. 6268.

8. Zholobov V.V., Moretskiy V.Yu., Talipov R.F., Distribution of volume of water accumulations in profile oil pipeline (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2022, no. 5, pp. 438451, DOI: https://doi.org/10.28999/2541-9595-2022-12-5-438-451

9. Charnyy I.A., The influence of terrain and fixed inclusions of liquid or gas on the throughput of pipelines (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1965, no. 6, pp. 5155.

10. Gallyamov A.K., Issledovanie po povysheniyu effektivnosti ekspluatatsii neftegazoprovodov (Research on improving the efficiency of oil and gas pipeline operation): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ufa, 1974.

11. Didkovskaya A.S., Voronin I.V., Levin M.S., Conditions for water removal from low areas of oil product pipelines (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov, 1997, no. 12, pp. 2022.

12. Lovick J., Angeli P., Experimental studies on the dual continuous flow pattern in oil-water flows, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2004, V. 30, no. 2, pp. 139157, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2003.11.011

13. Wei Wang, Jing Gong, Panagiota Angeli, Investigation on heavy crude-water two phase flow and related flow characteristics, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2011, V. 37, no. 9, pp. 11561164, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2011.05.011

14. Yan-Bo Zong, Ning-De Jin, Zhen-Ya Wang et al., Nonlinear dynamic analysis of large diameter inclined oilwater two phase flow pattern, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2010, V. 36, no. 3, pp. 166183, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2009.11.006

15. Xiaoqin Song, Dongxin Li, Xiao Sun et al., Numerical modeling of the critical pipeline inclination for the elimination of the water accumulation on the pipe floor in oil-water fluid flow, Petroleum, 2021, V. 7(2), pp. 209221, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2020.07.001

16. Magnini M., Ullmann A., Brauner N., Thome J.R., Numerical study of water displacement from the elbow of an inclined oil pipeline, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2018, V. 166, pp. 10001017, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.03.067

17. Tao Zhang, Bin Chen, Songqing Wen et al., Numerical study on diesel oil carrying water behaviors in inclined pipeline based on Large Eddy Simulation, IEEE Access, 2019, V. 7, pp. 123219123230, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2019.2930757

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V.V. Zholobov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), F.S. Zverev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), V.Yu. Moretsky (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), R.F. Talipov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Evaluating the effect of drag reducing agents on heat transfer during pipeline transportation

The real-world conditions of oil transportation by pipelines may require the use of drag-reducing additives (DRAs). Considering that in addition to the reduction of hydraulic resistance (by reducing dissipative heat release), DRAs can reduce the heat transfer percentage to a much greater extent (operating as an insulator), the identification of the area where these competing factors appear becomes quite promising for potential practical application in non-isothermal pumping. The conventional ratios of the heat transfer theory do not take into account potential presence of substances in the moving media, which small concentrations can significantly affect the heat transfer rate. There are only a limited number of studies related to the quantification and use of this effect in the engineering applications. One way to include the influence of additives on the heat transfer process is to modify the criterion dependence for the Nusselt number. This study uses a different approach based on the assumption of the velocity field approximation to the temperature field. An indirect measurement model for the heat transfer factor and a procedure for experimental determination of the additive performance in reducing the heat exchange with the environment are formulated. The comparison of calculated values against test bench measurements from the Scientific and Technical Center of The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC (in Ufa) is presented. The results confirm that the insulator effect develops at high temperature differences and high hydraulic efficiency of DRAs. The testing of the DRA solution cooled in diesel fuel with the temperature control on the measuring line showed the thermal-hydraulic flow conditions generated in the test bench to be close to the self-similar conditions. The determinant similarity criteria are the Eckert number and the criteria describing the law of fluid flow resistance in circular pipes.


1. Gol'yanov A.I. et al., Reduction of flow resistance in pipes by means of anti-turbulent additives. Review and case history (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2012, no. 2 (6), pp. 8087.

2. Zholobov V.V. et al., Application of drag reducing agents in "hot" oil pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation., 2018, V. 8, no. 5, pp. 496509, DOI: https://doi.org/10.28999/2541-9595-2018-8-5-496-509

3. Ginzburg I.P., Prikladnaya gidrogazodinamika (Applied fluid dynamics), Leningrad: Publ. of LSU, 1958, 338 p.

4. Zhukov V.A., Ratnov A.E., Zhukova N.P., Criteria equations of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling systems when using coolant additives. Internal combustion engines (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal NTU KhPI, 2005, no. 2, pp. 2730.

5. Pilipenko V.N., Friction and heat transfer during turbulent flow of weak polymer solutions in smooth pipes (In Russ.), Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR. Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza = Fluid Dynamics, 1975, no. 5, pp. 5359.

6. Shagiev R.G., Analysis of oil heating in pipelines using drag reducing agents (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2021, no. 1(129), pp. 7991, DOI: https://doi.org/10.17122/ntj-oil-2021-1-79-91

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