|OIL & GAS INDUSTRY|
Sechin I.I. (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)|
Causes and consequences of the global energy market reshaping
The article considers results of the aggravation of reproduction and development issues in the bloc of Western coalition countries, which are manifested in the sharp escalation of sanctions pressure against its key opponents. Sanctions are destroying the once solid institution of contractual obligations, the social sphere, the financial sector and ultimately the global market itself.
As the financial and legal instruments that previously ensured the functioning of the world market are weakening, the energy sector and, in particular, the oil industry will have to develop new solutions in order to exist and develop in the new environment. This will require building new institutions for interaction between states, strengthening the integration of national payment systems of different countries, and increasing the share of settlements in national currencies.
In this environment, hopes for re-establishment of balanced energy markets and restoration of global economic dynamics are increasingly pinned on the capabilities of Russia, which has already proven its economic resilience. Due to its energy potential, Russia can meet the world's long-term needs for affordable energy resources, and make an important contribution to shaping a new configuration of markets independent of sanctions pressure.
Rosneft's Vostok Oil Project, unique in its scale, becomes a driving force that encourages the development of a number of economic sectors due to the multiplier effect of the investments made. It is the only project in the world capable of producing a stabilizing effect on hydrocarbon markets while delivering the highest efficiency and sustainability performance.
1. Sechin I.I., Novyy mirovoy energorynok: krestovyy pokhod protiv rossiyskoy nefti i gde “Noev kovcheg”? (New world energy market: a crusade against Russian oil and where is the «Noah’s Ark»?), URL: https://www.rosneft.ru/upload/site1/attach/spief_2022/REPORT_THE_NEW_WORLD_ENERGY_MARKET.pdf
2. Oil industry development meeting, URL: http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/copy/68434
3. Remarks by Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Wally Adeyemo at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, URL: https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/jy0719
4. U.S. Department of the Treasury Releases Sanctions Review, URL: https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/jy0413
5. Gretsiya zaderzhala rossiyskiy tanker iz-za sanktsiy ES (Greece delays Russian tanker due to EU sanctions), URL: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/14409163
6. National fiscal policy responses to the energy crisis, URL: https://www.bruegel.org/dataset/national-policies-shield-consumers-rising-energy-prices
7. International Energy Agency. World Energy Investment 2023, URL: https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-investment-2023
8. International Energy Forum’2023. Upstream Oil and Gas Investment Outlook, URL: https://www.ief.org/focus/ief-reports/upstream-investment-report-2023
9. BP integrated energy company strategy update: Growing investment, growing value, growing distributions, URL: https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/news-and-insights/press-releases/4q-2022-update-on-strategic-...
10. International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2022, URL: https://www.iea.org/topics/world-energy-outlook
11. International Energy Agency. Gas Market Report, Q1-2023, URL: https://www.iea.org/reports/gas-market-report-q1-2023
12. Ember. Yearly electricity data, URL: https://ember-climate.org/data-catalogue/yearly-electricity-data/
13. International Energy Agency. Coal 2022, URL: https://www.iea.org/reports/coal-2022
14. International Monetary Fund. Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER), URL: https://data.imf.org/?sk=e6a5f467-c14b-4aa8-9f6d-5a09ec4e62a4
15. International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook April 2023, URL: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2023/04/11/world-economic-outlook-april-2023
16. A speech by President Xi Jinping at a meeting conflating the general assemblies of the members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the national congress of the China Association for Science and Technology, May 28, 2021, URL: https://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2021-05/28/c_1127505377.htm
17. The State Council The People’s Republic of China: China’s spending on R&D hits 3 trln yuan in 2022,
18. Rosstat. O promyshlennom proizvodstve v I polugodii 2023 goda (Russian State Statistics. On industrial production in the first half of 2023),
19. Minekonomrazvitiya: VVP Rossii po itogam I polugodiya vyros na 1,4% v godovom vyrazhenii (Ministry of Economic Development: Russia’s GDP in the first half of the year grew by 1.4% in annual terms), URL: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/18431897
20. Executive Order No. 961 of December 27, 2022, On special economic fuel-and-energy measures in response to the price cap on Russian oil and oil products established by some foreign states.
21. Executive Order on amendments to presidential executive order No. 961 of December 27, 2022, On special economic measures in the fuel-and-energy sector in response to the price cap on Russian oil and oil produces established by some foreign states.
22. World Bank. World Development Indicators, URL: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/search/dataset/0037712
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V.V. Bessel (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; NewTech Services LLC, RF, Moscow), A.S. Lopatin (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.G. Martynov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), R.D. Mingaleeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)|
On the reorientation of oil export flows from Russia to the markets of the Asia-Pacific region
At the present stage of development fossil fuel and primarily oil and gas continue to be the main sources of energy and, as numerous studies show, they will remain in the medium term, despite significant investments to the intensification of energy transition to renewable energy. Over the past 50 years, oil has been the main source of fuel and energy in the global energy sector, but recently its share has been constantly decreasing and oil will gradually lose its dominant position in the energy sector. However, the demands of oil given its widespread use as not only fuel, but also as a valuable raw material in various industries, will remain sufficient high.
The article presents the results of the analysis of the world oil production and consumption, shows the dynamics of its deficit or surplus in production in various regions of the world. Despite the fact that in many regions of the world there has been a steady trend of outstripping the growth of oil consumption over its production, due to the large surplus of oil production in the Middle East and CIS countries, the stability of the global oil market remains.
It is shown in the article that Russia being one of the world’s main oil producers and the main producer among the CIS countries, is and in the medium term will remain one of the defining players on the oil market. The conducted studies, taking into account the analysis of consumption growth and the dynamics of export-import flows of oil, show the objective need to reorient oil exports from Russia to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region (APR), given the pace of development of its economy, population growth and the increasing deficit on its oil markets.
1. Martynov V.G., Bessel' V.V., Lopatin A.S., Mingaleeva R.D., Global energy consumption forecasting for the medium and long term perspective (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 8, pp. 30-34, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-30-34
2. Martynov V.G., Bessel' V.V., Lopatin A.S., Low-carbon energy in Russia as the basis of its carbon neutrality (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2023, no. 3, pp. 8–12, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2023-3-8-12
3. Martynov V.G., Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., On the issue of sustainable development of the global energy (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2022, no. 1(167), pp. 20–29, DOI: https://doi.org/10.46920/2409-5516-2022-1167-20-29
4. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Martynov V.G., Mingaleeva R.D., Current trends in global energy sector development with the use of hybrid technologies in energy supply systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 3, pp. 31-35,
5. BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 1983–2022, URL: http://www.bp.com/statistical review/
6. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Martynov V.G., Energoeffektivnost' toplivno-ekonomicheskogo kompleksa Rossii (Energy efficiency of Russia’s fuel and economic complex), Proceedings of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2015, no. 2, pp. 13–26.
7. Abramov A.E., Andrianov V.V., Borisov D.V. et al., Slantsevaya revolyutsiya i global’nyy energeticheskiy perekhod (The Shale Revolution and the Global Energy Transition), Moscow – St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya Publ., 2019, 540 p.
8. Mastepanov A.M., The world economy and its oil sector in 2020–2021: some forecasts and expected development results (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 2, pp. 12–17,
9. Mastepanov A., Oil markets in the years of great transformations (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2023, no. 4(182), pp. 18–33, DOI: https://doi.org/10.46920/2409-5516_2023_4182_18
10. Sovetskiy soyuz byl velikoy neftyanoy derzhavoy, no byudzhet strany ot eksporta nefti ne zavisel: Interv’yu Akademika RAN L.E. Kantorovicha (The Soviet Union was a great oil power, but the country’s budget did not depend on oil exports: Interview with Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences L.E. Kantorovich), URL: https://leaderstoday.ru/archive/2016/7/sovetskij-soyuz-byil-velikoj-neftyanoj-derzhavoj,-no-byudzhet...
11. Postuglevodorodnaya ekonomika: voprosy perekhoda (Post-hydrocarbon economy: transition issues): edited by Telegina E.A., Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2017, 406 p.
12. Bessel' V. V., Lopatin A. S., Kucherov V. G., Russian hydrocarbon export strategy (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2015, no. 1, pp. 3–10.
13. V.V. Bessel', Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Obukhova E.A., Asia-Pacific region as promising vector for Russian natural gas exports (In Russ.), Proceedings of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2020, no. 2(299), pp. 68–83, DOI: https://doi.org/10.33285/2073-9028-2020-2(299)-68-83
14. Indiya v dekabre uvelichila import rossiyskoy nefti v 33 raza (India increased imports of Russian oil by 33 times in December), URL: https://quote.rbc.ru/news/article/63982ec59a7947dc039847c0/ (data obrashcheniya: 10.05.2023)
15. Novak A., Russian fuel and energy complex 2022: Challenges, outcomes and prospects (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2023, no. 2(180), pp. 4–11, DOI: https://doi.org/10.46920/2409-5516_2023_2180_4
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Victor Georgievich Martynov|
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
D.V. Erukh (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), M.V. Gubarev (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), I.A. Gontarenko (NK Rosneft-NTC LLC, RF, Krasnodar), S.P. Papukhin (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara), P.A. Ilyin (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF, Samara|
The possibilities of predicting carbonate reservoirs based on stochastic seismic inversion data at the objects of the Samara region
The article presents the results of a stochastic inversion in one of the licensed areas of the Samara region. Stochastic inversion due to the involvement of borehole data has a better resolution than deterministic inversion; however, more data needs to be set for calculations - one-dimensional vertical trend of reservoirs, calculation of probability density functions of selected lithotypes and variograms, creation of a multilevel hierarchical model of lithotypes. At the initial stage the quality of seismic and borehole data is monitored by stratigraphic well tie, calculation of correlation coefficients and the study of the relationships of lithotypes with elastic parameters, which confirmed the possibility of stochastic inversion. The target object of the study was the carbonate layer of the Mendym horizon in the interval of Upper Devonian deposits. The complexity of performing stochastic inversion was due to the small thickness of the target object (less than 12 m), as well as, to the uncertainty in identifying lithotypes based on the results of logging interpretation for the range of boundary values of impedance and porosity. More than 100 realizations were calculated, of which 50 were selected according to the criterion of similarity of model impedancecs with impedances in wells. The obtained implementations allowed us to obtain the lithotypes probabilities and porosity. Based on the results of the work performed for the target horizon, maps of effective thicknesses and porosity of reservoirs were obtained with satisfactory convergence with well data.
1. Kozlov E.A., Modeli sredy v razvedochnoy seysmogeologii (Models of the environment in exploration seismogeology), Tver': GERS Publ., 2006, 480 p.
2. Yakovlev I.V., Ampilov Yu.P., Filippova K.E., Almost everything about seismic inversion. Part 2 (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2011, no. 1, pp. 5–15.
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I.S. Gutman (IPNE LLC, RF, Moscow), S.A. Rudnev (IPNE LLC, RF, Moscow), À.À. Obgolts (IPNE LLC, RF, Moscow)|
Influence of faulting tectonics on the position of rocks of the vendian-cambrian complex in the deposits of the Nepsk-Botuoba anteclise and Pre-Patom tough of Eastern Siberia. Part 1
The development of hydrocarbon deposits in the Eastern Siberian mega-province is largely determined by the need to replenish the oil and gas resource base of the Russian Federation. In this case a detailed geological study of the fields located on the territory of the Nepa-Botuoba anteclise and the Pre-Patom trough are mostly relevant, in connection with the commissioning of the Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean pipelines.
It is known that sediment sections within the Siberian Platform are complex geological formations, which is due to the combination of fault-block tectonics with numerous halogen bodies, as well as trap magmatism. At the same time, the identification of similarities and differences in fault-block tectonics at the deposits of adjacent tectonic structures is of the greatest interest.
In this article consisting of two parts the similarities and fundamental differences in fault tectonics of the objects under consideration are shown on the basis of sequential paleoprofiling while performing a detailed well-log correlation.
In the first part it is shown how the Cambrian halogen-carbonate formations were block-formed along depositional faults with an amplitude of up to 400 meters using the example of the Markovskoye field, on the basis of sequential paleoprofiling. Subsequently, as a result of «keyboard» diving there was an alignment of the previously disturbed productive layers of the Osinsky horizon.
In turn at the Yarakta deposit under high pressure and temperatures exceeding 1000°C faults became possible ways for subvertical intrusion of trap magmatism into sedimentary formations in the form of dikes and by subhorizontal intrusion into thin intersalt formations in the form of sills.
1. Archegov V.B., Structure, petroleum potential and control factors of hydrocarbon accumulation zones in ancient complex of Siberian platform (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2010, V. 5, no. 3, 4 p.
2. Geologiya nefti i gaza Sibirskoy platformy (Oil and Gas Geology of the Siberian Platform): edited by Kontorovich A.E., Surkov V.S., Trofimuk A.A., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 552 p.
3. Ivchenko O.V., Polyakov E.E., Ivchenko M.V., Influence of fault tectonics on the oil-and-gas-bearing capacity of Vendian- Lower-Cambrian deposits at the southern regions of the Siberian platform (Nepa-Botuoba anteclise and contiguous territories) (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki, 2016, no. 1(25), pp. 40–62.
4. Shemin G.G., Geologiya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti venda i nizhnego kembriya tsentral’nykh rayonov Sibirskoy platformy (Nepsko-Botuobinskaya, Baykitskaya anteklizy i Katangskaya sedlovina) (Geology and oil and gas potential Vendian and Lower Cambrian deposits of central regions of the Siberian Platform (Nepa-Botuoba, Baikit anteclise and Katanga saddle)): edited by Kashirtsev V.A., Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2007, 467 p.
5. Gordadze G.N., Giruts M.V., Poshibaeva A.R. et al., Carbonate reservoir as a source rock (In Russ.), Vestnik Sibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Khimiya, 2018, no. 11, pp. 575-592.
6. Bakirov A.A., Geologicheskoe stroenie i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti paleozoyskikh otlozheniy srednerusskoy sineklizy (Geological structure and oil and gas potential of the Paleozoic deposits of the Central Russian syneclise), Leningrad: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1948, 284 p.
7. Gutman I.S. et al., Korrelyatsiya razrezov skvazhin slozhnopostroennykh neftegazonosnykh ob》ektov i geologicheskaya interpretatsiya ee rezul’tatov (Correlation of well sections of complex oil and gas objects and geological interpretation of its results), Moscow: ESOEN Publ., 2022, 336 p.
8. Gutman I.S., Obgol’ts A.A., Nikulin E.V., Metodicheskie priemy korrelyatsii razrezov skvazhin pri izuchenii slozhnopostroennykh vend-kembriyskikh galogenno-karbonatnykh tolshch i trappovogo magmatizma (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 5, pp. 60–64, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-5-60-64
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O.R. Privalova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa University of Science and Technology, RF, Ufa), A.I. Ganeeva (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa University of Science and Technology, RF, Ufa), A.V. Leontievsky (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), G.I. Minigalieva (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)|
Typification of carbonate rocks of the Middle Carbon by the structure of the void space to solve problems of oil fields development control
Geological heterogeneity makes it difficult to assess the reservoir and predict the nature of saturation of the carbonate stratum of the Kashiro-Podolsk deposits, widespread in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province. An integrated approach to assessing heterogeneity and typification of rocks will increase the success of geological and technological measures when involving them in development.
The field in question is the largest in the Republic of Bashkortostan in terms of geological reserves. It is at a late stage of development with high water cut along the main terrigenous layers. Kashirskian-Podolskian deposits are stratigraphically related to the Moscow stage of medium carbon, the total thickness is 100-190m. Previously, before the development of the main reserves, it was an overlying transit object and was drilled by directional wells with a small inclination of the wellbore. Effective thicknesses did not exceed ten meters. Oil launch rates were limited to 5 tons/day. There was a significant water cut in the first months of well development.
Numerous estimates of the reservoir potential of Kashir-Podolsk deposits have revealed a complex structure associated with lithological and structural heterogeneity of rocks.
The purpose of this work is to analyze new field data, the results of core and well logging to clarify the types, quality and characteristics of reservoirs.
Special core studies, lithological and petroelastic modeling were carried out to solve the tasks.
The main results of the study are: typification of the section by type and quality of the reservoir; the conclusion about the confinement of reservoir to pore and cavern-pore dolomite; understanding the influence of microporous rock on filtration processes.
1. Mirnov R.V., Alekseeva T.V., Paleosols in the Kashira deposits in the south of the East European Craton (Republic of Bashkortostan): characteristics, paleoecological and stratigraphic signiﬁcance (In Russ.), Litosfera, 2022, V. 22, no. 5, pp. 694-704, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24930/1681-9004-2022-22-5-694-704
2. Burikova T.V., Savel'eva E.N., Khusainova A.M. et al., Lithological and petrophysical characterization of Middle Carboniferous carbonates (a case study from north-western oil fields of Bashkortostan) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 18–21, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2017-10-18-21
3. Chervyakova A.N., Budnikov D.V., Akhmetzyanov R.V. et al., Vliyanie osobennostey geologicheskogo stroeniya ob"ekta KPO Arlanskogo mestorozhdeniya s pelitomorfnymi plastami na nachal'nye pokazateli raboty skvazhin (Influence of features of the geological structure of the object of the Kashira-Podolsk deposits of the Arlanskoe field with pelitomorphic layers on the initial performance of wells), Collected papers “Aktual'nye nauchno-tekhnicheskie resheniya dlya razvedki neftedobyvayushchego potentsiala dlya PAO ANK Bashneft'” (Up-to-date scientific and technical solutions for the exploration of oil-producing potential for PJSC ANK Bashneft), Ufa: BashNIPIneft', 2016, V. 124, pp. 407-412.
4. Privalova O.R., Gadeleva D.D., Minigalieva G.I. et al., Well logging interpretation for Kashir and Podolsk deposits using neural networks (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2021, no. 1, pp. 69-76, DOI: https://doi.org/10.17122/ngdelo-2021-1-69-76.
5. Pozhitkov N.D., Stupak I.A., Denisov V.V. et al., Approaches to modeling the Kashiro-Podolsk deposits of the Arlanskoe field in the Republic of Bashkortostan (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2022, V. 20, no. 5, pp. 45–54, DOI: https://doi.org/10.17122/ngdelo-2022-5-45-54.
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I.A. Pakhlyan (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Krasnodar), M.V. Omelianiuk (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Krasnodar)|
On the issue of import substitution in systems for the preparation of emulsion drilling fluids
In recent decades, emulsion drilling and technological fluids, the liquid basis of which is a direct or reverse emulsion of water and hydrocarbon liquid, have been increasingly used in the fields. Despite the importance of the procedure of mechanical dispersion of the emulsion, insufficient attention is paid to this stage of preparation of emulsion solutions in the literature and in commercial practice. Various hydrodynamic devices are used abroad for the preparation of emulsion solutions. In this paper, a comprehensive assessment of the characteristics of foreign equipment for the preparation of emulsion washing liquids is carried out and options for replacing it with domestic samples are considered. It is shown that the hydrodynamic devices of Halliburton, Jagtech, Silverson companies have low efficiency and require the use of high-performance high-pressure pumps. In Russia, the DG-40 dispersant is mass-produced and supplied to all fields. The experimental studies carried out in the work revealed its shortcomings and outlined ways of improvement for the development of new equipment. The authors have developed and tested a rotary pulsating apparatus, an analogue of Silverson rotary mixers and a flow cavitation dispersant that has no analogues in foreign industry – they are less demanding of pumping equipment and more efficient compared to DG-40 and foreign analogues. Experimental and calculated data on the characteristics of dispersants are given, a brief description of the device and operation of the rotary pulsating apparatus and cavitation dispersant is presented. It is also possible to intensify the working process of dispersion due to cavitation phenomena through the use of jet devices (ejectors). Designing a structure with a multi-barrel nozzle will increase the cavitation coefficient of injection by about 1,3 times compared to an ejector with a single-barrel nozzle.
1. Xianbin Huang et al., An alternative method to enhance w/o emulsionstability using modified dimer acid and its application in oil based drilling fluids, RSC Adv., 2018, no. 8, pp. 26318–26324, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA02293C
2. Popov S.G., Issledovanie i razrabotka tekhnologii primeneniya reversivno-invertiruemykh emul'sionnykh promyvochnykh zhidkostey pri burenii skvazhin (Research and development of technology for the use of reverse-inverted emulsion drilling fluids in well drilling): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2016.
3. Blaz S. , Zima G., Jasinski B., Kremieniewski M., Invert drilling fluids with high internal phase content, Energies, 2021, no. 14, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154532
4. Patent RU 2255105 C1, Method of preparing emulsion drilling mud based on polysaccharide polymer, Inventors: Fefelov Yu.V., Natsepinskaya A.M., Garshina O.V., Shakharova N.V., Grebneva F.N., Chizhova N.V.
5. Patent RU 2490293 C1, Method of preparing hydrophobic emulsion drilling mud by phase inversion technique for drilling low-angle and horizontal wells, Inventors: Natsepinskaya A.M., Popov S.G., Nekrasova I.L., Garshina O.V., Grebneva F.N., Khvoshchin P.A., Okromelidze G.V., Il'yasov S.E.
6. Drozdov A.N., Drozdov N.A., Prospects of development of jet pump’s well operation technology in Russia, SPE-176676-MS, 2015,
7. Harvey T., Istre R., Imparting hydraulic shear in invert emulsion drilling fluids, AADE-12-FTCE-03, 2012, 5 p.
8. Sidenko P.M., Izmel'chenie v khimicheskoy promyshlennosti (Grinding in the chemical industry), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1977, 368 p.
9. Cooke M., Rodgers T.L., Kowalski A.J., Power consumption characteristics of an in-line Silverson high shear mixer, AIChE Journal, 2012, V. 58, no. 6, pp. 1683-1692,
10. Drozdov A.N., Terikov B.A., Application of submerged jet pumps systems with dual-string lift for the sticky holes operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 6, pp. 68–72.
11. Drozdov A.N., Vykhodtsev D.O., Gorid'ko K.A., Verbitskiy V.S., Express method of jet pump characteristics calculation for well operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 2, pp. 76–79, DOI: https://10.24887/0028-2448-2018-2-76-79
12. Drozdov N.A., Increasing the cavitation coefficient of injection of a jet apparatus for the implementation of environmentally friendly technologies (In Russ.), SOCAR Proceedings Special Issue, 2022, no. 2, pp.013-018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5510/OGP2022SI200733
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
I.G. Fattakhov (PJCS TATNEFT, RF, Almetyevsk; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.S. Semanov (Technology Development Center of PJSC TATNEFT, RF, Almetyevsk), A.I. Semanova (Technology Development Center of PJSC TATNEFT, RF, Almetyevsk), L.S. Kuleshova (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), V.A. Iktissanov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)|
Analysis of waterflooding performance in mature fields
Currently, most conventional fields are being developed using a reservoir pressure maintenance system. Waterflooding optimization goals change over the field’s life. At early stages of field production, water is injected to maintain the reservoir energy and to maximize the oil production, while in maturing fields with the increased water/oil ratio, the focus is shifted to reduction of water production without losses in oil production.
Because of both operational and geological reasons, some portion of the injected displacement agent fails to provide an effective sweep, as a rule.
The paper considers a method to evaluate the waterflooding performance in mature fields. For the analysis, a well drainage matrix was used which is a hydrodynamic model tool using data generated on the basis of producers-injectors interference analysis. The volume of injected water and the volume of produced oil due to injection were calculated for all responding wells in a pattern during a user-specified time interval. Cross-plots of oil and fluid production due to injection wells were built using the well drainage matrix tools, groups of effective and non-effective wells were identified. The obtained data were used to build a map of waterflooding efficiency to define areas with good and poor sweep. This approach allows the operator to identify waterflooding system bottlenecks at the earliest, and to take necessary steps to improve performance of both injectors and producers.
1. Patent RU 2530948 C1, Oil deposit development method, Inventors: Kadyrov R.R., Fattakhov I.G., Gubaydulin F.R., Fattakhov R.B., Khasanova D.K.
2. Polyakova N.I., Maksimova Yu.A., Zyatikov P.N., Integrated approach to application of methods for analyzing the effectiveness of the oil reservoir flooding system (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov, 2020, V. 331, no. 10, pp. 91–98.
3. Fattakhov I.G., Semanov A.S., Semanova A.I., Garifullina Z.A., Water-flooding optimal strategy at low carboniferous deposits (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2022, no. 7, pp. 5–12, DOI: http://doi.org/10.33285/0207-2351-2022-7(643)-5-12
4. Timofeev O.V., Gladkikh K.D., On increasing of flooding system performance on oil reservoir (on the example of the Dorokhovskaya group of fields) (In Russ.), Problemy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnykh i rudnykh poleznykh iskopaemykh, 2020, V. 2, pp. 431–437.
5. Iktisanov V.A., A method for evaluation of the effectiveness of injection wells operation (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 1, pp. 32–35, DOI: http://doi.org/10.30713/0207-2351-2020-1(613)-32-35
6. Nurgaliev R.Z., Kozikhin R.A., Fattakhov I.G. et al., Prospects for the use of new technologies in assessing the impact of geological and technological risks, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2019, V. 378, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/378/1/012117
7. Grishchenko V.A., Tsiklis I.M., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Yakupov R.F., Methodological approaches to increasing the flooding system efficiency at the later stage of reservoir development (In Russ.), SOCAR Proceedings, 2021, Special Issue, no. 2, pp. 161–171, DOI: http://doi.org/10.5510/OGP2021SI200583
8. Fattakhov I.G., Semanov A.S., Semanova A.I. et al., Prospects for horizontal wells construction in the fields with a complex geological structure (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2022, no. 3, pp. 46–53, DOI: http://doi.org/10.33285/2413-5011-2022-3(363)-46-53
9. Kozikhin R.A., Fattakhov I.G., Kuleshova L.S. et al., Improvement of the efficiency of horizontal wells, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, V. 952, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/952/1/012056
10. Chen S., Bolufé-Röhler A., Montgomery J., Hendtlass T., An analysis on the effect of selection on exploration in particle swarm optimization and differential evolution, 2019 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), Wellington, New Zealand, 2019, pp. 3037-3044, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1109/CEC.2019.8790200.
11. Pyatibratov P.V., Zammam M., Turovskaya E.A., Water-flooding optimization based on streamlines simulation (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2021, no. 4, pp. 37–44, DOI: http://doi.org/10.33285/1999-6934-2021-4(124)-37-44
12. Yaubatyrov R.R., Kotezhekov V.S., Babin V.M., Nuzhin E.E., Technology for optimizing reservoir pressure maintenance system based on hybrid modeling (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 2, pp. 30–36, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/2587-7399-2019-2-30-36
13. Potashev K.A., Akhunov R.R., Mazo A.B., Calculation of the flow rate between wells in the flow model of an oil reservoir using streamlines (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2022, V. 24, no. 1, pp. 27–35, DOI: https://doi.org/10.18599/grs.2022.1.3
14. Kozikhin R.A., Daminov A.M., Fattakhov I.G. et al., Identifying the efficiency factors on the basis of evaluation of acidizing of carbonate reservoirs, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, V. 194, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/194/6/062013
15. Rozbaev D.A., Semenov S.V., Kornev A.A., Andronov Yu.V., Methodological approach to the quantitative estimation of the efficient water injection (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 9, pp. 23–29, DOI: https://doi.org/10.30713/0207-2351-2019-9(609)-23-29
16. Kozikhin R.A., Fattakhov I.G., Kuleshova L.S., Gabbasov A.Kh., Scenario approach for increasing efficiency of wells operation with the horizontal termination, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, V. 194, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/194/8/082020
17. Xiaoxu Feng, Liao Xinwei, Study on well spacing optimization in a tight sandstone gas reservoir based on dynamic analysis, ACS Omega, 2020, no. 5, pp. 3755–3762, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b04480
18. Mahmood Fani, Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Peyman Pourafshary et al., Optimization of smart water flooding in carbonate reservoir, SPE-193014-MS, 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/193014-MS
19. Sentsov A.Yu., Ryabov I.V., Ankudinov A.A. et al., Analysis of the flooding system with application of statistical data processing methods (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 8, pp. 5–9, DOI: https://doi.org/10.30713/0207-2351-2020-8(620)-5-9
20. Bakhtizin R.N., Fattakhov I.G., Kadyrov R.R., Safiullina A.R., Integral analysis aimed at identification and analytical solution of issues on oil recovery efficiency enhancement, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2016, V. 11, no. 3, pp. 1612–1621.
21. Agleshov R.M., Water-flooding regulation to increase the efficiency of the reservoir pressure maintenance (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 5, pp. 32–39, DOI: https://doi.org/10.30713/0207-2351-2018-5-32-39
22. Lushpeev V.A., Margarit A., Optimization of oil field development process based on existing forecast model, Journal of Applied Engineering Science, 2018, V. 16, no. 3, pp. 391-397, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/jaes16-17218
23. Jia Deli, Zhang Jiqun, Wang Quanbin et al., Research on intelligent analysis approach of waterflooding for mature fields, Proceedings of 33rd Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC), 2021, pp. 2378–2383, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CCDC52312.2021.9601651
24. Fattakhov I.G., Kadyrov R.R., Nabiullin I.D. et al., Using artificial neural networks for analyzing efficiency of advanced recovery methods, Biosciences biotechnology research Asia, 2015, V. 12, no. 2, pp. 1893–1902, DOI: http://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/1855
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P.S. Lagunov (Inno Technology LLC, RF, Perm), P.N. Gulyaev (Inno Technology LLC, RF, Perm), A.S. Petukhov (Inno Technology LLC, RF, Perm), P.A. Lyutoev (LUKOIL-Komi LLC, RF, Usinsk), A.Ya. Gilmanov (University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), A.P. Shevelev (University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)|
The method of express evaluation of optimal parameters of the technology of cyclic steam stimulation of the bottom-hole zone of the reservoir
The cyclic steam stimulation of the bottom-hole zone of the reservoir is actively used for the production of heavy oil. However the use of the technology is associated with a number of problems, in particular, with the high water cut of production and a drop in the steam quality when the heat transfer fluid moves along the borehole due to heat losses. To prevent these problems, it is necessary to conduct special geophysical studies, among which short-term dynamic temperature studies are distinguished as promising. Classical methods that perform point-by-point temperature measurement along the borehole diagnose temperature anomalies but do not reveal their nature. The existing mathematical models do not contain the necessary optimization criteria for the most effective use of cyclic steam stimulation. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to create a methodology for express assessment of optimal technological parameters of the cyclic steam stimulation of the oil reservoir using data from the short-term dynamic temperature studies. A method for calculating the efficiency of cyclic steam stimulation is proposed in the article for the first time, based on direct measurements of the temperature distribution along the borehole (short-term dynamic temperature studies). The developed technique is based on solving the problem of the movement of the heat transfer fluid along the borehole (internal and external problems) and on solving the problem of the propagation of the thermal field in the productive interval of the formation. The classical system of equations of mechanics of multiphase systems is used to solve the internal problem, with the temperature distribution obtained by the short-term dynamic temperature studies. The solution of the problem of the propagation of the thermal field in the productive interval of the reservoir using an integral approach and the heat balance equation allows establishing the presence of optimal time for injection of steam, steam soaking and the stage of oil production. The specified time is calculated for well N of the Usinskoye field. It is shown that the optimization of the process of cyclic steam stimulation allows increasing the additional cumulative oil production by 28 %.
1. Nureeva N.S., Agliullina E.A., Petrova O.V., Shishkina E.E., Aspects of development of extra-heavy oil fields on western slope of South-Tatarian arch (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2016, no. 10, pp. 64–69.
2. Savchik M.B., Ganeeva D.V., Raspopov A.V., Improvement of the efficiency of cyclic steam stimulation of wells in the upper Permian deposit of the Usinskoye field based on the hydrodynamic model (In Russ.), Vestnik PNIPU. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm journal of petroleum and mining engineering, 2020, V. 20, no. 2, pp. 137–149, DOI: https://doi.org/10.15593/2224-9923/2020.2.4
3. Liu J., Wu X., Sun S., Hao L., The application of complex displacement in cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) & steam flooding (SF) development in Liaohe oilfield: A field performance study, SPE-208940-MS, 2022, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/208940-MS
4. Perez R.A., Rodreguez H.A., Rendon G.J. et al., Optimizing production performance, energy efficiency and carbon intensity with preformed foams in cyclic steam stimulation in a mature heavy oil field: Pilot results and development plans, SPE-209399-MS, 2022, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/209399-MS
5. Poskonina E.A., Kurchatova A.N., Determination of the minimal thermocase length DepenDing on well spacing (In Russ.), PRONeft'. Professional’no o nefti, 2019, no. 2, pp. 66–70, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/2587-7399-2019-2-66-70
6. Aeschliman D.P., The effect of annulus water on the wellbore heat loss from a steam injection well with insulated tubing, SPE-13656-MS, 1985, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/13656-MS
7. Salehpour A.G., Pershikova E.M., Chougnet-Sirapian A. et al., Novel steam-resilient cement system for long-term steam injection well integrity: Case study of a steamflooded field in Indonesia, SPE-170048-MS, 2014, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/170048-MS
8. Pershikova E.M., Chougnet-Sirapian A., Loiseau A. et al., Evaluation of specialized cement system for long-term steam injection well integrity, SPE-137710-MS, 2010, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/137710-MS
9. DeBruijn G., Loiseau A., Chougnet-Sirapian A. et al., Innovative cementing solution for long-term steam injection well integrity, SPE-131324-MS, 2010,
10. Ramazanov M.M., Alkhasova D.A., Mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a geothermal reservoir upon extraction of steam and water mixture (In Russ.), Teplofizika vysokikh temperatur = High Temperature, 2017, V. 55, no. 2, pp. 284–290, DOI: https://doi.org/10.7868/S0040364417010173
11. Altshul' A.D., Gidravlicheskie soprotivleniya (Hydraulic resistance), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 224 p.
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V.Yu. Nikulin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.V. Britov (Verkhnechonskneftegas JSC, RF, Irkutsk), R.R. Mukminov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), T.E. Nigmatullin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.Yu. Polyakov (Verkhnechonskneftegas JSC, RF, Irkutsk), A.V. Shangin (Verkhnechonskneftegas JSC, RF, Irkutsk)|
Experience of killing and preserving wells with heavy fluids under autonomous conditions in the Danilovsky cluster fields
The article deals with the peculiarities of killing wells in carbonate reservoirs of the East Siberian fields (Danilovsky cluster), complicated by abnormally high formation pressures. The process of killing is complicated by low temperatures of the environment and low reservoir temperatures of the object under operation. Taking into account the experience of previous works and risks of gas and water leakages it is recommended to consider application of blocking compounds in addition to high density killing fluids for the Verkhneosinskoye horizon (formation B1). The results of laboratory tests of heavy killing fluids with the density of up to 1.8 g/cm3 on the basis of combined solutions of bromine salts (fluid No.1) and chlorides with calcium nitrate (fluid No.2) are represented. If there is a necessity to use heavy technological fluids, including those for well preservation, the attention was paid to the corrosion rate during prolonged exposure of a heavy killing fluid to the well equipment. Based on the results of laboratory tests the combined calcium and zinc bromide solution was recommended for field tests. Field tests of killing technology with heavy fluid were carried out and no complications and negative effect on productivity were revealed - the fluid is recommended for killing in B1 formation conditions. There was also tested a suspension blocking compound on the basis of the said heavy fluid with the addition of calcium carbonate. When absorptions occurred the application of the blocking composition under consideration didn't allow absorptions control, the blocking composition was not recommended for application. Instant filtration composition was successfully used to restore circulation, applied in conditions of intensive absorptions, this technology is recommended for more detailed researches for conditions of the object under consideration.
1. Grekov G.V., Akhmadishin A.T., Drilling and development of wells in conditions of abnormally high reservoir pressure in the presence of zones of intensive leaching and karsting on the example of the Osinsky horizon (B1) (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2021, no. 4, pp. 4–9.
2. Vakhrushev S.A., Gamolin O.E., Shaydullin V.A. et al., Special aspects of selection of high-pressure well-killing technology at oilfields of Bashneft-Dobycha LLC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 9, pp. 111–115, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2018-9-111-115
3. Kunakova A.M., Karpov A.A., Prudovskaya N.A., Research of finished heavy killing fluids with a density of up to 1600 kg/m3 and up to 1800 kg/m3 for the fields conditions of the Gazprom Neft (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 6, pp. 76–81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-6-76-81
4. Karapetov R.V., Mokhov S.N., Savel'ev V.V., On implementation of process fluids to abandon wells in a wide range of densities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 122–125, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2017-11-122-125
5. Zhelonin P.V., Mukhametshin D.M., Archikov A.B. et al., Obosnovanie algoritma vybora tekhnologiy glusheniya skvazhin (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO "NK "Rosneft'", 2015, no. 2, pp. 76–81.
6. Kraevskiy N.N., Islamov R.A., Lind Yu.B., Selection of well killing technology for complex geological and technological conditions (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2020, no. 4, pp. 16–26, DOI: https://doi.org/10.17122/ngdelo-2020-4-16-26
7. Nikulin V.Yu., Mukminov R.R., Mukhametov F.Kh., Nigmatullin T.E., Mikhailov A.G., Overview of promising killing technologies in conditions of abnormally low formation pressures and risks of gas breakthrough. Part 2. Experience with emulsion and dispersion fluids and comparative results of laboratory testing of formulations (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo = Petroleum Engineering, 2022, V. 20, no. 4, pp. 82-93, DOI: https://doi.org/10.17122/ngdelo-2022-4-82-93
8. Zdol'nik S.E., Khandriko A.N., Akhankin O.B. et al., Technologies of killing of wells with lost return control in conditions of an intensification of terrigenous reservoirs development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 11, pp. 62–65.
9. Yakupov I.Yu., Promising compositions to combat the loss of process fluids during current and workover of wells (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2019, no. 6, pp. 14–18.
10. Grebenyuk A.N., Kurshev A.V., Korytko I.A. et al., Substantiation of effective well killing technologies in fractured carbonate reservoirs in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2023, no. 3, pp. 16–22.
11. Nikulin V.Yu., Britov E.V., Mukminov R.R. et al., The utilization of composition with spurt loss for control absorptions during killing wells in low-temperature terrigenous reservoirs in Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2023, no. 1, pp. 76–80, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24412/2076-6785-2023-1-76-80.
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A.A. Medvedev (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow; Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow; N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of the RAS, RF, Moscow), E.A. Sadreev (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), D.M. Ponomarenko (RUSVIETPETRO JV LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Akhmerova (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow), I.V. Tkachev (VNIIneft JSC, RF, Moscow)|
Efficiency estimation of gas injection at the field of the Central Khoreyver uplift with the risk of asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits
The article evaluates the efficiency of injection of hydrocarbon gas, taking into account the risks of precipitation of asphaltene compounds. Experiments were carried out to determine the pressure of the onset of asphaltene precipitation when mixed with hydrocarbon gas and carbon dioxide. The oil-gas displacement ratio and the minimum miscibility pressure were preliminarily estimated on slim-tube tests and a core column displacement. In addition to the standard research program, tests of oil swelling, phase behavior of the fluid during the dissolution of the gases considered for injection in given volumes by filtration and microscopic methods were carried out for a number of prepared gas-oil mixtures. The obtained experimental data on the phase stability of asphaltenes were used to construct a calibration dependence of the dissolved asphaltenes in oil on the molar fraction of the added gas and were used for hydrodynamic modeling of the gas methods for EOR. The PVT model was adjusted to the results of laboratory studies using the SRK-Peneloux equation of state. During the model tuning, a pseudo-component of asphaltenes was isolated, which has the main properties of asphaltene hydrocarbons obtained from experimental data. The results of slim-tube experiments and core displacement experiments were replicated using hydrodynamic simulation to verify the tuned PVT fluid model. The PVT model is used for predictive calculations on the prepared sectoral hydrodynamic model with the modeling of asphaltene deposition during oil-gas mixing. Conclusions are drawn about the possibility and necessity of using the asphaltene precipitation model in the simulation of hydrocarbon gas injection. The results of the calculation showed significant changes in the technological indicators of the project implementation on the sectoral model.
1. Manrique E. et al., EOR: Current status and opportunities, SPE-130113-MS, 2010, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/130113-MS.
2. Memon A.I. et al., Miscible gas injection and asphaltene flow assurance fluid characterization: A laboratory case study for back oil reservoir, SPE-150938-MS, 2012, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/150938-MS
3. Kumar J., Yammahi F.S., Nakashima T., Gas injection EOR screening by laboratory experiment and sector modeling in carbonate reservoir, SPE-177505-MS, 2015,
4. Teletzke G.F., Patel P.D., Chen A., Methodology for miscible gas injection EOR screening, SPE-97650-MS, 2005, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/97650-MS
5. Shaikh J.A., Sah P., Experimental PVT data needed to develop EOS model for EOR projects, SPE-144023-MS, 2011, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/144023-MS
6. Hammami A. et al., Asphaltene precipitation from live oils: An experimental investigation of onset conditions and reversibility, Energy&Fuels, 2000, V. 14, no. 1, pp. 14–18, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/ef990104z
7. Ìåäâåäåâ A.A., Ñàäðååâ Ý.À., Ñàíñèåâ Ã.Â. et al., Selection of displacement gas agent for the conditions of the field of the Central Khoreyver uplift (In Russ.), Íåôòÿíîå õîçÿéñòâî = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 9, pp. 94–97, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-9-94-97
8. Ïåòðàêîâ À.Ì., Åãîðîâ Þ.À., Íåíàðòîâè÷ Ò.Ë., On the reliability of the experimental determination of oil displacement coefficients by gas and water-gas stimulation methods (In Russ.), Íåôòÿíîå õîçÿéñòâî = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 100–102.
9. Ahmed T., Equations of state and PVT analysis, Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 2007, 562 p.
10. Yang T. et al., LBC viscosity modeling of gas condensate to heavy oil, SPE-109892-MS, 2007, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/109892-MS
11. Yi T. et al., Modeling the effect of asphaltene on the development of the Marrat field, SPE-120988-MS, 2009, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/120988-MS
12. Pal R., New generalized viscosity model for non-colloidal suspensions and emulsions, Fluids, 2020, V. 5, no. 3, p. 150, DOI: http://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5030150
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|OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING|
D.G. Didichin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.A. Pavlov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), M.G. Volkov (RN-BashNIPIneft, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.A. Dmitryuk (RN-BashNIPIneft, RF, Ufa), I.A. Kalimullin (RN-BashNIPIneft, RF, Ufa), V.A. Kotelnikov (RN-BashNIPIneft, RF, Ufa), S.V. Litovchenko (RN-Yuganskneftegas, RF, Nefneyugansk), D.S. Goryachev (RN-Yuganskneftegas, RF, Nefneyugansk), A.V. Nazarov (RN-Yuganskneftegas, RF, Nefneyugansk), Yu.B. Radolova (RN-Yuganskneftegas, RF, Nefneyugansk), I.B. Manzhola (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), A.A. Muruntaev (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), A.S. Kosarev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center, RF, Tymen)|
New tools of Rosneft to improve the efficiency of design: the transition to 3D technology and information modeling in the block of capital construction
The article is devoted to new tools created by Rosneft Oil Company to improve the efficiency of designing facilities for the development of oil and gas fields and optimize the implementation of exploration and production projects in general. The main focus is on the experience of implementing innovative information modeling and 3D design technologies in the company's capital construction unit, as well as on adapting to the processes of design and survey work, including the "smart and lean" transition to mass use of 3D modeling. The article discusses key tools such as sample projects, platform solutions, information modeling for solving the tasks of exploration and production projects. These innovative technologies contribute to the optimization of design, project management and improvement of the quality of project products, which is important for the successful operation of an oil and gas company. Additionally, the article describes the Ñompany's successful initiatives on import substitution and improvement of domestic industry software. The transition to domestic software is planned for several years, and the company is actively working on the formation of a single catalog of 3D products using domestic solutions. The results of the application of innovative technologies in Rosneft Oil Company are presented, confirming a significant improvement in the design processes, shortening the project implementation time and improving the quality of project products. Participation in All-Russian conferences, contests and championships of high-tech professions confirms the technological leadership of the company in the field of information modeling of oil and gas industry facilities, as well as the desire to further improve and develop innovative solutions for the successful implementation of exploration and production projects.
1. Didichin D.G., Pavlov V.A., Avrenyuk A.N. et al., 3D engineering for Rosneft oil producing facilities construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 11, pp. 64‒67, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-11-64-67
2. Didichin D.G., Pavlov V.A., Ivanov S.A. et al., Innovative Rosneft tools to improve development of design documentation efficiency: digital etalon project (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2023, no. 5, pp. 111‒115, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2023-5-111-115
3. Kalimullin I.A., Khusnutdinova K.R., Skrebtsov S.A., Effektivnye praktiki razrabotki tsifrovykh modeley ob"ektov obustroystva neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Effective practices for developing digital models of oil field facilities), Proceedings of RN-BashNIPIneft', 2018, V. 125, pp. 249-301.
4. Novikova M., Digitization takes hold in the construction industry (In Russ.), URL: https://www.mscad.ru/press/20221121-figure.html
5. Krupen G., Information modeling technologies are not a panacea, but a tool for organizing construction (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo, 2021, no. 10, pp. 8–12.
6. Glushkov E.A., Gnilitskiy R.A., Baksheev S.E. et al., Standard design system in rosneft oil company: key aspects of implementation and development potential (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 3, pp. 78–80, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-3-78-80
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I.V. Grekhov (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.I. Kuzmin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.Sh. Ishkildin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.Yu. Zatsepin (Gazpromneft - Digital Solutions LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.F. Maksimenko (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.V. Dengaev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.A. Pelmeneva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), E.S. Melekhin (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow) |
Technical and economic efficiency of autonomous oil and gas field development
The technical and economic efficiency of an autonomous oil and gas field on land is associated with a reduction in capital investments due to the use of innovative technical solutions on an autonomous well cluster and in field equipment, with a reduction in operating costs due to optimization of technical processes, a complete reduction in the number of employees at hazardous jobs, with the transfer of personnel to remote operation management and a multiple reduction in the frequency of maintenance equipment. Some of the new components of the autonomous oil field are ready on the market; some of them need to be developed internally or in partnership with scientific institutes and manufacturing plants. The amount of capital investments of an autonomous well cluster of a conventional (classical) and autonomous field is higher due to the fact that many ground objects from the field move directly to the well cluster site, it becomes larger in area, but technical solutions form a complex, including the installation of sensors and the transmission of information to the operator center remotely for more prompt decision-making solutions. The amount of capital investments in general for an autonomous field is reduced due to a different scheme of organization of facilities at the field and the use of various technical solutions. When analyzing the possibility of using any technology, each of them is evaluated in terms of a positive and negative impact on the project of development and operation of deposits – both greenfield and brownfield. Capital investments and the schedule for the implementation of the autonomous project are adjusted taking into account the real market and the specifics of the technical and economic assessment. A comparison of capital investments and operating costs in a conditional project for the development and operation of a classical and autonomous oil and gas field allows obtaining the technical and economic efficiency of solutions.
1. Dyukov A., Tsifrovaya transformatsiya (Digital transformation), URL: https://digital.gazprom-neft.ru/
4. Kibirev E.A., Kuz'min M.I., Zatsepin A.Yu., Klinkov E.V., Unmanned oil field: Present and the future (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 1, pp. 64-68, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/2587-7399-2020-1-64-685. Grekhov I.V., Kuz'min M.I., Muzychuk P.S., Gerasimov R.V., Concept of autonomous well pad at the fields of Gazprom Neft (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 12, pp. 69–73, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-12-69-73
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N.N. Elin (NV-ASUproject, RF, Moscow), O.A. Stadnichenko (Upstream Solutions, RF, Moscow), M.A. Zvyagin (Novosibirsk State University, RF, Novosibirsk), I.O. Kvitachenko (NV-ASUproject, RF, Moscow)|
Critical analysis of hydraulic methods for gas condensate flows in wells and oilfield pipelines
Seven calculation methods are selected for testing: Beggs&Brill, Duns&Ros, Aziz, Ansari, Gray, OLGA and OIS. In addition, calculations were carried out for the «homogeneous model», which does not take into account the difference in the velocities of liquid and gas and the additional turbulence of the flow resulting therefrom, and therefore gives the lowest possible values of pressure loss. The quality of the methods was evaluated on the basis of two criteria: the completeness of tracking the parameters affecting the result and the absence of breaks in the calculated hydrodynamic functions at the boundaries of the flow modes, as well as during the transition between two-phase and single-phase flows. In the absence of a liquid phase, the methodology should yield results for the gas flow, at the boundary of the annular and slug structures it should approach the results of calculations for the slug structure, and at the lower boundary of the mist area shall approach the results of the calculations the «homogeneous model».
The comparison was based on flows with parameters close to those of gas condensate wells and pipelines of product gathering systems. The physical properties of the products (density, viscosity of liquid and gas, surface tension) were calculated for one of the exploitation targets of the deposit located in Western Siberia.
There are large differences in the calculation results for the different methodologies.
The conducted analysis makes it possible to recommend the methods of Ansari, Gray and OIS for hydraulic calculation of the movement of gas-liquid mixtures at high speeds and low concentrations of liquid corresponding to the flow annular structure.
The Gray method is only recommended for wells because it produces questionable results for large pipe diameters.
The most promising method for the hydraulic calculations of both wells and receiving systems is the OIS method, as it takes into account the maximum number of parameters, is physically justified and works on limits. It is possible to adapt this methodology to actual data by adjusting the empirical coefficients that it contains.
2. URL: https://sis.slb.ru/products/
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5. Moniem M., El-Banbi A.H., Proper selection of multiphase flow correlations, SPE-175805-MS, 2015, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/175805-MS
6. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, V.17, 1999.
7. Mamaev V.A., Odishariya G.E., Klapchuk O.V. et al., Dvizhenie gazozhidkostnykh smesey v trubakh: monografiya (Movement of gas-liquid mixtures in pipes: monograph), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 276 p.
8. Gritsenko A.I., Klapchuk O.V., Kharchenko Yu.A., Gidrodinamika gazozhidkostnykh smesey v skva-zhinakh i truboprovodakh: monografiya (Hydrodynamics of gas-liquid mixtures in wells and pipelines), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1994, 238 p.
9. Elin N.N., Nassonov Yu.V., Ashkarin N.I. et al., Razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya matematicheskikh modeley sistem obustroystva neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Development and exploitation of mathematical mod-els of oil fields development systems), Ivanovo, Publ. of IGKhTU, 2006, 272 p.
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11. Oyewole A., Extension of the Gray correlation to inclination angles, Proceedings of SPE Annual Tech-nical Conference and Exhibition held in Houston, The University of Tulsa, September 2015, SPE-178727-STU, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178727-STU
12. Bendlksen K.H., Maine D., Moe R., Nuland S., The dynamic two-fluid model OLGA: Theory and appli-cation, SPE 19451-PA, 1991, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/19451-PA
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
E.V. Yudin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.M. Andrianova (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), T.A. Ganeev (Gazpromneft - Digital Solutions LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), O.S. Kobzar (Gazpromneft - Digital Solutions LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), D.O. Isaev (Gazpromneft - Digital Solutions LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.A. Polinov (Gazpromneft - Digital Solutions LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), G.A. Mosyagin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), M.I. Gudilov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.D. Shestakov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)|
Production monitoring using a virtual flow meter for an unstable operating well stock
Currently there is a trend in the oil and gas industry towards the deterioration of reserves due to which the number of fields which are significantly dominated by an unstable well stock is growing. Basically such assets include fields with high gas-oil ratios and fields with oil rims. The complicated fund can also include more complex operation of mechanized equipment, for example, in intermitted mode. Such regimes are used when it is inefficient to produce in a stable regime, for example, in fields with low permeability marginal sections.
In most fields, wells are well equipped with telemetry sensors. On wells with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) dozens of parameters are recorded (electrical parameters of ESP operation, pressure and temperature in key system nodes). Wellhead parameters ( gas-lift gas injection parameters, pressure, temperature) at the gas-lift well stock are measured along the wellbore a little less often. The discreteness of measurements for most of the sensors reaches a minute. All this leads to a large daily accumulation of information about the work of the well. Often not all of the information is used in daily work. This is primarily due to the inability to process such an amount of information manually, without the use of digital approaches. The analysis is carried out on averaged data for the day, missing useful information about the daily operation of the well, reducing the efficiency of decisions made.
The task of an unstable stock analysis is most critical since it is impossible to get a qualitative understanding of the operation of such a stock without looking at the level of current discretization of key well performance parameters. Therefore it is impossible to solve the problem using standard methods based on adapting models to daily measurements and even more so to monthly data.
This article presents the experience of solving the problem for an unstable artificial lift well which provides a compromise between the accuracy of the results and the complexity of modeling non-stationary processes. This approach allows getting the result relatively quickly, while maintaining the consistency of all parameters with each other.
1. Õàáèáóëëèí Ð.À., Áóðöåâ ß.À., New approach for gas lift optimization calculations (In Russ.), SPE-176668-RU, 2015, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/176668-MS
2. Moitra S.K., Chand S., Barua S. et al., A fieldwide integrated production model and asset management system for the Mumbai High field, Proceedings of Offshore Technology Conference, 30 April-3 May, 2007, Houston, Texas, DOI: http:// doi.org/10.4043/18678-MS
3. Bishop C.M., Pattern recognition and machine learning. - New York: Springer, 2006.
4. Bingham E., Chen J.P., Jankowiak M. et al., Pyro: Deep universal probabilistic programming, Journal of Machine Learning Research, 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.1810.09538
5. Àíäðèàíîâà À.Ì., Ìàðãàðèò À.Ñ., Ïåðåö Ä.Ñ., Ñèìîíîâ Ì.Â., Hierarchy of data verification approaches for production and development control (In Russ.), Íåôòÿíîå õîçÿè̆ñòâî = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 75-77, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2017-12-75-77
6. Lake L.W., Petroleum engineering handbook - Texas; Austin, 2010.
7. Vazquez M., Beggs, H.D., Correlations for fluid physical property prediction, SPE-6719-MS, 1977, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/6719-MS
8. Andriasov R.S., Mishchenko I.T., Petrov A.I. et al., Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu razrabotki i ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Dobycha nefti (Reference guide for the design, development and operation of oil fields. Oil production): edited by Gimatudinov Sh.K., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 455 p.
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|UPSTREAM AND MIDSTREAM CHEMISTRY|
A.A. Mescheryakov, N.A. Galiev (Orenburgneft JSC, RF, Buzuluk), A.E. Folomeev, A.R. Khatmullin, A.A. Imamutdinova, F.K. Mingalishev, S.V. Nazarova, A.K. Makatrov(RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)|
Justification of optimal acid composition formulation and treatment parameters using physical and mathematical modeling
For many oilfields developed by Orenburgneft JSC, there is a technological problem of decreasing carbonate matrix treatment efficiency with the increase in their multiplicity, caused by a reducing in the depth and selectivity of the stimulation. The situation is considerably aggravated on water-encroached heterogeneous formation. In order to improve efficiency hydrochloric acid treatment a complex of core tests and physicochemical studies aimed at determining optimal acid compositions were carried out. The dependence of the volume of acid composition required to break through the rock sample on the injection rate was revealed, on the basis of which the model of acid treatment was adapted. A semi-empirical mathematical model of acid dissolution based on Damköller and Pecklet numbers and acid capacity was chosen to determine optimal treatment parameters (injection rate, acid volume) and develop recommendations for treatments. Based on the results of mathematical modeling and determination of economic costs of acid composition preparation the optimal formulations for the conditions of priority objects of Orenburgneft JSC have been selected. The influence of various exposure parameters and properties of acid compositions on the value of the required volume of the composition was evaluated. Pilot tests of the selected acid compositions were carried out, during which a higher efficiency of the treatments was noted; the results of the research and the relevance of the approach used were confirmed. The advantages of this approach are the consideration of the economic component, geological and physical characteristics of productive formations and properties of acid compositions, as well as the possibility of its implementation using mathematical models or acid treatment simulators.
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R.N. Fakhretdinov (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Fatkullin (Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering LLC, RF, Moscow)|
Current trends and innovations in chemical technologies for enhanced and improved oil recovery
The currently used classical chemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery are an integral part of the oil field development system, but their application is limited by the range of geological and technological parameters. There is a need to create new approaches to expand the possibilities of using chemical technologies, including the creation of a new class of chemical products.
The experience of work on the creation and implementation of chemical compositions for flow-diverting technologies and technologies for the intensification of oil production, intended for use in a wider range of geological conditions (high reservoir temperatures and water mineralization, low-permeability, the content of aggressive components in reservoir oil) and manufactured on the basis of available chemical raw materials is presented.
A single–component composition AC-CSE-1313 grade B (a hydrophobic water-soluble polymer – gel SPA-Well) has been developed for flow-diverting technologies based on silica-based polymers capable of simultaneously blocking the advance of injected water through highly permeable reservoir channels and stimulating the displacement of oil in low-permeable intervals. For the period 2019-2023, more than 200 well operations were performed with high efficiency at injection wells with the use of water control technology based on the reagent AC-CSE-1313 grade B (SPA-Well), mainly in the fields of Western Siberia.
In the field of oil production intensification in carbonate and terrigenous reservoirs, reagents RBS-3 and DGK-2 have been developed on the basis of metal-complex chelating compounds, which allow cleaning wells from contaminants that are not removed by other reagents. The RBS-3 reagent has been successfully used in the development of wells in difficult reservoir conditions in the regions of Kalmykia, Dagestan and the Caspian Sea shelf. The DGK-2 reagent showed high efficiency when processing producing wells at a carbonate facility in the Timan-Pechora region with an efficiency comparable to the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing.
1. Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., New paradigm in chemical EOR methods - New mechanisms (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2021, no. 9, pp. 56–60.
2. Ivanova E.M., Blagodatskikh I.V., Vasil’eva O.V., Barabanova A.I., Khokhlov A.R., Synthesis of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides in water-in-oil emulsions (In Russ.), Vysokomolekulyarnye soedineniya. Seriya A, 2008, V. 50, no. 1, pp. 15-24.
3. Glass J.E., Polymers in aqueous media: Performance through association, Advances in Chemistry Series, 1989, no. 223, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/BA-1989-0223
4. Patent RU 2592932 C1, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., Selimov D.F.
5. Fakhretdinov R.N., Pavlishin R.L., Yakimenko G.Kh. et al., Successful practical experience and application potential of AC-CSE-1313 flow-diverting procedure with various options in working solution volume at the fields with late stage of their development (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2020, no. 2, pp. 39-45.
6. Patent RU 2723797 C1, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Selimov D.F., Tastemirov S.A., Yakimenko G.Kh., Pasanaev E.A.
7. Svidetel’stvo na tovarnyy znak (znak obsluzhivaniya) no. 880966. SPA-Well (Trademark certificate (service mark) No. 880966 – SPA-Well)
8. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Selimov D.F. et al., Laboratory and field tests of AC-CSE-1313-B reagent as the basis of water control technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 6, pp. 68–71, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-68-71
9. Finch C.A., Industrial water-soluble polymers, Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 1996.
10. Fatkullin A.A., Fakhretdinov R.N., SPA-Well EOR technology - Hydrophobic polymer gel (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2022, no. 2, pp. 60-66.
11. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Pasanaev E.A. et al., New prospects in the development of chemical technologies for regulating the coverage of reservoirs by flooding (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 8, pp. 65-69, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-65-69
12. Zinov’ev A.M., Karpunin N.A., Features of acid treatment in conditions of high temperature collectors (In Russ.), Vestnik Evraziyskoy nauki = The Eurasian Scientific Journal, 2018, no. 6, URL: https://esj.today/PDF/75NZVN618.pdf
13. Khaladov A.Sh., Dudnikov Yu.V., Yamaletdinova K.Sh. et al., Analytical review and analysis of the results of hydrochloric acid effects on wells with heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2019, no. 6, pp. 41-46, DOI: https://doi.org/10.30713/0207-2351-2019-6(606)-41-46
14. Patent RU 2581859 C1, Composition for treatment of bottomhole formation zone, Inventor: Fakhretdinov R.N.
15. Patent RU 2731302 C1, Composition for treatment of bottom-hole zone of carbonate reservoir, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Selimov D.F., Pasanaev E.A., Yakimenko G.Kh.
16. Fakhretdinov R.N., Selimov D.F., Fatkullin A.A. et al., Technologies for improved oil recovery by deep cleaning of the bottom-hole zone of wells with RBS-3 and DGK-2 reagents (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020. – ¹7. – S. 116-119, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-7-116-119
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M.A. Silin, L.A. Magadova, P.K. Krisanova, À.À. Filatov1, Yu.V. Sotnikova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)|
Composition based on surfactants for thickening acid fracturing fluids
Acid fracturing treatment is the key technique for stimulation production in carbonate reservoirs In this technique acid is injected to erode the fracture walls. Conductive channels which remain after fracture closure are created
because acid tends to etch the fracture faces in non-uniform patterns. The use of surfactants for thickening acid fracturing compositions has shown high efficiency due to their perspective and a number of advantages compared
to other fluids. This article presents the research on the development of a hydrochloric acid
thickening reagent for the preparation of acid fracturing fluid. The paper shows the results of experimental studies of the effect of the developed surfactants-based additive on rheological properties of 12 % hydrochloric acid,
interfacial tension at the boundary with hydrocarbons and solubility of carbonate. The addition of the mixture of surfactants leads to a significant increase in the viscosity properties of the acid systems, which provides a decrease in the rate of acid leakoff during acid fracturing. Also, this acid thickener contributes to reduction of interfacial tension at the boundary between theacid composition and hydrocarbons, which positively affects the efficiency of the process of acid fracturing. The application of the developed acid thickener leads to a decrease of carbonate solubility, which ensures the creation of the required non-uniform patterns of the carbonate fracture as well as an increase of acid penetration length during the acid fracturing process. After prolonged interaction of the acid composition based on the developed thickening agent with carbonate rock there is a decrease in the viscosity properties of the composition which facilitates further development process.
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A.V. Lekomtsev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), D.I. Khuzyagulov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), N.Yu. Belousov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), V.A. Lisin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), R.Yu. Bannikov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), M.I. Kuzmin (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), I.V. Grekhov (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), R.V. Gerasimov (Gazpromneft STC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.V. Maksyutin (Gazpromneft-Digital Solutions LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)|
Prediction of the depth of gas hydrate formation during operation of oil wells by electric submersible pumps taking into account the mode of their operation, the composition of associated gas and formation water
One of the complications arising during the development of oil and gas fields is the formation of associated gas hydrate deposits in the trunk of producing oil wells. In the interval of sediment formation, a decrease in the velocity of the upward flow of the gas-liquid mixture is likely, or its complete stop, which negatively affects the technical and economic condition of the field being developed. In order to increase the effectiveness of preventing hydrate formation new method for predicting hydrate formation intervals under conditions of constant and periodic operation of electric centrifugal pumps is considered on the example of the Vyngayakhinskoye field. When developing this technique, algorithms for the distribution of pressure and temperature of the gas-liquid flow were used, taking into account the influence of heating/cooling submersible electric motor, the composition of associated petroleum gas, reservoir water salts and applied inhibitors. This technique is based on the calculation of pseudo-reduced pressures and temperatures, which can be used to take into account the influence of each component in a gas-liquid mixture. Using the developed methodology, the depth of hydrate formation was obtained at 22 wells of the Vyngayakhinskoye field. As a result of testing the technique on 7 wells, the convergence of the results was about 90%. Analysis of the results showed that the composition of associated gas and reservoir water significantly affect the predicted depth of formation of gas hydrate deposits. The approach described in the article can be applied to estimate and predict this depth, which will allow to correct the technological process associated with the operation of the well and reduce the negative impact on the production process and equipment.
1. Hammerschmidt E.G., Formation of gas hydrates in natural gas transmission lines, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 1934, V. 26, p. 851 – 855,
2. Sloan E.D. Jr. Clathrate hydrates of natural gases, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1990, 664 p.
3. Nasrifar K., Moshfeghian M., A model for prediction of gas hydrate formation conditions in aqueous solutions containing electrolytes and/or alcohol, J. Chem. Thermodynamics, 2001, V. 33, pp. 999 -1014, DOI: http:// doi.org/10.1006/jcht.2000.0811
4. Javanmardi J., Moshfeghian M., A new approach for prediction of gas hydrate formation conditions in aqueous electrolyte solutions, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 2000, V. 168, pp. 135 – 148, DOI: http:// doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(99)00322-2
5. Tohidi B., Danesh A., Burgass R.W., Todd A.C., Effect of heavy hydrate formation on the hydrate free zone of real reservoir fluids, SPE-35568-MS, 1996,
6. Nasrifar K., Moshfeghian M., Computation of equilibrium hydrate formation temperature for CO2 and hydrocarbon gases containing CO2 in the presence of an alcohol, electrolytes and their mixtures, J. of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2000, V. 26, pp. 143 – 150, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00028-0
7. Bishnoi P.R., Dholabhai P.D., Equilibrium conditions for hydrate formation for a ternary mixture of methane, propane and carbon dioxide, and a natural gas mixture in the presence of electrolytes and methanol, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1999, V. 158, pp. 821 – 827, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(99)00103-X
8. Paez J.E., Blok R, Vaziri H., Islam M.R., Problems in gas hydrates: Practical guidelines for field remediation, SPE-69424-MS, 2001, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/69424-MS
9. Chen G.J., Guo T.M., Thermodynamic modeling of hydrate formation based on new concepts, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1996, V. 122, pp. 43-65, DOI: http:// doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(96)03032-4
10. Jossang A., Stange E., A new predictive activity model for aqueous salt solutions, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 2001, V. 181, pp. 33 – 46, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(00)00515-X
11. Dimitrios A., Varotsis N., Modeling gas hydrate thermodynamic behavior: Theoretical basis and computational methods, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1996, V. 123, p. 107 – 130, DOI: http:// doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(96)03036-1
12. Ma Q.L., Chen G.J., Guo T.M., Modeling the gas hydrate formation of inhibitor containing systems, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 2003, V. 205, pp. 291-302, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(02)00295-9
13. Heng-Joo Ng, Robinson D.B., Hydrate formation in systems containing methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide in the presence of methanol, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1985, V. 21, pp. 145 – 155, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(85)90065-2
14. Piper L.D., McCain W.D., Corredor J.H., Compressibility factors for naturally occurring petroleum gases, SPE-69424-MS, 1993, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/69424-MS
15. Yaws C.L., Chemical properties handbook: Physical, thermodynamic, environmental, transport, safety, and health related properties for organic and inorganic chemicals, McGraw-Hill, 1999, 779 p.
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O.V. Slavkina (RITEK LLC, RF, Volgograd), S.V. Tsvetkov (RITEK-Samara-Nafta TIC, RF, Samara), A.B. Nikiforov (RITEK-Samara-Nafta TIC, RF, Samara), N.Yu. Sennikov (RITEK-Samara-Nafta TIC, RF, Samara), E.A. Bakumenko (RITEK-Samara-Nafta TIC, RF, Samara), Dmitry A. Volkov (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), I.I. Mukhamatdinov (RITEK-Samara-Nafta TIC, RF, Samara), A.V. Vakhin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)|
Changes in the composition of produced oil at the Strelovskoye field in the Samara region using aquathermolysis catalysts
The utilization of catalytic intensification for the compositional refinement of heavy crude oil during the extraction stage presents extensive prospects for enhancing the efficiency of employed thermal technologies for the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. The technology of catalytic aquathermolysis was applied at the Strelovskoye heavy oil reservoir. Field trials have demonstrated a sevenfold increase in the average oil flow rate per well compared to the previous non-catalytic steam treatment cycle, accompanied by a viscosity reduction of over fourfold. Analysis of oilfield samples has determined that the improved oil recovery and viscosity reduction effects are achieved through the chemical transformation of resinous-asphaltenic compounds, resulting in the generation of light hydrocarbons in the presence of injected catalytic complexes based on transition metals. The products of the destructive hydroprocessing of resinous-asphaltenic substances are sequestered within the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons after the catalyst attains its active state in the reservoir. In addition to the breakdown of resins and asphaltenes, there is a notable degradation of high-molecular-weight paraffins, leading to an additional decrease in oil viscosity. The obtained results substantiate the potential application of the developed technology for enhancing the production efficiency of heavy oils. Currently, further scaling on other wells of the Strelovskoye field is planned.
1. Xiaohu Dong, Huiqing Liu, Zhangxin Chen et al., Enhanced oil recovery techniques for heavy oil and oilsands reservoirs after steam injection, Appl. Energy, 2019, V. 239, pp. 1190–1211, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.244
2. Kayukova G.P., Kiyamova A.M., Romanov G.V., Hydrothermal transformations of asphaltenes, Pet. Chem., 2012, V. 52 (1), pp. 5–14,
3. Chen Li, Weicheng Huang, Chenggang Zhou et al., Advances on the transition-metal based catalysts for aquathermolysis upgrading of heavy crude oil, Fuel, 2019, V. 257, pp. 1–14, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115779
4. Mukhamatdinov I.I., Khaidarova A.R., Mukhamatdinova R.E. et al., Development of a catalyst based on mixed iron oxides for intensification the production of heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks (In Russ.), Fuel, V. 312 (5), DOI: http:// doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.123005
5. Mukhamatdinov I.I., Lapin A.V., Mukhamatdinova R.E. et al., Study of the hydrothermal-catalytic influence on the oil-bearing rocks of the Usinskoye oil field, Catalysts, 2022, V. 12 (10), DOI: http://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101268
6. Feifei Li, Xiaodong Wang, Hui Pan et al., Preparation of disk-like α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and their catalytic effect on extra heavy crude oil upgrading, 2019, V. 251, pp. 644–650, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.04.048
7. Orozco-Castillo C.R., Pereira-Almao P., In-situ heavy oil upgrading through ultra-dispersed nano-catalyst injection in naturally fractured reservoirs, SPE-180154-MS, 2016, DOI: http://doi.org/10.2118/180154-MS
8. Yongjian Liu, Hongfu Fan, The effect of hydrogen donor additive on the viscosity of heavy oil during steam stimulation, Energy & Fuels, 2002, V. 16, pp. 842–846,
9. Ovalles C., Rengel-Unda P., Bruzual J., Salazar A., Upgrading of extra-heavy crude using hydrogen donor under steam injection conditions. Characterization by pyrolysis GC-MS of the asphaltenes and effects of a radical initiator, ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry, Preprints, 2003, V. 48, pp. 59–60.
10. Vakhin A.V., Mukhamatdinov I.I., Sitnov S.A. et l., Catalytic activity of nickel and iron sulfides in the degradation of resins and asphaltenes of high-viscosity oil in the presence of carbonate rock under hydrothermal conditions (In Russ.), Kinetika i kataliza = Kinetics and Catalysis, 2022, V. 63, no. 5, pp. 643-651,
11. Mukhamatdinov I.I., Giniyatullina E.E., Mukhamatdinova R.E. et al., Effect of aqua thermolysis catalyst on in-situ transformation of high- viscous oil from Strelovskoye field in Samara region (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2021, no. 3, pp. 38–42.
12. Minkhanov I.F., Bolotov A.V., Al'-Muntaser A.A. et al., Experimental study on the improving the efficiency of oil displacement by co-using of the steam-solvent catalyst (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 6, pp. 54-57, DOI: http://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-6-54-57
13. Malaniy S.Ya., Slavkina O.V., Ryazanov A.A. et al., Field test of catalytic aquathermolysis technology at Strelovskoye oil field in the Samara region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 12, pp. 118–121, DOI: http://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-12-118-121
14. Vakhin A.V., Aliev F.A., Mukhamatdinov I.I. et al., Extra-heavy oil aquathermolysis using nickel-based catalyst: Some aspects of in-situ transformation of catalyst precursor, Catalysts, 2021, V. 11(2), no. 189, pp. 1–22, DOI: http://doi.org/10.3390/catal11020189
15. Mukhamatdinov I.I., Giniyatullina E.E., Mukhamatdinova R.E. et al., Evaluation of the aquathermolysis catalyst effect on the composition and properties of high-viscosity oil from the Strelovskoe field, SOCAR Proceedings, 2021, V. I.2 pp. 90–96, DOI: http://doi.org/10.5510/OGP2021SI200570
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I.I. Tseplyàev (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), A.R. Medvedev (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), M.A. Kasperovich (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), D.A. Savinovsky (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)|
Recovery of lithium from associated waters during oil preparation at the fields of Eastern Siberia
The development of oil fields is currently focused on the extraction of hard-to-recover reserves. Technologies for the extraction of such raw materials are characterized by high capital costs, which require new ways to increase the profitability of projects. One of these areas is the associated extraction of metals from formation water of oil and gas fields.
Russia's need for alkaline earth metals in the face of sanctions requires a review of existing approaches to the development of oil fields and the search for new, not yet used resources. One of such valuable resources is lithium (Li). The development of technologies, an increase in demand, and the complete absence of production of this element in Russia make it the most in demand.
The article provides brief information about the prospects of lithium extraction, compounds and alloys of which are critically necessary for the technological development of many industries - the automotive industry, aircraft manufacturing, metallurgy, chemistry and others. Batteries of different capacities are most in demand on the domestic market. The main suppliers - Argentina and Chile supplying about 80 %, stopped their supplies to Russia. There is currently no production of this element in Russia, which is a promising niche for development, since there is a huge demand on the market. There are two ways of extracting lithium in the world – ore mining and extraction from salt water and brines.
The article describes a technique that has been successfully tested in laboratory with obtaining the actual result of lithium carbonate extraction from produced water. This issue is relevant, since the course towards import substitution, as well as the urgent need to replenish the missing supplies of lithium carbonate make the possibility of its production from associated waters at the fields of Surgutneftegas PJSC in Eastern Siberia the most in demand.
1. Ramazanov A.Sh., Ataev D.R., Kasparov M.A., Obtaining high quality lithium carbonate from natural lithium-containing brines (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Khimiya i khimicheskaya tekhnologiya, 2021, V. 64, no. 4, pp. 4-7, DOI: https://doi.org/10.6060/ivkkt.20216404.6238
2. Kotsupalo N.P., Ryabtsev A.D., Khimiya i tekhnologiya polucheniya soedineniy litiya iz litienosnogo gidromineral'nogo syr'ya (Chemistry and technology for obtaining lithium compounds from lithium-bearing hydromineral raw materials), Novosibirsk: Geo, 2008, 291 p.
3. Ryabtsev A.D., Kotsupalo N.P., Kurakov A.A. et al., Theoretical foundations of technology for the production of lithium carbonate by the ammonia method (In Russ.), Teoreticheskie osnovy khimichesuoy tekhnologii = Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering, 2019, V. 53, no. 5, pp. 595-600,
4. Kotsupalo N.P., Ryabtsev A.D., Boldyrev V.V., Lithium for 21st century technology (In Russ.), Nauka v Rossii, 2011, no. 5, pp. 28-31.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
A.R. Valeev (Ufa State Petroleum Technogical University, RF, Ufa), B.N. Mastobaev (Ufa State Petroleum Technogical University, RF, Ufa), R.R. Tashbulatov (Ufa State Petroleum Technogical University, RF, Ufa), V.S. Kuznetsov (Ufa State Petroleum Technogical University, RF, Ufa)|
Clustering algorithms application for detection of abnormal state of oil and gas pumping equipment
The article is devoted to detection of an abnormal and pre-emergency state of pumping equipment using clustering and anomaly search algorithms. A background for research is the need to search for and apply methods for assessing the technical condition and identifying emerging defects in an automated mode for a wide range of equipment that gives results at an earlier stage than existing ones. To achieve this goal, the use of machine learning methods is considered to analyze the parameters of equipment operation over a certain time period in order to create an algorithm for detecting anomalies in data, which in this case will be signs of abnormal operation. This article discusses the application of clustering based on the k-means method. So, in this research three normal operating modes of pumping equipment were recognized in the synthesized data. Based on the analysis of the distribution of each measurement to the corresponding nearest cluster centroid, the maximum distance from each measurement point to it was determined, which further served as a criterion for classifying a certain measurement as data outliers. As a result of the analysis, five measurements were identified that correspond to the abnormal operation of oil pumping equipment. Also, the ranges of normal operation of the equipment were compiled for each of the measured parameters of its operation, which forms the threshold values for classifying the state of the equipment as an abnormal or emergency state. The proposed approach has such advantages as the possibility of full automation, adaptation to various operating modes of the equipment, no need to share data outside the pumping station, early detection of emerging defects and the onset of an emergency.
1. Aralov O.V., Quality management methodology for complex engineering systems in major oil and oil product pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, V. 9, no. 6, pp. 608–625,
2. Valeev A.R., Atroshchenko N.A., Kharrasov B.G., History of technical diagnostics and repair organization systems in industry, Liquid and Gaseous Energy Resources, 2022, no. 1, pp. 31–37, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21595/lger.2022.22706
3. Mogilner L.Yu., Pridein O.A., Sergeevtsev E.Y., A set of non-destructive testing methods used for diagnosing the foundations of pumping units (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, no. 2, pp. 164–172,
4. Flegentov I.A., Starshinov D.M., Mikheev Y.B., Ryabtsev E.A., Improving reliability of main pumping unit by improving bearing units (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2022, V. 12, no. 6, pp. 569–575,
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A.B. Noskov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.G. Klushin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.V. Naumov (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development LLC, RF, Tyumen), D.V. Novokreschennykh (RN-Centre for Peer Review and Technical Development LLC, RF, Tyumen)|
Automatic determination (autogradation) of complicated well stock as an element of system work using artificial lift for oil production
Timely identification of wells (production targets) with a risk of negative complicating factors is an important task that affects the effective operation of artificial lift wells, helps to timely plan measures to protect the downhole pumping equipment and correctly assess Capex and Opex for the implementation of these measures.
This study considers the history of creation and implementation of a module for automatic determination (autogradation) of the complicated well stock (CWS) as an element of system analysis and decision-making in the operation of artificial lift wells under the negative impact of complicating factors, with subsequent access to advanced analytics in the Artificial Lift Wells IS.
The CWS autogradation module is intellectual property of Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, which allows quick determination of wells with an actual manifestation or risk of complicating factors, the class and type of complication, which in turn leads to the state-of-the-art and effective organization of artificial lift wells protection from the negative impact of complicating factors, reduction of premature failures and intra-shift downtime of wells, reduction of cost-forming activities associated with fixing the impact of complicating factors in those wells which are not protected in a timely manner.
The uniqueness of the CWS autogradation module is that it automatically:
grades the complicated well stock by classes and types of complications;
grades the complicated well stock into two categories, which allows separating wells that have already registered the fact of negative manifestation of complications and wells for which there is a combination of factors indicating the risk of manifestation of complicating factors in the process of operation;
gives the user information on what criterion the well has fallen into the CWS (the reason that influenced the manifestation of complicating factor).
1. Lunin D.A., Minchenko D.A., Noskov A.B. et al., System to improve operational quality of artificial lift wells of Rosneft Oil Company in response to negative impact of complicating factors (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 4, pp. 86–91, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-4-86-91
2. Certificate of official registration of a computer program no. 2019617213. Programma informatsionnoy sistemy upravleniya mekhanizirovannym fondom skvazhin (The program of the information system for the management of mechanized well stock), Authors: Akhtyamov A.R., Volkov M.G., Noskov A.B.
3. Lunin D.A., Minchenko D.A., Noskov A.B. et al., Technologies applicability matrix for protecting production wells from the complicating factors negative impact (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2023. – ¹6. – S. 74–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2023-6-74-77
4. Topolʹnikov A.S., Prediction of complications in the operation of mechanized wells using the RosPump program (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 2, pp. 48–53.
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K.V. Kudashov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.E. Antsupov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), D.A. Akimova (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow) |
New wells production rate forecast quality improvement due to calculated values achievement for objects with different geological, geophysical and technological parameters
This paper is focused on building a model using actual data that links the degree of achievement of the planned rates of new wells with geological, geophysical and technological factors.
The goal of this work is to improve the quality of new well production rate forecast by implementing an additional adjustment, derived from the solution of the regression problem to predict the difference between actual and planned (calculated) new well production rates based on given properties of drilling targets and completion technology.
Two models based on different machine learning tools were built to solve the stated problem. The difference between planned and actual production rates was chosen as a target function. The first model is a classification model. In this case, the classification problem was solved and the sign of the target function was predicted, then the regression problem was solved for each of the two ranges. The second model is the clustering model. Its main idea was to divide the objects under study into clusters. Then, in each of the clusters, the regression problem was solved. The models were trained on the data on the new wells of Rosneft Oil Company PJSC for the period from 2017 to 2021.
As the result of the study, the above two models were used to predict the difference between calculated and actual rates for each of the planned new wells in the period from 2023 to 2027. Furthermore, prediction quality was tested on results obtained from new wells that were drilled within four months of 2023. This test showed an increase in forecast quality for 658 wells sample average rate from 95 to 97−99 %.
1. Hastie T., Tibshirani R., Friedman J., The Elements of statistical learning. Data mining, inference and prediction, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, 745 p.
2. Kugaevskikh A.V., Muromtsev D.I., Kirsanova O.V., Klassicheskie metody mashinnogo obucheniya (Classical machine learning methods), St. Petersburg: Publ. of ITMO University, 2022, 53 p.
3. Limanovskaya O.V., Alfer'eva T.I., Osnovy mashinnogo obucheniya (Fundamentals of machine learning), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of Ural University, 2020, 88 p.
4. Azbukhanov A.F., Kostrigin I.V., Bondarenko K.A. et al., Selection of wells for hydraulic fracturing based on mathematical modeling using machine learning methods (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 38-42, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-11-38-42
5. Akimova D.A., Issledovanie zavisimosti dostizheniya planiruemykh debitov novykh skvazhin ot geologo-geofizicheskikh i tekhnologicheskikh faktorov (Study of the dependence of achieving the planned flow rates of new wells on geological, geophysical and technological factors): graduation qualification work, Proceedings of the 65th All-Russian Scientific Conference of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in honor of the 115th anniversary of L.D. Landau, Moscow, 3-8 April 2023, Moscow: Publ. of MIPT, 2023.
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O.V. Aralov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), I.V. Buyanov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), V.A. Kuzmichev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Salomatov (Transneft PJSC, RF, Moscow), P.M. Obriev (TOMZEL JSC, RF, Tomsk)|
Development of standard range of high-reliability liquid level float switches
The paper presents the results of research and development (hereinafter referred to as R&D) of a standard range of high-reliability liquid level float switches (LLS) carried out by The Pipeline Transport Institute in cooperation with TOMZEL JSC to meet the needs of oil and oil products pipeline transportation facilities, as well as various industries (food, chemical, etc.).
The paper presents the analysis results of the main causes of failures of the LLSs operated at the facilities of the main pipeline transportation of oil and oil products, provides the main design solutions aimed at improving the LLS reliability.
The authors discuss the basic operating principles of test benches developed as part of the R&D, which allow testing the LLS elements and carrying out 100 % final inspection before sending to the customer’s facility.
Increase in the reliability of the developed LLSs is achieved through design solutions based on the use of highly reliable elements and modern innovative materials in the LLS design and the implementation of additional protection against the external environment, mechanical and electromagnetic effects. Also, the LLSs use a reed switch module consisting of three parallel reed switches with certain resistances. This design allows diagnosing the failure of one of the reed switches, short circuit and breakage of signal lines by monitoring the circuit current. This is a significant advantage compared to known counterparts, since a signal line break or a short circuit will not be mistaken for an output liquid level signal, which also increases the device reliability and the objectivity of liquid level monitoring.
1. Karabanov S.M., Reed relays. A look at the prospects for the development of the direction (In Russ.), Komponenty i tekhnologii, 2001, no. 7(16), pp. 28-30.
2. Dey S., Problems of evaluating the reliability of reed switches and reed relays (In Russ.), Komponenty i tekhnologii, 2018, no. 5(202), pp. 144-150.
3. Korotchenko V.A., Solov'ev V.I., Solotenkova Zh.V., Numerical simulation of the process of closing magnetically controlled contacts (In Russ.), Vestnik Ryazanskogo gosudarstvennogo radiotekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2012, V. 42(1), pp. 44-50.
4. Korotchenko V.A., Sokolovskiy E.I., Solov'ev V.I., Solotenkova Zh.V., Study of processes prior interruption of electric current reed switch with control coil (In Russ.), Vestnik Ryazanskogo gosudarstvennogo radiotekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2013, V. 43, pp. 95-99.
5. Radionova S.G., Revel'-Muroz P.A., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Scientific-technical, socio-economic and legal aspects of oil and oil products transport reliability (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 20–31.
6. Ban'ko V.V., Klyauta I.I., Identification of the fluid type when flooding the ci wells on a linear section of pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, V. 7, no. 2, pp. 87-93.
7. GOST 24802-81. Level meters lor liquid and solids. Terms and definitions.
8. TR TS 012/2011. Technical regulation of the Customs Union “O bezopasnosti oborudovaniya dlya raboty vo vzryvoopasnykh sredakh”(On the safety of equipment for work in explosive environments).
9. TR TS 032/2013. Technical regulation of the Customs Union “O bezopasnosti oborudovaniya, rabotayushchego pod izbytochnym davleniem” (On the safety of pressurized equipment).
10. TR TS 004/2011. Technical regulation of the Customs Union “O bezopasnosti nizkovol'tnogo oborudovaniya” (About the safety of low voltage equipment).
11. GOST 28725-90. Instruments for measuring the level of liquids and loose materials. General technical requirements and test methods.
12. GOST 27883-88. Industrial process measurement and control equipment. Reliability. General requirements and test methods.
13. GOST 20.57.406-81. Complex quality control system. Electronic, quantum electronic and electrotechnical components. Test methods.
14. GOST 27.410-87. Industrial product dependability. Inspection methods of reliability indices and plans of check tests on reliability.
15. GOST 27.301-95. Dependability in technics. Dependability prediction. Basic principles.
16. GOST R 27.403-2009. Dependability in technics. Compliance test plans for reliability.
17. ISO TS 29001-2010. Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries. Sector-specific quality management systems. Requirements for product and service supply organizationsyu
18. ISO 10012-2003. Measurement management systems. Requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment.
19. ANSI/API STD 2350-2012. Overfill protection for storage tanks in petroleum facilities.
20. ISO 20815:2008. Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries -- Production assurance and reliability management.
21. IEC/TS 63164-1-2020 Reliability of industrial automation devices and systems – Part 1: Assurance of automation devices reliability data and specification of their source.
22. IEC 61124-2012. Reliability testing – Compliance tests for constant failure rate and constant failure intensity.
23. IEC 61123-1991. Reliability testing compliance test plans for success ratio.
24. Neftissov A., Biloshchytskyi A., Talipov O., Andreyeva O., Kirichenko L., Research of irreversible changes in the parameters of reed switches used to build relay protection devices, Trudy universiteta, 2022, no. 3(88), pp. 298-303, DOI: https://doi.org/10.52209/1609-1825_2022_3_298
25. Savinyh P.A., Rylov A.A., Shulatiev V.N., Ivanovs S.A., Investigation and optimisation of the functioning parameters of the milking machine electronic unit, diagnosing the state of the udder quarters of cows for mastitis, Agricultural Science Euro-North-East, 2022, V. 23, no. 4, pp. 562-571, DOI: https://doi.org/10.30766/2072-9081.2022.23.4.562-571
26. Patent RU 2787690 C1, Liquid level indicator, Inventors: Yarovoy A.T., Kuz'michev V.A., Volkov V.A., Kirichenko E.I., Obriev P.M.
27. Patent RU 134620. Signalizator urovnya zhidkosti poplavkovogo tipa (Float type liquid level switch), Inventors: Yarovoy A.T., Kuz'michev V.A., Volkov V.A., Kirichenko E.I., Gabdrakhmanov R.N.
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