Control of oil rheological properties by exposure to physical methods

UDK: 622.692.4:536.243
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-1-92-97
Key words: crude oil pipeline, control of oil rheological properties, efficiency coefficient of oil processing, pumping heavy oils, exposure to physical and mechanical methods, thixotropy, plasma-pulse impact, rotor-pulsating effect, microwave oil treatment, cavitation, processing by a rotating electromagnetic field
Authors: R.Z. Sunagatullin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), S.E. Kutukov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.I. Golianov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), O.V. Chetvertkova (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), F.S. Zverev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)

The crude oil rheological properties significantly depend on its internal structure, the control of which is a promising area of research. Technologies that use various physical fields (acoustic, vibrational, magnetic, cavitation, etc.) make it possible to control the viscosity-temperature properties of oils and are the most promising due to their efficiency and economy. It is shown that the reversible processes of destruction of the native internal structure of thixotropic oils underlie the phenomenon of ‘memory’, which is advisable to use for technologies for controlling the oil rheological properties by physical and mechanical effects. The paper provides a substantiation of the criterion for the effectiveness of methods of physical and mechanical action on the supramolecular structures of oils, as which it is proposed to use the ratio of the increment of thixotropy energy due to the broken intermolecular bonds of the internal structure to the energy spent on the oil processing. Based on the experimental data of approbation, the efficiency coefficients of five promising exposure to physical and mechanical methods were obtained: plasma-pulse impact exceeds 3000, the rotor-pulsating – 400, cavitation in a hydrodynamic transonic jet-nozzle apparatus – 300, microwave oil treatment and processing by a rotating electromagnetic field is no more than 50. Thus, the most effective was the method of pulse-plasma exposure (the Yutkin method), the indisputable advantages of which include low energy consumption, but also the need for increased safety measures. The rotary-pulsating impact is not inferior in terms of viscosity reduction, but consumes 7 times more energy. A single treatment in a hydrodynamic transonic jet-nozzle apparatus gives a relatively small decrease in viscosity (less than 5%), but on the other hand, it shows a significantly low energy consumption for the processing.

The use of technologies for controlling the rheological characteristics of pumped crude oils in the future allows: to increase the throughput of the oil pipeline; maintain the specified pumping capacity at reduced operating modes during scheduled maintenance; increase the efficiency of pumping units running on heavy oils; to stabilize paraffins in suspended (dissolved) state; to reduce the consumption of depressant, drug reduction agents or wax inhibitors. The combination of various exposure to physical and mechanical methods and chemical reagent treatment of oil opens up wide opportunities for improving the technology of pumping heavy oils.

References

1. Gol'yanov A.I., Grisha B.G. et al., Comparative evaluation of the "hot" batching efficiency (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 6, pp. 642–649. 

2. Abramzon L.S., Iskhakov R.G., Tugunov P.I., Ratsional'naya perekachka vyazkikh i zastyvayushchikh neftey sovmestno s razbavitelem (Rational pumping of viscous and solidifying oils together with the diluent), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1977, 59 p. 

3. Kutukov S.E., Brot R.A., Determination of shock pressure in a pipeline with gas-saturated oil in transient modes (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, no. 3, pp. 199–205. 

4. Revel'-Muroz P.A. et al., Estimation of the oil pumping technology effectiveness with drag reduction agents (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 1, pp. 90–95.

5. Gol'yanov A.I. et al., Reduction of flow resistance in pipes by means of anti-turbulent additives. Review and case history (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2012, no. 2 (6), pp. 80–87.

6. Zhuyko P.V., Razrabotka printsipov upravleniya reologicheskimi svoystvami anomal'nykh neftey (Development of management principles for rheological properties of abnormal oils): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ukhta, 2003.

7. Anufriev R.V., Volkova G.I., Yudina N.V., Influence of ultrasonic treatment on structural-mechanical properties of oil and sedimentation (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2016, V. 56, no. 5, pp. 454–460.

8. Loskutova Yu.V., Vliyanie magnitnogo polya na reologicheskie svoystva neftey (Influence of the magnetic field on the rheological properties of oils): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Tomsk, 2003. 

9. Syunyaev Z.I., Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika neftey i osnovy intensifikatsii protsessov ikh pererabotki (Physicochemical mechanics of oils and the basics of intensification of their refining processes), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Institute, 1979, 39 p.

10. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., The survey of the theory of solutions (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 1(28), pp. 70–81.

11. Unger F.G., Andreeva L.N., Fundamental'nye aspekty khimii nefti. Priroda smol i asfal'tenov (Fundamental aspects of oil chemistry. The nature of the resins and asphaltenes), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1995, 192 p.

12. Loskutova Yu.V. et al., Raschet energeticheskikh parametrov gidromekhanicheskogo razrusheniya struktury neftey (Calculation of energy parameters of hydromechanical destruction of the structure of oils), Collected papers “Problemy khimii nefti i gaza” (Problems of chemistry of oil and gas), Tomsk: Publ. of IAO SB RAS, 2004, pp. 235–237.

13. Boytsova A.A., Kondrasheva N.K., Rheological properties of hydrocarbon systems with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (In Russ.), IFZh = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2018, V. 91, no. 4, pp. 1098–1105.

14. Ageev P.G. et al., Experimental study of plasma-impulse impact: intensity of pressure pulsations in the medium processed (In Russ.), Problemy mashinostroeniya i nadezhnosti mashin = Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability, 2019, no. 2, pp. 106–112.

15. Promtov M.A. Stepanov A.Yu., Aleshin A.V., Metody rascheta kharakteristik rotornogo impul'snogo apparata (Methods for calculating the characteristics of a rotary pulse apparatus), Tambov: Publ. of TSTU, 2015, 148 p.

The crude oil rheological properties significantly depend on its internal structure, the control of which is a promising area of research. Technologies that use various physical fields (acoustic, vibrational, magnetic, cavitation, etc.) make it possible to control the viscosity-temperature properties of oils and are the most promising due to their efficiency and economy. It is shown that the reversible processes of destruction of the native internal structure of thixotropic oils underlie the phenomenon of ‘memory’, which is advisable to use for technologies for controlling the oil rheological properties by physical and mechanical effects. The paper provides a substantiation of the criterion for the effectiveness of methods of physical and mechanical action on the supramolecular structures of oils, as which it is proposed to use the ratio of the increment of thixotropy energy due to the broken intermolecular bonds of the internal structure to the energy spent on the oil processing. Based on the experimental data of approbation, the efficiency coefficients of five promising exposure to physical and mechanical methods were obtained: plasma-pulse impact exceeds 3000, the rotor-pulsating – 400, cavitation in a hydrodynamic transonic jet-nozzle apparatus – 300, microwave oil treatment and processing by a rotating electromagnetic field is no more than 50. Thus, the most effective was the method of pulse-plasma exposure (the Yutkin method), the indisputable advantages of which include low energy consumption, but also the need for increased safety measures. The rotary-pulsating impact is not inferior in terms of viscosity reduction, but consumes 7 times more energy. A single treatment in a hydrodynamic transonic jet-nozzle apparatus gives a relatively small decrease in viscosity (less than 5%), but on the other hand, it shows a significantly low energy consumption for the processing.

The use of technologies for controlling the rheological characteristics of pumped crude oils in the future allows: to increase the throughput of the oil pipeline; maintain the specified pumping capacity at reduced operating modes during scheduled maintenance; increase the efficiency of pumping units running on heavy oils; to stabilize paraffins in suspended (dissolved) state; to reduce the consumption of depressant, drug reduction agents or wax inhibitors. The combination of various exposure to physical and mechanical methods and chemical reagent treatment of oil opens up wide opportunities for improving the technology of pumping heavy oils.

References

1. Gol'yanov A.I., Grisha B.G. et al., Comparative evaluation of the "hot" batching efficiency (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 6, pp. 642–649. 

2. Abramzon L.S., Iskhakov R.G., Tugunov P.I., Ratsional'naya perekachka vyazkikh i zastyvayushchikh neftey sovmestno s razbavitelem (Rational pumping of viscous and solidifying oils together with the diluent), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1977, 59 p. 

3. Kutukov S.E., Brot R.A., Determination of shock pressure in a pipeline with gas-saturated oil in transient modes (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, no. 3, pp. 199–205. 

4. Revel'-Muroz P.A. et al., Estimation of the oil pumping technology effectiveness with drag reduction agents (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 1, pp. 90–95.

5. Gol'yanov A.I. et al., Reduction of flow resistance in pipes by means of anti-turbulent additives. Review and case history (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2012, no. 2 (6), pp. 80–87.

6. Zhuyko P.V., Razrabotka printsipov upravleniya reologicheskimi svoystvami anomal'nykh neftey (Development of management principles for rheological properties of abnormal oils): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ukhta, 2003.

7. Anufriev R.V., Volkova G.I., Yudina N.V., Influence of ultrasonic treatment on structural-mechanical properties of oil and sedimentation (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2016, V. 56, no. 5, pp. 454–460.

8. Loskutova Yu.V., Vliyanie magnitnogo polya na reologicheskie svoystva neftey (Influence of the magnetic field on the rheological properties of oils): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Tomsk, 2003. 

9. Syunyaev Z.I., Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika neftey i osnovy intensifikatsii protsessov ikh pererabotki (Physicochemical mechanics of oils and the basics of intensification of their refining processes), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Institute, 1979, 39 p.

10. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., The survey of the theory of solutions (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 1(28), pp. 70–81.

11. Unger F.G., Andreeva L.N., Fundamental'nye aspekty khimii nefti. Priroda smol i asfal'tenov (Fundamental aspects of oil chemistry. The nature of the resins and asphaltenes), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1995, 192 p.

12. Loskutova Yu.V. et al., Raschet energeticheskikh parametrov gidromekhanicheskogo razrusheniya struktury neftey (Calculation of energy parameters of hydromechanical destruction of the structure of oils), Collected papers “Problemy khimii nefti i gaza” (Problems of chemistry of oil and gas), Tomsk: Publ. of IAO SB RAS, 2004, pp. 235–237.

13. Boytsova A.A., Kondrasheva N.K., Rheological properties of hydrocarbon systems with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (In Russ.), IFZh = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2018, V. 91, no. 4, pp. 1098–1105.

14. Ageev P.G. et al., Experimental study of plasma-impulse impact: intensity of pressure pulsations in the medium processed (In Russ.), Problemy mashinostroeniya i nadezhnosti mashin = Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability, 2019, no. 2, pp. 106–112.

15. Promtov M.A. Stepanov A.Yu., Aleshin A.V., Metody rascheta kharakteristik rotornogo impul'snogo apparata (Methods for calculating the characteristics of a rotary pulse apparatus), Tambov: Publ. of TSTU, 2015, 148 p.


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