Special aspects of ice strength seasonal variability in Russian Arctic

UDK: 622.276.1.4:622.147
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-51-55
Key words: ice, strength, loads, offshore, structures
Authors: A.A. Pashali (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), K.A. Kornishin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), P.A. Tarasov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), Ya.O. Efimov (Arctic Research Centre LLC, RF, Moscow), A.T. Bekker (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), E.E. Pomnikov (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), T.E. Uvarova (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), A.A. Zverev (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), A.M. Polomoshnov (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), S.M. Kovalev (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint-Petersburg)

The article discusses results of ice properties tests carried out in winter season 2018-2019 from 4 research sites located in the Laptev and Okhotsk seas. Field works were performed by the Russian Far Eastern Federal University as part of Rosneft Oil Company innovative program. This research has significantly expanded understanding of the ice strength seasonal variation and ice load on offshore structures in ice seas, and also made it possible to determine the optimal calendar periods for field tests. One of the main conclusions that can be drawn from the ice strength experiments is a linear dependence of the strength characteristics of flat ice on its temperature, while the coefficients in the corresponding regression equations depend on the region and type of ice. Approximate relationships between ice loads during the ice season are determined, new method for design parameters refinement is also proposed. The following conclusions can be drawn on the seasonal variability of ice strength and its effect on the value of design load the ice thickness at which it has maximum strength is 70% of the maximum ice thickness for the season; the ice thickness at which the maximum ice load is 80% of the maximum ice thickness for the season. The obtained results can be used for design and manufacturing of offshore facilities for exploration, production and transportation of hydrocarbons in the high seas of the Russian continental shelf, as well as for planning of marine along the Northern Sea Route.

References

1. Johnston M., Seasonal changes in the properties of first-year, second-year and multi-year ice, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 2017, V. 141, pp. 36–53.

2. Smirnov V.N., Shushlebin A.I., Kovalev S.M., Sheykin I.B., Metodicheskoe posobie po izucheniyu fiziko-mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik ledyanykh obrazovaniy kak iskhodnykh dannykh dlya rascheta ledovykh nagruzok na berega, dno i morskie sooruzheniya (Toolkit for the study of physical and mechanical    properties of ice formations like the original data for the calculation of ice loads on the shore, bottom and marine structures), St. Peterburg: AANII, 2011, 178 p.

3. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Shushlebin A.I. et al., Evaluation of local strength of ice using a borehole jack in the Kara and Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft, 2016, no. 1, pp. 47–51.

4. Smirnov V.N., Kovalev S.M., Shushlebin A.I. et al., Monitoring of the physical and mechanical state of sea ice and short-term prediction of extreme ice phenomena (In Russ.), Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki = Arctic and Antarctic Research, 2020, V. 66, no. 2, pp. 162–179, https://doi.org/10.30758/0555-2648-2020-66-2-162-179.

5. Bekker A.T., Uvarova T.E., Pomnikov E.E., Fatigue strength analysis of structural elements under ice condition, Proceedings 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, POAC, 9-12 June 2009, Lulea, 2009, V. 2, pp. 1203–1210.

6. Pavlov V.A., Kornishin K.A., Mironov E.U. et al., Peculiarities of consolidated layer growth of the Kara and Laptev Sea ice ridges (In Russ.),  Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 49–54.

7. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Smirnov V.N. et al., An experiment of large-scale tests of flexural strength of the ice fields in the Kara and the Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft”, 2016, no. 2, pp. 85–89.

8. Mokievskiy V.O., Tsetlin A.B., Sergienko L.A. et al., Ekologicheskiy atlas. More Laptevykh (Environmental Atlas. Laptev sea), Seriya “Atlasy morey Rossiyskoy Arktiki” (Series “Atlases of the Seas of the Russian Arctic”), Moscow: Publ. of Arctic Science Center, 2017.

9. Pashali A.A., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Ice and hydrometeorological survey at Khatangskiy license block in the Laptev Sea (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 22–27.

10. Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A., Efimov Ya.O. et al., Studies of the ice regime in the waters of the Gulf of Khatanga in the Laptev Sea (In Russ.), Led i Sneg, 2018, V. 58, no. 3, pp. 396–404, DOI: 10.15356/2076-6734-2018-3-396-404

11. Kovalev S.M., Smirnov V.N., Borodkin V.A. et al., Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Sea Ice in the Kara and Laptev Seas, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 2019, V. 29, no. 4, pp. 369–374.

12. Efimov Y., Zolotukhin A., Gudmestad O.T., Kornishin K.,  Cluster development of the barents and kara seas hc mega basins from the Novaya zemlya archipelago, Proceedings of  Arctic Technology Conference 2014, OTC-24650-MS,  2014, pp. 847–856.

The article discusses results of ice properties tests carried out in winter season 2018-2019 from 4 research sites located in the Laptev and Okhotsk seas. Field works were performed by the Russian Far Eastern Federal University as part of Rosneft Oil Company innovative program. This research has significantly expanded understanding of the ice strength seasonal variation and ice load on offshore structures in ice seas, and also made it possible to determine the optimal calendar periods for field tests. One of the main conclusions that can be drawn from the ice strength experiments is a linear dependence of the strength characteristics of flat ice on its temperature, while the coefficients in the corresponding regression equations depend on the region and type of ice. Approximate relationships between ice loads during the ice season are determined, new method for design parameters refinement is also proposed. The following conclusions can be drawn on the seasonal variability of ice strength and its effect on the value of design load the ice thickness at which it has maximum strength is 70% of the maximum ice thickness for the season; the ice thickness at which the maximum ice load is 80% of the maximum ice thickness for the season. The obtained results can be used for design and manufacturing of offshore facilities for exploration, production and transportation of hydrocarbons in the high seas of the Russian continental shelf, as well as for planning of marine along the Northern Sea Route.

References

1. Johnston M., Seasonal changes in the properties of first-year, second-year and multi-year ice, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 2017, V. 141, pp. 36–53.

2. Smirnov V.N., Shushlebin A.I., Kovalev S.M., Sheykin I.B., Metodicheskoe posobie po izucheniyu fiziko-mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik ledyanykh obrazovaniy kak iskhodnykh dannykh dlya rascheta ledovykh nagruzok na berega, dno i morskie sooruzheniya (Toolkit for the study of physical and mechanical    properties of ice formations like the original data for the calculation of ice loads on the shore, bottom and marine structures), St. Peterburg: AANII, 2011, 178 p.

3. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Shushlebin A.I. et al., Evaluation of local strength of ice using a borehole jack in the Kara and Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft, 2016, no. 1, pp. 47–51.

4. Smirnov V.N., Kovalev S.M., Shushlebin A.I. et al., Monitoring of the physical and mechanical state of sea ice and short-term prediction of extreme ice phenomena (In Russ.), Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki = Arctic and Antarctic Research, 2020, V. 66, no. 2, pp. 162–179, https://doi.org/10.30758/0555-2648-2020-66-2-162-179.

5. Bekker A.T., Uvarova T.E., Pomnikov E.E., Fatigue strength analysis of structural elements under ice condition, Proceedings 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, POAC, 9-12 June 2009, Lulea, 2009, V. 2, pp. 1203–1210.

6. Pavlov V.A., Kornishin K.A., Mironov E.U. et al., Peculiarities of consolidated layer growth of the Kara and Laptev Sea ice ridges (In Russ.),  Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 49–54.

7. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Smirnov V.N. et al., An experiment of large-scale tests of flexural strength of the ice fields in the Kara and the Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft”, 2016, no. 2, pp. 85–89.

8. Mokievskiy V.O., Tsetlin A.B., Sergienko L.A. et al., Ekologicheskiy atlas. More Laptevykh (Environmental Atlas. Laptev sea), Seriya “Atlasy morey Rossiyskoy Arktiki” (Series “Atlases of the Seas of the Russian Arctic”), Moscow: Publ. of Arctic Science Center, 2017.

9. Pashali A.A., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Ice and hydrometeorological survey at Khatangskiy license block in the Laptev Sea (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 22–27.

10. Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A., Efimov Ya.O. et al., Studies of the ice regime in the waters of the Gulf of Khatanga in the Laptev Sea (In Russ.), Led i Sneg, 2018, V. 58, no. 3, pp. 396–404, DOI: 10.15356/2076-6734-2018-3-396-404

11. Kovalev S.M., Smirnov V.N., Borodkin V.A. et al., Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Sea Ice in the Kara and Laptev Seas, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 2019, V. 29, no. 4, pp. 369–374.

12. Efimov Y., Zolotukhin A., Gudmestad O.T., Kornishin K.,  Cluster development of the barents and kara seas hc mega basins from the Novaya zemlya archipelago, Proceedings of  Arctic Technology Conference 2014, OTC-24650-MS,  2014, pp. 847–856.


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