This article is a review of modular software package, designed to solve all of the problems of technological chain of the operation of hydraulic fracturing: from planning and designing to effectiveness analysis and real-time operation monitoring. The software package was developed by project consortium of specialized universities and institutions of RAS in cooperation with Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre. The process of simulator development was split into two parts: development of modular platform with engineering tool kit for data processing and development of plug-ins, designed to model physical phenomena (processes). At the heart of calculation core lies hierarchy of models of hydraulic fracture development, which allows to model hydraulic fracturing in various geological conditions. For example, to model fracture propagation in uniform reservoir Pseudo 3D model is used. For modelling in reservoirs with various layer-dependent geomechanics and filtration properties Planar 3D model is used. To consider abnormal low or high pore pressure Planar 3D model is supplemented by taking into account the effects of poroelasticity. To model hydraulic fracture propagation in fractured reservoir, a special module is supposed to be used, which takes into account influence of natural fractures on the formation process of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). A chain of sub-models was implemented to model proppant transport processes. These sub-models take into account different effects, such as proppant sedimentation, drift and bridging, which have great impact on final geometry and conductivity of hydraulically induced fracture. Simulator provides various tool kits for downloading, processing and interpretation of field data. Engineer can work with results of geophysical surveys, field injection tests, microseismic monitoring data or actual well productivity history. In the end a digital report is formed based on results of engineering support. It contains both, initial data and information about adjustments, implemented into planned design of hydraulic fracturing operation. Also, fracturing simulator contains a module, developed to optimize economical effectiveness of the operation by taking into account planned oil production. Hydraulic fracturing simulator «Cyber Frac» has successfully passed validation and approbation stages. Pilot tests were carried on real field data by specialists of Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre. Currently, preparations for first industrial release are being finalized. Soon it will become available for external users.

References

1. Mayer B.R., Frac model in 3D – 4 Parts, Oil and Gas Journal, June-July. 1985.

2. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, Wiley, 2000, 824 р.

3. Baree R.D., A practical numerical simulator for three-dimensional fracture propagation in heterogeneous media, SPE-12273-MS, 1983.

4. Smith M.B., Klein H.A., Practical applications of coupling fully numerical 2-D transport calculation with a PC-based fracture geometry simulator, SPE-30505-MS, 1995.

5. Adachi J. et al., Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures, International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 2007, V.44, pp. 739–757.

6. Crouch S.L., Starfield A.M., Boundary element methods in solid mechanics, George Allen & Unwin, 1983.

7. Garagash D.I., Detournay E., Adachi J.I., Multiscale tip asymptotics in hydraulic fracture with leak-off, J. Fluid Mech., 2011, V. 669, pp. 260–297.

8. Dontsov E.V., Peirce A.P., A multiscale Implicit Level Set Algorithm (ILSA) to model hydraulic fracture propagation incorporating combined viscous, toughness, and leak-off asymptotics, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 2017, V. 313, pp. 53–84.

9. Osiptsov A.A., Fluid mechanics of hydraulic fracturing: a review // Journal of petroleum science and engineering, 2017, V. 156, pp. 513–535.

10. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Two-continua model of suspension flow in a hydraulic fracture (In Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Physics, 2010, V. 31, no. 6, pp. 758–761.

11. Carter R.D., Derivation of the general equation for estimating the extent of the fractured area, Appendix I of Optimum fluid characteristics for fracture extension, In: Drilling and Production Practice: edited by Howard, G.C., Fast, C.R., American Petroleum Institute, 1957, pp. 261–269.

12. Baree R.D., Conway M.W., Experimental and numerical modeling of convective proppant transport, SPE-28564-MS, 1995.

13. Gadde P.B., Sharma M.M., The impact of proppant retardation on propped fracture lengths, SPE-97106-MS, 2005.

14. Friehauf B.S., Simulation and design of energized hydraulic fractures: Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2009.

15. Dontsov E.V., Peirce A.P., Slurry flow, gravitational settling and a proppant transport model for hydraulic fractures, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2014, V. 760, pp. 567–590.

16. Shiozawa S., Mc Clure M., Stimulation of proppant transport with gravitation settling and fracture closure in a three-dimentional hydraulic fracturing simulator, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2016, V. 138, pp. 298–314.

17. Garagash I.A., Osiptsov A.A., Boronin S.A., Dynamic bridging of proppant particles in a hydraulic fracture, International Journal of Engineering Science, 2019, V. 135, Feb. 1, pp. 86–101.

18. Dontsov E.V., Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Derbyshev D.Y., Lubrication model of suspension flow in a hydraulic fracture with frictional rheology for shear-induced migration and jamming, Proceedings of the Royal Society A., 2019, Jun 19, 475(2226):20190039.

19. Baykin A.N., Golovin S.V., Influence of pore pressure on the development of a hydraulic fracture in poroelastic medium, Int. J. Rock Mech. & Mining Sci., 2018, V. 108, pp. 198–208.

20. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Desroches J., Displacement of yield-stress fluids in a fracture, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2015, Nov. 1, pp. 47–63.

21. Golovin S.V., Baykin A.N., Application of the fully coupled planar 3D poroelastic hydraulic fracturing model to the analysis of the permeability contrast impact on fracture propagation, Rock Mech. & Rock Eng., 2018, V. 51, no. 10, pp. 3205–3217.

22. Erofeev A.A., Vostrikova V.A., Sitdikov R.M. et al., Modeling of stimulated reservoir volume by multistage hydraulic fracturing in formation with pre-existing natural fractures, Proceedings of ECMOR XVI – 16th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, 2018, September,.

23. Starovoytova B.N., Golovin S.V., Kavunnikova E.A. et al., Hydraulic fracture design for horizontal well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 106–110.This article is a review of modular software package, designed to solve all of the problems of technological chain of the operation of hydraulic fracturing: from planning and designing to effectiveness analysis and real-time operation monitoring. The software package was developed by project consortium of specialized universities and institutions of RAS in cooperation with Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre. The process of simulator development was split into two parts: development of modular platform with engineering tool kit for data processing and development of plug-ins, designed to model physical phenomena (processes). At the heart of calculation core lies hierarchy of models of hydraulic fracture development, which allows to model hydraulic fracturing in various geological conditions. For example, to model fracture propagation in uniform reservoir Pseudo 3D model is used. For modelling in reservoirs with various layer-dependent geomechanics and filtration properties Planar 3D model is used. To consider abnormal low or high pore pressure Planar 3D model is supplemented by taking into account the effects of poroelasticity. To model hydraulic fracture propagation in fractured reservoir, a special module is supposed to be used, which takes into account influence of natural fractures on the formation process of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). A chain of sub-models was implemented to model proppant transport processes. These sub-models take into account different effects, such as proppant sedimentation, drift and bridging, which have great impact on final geometry and conductivity of hydraulically induced fracture. Simulator provides various tool kits for downloading, processing and interpretation of field data. Engineer can work with results of geophysical surveys, field injection tests, microseismic monitoring data or actual well productivity history. In the end a digital report is formed based on results of engineering support. It contains both, initial data and information about adjustments, implemented into planned design of hydraulic fracturing operation. Also, fracturing simulator contains a module, developed to optimize economical effectiveness of the operation by taking into account planned oil production. Hydraulic fracturing simulator «Cyber Frac» has successfully passed validation and approbation stages. Pilot tests were carried on real field data by specialists of Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre. Currently, preparations for first industrial release are being finalized. Soon it will become available for external users.

References

1. Mayer B.R., Frac model in 3D – 4 Parts, Oil and Gas Journal, June-July. 1985.

2. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, Wiley, 2000, 824 р.

3. Baree R.D., A practical numerical simulator for three-dimensional fracture propagation in heterogeneous media, SPE-12273-MS, 1983.

4. Smith M.B., Klein H.A., Practical applications of coupling fully numerical 2-D transport calculation with a PC-based fracture geometry simulator, SPE-30505-MS, 1995.

5. Adachi J. et al., Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures, International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 2007, V.44, pp. 739–757.

6. Crouch S.L., Starfield A.M., Boundary element methods in solid mechanics, George Allen & Unwin, 1983.

7. Garagash D.I., Detournay E., Adachi J.I., Multiscale tip asymptotics in hydraulic fracture with leak-off, J. Fluid Mech., 2011, V. 669, pp. 260–297.

8. Dontsov E.V., Peirce A.P., A multiscale Implicit Level Set Algorithm (ILSA) to model hydraulic fracture propagation incorporating combined viscous, toughness, and leak-off asymptotics, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 2017, V. 313, pp. 53–84.

9. Osiptsov A.A., Fluid mechanics of hydraulic fracturing: a review // Journal of petroleum science and engineering, 2017, V. 156, pp. 513–535.

10. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Two-continua model of suspension flow in a hydraulic fracture (In Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Physics, 2010, V. 31, no. 6, pp. 758–761.

11. Carter R.D., Derivation of the general equation for estimating the extent of the fractured area, Appendix I of Optimum fluid characteristics for fracture extension, In: Drilling and Production Practice: edited by Howard, G.C., Fast, C.R., American Petroleum Institute, 1957, pp. 261–269.

12. Baree R.D., Conway M.W., Experimental and numerical modeling of convective proppant transport, SPE-28564-MS, 1995.

13. Gadde P.B., Sharma M.M., The impact of proppant retardation on propped fracture lengths, SPE-97106-MS, 2005.

14. Friehauf B.S., Simulation and design of energized hydraulic fractures: Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2009.

15. Dontsov E.V., Peirce A.P., Slurry flow, gravitational settling and a proppant transport model for hydraulic fractures, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2014, V. 760, pp. 567–590.

16. Shiozawa S., Mc Clure M., Stimulation of proppant transport with gravitation settling and fracture closure in a three-dimentional hydraulic fracturing simulator, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2016, V. 138, pp. 298–314.

17. Garagash I.A., Osiptsov A.A., Boronin S.A., Dynamic bridging of proppant particles in a hydraulic fracture, International Journal of Engineering Science, 2019, V. 135, Feb. 1, pp. 86–101.

18. Dontsov E.V., Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Derbyshev D.Y., Lubrication model of suspension flow in a hydraulic fracture with frictional rheology for shear-induced migration and jamming, Proceedings of the Royal Society A., 2019, Jun 19, 475(2226):20190039.

19. Baykin A.N., Golovin S.V., Influence of pore pressure on the development of a hydraulic fracture in poroelastic medium, Int. J. Rock Mech. & Mining Sci., 2018, V. 108, pp. 198–208.

20. Boronin S.A., Osiptsov A.A., Desroches J., Displacement of yield-stress fluids in a fracture, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2015, Nov. 1, pp. 47–63.

21. Golovin S.V., Baykin A.N., Application of the fully coupled planar 3D poroelastic hydraulic fracturing model to the analysis of the permeability contrast impact on fracture propagation, Rock Mech. & Rock Eng., 2018, V. 51, no. 10, pp. 3205–3217.

22. Erofeev A.A., Vostrikova V.A., Sitdikov R.M. et al., Modeling of stimulated reservoir volume by multistage hydraulic fracturing in formation with pre-existing natural fractures, Proceedings of ECMOR XVI – 16th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, 2018, September,.

23. Starovoytova B.N., Golovin S.V., Kavunnikova E.A. et al., Hydraulic fracture design for horizontal well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 8, pp. 106–110.