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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
Nowadays the Arctic Region more and more reveals an unexplored nature of its vast spread and diversity of deposited natural resources. How to save the fragile nature of the region and remedy the made mistakes of the past since a lot of waste, barrels, fuel and lubricants etc. had been dumped in these areas? Now the time has come to restore damaged land and save the life of unique animals and plants.Following the instructions of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation the LUKOIL Company was one of the first in the country to compile a "Biodiversity Conservation Program” and LUKOIL-Komi LLC and its structural subdivisions actively joined the implementation of the Program. Not only specialists responsible for ecological safety were involved in protecting the northern ecosystem and its inhabitants but also regular employees (operators, equipment inspectors, foremen, geologists, process engineers and many others) involved in oil production in the northern fields of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province. Close cooperation of the territorial production enterprise LUKOIL-Severneftegas and LUKOIL-Komi ecologists resulted in developing of the Action Plan aimed at the protection of the Arctic biodiversity. The plan includes ten sections describing geographical, climatic, soil and hydrological conditions, fauna and economic use of the territory. It also lists the required actions to preserve northern flora and fauna, demonstrates the indicator-species and describes the observation and keeping records procedure. The Plan was reviewed by experts at the LUKOIL Corporate Knowledge Management System website and appreciated by the colleagues from other subsidiaries and after that it was launched in the fields bordering the coast of the Barents Sea.
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The article considers the ecological state of river-water of the territory of developed and non-developed fields of PJSC Surgutneftegas in the basin of the Ai-Pim River. The Ai-Pim Basin located on the slope of the lowest part of the Middle Ob Plain - in the Surgut lowland, where the stagnant hydrological phenomena are in evidence, has been affected by the hydrocarbon deposits development for more than 30 years. Impact of hydrocarbon greenfields development is less. All this together have an effect on the state of natural environment. First of all, the appearance of the surrounding landscapes has changed due to the construction of industrial objects. At the same time, their construction on waterlogged lands has increased the drainage of the terrain, and this, in turn, had a favorable effect on the growth in the species diversity of plant communities and wildlife. Changes in the geochemical state of water objects are not visually detected, therefore, to determine the degree and consequence of an impact Surgutneftegas PJSC is regularly monitoring the state of surface water, including bottom sediments.
In the waters of the Ay-Pim River and its tributaries it is established the presence of hydrocarbons, phenols, biogenic substances, heavy metals and other chemical substances, the content of which exceeds the maximum permissible concentration. This is typical not only for The Ai-Pim Basin, but also for other watercourses on the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district – Ugra, where hydrocarbon production is not conducted. This statement is confirmed by long-term studies, including studies performed by Surgutneftegas. It is shown that the content of oil products, chlorides, heavy metals and other compounds in the bottom sediments is within the environmental standards characteristic of the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district. The excess of the limiting indicators are rare, and it indicates the absence of pollution of bottom sediments by oil and gas production facilities.
1. Lezin V.A., Reki Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga (Rivers of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug: A Reference Guide), Tyumen': Vektor-Buk Publ., 1999, 160 p.
2. Fiziko-geograficheskoe rayonirovanie Tyumenskoy oblasti (Physical and geographical zoning of the Tyumen region): edited by Gvozdetskiy N.A., Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1973, 246 p.
3. Bolotnye sistemy Zapadnoy Sibiri i ikh prirodookhrannoe znachenie (Marsh systems of Western Siberia and their conservation value): edited by Kuvaev V.B., Tula: Grif i Co Publ., 2001, 584 p.
4. Nechaeva E.G., Landscape-geochemical zoning of the West Siberian Plain (In Russ.), Geografiya i prirodnye resursy, 1990, no. 4, pp. 77–83.
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Offshore oil production is a priori coupled with potential negative impacts on the environment, fishing and recreation. Accidents and attendant oil spills were and remain inevitable satellites of almost all operations in production, transport and storage of oil at sea and on land. Thereby oil spills are merely the one from many natural and technogenic sources of oil inflow into marine environment, and severity of spills impact is not always determined by their volume. It is marked in the article, that about half of the global oil flow into the marine environment has a natural origin as a result of natural outputs (unloadings) of oil and gas fluids on the seabed. Meanwhile, the marine oil and gas complex is responsible only for 20% of the total oil inflow into the world ocean, and emergency spills make up only 10 % of the cumulative oil flow into the marine environment.
It is shown that artificial reefs are one of the effective ways to increase bioproductivity and self-clarification ability of marine environment. Complex and systemic application of artificial reefs in sea platform oil production consists in the use of original natural processes for biodegradation of oil in the marine environment in the passive participation of subsurface user. Thereby biocenosis organisms are bioindicators of the state of the marine environment and biota and provide long-term self-clarification and protection of the marine environment from oil pollution, not requiring operator maintenance.
1. Oil in the sea III: Inputs, fates, and effects, Washington: National Academies Press, 2003, 278 p.
2. Patin S.A., Neft' i ekologiya kontinental'nogo shel'fa (Oil and ecology of the continental shelf), Part 2. Morskoy neftegazovyy kompleks: sostoyanie, perspektivy, faktory vozdeystviya (Offshore oil and gas complex: state, prospects, impact factors), Moscow: Publ. of VNIRO, 2017, 326 p.
3. Patin S.A., Neftyanye razlivy i ikh vozdeystvie na morskuyu sredu i bioresursy (Oil spills and their impact on the marine environment and bioresources), Moscow: Publ. of VNIRO, 2008, 508 p.
4. Nemirovskaya I.A., Neft' v okeane (zagryaznenie i prirodnye potoki) (Oil in the ocean (pollution and natural flows)), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2013, 432 p.
5. Olsson E.H., Small spills: Cause for concern, Proceedings of the 2005 International Oil Spill Conference. – Washington: API, 2005.
6. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program). Illegal oil discharge in European seas, Environment Alert Bulletin, 2006, no. 7, 4 p.
7. Estimates of oil entering the marine environment from sea-based activities, GESAMP Reports and Studies, 2007, no. 75, 96 p.
8. Patent no. 2670304 RF, E02B 17/00, A01K 61/70, V63V 35/32, Method of protection and improvement of marine environment under oil production at stationary marine platform, Inventors: Maganov R.U., Zaikin I.A., Bezrodnyy Yu.G.
9. Patent no. 2314386 RF, E02B 3/06, Artificial reef, Inventor: Gritsykhin V.A.
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502.36 : 622.276
Currently, the issues of energy saving and environmental safety at fuel and energy facilities are becoming urgent. The article presents a new installation designed for oil waste processing and water-oil emulsion production. The resulting emulsion can be disposed of by combustion. At the same time, oil waste storage areas and emissions from waste storage to the environment are significantly reduced. Also the combustion of water-oil mixture reduces emissions to the atmosphere compared to the incineration of waste, without water. Oil-water emulsion is a mixture of oil waste and water in certain proportions. The article presents the design and principal scheme of the plant for obtaining oil-water emulsion. Operation modes of the developed installation are studied. The results of the water content evaluation in the mixture are given. Experiments were performed on a model of fluid with a viscosity of mazout. This installation has three circulation loops. Each loop has a device for mixing and producing a homogeneous mixture. The loop can operate independently from each other or together. According to the obtained results, the most effective circulation scheme is a scheme that includes all the devices of the installation. The results of the experiments revealed that the stability of the mixture requires water content within 20–25 %. At concentrations more than 25 % a speed of steady-state achievement is lowered. At concentrations less than 20 % this speed is high, but emulsion rapidly decompose into components. Also the article describes the concept of a mobile installation for oil waste disposal. The scheme of stand is considered, the offered arrangement of the equipment is given. This installation will allow to collect local oil spills and oil waste, process and transport it to the place of their burning with the least expenses.
1. Shornikova E.A., Nekotorye vozmozhnye sposoby utilizatsii otkhodov bureniya i neftedobychi (Some possible methods of disposal of drilling waste and oil production), Collected papers “Biologicheskie resursy i prirodopol'zovanie” (Biological resources and environmental management), 2002, no. 5, pp. 99–109.
2. Zharov O.A., Lavrov V.L., Modern methods of oil sludge processing (In Russ.), Ekologiya proizvodstva, 2004, no. 5, pp. 43–51.
3. Yul'timirova I.A., Sludge disposal problems (In Russ.), Nalogi. Investitsii. Kapital, 2004, no. 1, pp. 9–13.
4. Mustafin I.A., Akhmetov A.F., Gaysina A.R., Utilization methods of oil sludge of different origin (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, V. 9, no. 3, pp. 98–101.
5. Kormilitsyn V.I., Lyskov M.G., Rumynskiy A.A., A complex environmentally compatible technology for burning a water-oil emulsion with waste water added (In Russ.), Teploenergetika, 1996, no. 9, pp. 13–17.
6. Kormilitsyn V.I., Lyskov M.G., Rumynskiy A.A., The effect of adding moisture to the furnace on the intensity of radiant heat transfer (In Russ.), Teploenergetika, 1992, no. 1, pp. 41–44.
7. Kormilitsyn V.I., Lyskov M.G., Rumynskiy A.A., Preparation of fuel oil for incineration to improve the technical, economic and environmental performance of boiler plants (In Russ.), Novosti teplosnabzheniya, 2000, no. 4, pp. 19–21.
8. Utility patent no. 125189 U1, Ustroystvo dlya pererabotki nefteotkhodov (The device for processing oil waste), Inventors: Sakharova A.V., Utyatnikov A.E., Kvashennikov S.A., Litvinenko A.S., Dmitriev S.M., Andreev V.V., Lapshin R.M.
9. Utility patent no. 125893 U1, Dezintegrator dlya pererabotki neftesoderzhashchikh otkhodov (Disintegrator for processing of oily waste), Inventors: Sakharova A.V., Utyatnikov A.E., Kvashennikov S.A., Litvinenko A.S., Dmitriev S.M., Andreev V.V., Lapshin R.M.
10. Patent no. 2512450 C1, Disintegrator for processing of oil-bearing wastes, Inventors: Sakharova A.V., Utyatnikov A.E., Kvashennikov S.A., Litvinenko A.S., Dmitriev S.M., Andreev V.V., Lapshin R.M.
11. Patent no. 2497934, Device for oil waste processing, Inventors: Sakharova A.V., Utyatnikov A.E., Kvashennikov S.A., Litvinenko A.S., Dmitriev S.M., Andreev V.V., Lapshin R.M.
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The paper presents different design solutions for prevention of casing strings deformation in wells of Komsomolskoye field. The world experience of solving casing strings deformation problems has been surveyed. The deformation is related to Earth surface sagging. Radio positioning satellite data has been processed in order to investigate the reasons of casing and oil well tubing deformation in producing wells of Komsomolskoye field oil production infrastructure, where sufficient local sagging of Earth surface has been identified. The evidences of Earth surface sagging have been presented. The information on problem wells in Komsomolskoye field has been additionally processed and the fragments of retrieved tubing have been examined in order to identify nature and reasons of strings collapse. The assumptions for casing strings deformation reasons have been presented. The different methods for the recovery of casing string internal drift diameter, including the isolation of problem section using running and cementation of integral joint casing string with high pipe grade. Intermediate casing pipes with K55 pipe grade and maximum possible wall thickness have been recommended for problem section isolation. Problem section enlargement or the washout of cavern with maximum possible diameter has been recommended, which would sufficiently improve cementation quality and decrease the risk of casing string buckling.
The authors have developed the design sketch of a special spool for wellhead equipment. The spool allows the hoisting of production string in case of rock sagging. The authors recommended additional scientific research, including geomechanical modelling, hole stability modelling overtime and rock pressure specification.
1. Bliznyukov V.YU., Gilaev A.G., Gilaev G.G. et al., Issues of exploitation of sand producing layers. The influence of reservoir pressure on the removal of sand from the reservoir during operation of producing wells (In Russ.), Inzhener-neftyanik, 2010, no. 1, pp. 11–23.
2. Bliznyukov V.YU., Gilaev A.G., Gilaev G.G. et al., The main causes and methods of preventing violations of casing in the development of sand-producing productive layers (In Russ.), Inzhener-neftyanik, 2010, no. 2, pp. 5–12.
3. Dusseault M.B., Bruno M.S., Barrera J., Casing shear: Causes, cases, cures, SPE 48864-MS, 2001.4. Bruno M.S., Geomechanical and decision analyses for mitigating compaction-related casing damage, SPE 79519-PA, 2002.
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The article considers the issues of fertility and silvicultural properties of soils, on which the sludge storage pits were previously located. The research was carried out in 2017-2019 on the territory of the LUKOIL-Volgogradneftepererabotka disposal facilities. The generally accepted methods of the polluted soils vegetative properties and the woody plants growth studying were used. Phytotoxicity and soil fertility were studied in a field experiment with the disposal facilities area recultivation.
Six species of trees and bushes were used in plantations: black chokeberry (Arónia melanocárpa), canker rose (Rósa canína), Emerson's thorn (Crataegus submollis), sea buckthorn (Hippóphae rhamnoídes), wild black cherry (Prúnus virginiána), tamarix brachiate (Tamarix ramosissima). The site is located in the zone of light chestnut soils. It was revealed that the soils, on which the sludge storage pits were previously located, have a slightly alkaline reaction pH = 8.2-8.6. They fix highly soluble salts into complexes, which reduces their content from 0.187-0.596 g/l to 0.109-0.286 g/l. Soils form a hydrophobic structure, which impairs the moisture entry into the root layer. This reduces the fertility of contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity of the tested medicinal and fruit plants was not detected. It was established that woody plants adapt well to growth in the recultivated area. In the third year after planting, flowering and fruiting are noted at tamarix, chokeberry and rose. Wild black cherry and rose form root stalks. The woody plants adaptability on the technologically disturbed lands cluster analysis allowed to divide the studied species into two categories. The first category includes plants that are more adapted to the complex forest conditions: tamarix, rose and sea buckthorn. The second category includes Emerson's thorn, wild black cherry and black chokeberry, which are less adaptive to the technogenic burden.
1. Voronina V.P., Biryukov A.Yu., Vedilin R.V., Inyakin A.V., Estimation of antrogenetive transformed soils influence on crops growth and bioefficiency (In Russ.), Izvestiya Nizhnevolzhskogo agrouniversitetskogo kompleksa: Nauka i vysshee professional'noe obrazovanie, 2016, no. 2 (42), pp. 49–56.
2. Kirpo N.I., Loboyko V.F., Ekologiya pochv v meliorativnom zemledelii Nizhnego Povolzh'ya (teoriya i praktika) (Ecology of soils in land reclamation agriculture of the Lower Volga region (theory and practice)), Volgograd: IPK "Niva" VGSKhA Publ., 2010, 119 p.
3. Litvinov E.A., Vdovenko A.V., Kalmykov S.I., Berry-fruit and decor prospective introduction in conditions of North Caspian Area (In Russ.), Vestnik Saratovskogo gosagrouniversiteta im. N.I. Vavilova, 2008, no. 5, pp. 34–36.
4. Koval' V.T., Kalinin T.Yu., Alborov I.I., New calculation methods for production reserves and environmental efficiency in large industrial enterprises (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten', 1997, no. 2, pp. 136–137.
5. Dmitriev E.A., Soil and soil-like bodies (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie = Eurasian Soil Science, 1996, no. 3, pp. 310–319.
6. Trofimov S.Ya., On the dynamics of organic matter in soils (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie, 1997, no. 9, pp. 1181–1186.
7. Semenyutina A.V., Podkovyrov I.Yu., Tsembelev M.A., Estimation cluster method of woody plants successful introduction by generic complexes (In Russ.) Izvestiya Nizhnevolzhskogo agrouniversitetskogo kompleksa: Nauka i vysshee professional'noe obrazovanie, 2015, no. 1(37), pp. 56–61.8. Semenyutina A.V., Podkovyrov I.Y., Huzhahmetova A.S., Semenyutina V.A., Podkovyrova G.V., Mathematical justification of the selection of woody plants biodiversity in the reconstruction of objects of gardening, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 2016, V. 110, no. 2, pp. 361–368.
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|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
Expected events can be predicted with varying accuracy depending on the nature of the events: probabilistic or uncertain. To understand the nature of risk, the relationship between risk and return is of primary importance. You can choose a solution that contains less risk, but at the same time it will be less income, and at the highest risk, the income has the highest value. An entrepreneur, an investor may partially transfer the risk to other subjects of the economy, but it cannot be completely avoided.
The article discusses the concepts of “risk” and “uncertainty” from the point of view of solving applied problems in the oil and gas economy, management decision-making environments, methods for evaluating their effectiveness, investor behavior, etc. There are three main areas of conditions (three decision-making environments) in which investors make decisions: a certainty environment - the possible outcomes are precisely known, the probability is equal to one; risk environment - there are many possible outcomes, each of which is characterized by a specific probability of its occurrence; environment of uncertainty - there are many possible outcomes, the probabilities of which are unknown.
The various areas of uncertainty and risk taken into account when making investment decisions allow identifying three types of investor beh * avior: risk appetite, indifference, and risk aversion. Practice shows that most investors are not risk averse. These approaches are considered on examples of some applied problems of the oil and gas economy, in the solution of which the authors were directly involved. It was noted that the use of a matrix of gains or risks from the point of view of several criteria followed by a numerical analysis of the situation can be useful in making a final decision and reduces the likelihood of failure. The approaches considered in the article can also be used to solve other applied problems of the oil and gas economy.
1. Andreev A.F., Otsenka effektivnosti i planirovanie proektnykh resheniy v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Performance evaluation and planning of design solutions in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 1997, 276 p.
2. Zubareva V.D., Sarkisov A.S., Andreev A.F., Tekhniko-ekonomicheskiy analiz neftegazovykh proektov: effektivnost' i riski (Technical and economic analysis of oil and gas projects: efficiency and risks), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2018, 280 p.3. Matheron G., Traité de géostatistique appliquée, Editions Technip, France, 1962-63.
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The article considers the Russian oilfield services market formation process, structure and mechanism of operational activities of the main Russian and international market players. The prerequisites of the Russian oilfield services market formation have laid the foundation for the interaction among energy and oilfield service companies on the Russian oil and gas market. The resulting operational model is conceptually different from the approaches of interaction among energy and oilfield services companies in other developed and emerging markets. The peculiarities of interaction of national energy and international oilfield services companies in the Russian market are revealed, advantages and disadvantages of cooperation models are outlined. Examples of different countries and markets set out alternative approaches for the energy and international oilfield service companies interaction in terms of the types of work, the depth of outsourcing of oilfield services. Against the backdrop of various oilfield service market and oilfield service companies classifications existence, an additional classification of oilfield services companies in the world and Russian markets is proposed, according to the operating model type, which correlates with current trends in a dynamically developing market. The main goals and tasks set by the state within the framework of the "Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation - 2035" project in front of the national oil and gas industry are illustrated, the main one of which is the intensification of extraction of hard-to-recover oil and gas reserves. The fulfillment of this task requires from energy companies modern technological solutions that the leaders of the oilfield service market have. In this regard, the concept of service integration as an effective solution to the problem of extracting hard-to-recover oil and gas reserves was proposed. Conditions under which the concept of oilfield services integration brings maximum efficiency is considered, as well as the advantages and risks of this type of operational interaction among key players in the oil and gas industry.
1. Tuktarov S.R., Bol'shakova O.I., The state and prospects of development of oilfield services market in Russia (In Russ.), Vestnik universiteta, 2016, no. 12, pp. 32–37.
2. Shafranik Yu.K., Kryukov V.A., Neftegazovyy sektor Rossii: trudnyy put' k mnogoobraziyu (Russia's oil and gas sector: the difficult path to diversity), Moscow: Pero Publ., 2016, 272 p.
3. Klimovich K.P., Odintsova M.A., Problems and prospects of Russian machine-building complex in a market economy (In Russ.), Ekonomicheskiy zhurnal, 2016, pp. 16–27.
4. Kozenyasheva M., World experience and features of the formation of oil and gas service in Russia (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2017, no. 2.
5. Kraynova E.A., Kuznetsov A.V., Assessment of the competitiveness potential of the Russian market of geophysical services (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2013, no. 1, pp. 185–190.
6. Pavlushina E., Kamyshnikov G., Sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya nefteservisnogo rynka Rossii (The state and prospects of development of oilfield services market of Russia), Deloitte, 2016, URL: https://www2.deloitte.com/ru/ru/ pages/energy-and-resources/articles/2016/oilservice-market-in-russia-2016.html.
7. Shafranik Yu.K., Losing oil service - destroying the economy (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii, 2016, URL: http://www.oilru.com/news/375102/
8. Schlumberger Annual report 2016. – Ì.: Schlumberger Annual report, 2017.
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338.532.43 : 622.276
The successfully developing process of gasification of the regions of the Russian Federation is one of the engines of the country's general socio-economic growth, in which both direct consumers of gas and PJSC Gazprom and relevant government bodies are interested. At present, gasification is financed by the investment programs of Gazprom PJSC, the funds of the regional administration, the investment programs of gas distribution organizations and independent suppliers, as well as federal targeted programs. Since most of the federal budget revenues come from the oil and gas sector, its filling is directly related to oil prices, as well as to gas prices, calculated on the basis of linking to a basket of oil products. This leads to the fact that fluctuations in oil prices are one of the main factors influencing the formation of the federal budget of the Russian Federation, the Investment programs of Gazprom PJSC, federal and state programs. The article submitted for consideration on the basis of retrospective statistical data on oil prices, revenues from the export of crude oil and gas, the volume of Gazprom PJSC investments in the development of gas supply and gasification of the Russian regions over the past 14 years, analyzes the impact of oil prices on the development of gasification in Russian Federation, and confirmed the dependence of these investments on fluctuations in oil prices based on the calculation of correlation coefficients.
1. Belinskiy A.V., Influence of the gas supply and the gas infrastructure development on economic growth of regions of the Russian Federation (econometric approach) (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2018, V. 770, Special Issue, pp. 6–13.
2. Mel'nikov R.M., The impact of oil price dynamics on the macroeconomic indicators of the Russian economy (In Russ.), Prikladnaya ekonometrika, 2010, no. 1 (17), 2010, pp. 20–29.
3. Alekhin B.I., Price of oil and economic growth of Russia (In Russ.), Ekonomicheskiy zhurnal, 2016, no. 2 (42), pp. 86–102.
5. Sukharev M.G., Tverskoy I.V., Belinskiy A.V., Samoylov R.V., Problems of development of territorial gas supply systems (In Russ.) Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2009, V. 640, Special Issue, pp. 26–29.
6. Belinskiy A.V., Economic and statistical analysis of the Russian gas distribution sector (In Russ.), Finansovaya analitika: problemy i resheniya, 2017, V. 10, no. 4(334), pp. 384–402.
7. Belinskiy A.V., Typological study of gas distribution organizations financial status in Russia (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2017, no. 7, pp. 3–12.
8. Varlamov N.V., Belinskiy A.V., Rechinskiy S.N. et al., Scientific and methodical approach and experience in developing schemes for the development of regional gas transmission systems (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2014, no. 10 (713), pp. 15–19.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
Application of a wireline formation tester (WFT) is a widely known method of surveys during exploratory well construction. Such method allows isolating the well target area by the selective clamping sealed element and gathering fluid and gas samples from a tested reservoir zone into a special sealed container. The results of WFT surveys allow specifying saturation and hydrodynamic properties of the reservoir; reservoir pressure; position of fluid contact; reservoir fluid properties; and intervals for the subsequent cased testing and full-featured sampling. However, performing these works and studies is not always an easy task. Wireline formation testing is a complex multistage unstable process with a short-time runs that often leads to unclear results in the context of tight reservoirs, characterized by low permeability and reservoir fluid mobility aggravated by a deep zone of mud filtrate penetration. Deep penetration distorts the picture so the solution filtrate and reservoir fluid are distinguished according to chemical analysis data and additional sample studies. The article describes the method of improving the application efficiency of information that was obtained in the course of studies, by combining various data, namely, variability of carbon dioxide content in samples with the results of interpreting well survey data. Well survey based pay zones are confirmed by the reservoir samples interpretation in terms of CO2 content, which is an additional criterion for identifying the intervals that are promising for oil and gas in the well section, even in the absence of representative oil samples.
1. PVT laboratory study report: Block 12/11 South Con Son, Vietnam, Vung Tau: Vietsovpetro, 2017.2. Reservoir Characterization Instrument (RCI): Pressure testing and sampling report of Vietsovpetro, Ho Chi Minh, 2017.
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The petroleum potential of any region is determined in term of the amount of it is proven hydrocarbon reserves, and the potential resources of undiscovered traps. The purpose of exploration is the discovery of the field. Further exploration work is aimed at the highest possibility of obtaining good quality data with minimum cost and time. The economic model is reflecting the creation of the conceptual geological model, as well as the optimal development scheme and arrangement for the field, via forming a conclusion about the feasibility of large investments. During the assessment stage of the prospective site, a statistical method can be a very useful tool for analyzing, which makes possibility to predict and evaluate the probability of geological discovery, in term of the size and quality. The more expensive the construction of exploration well, the higher the responsibility in the decision-making process and a clear example of this fact is the hydrocarbon exploration on the shelf. Every year the number of discoveries of large fields decreases, and this lead to increase the demand of the analyses of the residual targets. In this article, the authors suggest taking in to consideration the analysis of the influence of the quality and quantity of geological and geophysical information on the dynamic of field discoveries and the identification of hydrocarbon reserves of the North Sakhalin petroleum region. Within the considered territory (Sakhalin island shelf) in 2017-2018 by the company Gazprom Neft on the Ayashsky license area two large Neptune and Triton oil fields were discovered with STOIIP of 415 and 137 million tons respectively. These finds prompted the authors to conduct a retrospective analysis and try to predict the possible distribution of prospecting deposits.
1. Kharakhinov V.V., Neftegazovaya geologiya Sakhalinskogo regiona (Petroleum geology of the Sakhalin region), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2010, 276 p.
2. Rose P.R., Risk analysis and management of petroleum exploration ventures, AAPG, 2012.
3. Semikhodskiy G.E., Timoshin Yu.V., Prediction of gas content in the Dnieper-Donets Basin based on statistical data (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1982, no. 7, pp. 8–35.
4. Radchikova A.M., Forecast of the projected part of the gas potential of the northern regions of the West Siberian megaprovince (land) (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskogo sbornika “Vesti gazovoy nauki”, 2010, no, 2(5), pp. 22–27.5. Podol'skiy Yu.V., Avsievich A.I., Lebedeva L.V., Evaluation of total initial hydrocarbon resources of the Timan-Pechora province using simulation modeling method (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 3.
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Carbonate reservoirs form a specific microstructure of the void space of the rock due to their physicochemical properties, capability to fracturing, leaching and recrystallization. This microstructure is due to the Genesis of the rock and its reshaping during compaction and catagenesis. It includes micro-and macro-cracks and different forms of porosity and cavernosity. For the purpose of the carbonate deposit structure differentiating and assessing reserves, the ratio of the filtration properties of fractures and matrix is decisive. This relationship underlies the proposed classification of fractured reservoirs, including a purely fractured collector (tight matrix and fractures), a porous fractured type (low porosity matrix that feeds fractures) and a matrix reservoir type (filter matrix with a subordinate fracture distribution). The conditions and methods of diagnosis of the selected types are considered. Important condition for effective using of proposed classification of fractured carbonate reservoirs is analysis of tools and methods for characterization of reservoir types. Such methods include core analyzes with differentiated determination of capacity and filtration characteristics of fractures, computed tomography studies, well logs comparing initial and evaluations after exposure, particularly the methods of Radon Injection Logging. In complex studies performed in assessing reserves, it is effective to use the criteria for the minimum pore radius to determine the lower limit of the working matrix. An important condition for the effectiveness of such studies is the adoption of quantitative characteristics of selected types of reservoirs. This makes possible to diagnose types in the borehole sections, with further interpolation of them in the volume of the studied reservoir, and forming on this basis a typed model with a corresponding differential assessment of oil reserves.
1. Golf-Racht T., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 1982.
2. Lebedinets N.P., Izuchenie i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s treshchinovatymi kollektorami (The study and development of oil fields with fractured reservoirs), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 397 p.
3. Bagrintseva K.I., Usloviya formirovaniya i svoystva karbonatnykh kollektorov nefti i gaza (Conditions for formation and properties of carbonate reservoirs of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. RGGU, 1999, 285 p.
4. Kozhevnikov D.A., Formanova N.V., Chemodanova T.E., Opredelenie dinamicheskoy poristosti slozhnykh kollektorov po dannym IMR i kompleksa GIS (Determination of dynamic porosity of complex reservoirs according to radon injection logging and complex of well survey), In: Sovershenstvovanie metodov izucheniya i podscheta zapasov nefti v karbonatnykh kollektorakh (Improvement of methods of study and calculation of oil reserves in carbonate reservoirs), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1987.
5. Mel'nikova Yu.S., Methods of separate determination of open capacity of cavities and pores of cavernous-porous rocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1971, no. 4, pp. 55–57.6. Kusakov M.M., Mezhnitskaya L.I., Tolshchina tonkikh sloev “svyazannoy” vody (Thickness of thin layers of “bound” water), Proceedings of IV International Congress, Part 3, Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1956.
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The article provides the petrological and petrophysical characteristics of metamorphic rocks. Information on petrotypes of metamorphic rocks, reservoirs properties and saturation is given. Oil saturation is detected in moved weathering crust, double-mica’s shales, quarts-muscovite-biotite’s, feldspar-quarts-biotite’s, feldspar-amphibolite’s shales and serpentinite. Hydrocarbons impregnate the cementing mass in terrigenous rocks, in crystalline rocks hydrocarbons may be found in the cracks; hydrocarbons impregnate the hydromica mass that develops on the feldspars, form films on the walls of the leaching pores, or completely fill pores. Oil saturation is observed along the boundaries of newly formed carbonates in carbonized serpentinite, saturation has spotted character in the slightly altered serpentine. Hydrocarbons are present in the dolomite-talc aggregate performing cracks, impregnating the Talc and giving it a black color. Hydrocarbons are marked in filiform cracks, preserved as relics of the serpentinite loop structure. Well logging is used to show the possibility of petrological division of the weathering crust and the Paleozoic. Serpentinites and its carbonated ones, rocks of residual and mixed weathering crust surely stand out by standard logging. But Identify of mica’s shales and gneiss is difficult with standard logging.
It has been shown that the structure of the void space of metamorphic rocks is predominantly porosity-fractional and fractional. The porosities type of reservoir takes an insignificant part of the section. Comparison of calculated parameters of the density and acoustic logging of the solid phase is recommended to identify type of the void space. To improve the reliability of the petrophysical interpretation of the metamorphic rocks is recommended to use special methods of well logging.
1. Shadrina S.V., Kondakov A.P., New data on the basement of the north-eastern framing of Krasnoleninskiy arch (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 94–99.
2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza ob’emnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersil’e V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow –Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003. 261 p.
3. Dobrynin V.M., Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 368 p.
4. Ivakin B.N., Karus E.V., Kuznetsov O.L., Akusticheskiy metod issledovaniya skvazhin (Acoustic method of wells research), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 320 p.
5. Itenberg S.S., Shnurman G.A., Interpretatsiya rezul'tatov karotazha slozhnykh kollektorov (Interpretation of complex reservoirs logging data), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 256 p.
6. Knyazev A.R., Jointing interval selection in poor-porous carbonate strata according to well logging interpretation standard complex (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2005, no. 8 (135), pp. 55–71.
7. Knyazev A.R., Kostitsin V.I., Fracture evaluation procedure of poor- porous oil-saturated carbonate strata according to hole electrical measurements data (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 5, pp. 24–30.
8. Knyazev A.R., Nekrasov A.N., The technology of estimation of porosity, cavern porosity and open fissility of the complex-constructed carbonate rocks (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2011, no. 5, pp. 81–88.
9. Koshlyak V.A., Granitoidnye kollektory nefti i gaza (Granitoid collectors of oil and gas), Ufa: Tau Publ., 2005, 256 p.
10. Yumatov A.Yu., Rasprostranenie uprugikh prodol'nykh voln v poristykh gornykh porodakh s treshchinami i kavernami (Propagation of elastic longitudinal waves in porous rocks with cracks and caverns): thesis of candidate of physical and mathematical science, Moscow, 1984.
11. Bembel' S.R., Efimov V.A., Petrophysical interpretation of well geophysical studies and a geological model of an object formed by metamorphic rocks (In Russ.), Collected papers “Petrofizika slozhnykh kollektorov: problemy i perspektivy 2015” (Petrophysics of complex reservoirs: Problems and Prospects 2015): edited by Enikeev B.N., Moscow: EAGE Geomodel', 2015, pp. 96–116.
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Existing approaches to the creation of hydrodynamic model based on a single implementation of the geological model, lead to difficulties in adaptation – there is a need for additional artificial adjustments of the initial data, and, as a consequence, inaccurate assessment of the projected technological parameters of the development. In order to make balanced investment decisions on the development of deposits, it is necessary to take a comprehensive approach to the assessment of possible uncertainties. To solve this problem Rosneft Oil Company applies the iterative modeling approach, which provides a comprehensive assessment of possible variants of geological and technological models and allows you to vary the parameters of the model to assess uncertainty and risks in the calculation process.
The article describes the process of creating and selecting the most likely implementation of the geological model of the PK1 formation, providing the best adaptation to the history of development and minimal uncertainty in the prediction of technological parameters for the medium and long term. Implementations of the model include variations of the seismic base, distribution of the lithology parameter, filtration-capacitance properties of non-collectors, the volume of the aquifer and its activity. In the process of work at the first stage the specialists of Rosneft has created the basic implementation of the geological model, at the second stage of them on the basis of the developed complex parameter characterizing the degree of adaptation of the hydrodynamic model, the most probable was chosen. To verify the compliance of the geological implementation with the actual performance of wells used modern software modules of the RFD Company. Automatic algorithms were set up to search parameters and calculate the sensitivity of adaptation to their changes. The iterative calculation of filtration models based on the obtained geological realizations with a variation of the main parameters with a high degree of uncertainty is performed. The complex parameter proved by the authors allowed to choose the optimal geological and hydrodynamic basis.
1. Atlas litologo-paleogeograficheskikh kart yurskogo i melovogo periodov Zapadno-Sibirskoy ravniny i Ob"yasnitel'naya zapiska k Atlasu (Atlas of lithologic and paleogeographic maps of Jurassic and Cretaceous periods of the West Siberian Plain and the Explanatory note to the Atlas): edited by Nesterov I.I., Tyumen': Publ. of ZapSibNIGNI, 1976, 85 p.
2. Kudamanov A.I., Potapova A.S., Karikh T.M., Characteristic aspects of the Cenomanian deposits on the exampleof Russkoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 30–34.
3. Podnebesnykh A.V., Mal'shevskaya K.A. et al., Integrated approach to investigation of gas cap in the formation PK1-3 (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 2014, no. 6, pp. 5–10.
4. Zakrevskiy K.E., On the assessment of lateral range of the variograms (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 32–33.
5. Rezvandehy M., Deutsch C.V., Horizontal variogram inference in the presence of widely spaced well data, Petroleum Geoscience, 2018, V. 24, pp. 219–235.
6. Cherepanov V.V., Men'shikov S.N., Varyagov S.A. et al., Analysis of reservoir heterogeneity and gas saturation, estimated by well logging data is a basis for reservoir management (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013., no. 3, pp. 32–34.
7. Shilov G.Ya., Zakharov A.I., Application of sedimentation-facies modeling for optimization of producing wells placement during development of senoman gas formation of Severo-Kamennomyssky marine gas field (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 7, pp. 39–43.
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In the first half of the Pliocene epoch, the productive stratum sedimentation proceeded at the expense of feeding areas rich with quartz component. These areas were located to the north of the Khachmaz relic. They represented both lowlands, and plateaus and uplands, formed as a result of tectonic movements that took place until the end of Pontic time. It should be noted that the development of the basin was due not only to deflection of the bottom, but also to the confluence of large rivers, whose regime was mainly controlled by climatic factors. The latter influenced the change in the amount of water in the rivers and the rate of their flow. The main drainage arteries at this time were: Paleo-Kura, Paleo-Volga, Paleo-Uzboi, as well as Paleo-Araz, Paleo-Pirsagat, Paleo-Ural, Paleo-Emba, Paleo-Sulik, Paleo-Terek and others. According to the principle of the upper asymmetry, seven large rhythms were singled out in the section of the PS of the productive stratum of the Apsheron peninsula. The boundaries between these rhythms correspond to the interruptions in the sedimentation, and in the sole of each rhythm traces of erosion of the regressive part of the previous rhythm. Facies interpretation of well logging data allows to establish the peculiarities of sedimentation conditions on local sites of separate regions that differ from each other in the genesis of precipitation. It is known that the basin in the Pliocene age of the productive stratum throughout the entire time of existence was distinguished by a complex coastal relief influenced by delta systems (including underwater parts) of rivers. All this makes it difficult to reconstruct the sedimentation environments in some areas, despite the fact that the general regularities of the sedimentation of the Pliocene sediments have been identified and studied for the basin of the South Caspian basin.
1. Kocharli Sh.S., Problemnye voprosy neftegazovoy geologii Azerbaydzhana (Problem issues of oil and gas geology of Azerbaijan), Baku, 2015, 278 p.
2. Abasov M.T., Kondrushkin Yu.M., Aliyarov R.Yu. et al., Izuchenie i prognozirovanie parametrov slozhnykh prirodnykh rezervuarov nefti i gaza Yuzhno-Kaspiyskoy vpadiny (Study and prediction of parameters of complex natural oil and gas reservoirs of the South Caspian Depression), Baku, 2007, 217 p.
3. Mamedov P.Z., Seysmostratigraficheskie issledovaniya geologicheskogo stroeniya osadochnogo chekhla Yuzhno-Kaspiyskoy megavpadiny v svyazi s perspektivami neftegazonosnosti (Seismostratigraphic studies of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover of the South Caspian megabasin in connection with the prospects of oil and gas potential): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Baku, 1992.
4. Muromtsev V.S., Elektricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel – litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrical geology of sandy bodies-lithological traps of oil and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.
5. Nikishin A.V., Sedimentatsionnaya ritmichnost' i sopostavlenie razrezov srednego pliotsena Yuzhno-Kaspiyskoy vpadiny (Sedimentation rhythm and comparison of sections of the Middle Pliocene of the South Caspian basin), Collected papers “Problemy geologii i neftegazonosnosti vpadin vnutrennikh morey” (Problems of geology and oil-gas content of the basins of inland seas), 1981, pp. 60–66.
6. Shilov G.Ya., Kompleksnoe izuchenie effuzivnykh i karbonatnykh razrezov metodami promyslovoy geofiziki (na primere mestorozhdeniy Kyurdamirskoy neftegazonosnyy oblasti Azerbaydzhana) (Complex study of effusive and carbonate sections by the methods of field geophysics (on the example of Kurdamir oil and gas fields of Azerbaijan)): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 1980.
7. Shilov G.Ya., Mamedova I.M., Determination of the boundary value of the effective porosity of productive reservoirs according to well logging data when studying heterogeneous geological sections (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov “Neft' i gaz”, 1991, no. 6, pp. 14–18.
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In a series of stages of creating insulation in a well in the form of a cement ring, the most critical and least studied is the stage of the beginning of the hardening of the cement slurry behind the casing. It is proved that during this period the pressure of the solution column at the bottomhole decreases and conditions arise for the influx of reservoir fluids into the well and the formation of behind-the-casing flows. It is difficult to simulate these processes in the laboratory, and it is expensive to observe in the well. Therefore, mathematical modeling can be a significant addition to their understanding.
In the article, solutions are given to boundary value problems of an equation describing the process of the fall of the “hydrostatic” pressure of cement slurries in a well with impermeable walls even when the cement mortar column hardens in contact with the permeable formation with a given pressure of fluid. Using the formulas obtained, the pressure distribution curves of the cement slurry over the depth of the well and over time were constructed according to which pressure gradients operating during the waiting on cement period in the annular space of the well were calculated. The criteria for the resistance of cement slurries to the introduction of formation fluid in them to the formation of behind-the-casing flows through hardening cement mortar are formulated. Comparison of pressure gradients acting in the well with the criteria for cement slurry resistibility allows calculating the size of the zones of suffusion fracture of the structure of cement suspensions by formation fluid in the annular space during waiting on cement.
1. Letchenko V.K., Casing annular emissions after casing cementing (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 1954, no. 8, pp. 18–20.
2. Mamedov A.B., Rustambekov A.F., About the true causes of annular emissions after casing cementing (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 1955, no. 2, pp. 13–14.
3. Malevanskiy V.D., Otkrytye gazovye fontany i bor'ba s nimi (Uncontrolled gas blowout and the emergency response), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963.
4. Gayvoronskiy A.A., Farukshin L.Kh., Hydrostatic pressure of cement mortar (In Russ.), Neftyanik, 1963, no. 10, pp. 30–32.
5. Grachev V.V., Leonov E.G., Investigation of the pore and skeletal pressure of the cement mortar during cement setting (In Russ.) Burenie, 1969, no. 3, pp. 17–21.
6. Levayn D.K. et al., Prevention of gas migration in the annulus of a cemented well (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i neftekhimiya za rubezhom, 1980, no. 10, pp. 8–17.
7. Bulatov A.I. et al., The emergence of channels in the annulus of wells after cementing (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 1970, no. 2, pp. 3–6.
8. Shchishchenko R.I. et al., Studying the nature of gas occurrences after casing cementing (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 1965, no. 9, pp. 7–11.
9. Raykevich S.I., Razrabotka sposobov i tekhnologiy povysheniya produktivnosti skvazhin gazovykh i neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Development of methods and technologies for increasing the productivity of wells in gas and oil fields); thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2004.
10. Oskarsen R.T.,Walzel D.,Wright J.W., Recommendations for advanced cementing methods (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2010, no. 4, pp. 26–29.
11. Environmental technology in the oil industry: edited by Orszulik S.T., Dordrecht: Springer, 2016.
12. Vidovskiy A.L. et al., Field studies of pressure measurement in the cemented portion of the annular space of wells (In Russ.), Burenie, 1974, no. 7.
13. Cooke C.J. Jr. et al., Field measurements of annular pressure and temperature during primary cementing, SPE 11206-PA, 1983.
14. Dzhabarov K.A., The pressure in the liquid phase of drilling and cement slurries in the well (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov “Neft' i gaz”, 1987, no. 7, pp. 26–30.
15. Khadur M.Kh., Formirovanie davleniya tsementnykh rastvorov v skvazhine v svyazi s gazoneftevodoproyavleniyami v period OZTs (The formation of pressure of cement mortars in the well in connection with the gas and oil showings during the WOC time): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1991.16. Dzhabarov K.A., Metody opredeleniya porovogo davleniya i neftegazoizoliruyushchey sposobnosti tsementnykh rastvorov (Methods for determining pore pressure and oil and gas insulating ability of cement mortars), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIEgazprom, 1991, 24 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
622.276.6 + 622.276.031:532.5
Oil companies commonly use hundreds of different methods to enhance production, to improve oil recovery, and to control water production, hence, it is critical to have a reliable means to evaluate the effectiveness of various IOR/EOR and bottomhole treatment technologies and to select the most effective ones that will meet the specific reservoir conditions. For evaluation, different techniques can be used: production analysis and analysis of reservoir properties in the near-wellbore zone and in the reservoir before and after treatment/stimulation, analysis of displacement characteristics. However, all these techniques have certain drawbacks. Thus, comparison of production performance ignores bottomhole pressure changes before and after treatment, pressure buildup curves are not infrequently of rather low quality to provide somewhat reliable data, while displacement analysis is based on empirical relationships, which have to be selected each time anew and, besides, are liable to misinterpretation. Devoid of these drawbacks is the rate transient analysis (RTA) offered by the Kappa Topaze software. The advantage of this method is that it makes allowance for change of production always occurring following treatment. This is achieved through use of diffusion equations. RTA allows comparative analysis of production history and cumulative oil production, porosity and permeability before and after EOR/well stimulation, being, thus, a comprehensive tool to evaluate effectiveness. Variation in oil production is the most reliable parameter, because it accounts for changes in bottomhole pressure and water cut before and after treatment. To determine this parameter, Topaze uses an algorithm based on the pressure drop change. Pressure drop is skin-dependent in well stimulation technologies aimed at productivity restoration in the bottomhole zone, while in EOR technologies we are calculating an auxiliary pressure drop to take into account change of reservoir properties. Topaze allows easy production forecasting by two scenarios, the scenario involving production enhancement operations, and the scenario without any production enhancement operations, with a view to assess cumulative incremental production. So, rate transient analysis and pressure transient analysis can be safely used to evaluate effectiveness of a large variety of IOR/EOR and well stimulation technologies and may serve a good alternative to the currently used methods.
1. Savel'ev V.A., Tokarev M.A., Chinarov A.S., Geologo-promyslovye metody prognoza nefteotdachi (Field-geologic methods of oil recovery forecast), Izhevsk: Udmurt University, 2008, 147 p.
2. RD 153-39.0-110-01. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po geologo-promyslovomu analizu razrabotki neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Methodical instructions on geological and field analysis of oil and gas fields development), Moscow: Publ. of Ekspertneftegaz, 2002, 119 p.
3. Akhmetov N.Z., Diyashev R.N., Iktisanov V.A., Musabirova N.Kh., Integral'naya otsenka effektivnosti meropriyatiy po regulirovaniyu protsessa razrabotki neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Integral assessment of the effectiveness of measures to regulate the development of an oil field), Collected papers “Povyshenie nefteotdachi plastov. Osvoenie trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti” (Enhanced oil recovery. Development of hard-to-recover oil reserves), Proceedings of 12th European Symposium, Kazan', 8–10 September 2003, pp. 680–685.
4. Kadyrov R.R., Remontno-izolyatsionnye raboty v skvazhinakh s ispol’zovaniem polimernykh materialov (Well isolation squeeze using polymeric materials), Kazan’: Fen Publ., 2007, 423 p.
5. Kadyrov R.R., Latypov R.R., Nizaev R.Kh., Sakhapova A.K., Khasanova D.K., Zhirkeev A.S., A suite of water shut-off technologies (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2017, no. 1, pp. 67–72.
6. Shagiev R.G., Issledovanie skvazhin po KVD (Well testing), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1998, 303 p.
7. Klyukin S.S., Rezyapov R.I., Modern efficiency estimations methods for different types of impacts on well bottom-hole zone (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2014, no. 6, pp. 378–391, URL: http://ogbus.ru/article/view/sovremennye-metody-ocenki-effektivnosti-razlichnyx-vidov-vozdejstvij-na....
8. Martyushev D.A., Evaluation of the effectiveness of hydrochloric acid treatments for pressure recovery curves (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2014, Special Issue, pp. 41–44.
9. Dynamic flow analysis, KAPPA, 2008, 354 p., URL: http://www.pe.tamu.edu/ blasingame/data/z_zCourse_Archive/P324_reference/P324_Supplemental_Text_Materials/PTA_Kappa_DFA_Book_[Houze_2008].pdf.
10. Garipova L.I., Iktisanov V.A., Musabirova N.Kh., Using the topaze software to determine filtration coefficients of formation (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2014, no. 1, pp. 40–44.
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For many highly watered oilfields at late stages with reservoir pressure greater than the saturation pressure the measured gas-oil ratio is often considerably exceeds its origin value. During the interaction of oil and water in the reservoir the partial transition of light components occurs from oil to water and their carrying out to the surface dissolved in passing extracted water is done. Herewith the properties of the reservoir oil because of the change of component composition become different with time from its properties at the beginning of the field development. In the paper the estimation of influence of change of reservoir oil viscosity, which is caused by contacting with injected water, on the recovery factor is provided. On the base of Backley - Leverett equation the parametric analysis is provided of influence of type of water injection on the oil recovery factor for different parameters of reservoir and phase permeability. It is shown that the increase of oil viscosity caused by change of it component composition and physical and chemical properties during the contact with injected water leads to decrease of oil recovery factor down to 2% from the proposed value, when the variation of oil viscosity is neglected. By the example of one of the oilfields form Western Siberia, which is operated at late stage, the estimation of influence of change of reservoir oil viscosity on the recovery factor and accumulated oil production during remaining period of time is done. It is obtained that under conditions of change of reservoir oil viscosity on reaching the water cut up to 95% the proposed oil recovery factor will decrease by 6% and the proposed accumulated oil production will decrease by 10%. The obtained results indicate about importance of taking into account the change of oil viscosity during contact with water when planning the basic indicators of oil recovery.
1. Mikhaylov V.G., Ponomarev A.I., Topol'nikov A.S., Prediction of gas factor taking into account gas dissolved in the water at late stages development of oil fields (In Russ.), SOCAR Proceedings, 2017, no. 3, pp. 41–48.
2. Baymukhametov M.K., Gulishov D.S., Mikhaylov V.G. et al., Analiz prichin rosta gazovogo faktora na pozdnikh stadiyakh razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets, 2018, V. 329, no. 8, pp. 104–111.
3. Gul'tyaeva N.A., Toshchev E.N., Mass exchange in the oil-gas-water and its effect on the production of associated gas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 100–103.
4. Imashev R.N., Fedorov V.N., Zaripov A.M., On the gas factor change in the process of Arlanskoye field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 8, pp. 122–125.
5. Amerkhanov I.M., Reym G.A., Grebneva S.T., Kataeva M.R., Effect of injected water on oil-in-situ parameters (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1976, no. 6, pp. 16–18.
6. Sheykh-Ali D.M., Nauchno-metodicheskie osnovy issledovaniya plastovykh neftey i prognozirovaniya izmeneniy ikh svoystv v protsesse razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Scientific and methodological basis for the study of reservoir oils and prediction of changes in their properties in the process of developing oil fields): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ufa, 1997.
7. Basniev K.S., Kochina I.N., Maksimov V.M., Podzemnaya gidromekhanika (Underground fluid mechanics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993, 416 p.
8. Kostrigin I.V., Zagurenko T.G., Khatmullin I.F., History of the creation and deploying of software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2014, no. , pp. 4–7.
9. Dake L.P., Fundamentals of reservoir engineering, Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B. V., The Hague, The Netherlands, 1998, 498 p.
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Many fields of the Solikamsk depression of the Perm region are characterized by the final stage of development and have a high oil recovery rate, close to the design, a high water content of the production, a deterioration of technical and economic indicators of production. To achieve the project indicators at the fields, various methods of enhanced oil recovery are used. The analysis of their application shows that the highest average increase in the initial oil production is achieved by sidetracking. When justifying the location of the lateral wellbore in the range of the productive formation, one of the main indicators of further well performance is the initial oil productivity index of the well.
The proposed method allows us to estimate the values of the oil productivity index for oil wells with a sidetrack based on the results of geophysical and hydrodynamic wells studies, values of reservoir properties, physical and chemical oil properties, as well as geological and technological indicators using mathematical statistics. At the first stage, correlation fields were constructed for all parameters of the initial data. Analysis of field data in combination with the values of the correlation coefficient showed the degree of influence of parameters on the oil productivity index. Then, for all values of the initial data using a step-by-step regression analysis, a multidimensional regression equation was obtained, in which the dependent variable was the oil productivity index, and the remaining parameters were independent. Next, a comparison was made between the actual and calculated by the equation model values of the productivity index in order to determine the uniform distribution of the obtained values. To determine the classes, the dependence of the oil productivity index on the zenith angle of the sidetrack in the interval of the reservoir α, as the most statistically significant, was chosen. At the final stage, to predict the values of the oil productivity index, taking into account the selected classes, regression equations were obtained, which made it possible to increase the accuracy of the forecast of the oil productivity index.
1. Shcherbakov A.A., Turbakov M.S., Dvoretskas R.V., Effectiveness analysis of enhanced oil recovery methods implementation for hard-to-recover oil reserves of Perm Kama region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 97–99.
2. Votinov A.S., Drozdov S.A., Malysheva V.L., Mordvinov V.A., Recovery and increase of the productivity of wells of Kashirskiy and Podolskiy reservoirs of the certain Perm region oil field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2018, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 140–148, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2018.4.4.
3. Shcherbakov A.A., Khizhnyak G.P., Galkin V.I., Effectiveness evaluation of oil production stimulation measures (on the example of the Solikamsk depression fields) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2019, no. 2, pp. 70–73.
4. Varushkin S.V., Khakimova Zh.A., The design of geological exploration with side track drilling (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2018, V. 18, no. 1, pp. 16–27, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2018.3.2.
5. Galkin V.I., Koshkin K.A., Melkishev O.A., The justification of zonal oil and gas potential of the territory of Visimskaya monocline by geochemical criteria (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2018, V. 18, no. 1, pp. 4–15, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2018.3.1.
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The article presents the results of research conducted in terms of the differentiation of associated petroleum gas production into dissolved gas and breakthrough gas of gas caps. This task is important for the correct management of the balance of reserves and is associated with the solution of a number of methodological problems in the conditions of uncertainty of the initial data. In the work were analyzed well-known techniques and approaches to the differentiation of associated gas production, and their applicability in the conditions of the fields of RN-Purneftegas LLC was considered. Taking into account the noted advantages and disadvantages of the known approaches was chosen a technique based on the hydrodynamic modeling of the real processes of the development of the RN-Purneftegas fields. The reliability of the differentiation of produced gas for dissolved gas and gas cap gas is determined by the correct modeling the processes of liberation of dissolved gas from reservoir oil while reducing reservoir pressure and the formation of gas cones. The quality of the model setting is estimated by the technological indicators of the field development, obtained as a result of measuring flow rates, well tests, sampling and laboratory analysis of formation fluid samples. The high degree of the model matching suggests that the parameters of the reservoir during the model adaptation were chosen correctly. As a result were found the parameters related by functional dependence with the value of the model gas-oil ration by the method of regression analysis. The method based on the regression was developed for the differentiation of associated gas production wich is applicable to the fields of RN Purneftegas. The article reflects the main tasks that were solved in the course of the work, and the obtained results.
1. STO Gazprom RD 2.2-164-2005. Metodika planirovaniya i razdel'nogo ucheta dobychi plastovogo i tyumenskogo gazov, vypavshego v plaste kondensata i nefti pri razrabotke gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy s zakachkoy sukhogo gaza v plast (Methods of planning and separate accounting of production of reservoir and Tyumen gases, condensate and oil deposited in the reservoir during the development of gas condensate fields with injection of dry gas into the reservoir), Moscow: Publ. of IRTs Gazprom, 2005, 50 p.
2. Metodika ucheta dobychi poleznykh iskopaemykh (gaz prirodnyy, gazovyy kondensat, neft' i rastvorennyy gaz) pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy AO “ARKTIKGAZ” (The method of accounting for mining (natural gas, gas condensate, oil and dissolved gas) in the development of the fields of ARKTIKGAZ JSC), Materials for the round table “Osobennosti razrabotki neftegazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy i metody ucheta dobychi poleznykh iskopaemykh” (Features of the development of oil and gas fields and methods of accounting for mining), 28 p.
3. STO Gazprom 2-3.3-304-2009. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po razdel'nomu uchetu dobychi kondensata gazovogo i nefti pri ikh sovmestnom postuplenii v skvazhinu iz neftegazokondensatnykh zalezhey mestorozhdeniy OAO “GAZPROM” (Methodological guidelines for separate accounting of gas and oil condensate production when they are jointly supplied to the well from oil and gas condensate deposits of GAZPROM OJSC), Moscow: Publ. of IRTs Gazprom, 2009, 23 p.
4. Coats K.H., Thomas L.K., Pierson R.G., Compositional and Black Oil reservoir simulation, SPE 29111-MS, 1995.
5. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.YA., Khabibullin I.L., Modeling reservoir pressure difference between injection and production wells in low permeable reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 21, no. 3, rr. 537 – 544.
6. Bobreneva Yu.O., Davletbaev A.Ya., Makhota N.A., Estimation of reservoir pressure from the sensor data before and after injection tests in low-permeability formations (In Russ.), SPE 187763-RU, 2017.
7. Certificate of state registration of computer programs no. 2017663444, Modul' “RExLab 2017” PK “«RN-KIM” (Module “RExLab 2017” for PC “RN-KIM”),Authors: Borshchuk O.S., Sergeychev A.V., Solov'ev D.E., Knutova S.R., Sayfullin I.F., Nuriev A.Kh., Nikonov M.A., Badretdinov T.R., Badretdinov M.R., Shtangeeva K.A., Badykov I.Kh., Makeev G.A.8. Pedregosa F. et al., Scikit-learn: Machine learning in Python, Journal of Machine Learning Research, 2011, no. 12, pp. 2825–2830.
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The world trend of reducing oil recovery in mature oil and gas fields in most producing countries, including the Federal Republic of Nigeria, actualizes the need to develop unconventional sources of raw hydrocarbons, primarily natural bitumen. According to expert’s estimates, bitumen resources in Nigeria reach 38 billion barrels in oil equivalent. These resources located in the southwest of the country exist in the form of oil sand and bitumen oil and form a belt of bituminous oil, covering about 120 km. Bituminous deposits in Nigeria were discovered in 1908 by the Nigerian Bitumen Corporation, but until now this unconventional resource has not been developed, despite the raw hydrocarbons demand of refineries and the growing volume of road construction in Nigeria. In this regard, research on the development of technological solutions and development of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves of bituminous deposits in Nigeria is a topical area. To extract hydrocarbons from bituminous deposits, various physical and chemical methods are used depending on the geological conditions of bitumen occurrence. We used a combined method of physicochemical impact on samples of bituminous coresamples under thermobaric conditions for modeling their occurrence at the Yegbata field of Nigeria using the equipment of the Research and Education Center "Physicochemistry of the reservoir" of Scientific and Production Association Himburneft LLC and the Kuban State Technological University (Krasnodar). The possibilities of combined physicochemical effects of technological fluids for the development of bituminous deposits in the southwestern Nigeria were studied. The study was performed under thermobaric conditions in the temperature range from 20 to 75 0Ñ and pressure from 0.2 to 1 MPa using a core flood installation. As technological liquids, various compounds and compositions were used: low molecular weight paraffins, kerosene, acetone, water, aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide in combination with various surfactants. For the conditions studied, the most effective combination of water-based formulations of potassium hydroxide in combination with surfactants was shown to be most effective.
1. Íâèçóã-Áè Ë.Ê. Ñàâåíîê Î.Â, Ìîéñà Þ.Í. Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ òðóäíîèçâëåêàåìûõ çàïàñîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Ôåäåðàòèâíîé Ðåñïóáëèêè Íèãåðèè // Íàóêà, òåõíèêà è îáðàçîâàíèå. – 2015. – ¹ 11. – Ñ. 18–21.
2. Íâèçóã-Áè Ë.Ê., Ñàâåíîê Î.Â. Òðóäíîèçâëåêàåìûå çàïàñû óãëåâîäîðîäîâ, âàæíûå ðåñóðñû íà òåððèòîðèè Ôåäåðàòèâíîé Ðåñïóáëèêè Íèãåðèè // Ìàòåðèàëû XXI Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé íàó÷íî-ïðàêòè÷åñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè. – Ì., 2015. – Ñ. 41–463. Íâèçóã-Áè Ë.Ê. Îöåíêà òåõíîëîãè÷åñêèõ ðåøåíèé äëÿ ðàçðàáîòêè è îñâîåíèÿ ìåñòîðîæäåíèé òÿæåëîé è áèòóìèíîçíîé íåôòè â Íèãåðèè // Íàó÷íûé æóðíàë ÊóáÃÀÓ. – 2016. – ¹ 120 (06). – C. 44–65.
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One of the traditional methods of enhanced oil recovery is the polymer solutions usage, particularly, polyacrylamide solutions. Despite the undeniable advantages of polyacrylamide, high adsorption reduces its economic efficiency. To reduce adsorption and reduce the initial concentration of polyacrylamide, the use of substances containing chromium ions, which link the macromolecules and form crosslinked polymer solutions, has been proposed. The research was conducted on the static adsorption of solutions of linear and crosslinked anionic polyacrylamides of two grades - SNF FP 307 and partially sulfonated SNF AN 125 SH using optical and spectral methods. The research of static adsorption of linear polyacrylamide solutions was carried out according to the photo colorimetric method based on API RP63. It was demonstrated that sulfonated and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide is less prone to adsorption than only hydrolyzed. The research of the adsorption of crosslinked polyacrylamide solutions by colorimetry was impossible; therefore, the evaluation of polyacrylamide solution adsorption after chromium acetate crosslinking was performed indirectly by changing the chromium concentration, which was determined by
X-ray fluorescence analysis. The dependence of the solutions transmittance at a wavelength of 490 nm on the concentration of polyacrylamide of two grades was determined in the range of 0-300 ppm on the KFK-2 colorimeter. Also, in the course of the research, the dependence of the intensity of the analytical line of Cr in the polyacrylamide solution on the chromium concentration was determined in the range of 0-27 ppm on the Thermo Scientific ARL Perform'X spectrometer with wavelength dispersion. It has been established that these dependences are linear in the concentration range covered. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the combination of optical and spectral methods allows determining the concentration change of both linear and crosslinked polyacrylamide in solutions.
1. Zakharov V.P., Ismagilov T.A., Telin A.G., Silin M.A., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya. Regulirovanie fil'tratsionnykh potokov vodoizoliruyushchimi tekhnologiyami pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Regulation of filtration flows by waterproofing technologies in the development of oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2011, 261 p.
2. Silin M.A., Magadova L.A., Tolstykh L.I., Davletshina L.F., Khimicheskie reagenty i tekhnologii dlya povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Chemicals and technologies for EOR), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2015, 145 p.
3. Gaillard N., Thomas A., Giovannetti B. et al., Selection of customized polymers to enhance oil recovery for high temperature reservoirs, SPE 177073-MS, 2015, DOI:10.2118/177073-MS.
4. Aalaie J., Vashenghani-Ferahani E., Swelling behavior of sulfonated polyacrylamide nanocomposite hydrogels in electrolyte solutions: comparison of theoretical and experimental results, Iranian Polymer Journal, 2012, V. 21, no. 3, pp. 175–183.
5. Yan C., Guraieb P., Ghorbani N. et al., Produced water analysis by X-Ray fluorescence with and without the presence of crude oil, SPE 188225-MS, 2017, DOI: 10.2118/188225-MS/
6. Houwen O.H., Gilmour A., Sanders M.W. et al., Measurement of composition of drilling mud by X-Ray fluorescence, SPE 25704-MS, 1993, DOI:10.2118/25704-MS/
7. Krupin S.V. et al., The effect of adsorption of industrial polyacids on the permeability of porous silica media (In Russ.), Zhurnal prikladnoy khimii, 1987, V. 40, no. 9, pp. 2134–2137.
8. Holmberg K., Jönsson B. et al., Surfactants and polymers in aqueous solution, John Wiley & Sons, 2002, 562 p.
9. Pecherskiy G.G., Kuskil'dina Yu.R., Antuseva A.V., Kazak M.V., Optimization of operational characteristics of polymer-dispersed systems aimed at increasing oil production of petroleum strata (In Russ.), Polimernye materialy i tekhnologii, 2015, V. 1, no. 2, pp. 68–74.
10. Akimkhan A.M., Adsorption of polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide on montmorillonite (In Russ.), Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii = Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2013, V. 87, no. 11, pp. 1898–1903.
11. Smith F.W., The behavior of partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide solutions in porous media, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1970, V. 22, pp. 148–156.
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The paper deals with the scientific and applied problems of determining and standardizing the strength of main oil pipelines. These problems can be solved using basic and verification strength calculations for all major stages of pipeline life cycle. At the design stage, the basic strength calculation is carried out using a deterministic method based on comparing operating stresses with permissible ones determined by safety factors (foreign standards) or limit states and limit resistances (Russian standards). The purpose of the basic calculation is to determine the minimum required pipe wall thickness for specified pipe pressures and diameters and selected pipe steels. During the construction, testing, and operation phases, a system of strength verification calculation is used, taking into account time factors with changes in mechanical properties (due to aging and degradation) and wall thickness (due to corrosion and defect growth). During the prolonged operation of a pipeline, changes accumulate, which are related to the conditions of its operation: transportation process parameters, rheological properties of pumped products, and composition of equipment of pump stations change. From time to time, there is a need to change the transportation pattern, while replacing pipeline sections during major repairs and overhaul makes pipeline length change. These changes (taking into account the effect accumulated over a long period of operation) may result in a change in the operating pressures on the pipeline route, established in the original project. These processes affect the values of safety factor, which also become a function of time. Based on the calculations, taking into account the actual safety factors, the decision is made on further operation, decommissioning or repair and renewal of a pipeline section.
The factors that need to be taken into account when substantiating the strength of a main pipeline that has been operated for a long time are provided; the main ones include: use of actual mechanical characteristics of pipes, accounting of accumulated damage, susceptibility of a pipe steel to aging and degradation, as well as data on actual loading of a pipeline due to internal pressure. The paper underlines the main methods of obtaining the information necessary for strength calculation, including intra-pipe diagnostics and mechanical tests of pipe and metal samples. The areas of change of safety factors when deterministic, statistical, and probabilistic design characteristics are introduced are analyzed. The problems for which statistical and probabilistic verification calculations are used are identified. Basic calculation expressions for basic and verification calculations for corresponding stages of pipeline life cycle are proposed.
1. SNiP 2.05.06-85. Magistral'nye truboprovody (Trunk pipeline).
2. API 579/ASMEFFS-1. Fitness for servise.
3. DIN 17457. Truba nerzhaveyushchaya svarnaya (Welded stainless pipe).
4. Mazur I.I., Ivantsov O.M., Bezopasnost' truboprovodnykh sistem (Safety of pipeline systems), Moscow: Elima Publ., 2004, 1104 p.
5. Radionova S.G., Zhulina S.A., Makhutov N.A. et al., Research prospects in the field of risk analysis for improvement of government regulation and safety increase of the oil and gas chemical complex objects (In Russ.), Bezopasnost' truda v promyshlennosti, 2017, no. 9, pp. 5–13.
6. Lisin Yu.V., Makhutov N.A., Neganov D.A. et al., Identification of pipe steels of domestic and foreign manufacturing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 2, pp. 90–95.
7. Makhutov N.A., Prochnost' i bezopasnost': fundamental'nye i prikladnye issledovaniya (Strength and safety: fundamental and applied research), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2008, 528 p.
8. Lisin Yu.V., Makhutov N.A., Nadein V.A., Neganov D.A., Probabilistic analysis of transportation systems for oil and natural gas, In: Probabilistic modeling in system engineering, London: IntechOpen Publ., 2018, pp. 81–103.
9. Bezopasnost' Rossii. Pravovye, sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie i nauchno-tekhnicheskie aspekty. Bezopasnost' sredstv khraneniya i transporta energoresursov (Security of Russia. Legal, socio-economic and scientific-technical aspects. Security of energy storage and transportation facilities): edited by Makhutov N.A., Moscow: Znanie Publ., 2019, 928 p.
10. Lisin Yu.V., Makhutov N.A., Neganov D.A. et al., Integral mechanical tests in the strength calculations of the main pipeline for transportation of oil and oil products (In Russ.), Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostika materialov, 2018, V. 84, no. 4, pp. 47–59.11. Lisin Yu.V., Neganov D.A., Sergaev A.A., Defining maximal working pressures for main pipelines in extended operation from the results of in-line diagnostics (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 6, pp. 30–37.
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Historically, hydraulic calculations of pipelines for pumping homogeneous liquid and gaseous media are carried out according to different formulas: in the first case, as a rule, - the pressure losses are calculated by the Darcy – Weisbach formula for friction, and in the second case, the difference between the squares of the initial and final pressures in the gas pipeline (the exception is the case of gas flow in low – pressure pipelines, where the Darcy – Weisbach formula is also used). Developing independently from each other, methods for calculating the hydraulic resistance of pipelines for these media have diverged to such an extent that, contrary to the unity of the laws of hydraulics, even the friction zone of the turbulent regime of gas workers began to be called "modes" ("mixed", "quadratic"). The origin of the data "technologisms” is due to the practical absence of the laminar regime in the practice of gas pipeline transportation, but, in fact, gives the impression that the hydraulics in the flow of gases in gas distribution systems and gas pipelines other than oil and oil product pipelines. Another problem with hydraulic calculations is that up to the present time calculation of the head losses in the pumping of oil and oil products with small additions of macromolecular substances (drag-reducing additive) and liquefied gases is performed according to the formula Darcy – Weisbach, and for pumping oil and oil products with no drag-reducing additive (in the solution of theoretical problems) – L.S. Leibenzon generalized formula.
The author has carried out studies to ensure a unified methodological approach in the calculation of the hydraulic resistance of pipelines in the case of pumping homogeneous liquid and gaseous media. It is proved that the generalized formula of L.S. Leibenzon can be used in hydraulic calculations of pumping a wide variety of media: oil, petroleum products, gas, LPG. This result can be explained by the unity of hydraulic laws for droplet liquids and gases. For the first time the values of the coefficients of L.S. Leibenzon in cases of gas pumping through the main gas pipelines, oil and oil products with drag-reducing additive, liquefied hydrocarbon gases are established.
1. Leybenzon L.S., Vil'ker D.S., Shumilov P.P., Yablonskiy V.S., Gidravlika: rukovodstvo dlya neftyanykh VUZov, tekhnikumov i rabotnikov neftyanoy promyshlennosti (Hydraulics: a guide for oil universities, technical schools and oil industry workers), Moscow – Leningrad: Publ. of ONTI NKTP SSSR, 1932, 310 p.
2. Yablonskiy V.S., Novoselov V.F., Galeev V.B., Zakirov G.Z., Proektirovanie, ekspluatatsiya i remont magistral'nykh nefteproduktoprovodov (Design, operation and repair of oil product pipelines), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1965, 410 p.
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4. Leybenzon L.S., The theoretical formula for determining the pressure loss during fluid flow in a circular pipe (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1927, no. 3, pp. 386–394.
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12. Peterfalvi F., Drag reducing agent application on MOL high pressure liquid hydrocarbon pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = , 2015, no. 4, pp. 29–41.
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|HISTORY OF OIL INDUSTRY|
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