Early detection of oil and petroleum products in the water bodies is of great ecological significance. Monitoring of oil spills at underwater crossings of trunk pipelines and in water areas of oil ports allows quick response and start of containment and elimination, thereby reducing the damage to the water body. This paper reviews methods of early detection and monitoring of oil and petroleum product spills on the water surface and associated instruments with the purpose of assessing the possibility of using them at oil transport and loading facilities (underwater crossings of oil and petroleum product pipelines and water areas of oil ports). The article is based on the research materials of basic physical and chemical processes, occurring when oil or petroleum product enters the water, the results of a comparative analysis of the methods of monitoring and testing of instruments, including full-scale open water tests in the marine waters of the Ajax Bay in the Peter the Great Gulf. The possibility of detection was checked at the oil product simulator. Based on the results of the study conclusions were drawn on the possibility of using the instruments and methods at oil (petroleum product) transport and loading facilities as well as on the promising direction of technology development in the area of monitoring and early detection of oil spills in water bodies.
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