Peculiarities of oil pollution influence on soils of middle taiga in Western Siberia

UDK: 502.65:622.276
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-5-108-112
Key words: : hydrocarbon deposits, middle taiga, Western Siberia, soil ecosystems, oil pollution, migration, influence, main soil parameters
Authors: V.P. Seredina (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), E.V. Kolesnikova, V.A. Kondykov, A.I. Nepotrebny, S.A. Ognev (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk)

Field and experimental soil researches of oil polluted ecosystems in the conditions of middle taiga in West Siberia are studied. Objects of the research are background (uncontaminated) and oil polluted soils caused by crude oil spill on the territory of Vakhskoye field in Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district Yugra. The aim of research is regularities study of organic pollutants in soils exposed to technogenic hydrocarbon pollution on the territory of middle taiga in Western Siberia and influence study of oil pollution on main soil parameters.

The level and pollutants journey peculiarities in soil profile are discovered. The influence of oil pollution on physiographic complexity and chemical soil constitution within the boundaries of pollution is determined. The results are the basis of environmental forecast for pollution effect, implementation of necessary solutions by oil companies in case of emergency pollution, soil reclamation and ecological soil monitoring.

Oil flows at soil pollution is characterized by considerable variability of pollution load in different areas – epicenter – boundary (impact zone) – buffer zone. It is specified by initial genetic soil characteristics, soil profile texture that defines a specific system of pedologic and geochemical barriers and complicate halopollution structure.

Significant changes in the structure of major constituents of chemical soil constitution occur in case of pollution. When oil with definite acid-base conditions is in soil, it disturbs ecological processes and leads to specific changes in the morphology of soil profile. As a result, we have changes in basic chemical and physical-chemical parameters of podzolic soil. In middle taiga of Western Siberia starting mechanisms of technogenic soil halogenesis in case of emergency oil pollution are highly mineralized effluents where water-soluble chlorides are more significant than sulfates. Fractionating of multicomponent pollutant mixture at radial and lateral movement leads to deposition of high-molecular-weight and viscous bituminous substances in the pollution epicenter. It provides maximum (twice the amount and more) heavy metals buildup including very toxic metals such as vanadium and nickel on the surface soil layer at gradual decrease towards marginal zones.


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