The algorithm for bio-fertilizers creating on the basis of an effective consortium of regional hydrocarbon destructing microorganisms is presented in the article. The algorithm consists of several stages: the selection of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms from the different soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT); the selection of promising natural associations; the study of their properties and salt tolerance; the checking of their efficacy against hydrocarbons (diesel, vacuum gas oil, fuel oil, toluene, hexane); the species identification of strains consortium by the polymerase chain reaction analysis; the study of the relationship between strains nature. The bentonite from the Tarn-Varsky deposit of the RT, the chemical composition of which was studied by the quantitative spectral analysis on the ES-1 spectrometer based on the DFS-458C diffraction spectrograph and the FP-4 photoelectric recording device, is used in technology of remediation of oil-contaminated soils. Nanostructural bentonite was obtained by ultrasound influence on bentonite at a frequency of 18.5 kHz (± 10%) and was stabilized with deionized water at a concentration of 1:4. The structure of bentonite powder and nanobentonite was studied on a scanning probe Veeco (USA) microscope MultiMode V. Mutagenic activity of nanostructured bentonite was studied in the Ames test with using indicator strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 (genotype hisD3052 rfa uvrB) and TA100 (genotype hisG46 rfa uvrB / pKM101), which have mutations in the genes of the histidine operon. The uniqueness of the practical application of remediation technology for oil-contaminated soils is substantiated by the use of two innovative blocks: biofertilizer (based on a consortium consisting of three strains-destructors in a ratio of 1:1:1, with a bacterial suspension titer of 3,0·1012 CFU/cm3) and nanostructured bentonite (at the rate of 0.3 t/ha). At remediation, destructing microorganisms of biofertilizer are actively built into the natural population, adapt quickly and decompose hydrocarbons effectively; nanobentonite is not removed, it improves soil structure and is a source of mineral nutrition for microorganisms. By the use of technology, the negative impact of hydrocarbon contamination on the soil and further on the food chain on plants, animals and humans is significantly reduced.
1. Kiriy O.A., Application of biological preparation Destroil for cleaning from black mineral oil polluted soils and water in Maikop region (In Russ.), Nauchnyy zhurnal KubGAU, 2013, V. 85, no. 1, pp. 82-92.
2. Degtyareva I.A., Davletshina A.Ya., The use of a consortium of aboriginal hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms for remediation of chernozem and gray forest soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2015, V. 18, no. 4, pp. 275–279.
3. Pisarchuk A.D., Tereshchenko N.N., Lushnikov S.V., The use of hydrocarbon oxydizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida and sorbents based on modified vermicompost for the detoxification of oil contaminated soils (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Biologiya, 2011, V. 3, no. 15, pp. 180–182.
4. Glyaznetsova Yu.S., Zueva I.N., Chalaya O.N., Lifshits S.Kh., The questions of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation of oil-contaminated soils of the Arctic zone of Yakutia (In Russ.), Arktika i Sever = Arctis and North, 2012, no. 5 (yanvar'), pp. 97–108.
5. Yapparov A.Kh., Degtyareva I.A., Khidiyatullina A.Ya., Using efficient indigenous hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganism at biological rekulitivation of oil-contaminated territory of RT (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsiny im. N.E. Baumana, 2009, V. 199, pp. 218–222.
6. Degtyareva I.A., Khidiyatullina A.Ya., Evalution of the influence from natural associations of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms on oil-contaminated soil (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 3, pp. 137–143.
7. Ezhov G.I., Rukovodstvo dlya prakticheskikh zanyatiy po sel'skokhozyaystvennoy mikrobiologii (Guide for practical training of agricultural microbiology), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1981, 271 p.
8. Maron D.M., Revised for the Salmonella mutagenicity test, Mut. Res., 1983, V. 113, pp. 172–215.
9. Ezhkova A.M., Yapparov A.Kh., Ezhkov V.O. et al., Fabrication of nanoscale bentonite, study of its structure and toxic properties, and determination of safe doses (In Russ.), Rossiyskie nanotekhnologii = Nanotechnologies in Russia, 2015, V. 10, no. 1–2, pp. 100-105.
10. Motina T.Yu., Yapparov A.Kh., Ezhkova A.M. et al., Comparative evaluation of the sorption properties of bentonite powder and nanosized bentonite in vivo (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsiny im. N.E. Baumana, 2015, V. 223, pp. 121–124.
11. Degtyareva I.A., Ezhkova A.M., Yapparov A.Kh. et al., Production of nano-bentonite and the study of its effect on mutagenesis in bacteria Salmonella typhimurium (In Russ.), Rossiyskie nanotekhnologii = Nanotechnologies in Russia, 2016, V. 11, no. 9–10, pp. 116–122.
12. Khidiyatullina A.Ya., Biorekul'tivatsiya neftezagryaznennykh pochv s ispol'zovaniem aktivnykh aborigennykh mikroorganizmov-destruktorov i ekologo-toksikologicheskaya otsenka protsessa remediatsii (Biorecultivation of oil-contaminated soils using active native microorganisms-destructors and ecological-toxicological evaluation of the remediation process): thesis of candidate of agricultural sciences, Kazan', 2013.
13. Yapparov A.Kh., Degtyareva I.A., Yapparov I.A. et al., Tekhnologiya polucheniya ekologicheski bezopasnoy produktsii sel'skogo khozyaystva pri biorekul'tivatsii neftezagryaznennykh pochv aborigennymi uglevodorodokislyayushchimi mikroorganizmami i nanostrukturirovannymi bentonitami (The technology of obtaining environmentally safe agricultural products in the biorekultivation of oil-contaminated soils by aboriginal hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and nanostructured bentonites), Kazan': Publ. of Center for Innovative Technologies, 2011, 220 p.