Creation and application of biofertilizers based on the effective consortium destructor microorganisms for remediation of contaminated soils of the Republic of Tatarstan

UDK: 502.662.2+631.472.74:502.7+539-022.532
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-5-100-103
Key words: hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, consortium, nanostructured bentonite, remediation, hydrocarbons, soil
Authors: I.A. Degtyareva, I.A. Yapparov, A.Kh. Yapparov, A.M. Ezhkova, A.Ya. Davletshina (Tatar Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Sciences, RF, Kazan), I.A. Shaydullina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)

The algorithm for bio-fertilizers creating on the basis of an effective consortium of regional hydrocarbon destructing microorganisms is presented in the article. The algorithm consists of several stages: the selection of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms from the different soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT); the selection of promising natural associations; the study of their properties and salt tolerance; the checking of their efficacy against hydrocarbons (diesel, vacuum gas oil, fuel oil, toluene, hexane); the species identification of strains consortium by the polymerase chain reaction analysis; the study of the relationship between strains nature. The bentonite from the Tarn-Varsky deposit of the RT, the chemical composition of which was studied by the quantitative spectral analysis on the ES-1 spectrometer based on the DFS-458C diffraction spectrograph and the FP-4 photoelectric recording device, is used in technology of remediation of oil-contaminated soils. Nanostructural bentonite was obtained by ultrasound influence on bentonite at a frequency of 18.5 kHz (± 10%) and was stabilized with deionized water at a concentration of 1:4. The structure of bentonite powder and nanobentonite was studied on a scanning probe Veeco (USA) microscope MultiMode V. Mutagenic activity of nanostructured bentonite was studied in the Ames test with using indicator strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 (genotype hisD3052 rfa uvrB) and TA100 (genotype hisG46 rfa uvrB / pKM101), which have mutations in the genes of the histidine operon. The uniqueness of the practical application of remediation technology for oil-contaminated soils is substantiated by the use of two innovative blocks: biofertilizer (based on a consortium consisting of three strains-destructors in a ratio of 1:1:1, with a bacterial suspension titer of 3,0·1012 CFU/cm3) and nanostructured bentonite (at the rate of 0.3 t/ha). At remediation, destructing microorganisms of biofertilizer are actively built into the natural population, adapt quickly and decompose hydrocarbons effectively; nanobentonite is not removed, it improves soil structure and is a source of mineral nutrition for microorganisms. By the use of technology, the negative impact of hydrocarbon contamination on the soil and further on the food chain on plants, animals and humans is significantly reduced.


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