Assessing the role of natural fracturing by multiscale geophysical investigation

UDK: 550.832
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-30-35
Key words: world stress map, hydraulic fracturing, microseismic monitoring, well logging, fracture, remote sensing
Authors: D.K. Nourgaliev, I.I. Nugmanov, E.V. Nugmanova, E.A. Yachmeneva, K.M. Karimov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The article presents an estimation of tectonic fracturing role in terrigenous and carbonate blocks containing hydrocarbon deposits. Geological and geophysical datasets of different scale were used to characterize the fracturing of rocks. The good convergence is found between the orientation of natural fracturing by formation microimagers in wells, three-dimensional surface seismic survey, microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing propagation and regional lineament analysis by satellite imagery. The article contains examples of comparison between the direction of maximum horizontal stress axis and stress state and the direction of horizontal wells and fluid flow. New factors of unsuccessful multistage hydraulic fracturing operations in carbonate rocks are considered in the context of natural fracturing systems’ kinematics. Complex data analysis of the fracturing at different scales allowed to divide fracturing systems basing on the kinematics. It is shown that the method of structural and geomorphic lineament analysis detected on the satellite images allows to determine the orientation of regional stress field axes for the platform areas with small number of geological outcrops. It is found that during the hydraulic fracturing the main fracture is developed following the system of tectonic fractures and the propagation of the fracture tip is not linear - the fracturing follows both the shear and tensile cracks. It is suggested that the reorientation of the principal stress axes within one field is associated with gently sloping low-amplitude tectonic deformation. The main fundamental conclusion obtained as a result of studies is a justification of the leading role of modern tectonic stress field in the fracturing kinematics. The practical conclusion is a necessity of a selective stimulation of fractured rock blocks to achieve the maximum production for the redeveloped of oil fields.

References

1. Rebetsky Yu.L., Modern problem of tectonophysics, Izvestia Physics of the

Solid Earth, 2009, V. 45, no. 11, pp. 931–935.

2. Henk A., Pre-drilling prediction of the tectonic stress field with geomechanical

models, First Break, 2005, V. 23, pp. 53–57.

3. Peng P. et al., Finite element study of the paleostress and natural fracture

development in the Bakken formation, Nesson Anticline area, North Dakota,

Journal of Petroleum Science Research, 2014, V. 3(4), pp. 197–208.

4. Shafiei A., Dusseault M.B., Natural fractures characterization in a carbonate

heavy oil field, ARMA 12-443, Proceedings of the 46th US Rock Mechanics

/ Geomechanics Symposium, 24–27 June 2012, Chicago, IL, USA.

5. Lorenz J.C., Stress-sensitive reservoirs, SPE 50977, 1999.

6. Kilpatrick J.E., Eisner L. et al., Natural fracture characterization from microseismic

source mechanisms: A comparison with FMI data, Proceedings of

SEG Annual Meeting, 2010, Denver, p. 211.

7. Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Rossii (Geology and mineral resources of

Russia), Part 1. Zapad Rossii i Ural (West of Russia and Ural): edited by Petrov

B.V., Kirikov V.P., St. Petersburg, Publ. of VSEGEI, 2006, 528 p.

8. Fenin G.I., Travina T.A., Chumakova O.V., Rroblems of development of pools

with elevated and abnormal formation pressures (the case study of the Inzyreiskoye

oil field, Timan-Rechora province) (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya.

Teoriya i praktika, 2008, V. 3, no. 3, pp. 1–9.

9. Danilov V.N., Razlomnaya tektonika i neftegazonosnost' Timano-Pechorskogo

osadochnogo basseyna (Fault tectonics and oil and gas bearing

of the Timan-Pechora sedimentary basin), Collected papers “Problemy

resursnogo obespecheniya gazodobyvayushchikh rayonov Rossii do 2030 g.”

(Problems of gas producing regions resource support in Russia until 2030),

Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom VNIIGAZ, 2012, pp. 86–96.

10. Khramov A.N., Oknova N.S., Ways of paleomagnetic records research for

petroleum geology problems solution (Timan-Pechora province) (In Russ.),

Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2007, V. 2, no. 2, pp. 1–14.

11. Chernova I.Yu., Nugmanov I.I., Nourgaliev D.K., Khasanov D.I., Slepak Z.M.,

Karimov K.M. DEM digital processing as applied to detection of zones of excessive

fracturing and fluid dynamic activity in sedimentary cover, Neftyanoe

Khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2015, V. 11, pp. 84–88.

12. Dedeev V.A., Yudin V.V., Bogatskiy V.I., Shardanov A.N., Ob"yasnitel'naya

zapiska k strukturno-tektonicheskoy karte Timano-Pechorskoy neftegazonosnoy

provintsii “Tektonika Timano-Pechorskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii” (Explanatory

memorandum to the structural and tectonic map of the Timan-Pechora

oil and gas province "Tectonics of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas

province"), Syktyvkar: Publ. of UB of RAS, 1989, 27 p.

13. Tsay Yun' Fey, Lineamenty Timano-Pechorskogo basseyna i ikh svyaz' s

razmeshcheniem neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (The lineaments of

the Timan-Pechora basin and their connection with the placement of oil and

gas fields): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science,

Moscow, 2006.

14.World Stress Map Project, URL: http://dc-app3-14.gfz-potsdam.de/

15. Tingay M. et al., Understanding tectonic stress in the oil patch: The World

Stress Map Project, The Leading Edge, 2005, December, pp. 1276–1282.

16. Sim L.A., Vliyanie global'nogo tektogeneza na noveyshee napryazhennoe

sostoyanie platform Vostochnoy Evropy (The impact of global tectogenesis

on the latest state of stress of Eastern European platform) In “Razvitie tektonofiziki”

(Development of tectonophysics): edited by Gzovskiy M.V.,

Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2000, pp. 326–348.

17. Sim L.A., Some methodological aspects of tectonic stress reconstruction

based on geological indicators, Geoscience, 2012, V. 344, pp. 174–180.

18. Nugmanov I.I. et al., Morphological characteristic of hydraulic fracturing

according to the results of microseismic research, International Journal of Applied

Engineering Research, 2015, no. 10 (24), pp. 45214–45223.

19. Rebetskiy Yu.L., Mikhaylova A.V., Deep heterogeneity of the stress state in

the horizontal shear zones (In Russ.), Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid

Earth, 2014, no. 6, pp. 108–123.

20. Komar S.A. et al., Factors that predict fracture orientation in a gas storage

reservoir, SPE 2968, 1971.

21. Zoback M.D., Barto C.A., Brudy M.O. et al., Determination of stress orientation

andmagnitude in deep wells, International Journal of Rock Mechanics

& Mining Sciences, 2003, V. 40, pp. 1049–1076.

The article presents an estimation of tectonic fracturing role in terrigenous and carbonate blocks containing hydrocarbon deposits. Geological and geophysical datasets of different scale were used to characterize the fracturing of rocks. The good convergence is found between the orientation of natural fracturing by formation microimagers in wells, three-dimensional surface seismic survey, microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing propagation and regional lineament analysis by satellite imagery. The article contains examples of comparison between the direction of maximum horizontal stress axis and stress state and the direction of horizontal wells and fluid flow. New factors of unsuccessful multistage hydraulic fracturing operations in carbonate rocks are considered in the context of natural fracturing systems’ kinematics. Complex data analysis of the fracturing at different scales allowed to divide fracturing systems basing on the kinematics. It is shown that the method of structural and geomorphic lineament analysis detected on the satellite images allows to determine the orientation of regional stress field axes for the platform areas with small number of geological outcrops. It is found that during the hydraulic fracturing the main fracture is developed following the system of tectonic fractures and the propagation of the fracture tip is not linear - the fracturing follows both the shear and tensile cracks. It is suggested that the reorientation of the principal stress axes within one field is associated with gently sloping low-amplitude tectonic deformation. The main fundamental conclusion obtained as a result of studies is a justification of the leading role of modern tectonic stress field in the fracturing kinematics. The practical conclusion is a necessity of a selective stimulation of fractured rock blocks to achieve the maximum production for the redeveloped of oil fields.

References

1. Rebetsky Yu.L., Modern problem of tectonophysics, Izvestia Physics of the

Solid Earth, 2009, V. 45, no. 11, pp. 931–935.

2. Henk A., Pre-drilling prediction of the tectonic stress field with geomechanical

models, First Break, 2005, V. 23, pp. 53–57.

3. Peng P. et al., Finite element study of the paleostress and natural fracture

development in the Bakken formation, Nesson Anticline area, North Dakota,

Journal of Petroleum Science Research, 2014, V. 3(4), pp. 197–208.

4. Shafiei A., Dusseault M.B., Natural fractures characterization in a carbonate

heavy oil field, ARMA 12-443, Proceedings of the 46th US Rock Mechanics

/ Geomechanics Symposium, 24–27 June 2012, Chicago, IL, USA.

5. Lorenz J.C., Stress-sensitive reservoirs, SPE 50977, 1999.

6. Kilpatrick J.E., Eisner L. et al., Natural fracture characterization from microseismic

source mechanisms: A comparison with FMI data, Proceedings of

SEG Annual Meeting, 2010, Denver, p. 211.

7. Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Rossii (Geology and mineral resources of

Russia), Part 1. Zapad Rossii i Ural (West of Russia and Ural): edited by Petrov

B.V., Kirikov V.P., St. Petersburg, Publ. of VSEGEI, 2006, 528 p.

8. Fenin G.I., Travina T.A., Chumakova O.V., Rroblems of development of pools

with elevated and abnormal formation pressures (the case study of the Inzyreiskoye

oil field, Timan-Rechora province) (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya.

Teoriya i praktika, 2008, V. 3, no. 3, pp. 1–9.

9. Danilov V.N., Razlomnaya tektonika i neftegazonosnost' Timano-Pechorskogo

osadochnogo basseyna (Fault tectonics and oil and gas bearing

of the Timan-Pechora sedimentary basin), Collected papers “Problemy

resursnogo obespecheniya gazodobyvayushchikh rayonov Rossii do 2030 g.”

(Problems of gas producing regions resource support in Russia until 2030),

Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom VNIIGAZ, 2012, pp. 86–96.

10. Khramov A.N., Oknova N.S., Ways of paleomagnetic records research for

petroleum geology problems solution (Timan-Pechora province) (In Russ.),

Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2007, V. 2, no. 2, pp. 1–14.

11. Chernova I.Yu., Nugmanov I.I., Nourgaliev D.K., Khasanov D.I., Slepak Z.M.,

Karimov K.M. DEM digital processing as applied to detection of zones of excessive

fracturing and fluid dynamic activity in sedimentary cover, Neftyanoe

Khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2015, V. 11, pp. 84–88.

12. Dedeev V.A., Yudin V.V., Bogatskiy V.I., Shardanov A.N., Ob"yasnitel'naya

zapiska k strukturno-tektonicheskoy karte Timano-Pechorskoy neftegazonosnoy

provintsii “Tektonika Timano-Pechorskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii” (Explanatory

memorandum to the structural and tectonic map of the Timan-Pechora

oil and gas province "Tectonics of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas

province"), Syktyvkar: Publ. of UB of RAS, 1989, 27 p.

13. Tsay Yun' Fey, Lineamenty Timano-Pechorskogo basseyna i ikh svyaz' s

razmeshcheniem neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (The lineaments of

the Timan-Pechora basin and their connection with the placement of oil and

gas fields): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science,

Moscow, 2006.

14.World Stress Map Project, URL: http://dc-app3-14.gfz-potsdam.de/

15. Tingay M. et al., Understanding tectonic stress in the oil patch: The World

Stress Map Project, The Leading Edge, 2005, December, pp. 1276–1282.

16. Sim L.A., Vliyanie global'nogo tektogeneza na noveyshee napryazhennoe

sostoyanie platform Vostochnoy Evropy (The impact of global tectogenesis

on the latest state of stress of Eastern European platform) In “Razvitie tektonofiziki”

(Development of tectonophysics): edited by Gzovskiy M.V.,

Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2000, pp. 326–348.

17. Sim L.A., Some methodological aspects of tectonic stress reconstruction

based on geological indicators, Geoscience, 2012, V. 344, pp. 174–180.

18. Nugmanov I.I. et al., Morphological characteristic of hydraulic fracturing

according to the results of microseismic research, International Journal of Applied

Engineering Research, 2015, no. 10 (24), pp. 45214–45223.

19. Rebetskiy Yu.L., Mikhaylova A.V., Deep heterogeneity of the stress state in

the horizontal shear zones (In Russ.), Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid

Earth, 2014, no. 6, pp. 108–123.

20. Komar S.A. et al., Factors that predict fracture orientation in a gas storage

reservoir, SPE 2968, 1971.

21. Zoback M.D., Barto C.A., Brudy M.O. et al., Determination of stress orientation

andmagnitude in deep wells, International Journal of Rock Mechanics

& Mining Sciences, 2003, V. 40, pp. 1049–1076.



Attention!
To buy the complete text of article (a format - PDF) or to read the material which is in open access only the authorized visitors of the website can. .

Mobile applications

Read our magazine on mobile devices

Загрузить в Google play

Press Releases

05.03.2020
01.03.2020
25.02.2020