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V.G. Martynov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.S. Oganov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.S. Sheinbaum (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Digital educational technologies in teaching students at Gubkin University

Keywords: digitalization, educational technologies, teamwork, horizontal drilling, geo-navigation, offshore drilling

A new experience of using the technology of interdisciplinary activity training of students and specialists raising their qualifications is presented in a virtual environment of engineering activity - when drilling a virtual horizontal well in a virtual oil field. This innovative technology was developed at Gubkin University and was awarded in 2015 by the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of education. New opportunities for its use in the training of specialists in the field of geonavigation during the drilling of horizontal oil and gas wells appeared at the university due to the establishment in the university of a new infrastructure facility-the Center for Offshore Drilling of Rosneft Oil Cpmpany. The hardware-software complex of the center allows for remote geological and technological support for drilling horizontal wells on land and at sea. The monitoring of the profile of the wellbore formed during the drilling process and its management in geo-navigation is carried out by a team of specialists including a drilling technologist, geologist, geophysicist and petrophysicist. In the interdisciplinary training on geosteering of a virtual well described in the article, this team is represented by four groups of students of the corresponding departments of the university, 3-4 people each.


1. Martynov V.G., Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina (Gubkin University), Federal'nyĭ spravochnik: Obrazovanie v Rossii (Federal Directory: Education in Russia), Part 8, Moscow: Publ. of Center for Strategic Partnership, 2011, pp. 5961.

2. Vladimirov A.I., Sheynbaum V.S., Training of specialists in a virtual environment of professional activity the imperative of the time (In Russ.), Vysshee obrazovanie segodnya, 2007, no. 7, pp. 26.

3. Martynov V.G., Pyatibratov P.V., Sheynbaum V.S., Development of innovative educational technology for teaching students in a virtual environment of professional activity (In Russ.), Vysshee obrazovanie segodnya, 2012, no. 5, pp. 48.

4. Morozov O., Ovchinnikov A., Geological support of drilling online. Horizontal wells on Prirazlomnoye are under control (In Russ.), Offshore (Russia), 2015, August, pp. 5256, URL: www.offshore-mag.ru/pics/52-57-well1-am-k.pdf

5. Oganov A.S., Zhivov P.N., Scientific and methodological solutions for automatic control of directional well path (In Russ.), Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov, 2010, no. 3, pp. 3842.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-9-13

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L.N. Nazarova (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), D.S. Skorov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow PETE Ltd., RF, Moscow)
Integrated technology for influencing kerogen-containing strata of the Bazhenov formation

Keywords: Bazhenov formation, electric heating cable, CO2 injection, Huff-n-Puff technology

Particular attention is paid both in Russia and in the world to the development of fields with unconventional oil resources, which include kerogen-containing strata of the Bazhenov formation, spread over an area of more than

1 mln km2. According to various estimates, the potential of the Bazhenov formation is up to 100 billion tons, not taking into account the hydrocarbon resource of kerogen. The development of such deposits is complicated by a number of factors: a complex, heterogeneous geological structure, low permeability, abnormally high reservoir pressures and temperatures, and the content of solid organic matter.

Given the high degree of enrichment with kerogen (according to various estimates, up to 28 %), the uneven distribution in volume, the development of the Bazhenov formation should differ significantly from traditional methods. Along with existing technologies that describe such development approaches as multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, method of thermal gas treatment, we proposed and tested using the CMG STARS hydrodynamic simulator the technology for the Bazhenov formation development, which assumes a complex effect on the formation. The method include of two stages. The first stage is heating the formation with an electric cable lowered into a horizontal well in order to form a primary system of interconnected microcracks in the kerogen matrix to increase injectivity and cover the formation with subsequent exposure. In addition, heating leads to the onset of thermal conversion of kerogen. At the second stage, cyclic injection of carbon dioxide by Huff-n-Puff technology is implemented in the following mode: injection soak period production. Injected CO2 works to dissolve kerogen and partially maintain reservoir pressure, which leads to the formation of mobile hydrocarbons and increased formation coverage due to the formation of a secondary system of microcracks. According to the calculation results, the cumulative oil production and gas injection in surface conditions after just over two years of implementation of the Huff-n-Puff technology amounted to 10,200 m3 and 2.03 mln m3, respectively. Cumulative production of carbon dioxide in the periods of production selection is 622,000 m3, which is 31 % of the accumulated injection.


1. Shchekoldin K.A., Obosnovanie tekhnologicheskikh rezhimov termogazovogo vozdeystviya na zalezhi bazhenovskoy svity (Substantiation of technological modes of thermogas effect on deposits of the Bazhenov formation): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2016.

2. Nikitina E.A., Kuz'michev A.N., Charuev S.A., Tolokonskiy S.I., Experimental estimation for the quantity of additionally produced oil during low-temperature pyrolysis of kerogen-containing rock (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 132134.

3. Shakhmaev A.M. et al., Numerical evaluation of the wet combustion efficiency of the thermal gas tehnology on a 2D model (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2018, no. 2, pp. 4750.

4.  Morariu D., Aver'yanova O.Yu., Some aspects of oil shale: conceptual framework, the possibility of evaluation and the search for oil recovery technologies (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya litologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2013, V. 8, no. 1.

5. Khlebnikov V.N. et al., The study of hydrothermal influence on the Bazhenov formation breed (In Russ.), Bashkirskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal, 2011, no. 4, pp. 182187.

6. Yu Wey et al., Simulation Study of CO2 huff-n-puff process in Bakken tight oil reservoirs, SPE-169575-MS, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/169575-MS.

7. Alharty N. et al., Enhanced oil recovery in liquid-rich oil shale reservoirs: Laboratory to field, SPE-175034-PA, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2118/175034-PA.

8. Tiika L. et al., Formation of the thermobitumen from oil shale by low-temperature pyrolysis in an autoclave, Oil shale, 2007, no. 4, pp. 535 546.

9. Keaney G.M. et al., Thermal damage and the evolution of crack connectivity and permeability in ultra-low permeability rocks, Proceedings of 6th North America Rock Mechanics Symposium (NARMS): Rock Mechanics Across Borders and Disciplines, Houston, Texas, USA, 2004.

10. Khamidullin R.A. et al., The reservoir properties of the rocks of the bazhenovskaya formation (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Ser. 4. Geologiya = Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2013, no. 5, pp. 5764.

11. Pribylov A.A., Skibitskaya N.A., Zekel' L.A., Sorption of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen on kerogen (In Russ.), Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii = Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A., 2014, no. 6, pp. 10431051.

12. Lifshits S.Kh., Chalaya O.N., Possible mechanism of oil formation in the flow of supercritical fluid illustrated by carbon dioxide (In Russ.), Sverkhkriticheskie Flyuidy: Teoriya i Praktika, 2010, no. 2, pp. 4555.

13. Shakhmaev A.M. et al., Numerical implementation of the thermal gas technology mechanism in the 2D model  (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2018, no. 1 (61), pp. 3945.

14. Erofeev A.A. et al., Simulation of thermal recovery methods for development of the Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), SPE-182131-RU, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2118/182131-RU.

15. Mukhina E. et al., Hydrocarbon saturation for an unconventional reservoir in details (In Russ.), SPE-196743-RU, 2019, https://doi.org/10.2118/196743-RU.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-14-17

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I.T. Mishchenko (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), R.E.F. Guerrero (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Venezuela, Caracos)
Correlations of some oil and gas properties for Eocene oil fields of the Lago Sur region (Venezuela)

Keywords: correlations, oil and gas, oil field, Venezuela, oil and gas properties

Newly discovered oil fields foundation in various world regions requires a large number of expensive analytical and experimental studies and significant material investments. Reservoir and production engineering requires huge amount of experimental data in geology, hydrodynamics, chemistry and also assumes that oil field operator has modern computing systems (software) and highly qualified personnel.

At the initial stage of field development, we often have insufficient initial data, therefore, it is necessary to use correlations obtained from analogous oil deposits. Usually, this data belongs to USSR period.

We performed generalization of all available experimental material on PVT analysis of Eocene oil fields in the Lago Sur region (Venezuela) and also analyzed set of former USSR oil field analogues, taken from published data. This information became a basis for correlations of some basic properties of oil and gas in the flash gas liberation process. As a rule, we know a set of oil and gas properties from the PVT analysis. Usually we know the degassed oil density at standard conditions, but dont know the density of gas-saturated oil at reservoir conditions.

The importance of the present research is the fact that one may use our correlation to calculate oil and gas properties of the Eocene deposits in the Lago Sur region or similar deposits in case of non-reliable or insufficient fluid data.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-18-20

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N.N. Andreeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), K.V. Strizhnev (Technological Center Bazhen LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), Yu.V. Alekseev (Technological Center Bazhen LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
First results of work on concept of field test site with public access Bazhen

Keywords: the Bazhenov formation, new technologies, field tests, test infrastructure, test results acknowledgement

The Russian experience in the development of deposits of the Bazhenov Formation exceeds 50 years. Geological exploration work (geological exploration) at the Bazhenov formation has always been focused only on the exploration and development of natural highly productive zones. However, the Shale Revolution in the USA has proved the efficiency of technologies for formation of artificial permeability by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) in the issue of involving entire resource potential of similar formations in the development. Due to large-scale scientific project for the study of the Bazhenov formation, which was carried out by a consortium of contractors from leading scientific educational centers of Russia, it was established that unique technological approaches are needed to develop less productive zones of the formation. The production of domestic industrial equipment for the development of the Bazhenov formation and the use of a wide range of related technologies are impossible without full-scale tests in conditions similar to field ones. The Bazhen test site at the Palyanovsky license area is considered as a tool for testing and distribution of equipment and technologies for the development of deposits of the Bazhenov formation. The article contains the objectives of the project on creation of a test site with public access, the achieving of which will allow reaching a cost-effective Ultimate Drilling Cost (UDC). The article also demonstrates the first results of work on the concept of the public access field test site Bazhen. The paper highlights the most important conclusions from each section of the concept. The project team has calculated the optimum well Ultimate Drilling Cost (UDC) of the Bazhenov formation deposit development for new areas without existing infrastructure, efficient tools for obtaining high-quality test results of technologies and equipment were identified.


1. URL: https://www.gazprom-neft.ru/press-center/news/gazprom-neft-vnedryaet-novye-tekhnologii-razrabotki-tr... (data obrashcheniya 15.01.2019). Tekst: elektronnyy.

2. URL: https://minenergo.gov.ru/node/14095

3. Andreeva N.N., Valiullin I.M., Study of the international experience in testing facilities for fuel & energy sector machinery and technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 7, pp. 107111.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-22-27

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A.V. Dengaev (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.S. Verbitsky (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), I.T. Mishchenko (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.A. Getalov (NPO Volna LLC, RF, Moscow), B.V. Sargin (NPO Volna LLC, RF, Moscow), I.V. Grekhov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.V. Bogdanov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.A. Tarasevich (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Prospects for the use of ultrasonic influence in the process of preparation of oil at the Priobskoye field

Keywords: oil-water emulsions, demulsifier, ultrasonic influence, acoustic field

To destroy water-oil emulsions, high heating temperatures, increased dosages of the demulsifier, and a long settling time are required. These methods are characterized by high operational and capital costs, the metal intensity of the process, as well as the unstable effect in the separation of emulsions. Therefore, urgent tasks are the improvement of existing and the development of new effective methods for the separation of stable emulsions. A promising direction for the separation of oil-water emulsions is the use of ultrasonic exposure. It is known that under the influence of acoustic waves between particles there are attractive and repulsive forces, oscillations. At present, ultrasound is widely used to accelerate the processes of dissolution, emulsification, and preparation of suspensions. Ultrasonic vibrations provide ultra-fine dispersion, repeatedly increasing the interfacial surface of the components. It is established that ultrasonic waves contribute to reversal processes - the separation of components into separate phases.

The article proposes an alternative way to increase the speed of separation of the emulsion, which is based on acoustic exposure to the emulsion.

In the laboratory of the Gubkin University conducted tests determined the separation efficiency depending on the type of emulsion, oil viscosity, temperature, emitter power, the presence of a demulsifier, and so on. Based on the results of the research, the positive effect of ultrasonic radiation on the separation of oil-water emulsions was determined. The threshold values of acoustic exposure are determined in order to prevent cavitation effects. The joint use of demulsifiers with ultrasound was studied and a reduction in separation time compared with gravity settling was revealed. From a practical point of view, the use of acoustic methods will increase the productivity of existing facilities, as well as dramatically reduce the capital costs of equipping primary oil treatment facilities at new facilities onshore and offshore.


1. Afanas'ev E.S., Faktory stabilizatsii i effektivnost' razrusheniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy (Facts of stabilization and the effectiveness of the destruction of oil-water emulsions): thesis of candidate of technical science, Astrakhan, 2013.

2. Verkhovykh A.A., Vakhitova A.K., Elpidinskiy A.A., Overview of the effects of ultrasound on oil systems (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 19, no. 8, pp. 37-42.

3. Glushchenko V.N., Obratnye emul'sii i suspenzii v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Inverse emulsions and suspensions in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Interkontakt - Nauka Publ., 2008, 725 p.

4. Den'gaev A.V., Getalov A.A., Verbitskiy V.S., Primenenie akusticheskikh metodov razdeleniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy (The use of acoustic methods for the separation of oil-water emulsions), Proceedings of International Scientific and Technical Conference Geopetrol 2018, Zakopane, 2018, pp. 647652.

5. Patent no. 2540608 RF, B01F 3/00, Method for ultrasonic cavitation treatment of liquid media, Inventor: Getalov A.A.

6. Patent no. 2551490 RF, B01J 19/10, B01F 11/02, Method of ultrasonic cavitation processing of fluids and objects placed therein, Inventor: Getalov A.A.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-28-30

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V.V. Bessel (NewTech Services LLC, RF, Moscow), (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.G. Kutcherov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow; Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, Stockholm), A.S. Lopatin (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.G. Martynov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), R.D. Mingaleeva (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Current trends in global energy sector development with the use of hybrid technologies in energy supply systems

Keywords: hydrocarbon production, hydrocarbon reserves, reserves-to-production ratio, hybrid systems, renewable energy sources, energy supply

The article presents the modern trends in development of global energy sector. It is shown that in -I centuries the growth rate of energy consumption outpaces the growth rate of the Earth's population, which, in turn, is constantly increasing.  The analysis of energy consumption structure dynamics for the period of 1980-2018 shows the leading rates of growth of a share of natural gas and renewable energy in the world energy consumption balance, associated with energy efficiency and huge gas resources, inexhaustible renewable energy resources and low level of environmentally harmful emissions when using these types of energy. The analysis of the tendency of the mineral-raw material base of hydrocarbon raw materials development shows that the growth of oil reserves is provided, basically, by the high-viscosity bituminous oil of the Orinoco river belt in Venezuela and Athabasca province in Canada, and natural gas in four countries - Russia, Turkmenistan, Iran and Qatar. The trend of change in the hydrocarbon reserves availability index is estimated; currently it is equal to 53 years and tends to decline further. Based on the analysis of the fossil fuels share used in centralized electricity generation the conclusion was made about low efficiency of thermal energy. It is shown that in the medium and long term the world energy sector will be developed with the use of hybrid energy technologies that will significantly improve the energy supply efficiency and reliability especially in regions with undeveloped energy infrastructure. Substantial redistribution of energy load from thermal energy to energy generation based on hybrid technologies will make it possible to use hydrocarbons not as fuel but as raw materials for innovative products of oil and gas chemistry. Thermal energy based on the combustion of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear energy will dominate in the global energy mix, but its share will gradually decrease. In the medium term, the share of natural gas in the global energy balance will continue to increase with a renewable energy sources growing contribution to the energy supply that will be developed as hybrid technologies.


1. BP statistical review of world energy, June 2018, URL: http://www.bp.com/statistical review/

2. URL: https://countrymeters.info/ru/World#historical_population

3. URL: https://www.gazprom.ru/f/posts/01/851439/gazprom-annual-report-2018-ru.pdf

4. Mitchell J., Marcel V., Mitchell B., What next for the oil and gas industry? London: Chatham House, 2012, 128 r.

5. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Natural gas is the basis of high environmental friendliness of modern world energy (In Russ.), Ekologicheskiy vestnik Rossii, 2014, no. 9, pp. 1016.

6. Postuglevodorodnaya ekonomika: voprosy perekhoda (Post-hydrocarbon economy: transition issues): edited by Telegina E.A., Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2017, 406 p.

7. Kutcherov V.G., Krayushkin V.A., Deep-seated abiogenic origin of petroleum: from geological assessment to physical theory, Reviews of Geophysics, 2010, V. 48, no. 1,  DOI:10.1029/2008RG000270.

8. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Martynov V.G., The paradigm shift in the global energy market (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2017, V. 751, no. 4, pp. 2833.

9. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., Martynov V.G., Energoeffektivnost' toplivno-energeticheskogo kompleksa Rossii (Energy efficiency of Russia's fuel and energy complex), Proceedings of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2015, no. 2, pp. 1326.

10. Bujak J., Optimal control of energy losses in multi-boiler steam system, Energy, 2009, V. 34, no. 9, pp. 12601270.

11. Kutcherov V.G., Bessel V.V., Lopatin A.S., The paradigm shift in the global energy market: domination of natural gas, Proceedings of 17th international multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2017: conference proceedings, 2017, V. 17, pp. 813820.

12. Choi Y. et al., Review of renewable energy technologies utilized in the oil and gas industry, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 2017, no. 7(2), pp. 592598.

13. Halabi M.A., Qattan A.A., Otaibi A.A., Application of solar energy in the oil industry. Current status and future prospects, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015, V. 43, pp. 296314.

14. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S. et al., Energy efficiency and reliability increase for remote and autonomous objects energy supply of Russian oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 9, pp. 144147.

15. Bessel' V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S. et al., Efficiency of using autonomous combined low and medium power plants on renewable energy sources (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2016, V. 737738, no. 56, pp. 8792.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-31-35

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I.Yu. Lisin (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.M. Korolenok (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), Yu.V. Kolotilov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
System approach to the formation of integrated energy systems on the platform of intelligent information technology solutions

Keywords: energy system, object of management, reliability of the energy system, functioning of the system, supply of consumers, safety of pipeline transport systems

The article describes ways to improve the conceptual and methodological framework for the development and adoption of decisions on managing the development and functioning of large energy systems, which should take into account primarily the factors of reliability and safety of operation. The separation of system studies into a special scientific discipline is determined by the general properties and principles of energy system management. The signs of the energy system are the presence of governing bodies, the presence of a hierarchical structure, the influence of random factors, and the continuity of development. Properties of the energy system - the integrity of the system and the autonomy of the subsystems, the economy and reliability of the system, the dynamism of the system, the hierarchy of decisions and the incompleteness of information, the inertia and adaptability of the system, the multi-criteria system. Principles of energy system management are the following: a combination of centralization and decentralization, consistency of management objectives for subsystems, continuous planning and operational management, ensuring redundancy in elements and relationships, a rational hierarchy of controls, economic optimization of management, decision-making with the minimum necessary lead time, the complexity of accounting for external relations and restrictions. It is concluded that the study of reliability should be a necessary step in developing decisions on the management of the functioning of energy systems, as well as its development and reconstruction, since the purpose of this management is to create at the expense of minimal resources such a structure of capacities that would ensure reliable supply of consumers in the foreseeable future.


1. Voropay N.I., Saneev B.G., Senderov S.M. et al., Energetika Rossii v XXI veke. Innovatsionnoe razvitie i upravlenie (Energy of Russia in the XXI century. Innovative development and management), Irkutsk: Publ. of Energy Systems Institute (ESI) SB RAS, 2015, 591 p.

2. Sagdatullin A.M., Intelligent control processes transport and treatment of petroleum products (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Al'met'evskogo gosudarstvennogo neftyanogo instituta, 2015, V. XIII, no. 2, pp. 2834.

3. Plyaskina N.I., Prognozirovanie kompleksnogo osvoeniya uglevodorodnykh resursov perspektivnykh rayonov: teoreticheskie i metodologicheskie aspekty (Prediction of integrated development of hydrocarbon resources in perspective regions: theoretical and methodological aspects), Novosibirsk: Publ. of Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, SB of RAS, 2006, 327 p.

4. Abdrakhmanov N.Kh., Turdymatov A.A., Abdrakhmanova K.N. et al., Improving safety of gas pipeline exploitation (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, no. 3, pp. 183186.

5. Filippov G.A., Shabalov I.P., Livanova O.V. et al., The comprehensive evaluation of the reliability and durability of the cross-country pipe-lines (In Russ.), Chernaya metallurgiya, 2017, no. 2 (1406), pp. 6370.

6. Lisin I.Yu., Ganaga S.V., Korolenok A.M., Kolotilov Yu.V., Energy system safety, reliability and integrity management model (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 9, pp.p. 138-143.

7. Lisin I.Yu., Korolenok A.M., Kolotilov Yu.V. Event-oriented approach to ensuring reliability in the design and development of energy systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 8, pp. 87-91.

8. Leonov D.G., The application of open integration platform to the development of heterogeneous distributed software (In Russ.), Trudy Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina = Proceedings of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2017, no. 2(287), pp. 125135.

9. Papilina T.M., Leonov D.G., Overcoming the architectural limitations of software systems in an automated dispatch control system (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2016, no. 12, pp. 1418.

10. Lisin I.Yu., Ganaga S.V., Korolenok A.M., Kolotilov Yu.V., Logical simulation of power system operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 2, pp. 9498.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-36-40

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A.A. Shubin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.Yu. Kudymov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.M. Yatsenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Methodical aspects of studying mechanical properties of rocks of Bazhenov formation

Keywords: core, geomechanics, Bazhenov formation, research, rocks, sample preparation

The study of mechanical properties on the core allows us to evaluate the conditions under which plastic and elastic deformations occur in the formation. In combination with information about the material composition, the degree of transformation of organic matter, reservoir pressures, and tectonic activity within the area, this is the basis for creating promising geomechanical models. The results of core testing largely depend on the conditions of research, which, in turn, should be as similar as possible to the conditions of natural occurrence. Given the complex conditions of occurrence and textural and structural properties, a number of questions arise with regard to methodological approaches to sample preparation and research of geomechanical properties of rocks of the Bazhenov formation, taking into account all the features of oil-bearing rocks: their composition, type of cementation, wettability, saturation, and other physical and chemical properties.

 On the example of the results of laboratory tests, differences in the results of determining the deformation and strength properties in accordance with domestic (GOST) and foreign (ASTM) standards are shown. Optimal axial loading speeds are set ((0.5 1)10-5 C-1) and the effect of sample saturation on their elastic-strength properties. In order to make the most accurate assessment, the thermodynamic conditions of testing were as close as possible to the conditions of natural rock occurrence, taking into account the abnormal-high formation pressure and the anisotropy of the stress state of the array. Special attention is paid to the importance of conducting x-ray computed tomography of the core column and samples before testing. Among other things, this technology can reduce the number of defects in the manufacture of cylindrical samples by 20-30% and improve the accuracy of the assessment of geomechanical characteristics.


1. Kalmykov G.A., Kiryukhina T.A., Korobova N.I. et al., Regularities of structure of Bazhenov horizon and upper parts of Abalak suite in view of oil production prospects (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2013, no. 3, 14 s.

2. Moronkeji D.A., Prasad U., Franquet J.A., Size effects on triaxial testing from sidewall cores for petroleum geomechanics, ARMA-2014-7405, 2014.

3. Ostapchuk M.A., Kuznetsov V.A., Antonenko A.A. et al., The synergy of geological and technological aspects is the key to successful fracturing of the source rocks (In Russ.), SPE-182078-RU, 2016.

4. Zoback M.D., Geomekhanika neftyanykh zalezhey (Reservoir Geomechanics), Stanford University, California, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511586477.

5. Tiab D., Donaldson E.C., Theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2004, 880 p.

6. Longyun Zhang, Shangyang Yang, Study on temperature-time effect characteristics of hard rock under long-term load, ARMA-2019-2158, 2019.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-43-46

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R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), V.V. Akhmetgareev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), S.S. Khakimov (Crescent Point Energy Ltd., USA, Golden), Sh.Sh. Kenzhekhanov (IPEC Energy LLC, USA, Golden)
Latest multi-stage fracturing technologies for shale reservoirs in USA and their suitability for Domanic formations in Tatarstan

Keywords: Domanic, shale reservoir, tight reservoir, multi-stage fracturing, horizontal well, core, cuttings, studies

Today, Tatneft PJSC is intensively studying and developing production technologies for Domanic formations in Tatarstan. Over the last 3-5 years, the USA companies have made significant progress in shale reservoir development, which required billions of dollars and over 20 years of research. The USA companies experience could be used in Tatarstan to reduce financial and time expenditures. However, these technologies must be customized for Tatarstan fields, with due regard for their special features.

This paper discusses technologies used for shale reservoir studies and development in the USA. The standard suite of core, cuttings and fluid analyses includes application of X-ray diffraction (XRD) equipment, kerogen examination, use of spectrometer and electronic scanning microscope, thin-section petrography, isotope and chromatographic analyses (RCA), proppant and fracturing agent tests, determination of capillary pressure, and rock mechanics survey. In addition, some special or supplementary survey can also be carried out. Domanic reservoirs in Tatarstan are similar to Shaly Carbonate reservoirs that are successfully produced in the USA. The initial production of oil from wells with a horizontal section 1,600-3,200 m long is 130-200 t/d after 20-40-stage fracturing. Major portion of oil is produced during the first year and a half, which is followed by pressure depletion and production decline. 2.5-3 years later, multi-stage fracturing is conducted again, and this increases well economic life by 2-2.5 years. Payback period for 4 mln dollars CAPEX (240 mln RUB) is 6-12 months. To achieve such results in the Domanic formations, extensive R&D efforts are required. Based on the numerical simulation, more fracturing stages and longer horizontal wells produce better results.

The paper reviews innovative technologies and procedures based on machine learning, which enable having total high-resolution data set without expensive geophysical surveys and analyses of large amount of core and cuttings samples. Such technologies and procedures allow defining drilling location, interval and direction of horizontal drilling, placement of perforation clusters and frac stages, as well as multi-stage fracturing design and fracture growth monitoring.


1. URL: https://www.eia.gov/maps/images/shale_gas_lower48.jpg

2. Khisamov R.S., Akhmetgareev V.V., Khakimov S.S., Kenzhekhanov Sh.Sh., Technology of multistage hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells: Development experience of Shaly carbonates in the US and Its adaptation for the fields of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesourses, 2017, V. 19, no. 3, pp. 186190.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-47-52

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.. Spirina (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.A. Rabtsevich (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.R. Mulyukov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Kolonskikh (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Express method for determining development system parameters taking into account geological heterogeneity

Keywords: optimal parameters of the development system, hydraulic fracturing, geological heterogeneity, the dependence of coverage on the current line length, the pallet for determining of the optimal grid of wells density

This article proposes a method for selecting of optimal oil field development system using a two-dimensional semi-analytical simulator, based on solving of Laplace equation for calculating pressure fields and using the Buckley Leverett theory with the method of current lines for calculating saturation fields, taking into account the geological heterogeneity of the reservoir. The account of geological heterogeneity in the two-dimensional simulator is made by means of dependence of the grid coverage coefficient on length of the current line. The distribution of current line lengths in the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model characterizes the geometry of sand bodies and geological heterogeneity of the reservoir, and the value of the grid coverage coefficient numerically expresses this heterogeneity. This approach makes it possible to speed up the process of selecting the optimal parameters of development (density of the well grid, types of well completion, parameters of the hydraulic fracturing design on producing wells, half-length of fractures after auto-fracturing on injection wells, value of bottom-hole pressure on producing and injection wells, deformation coefficient for the grid of wells, etc.) at the decision-making stage. The parameter for choosing of the optimal development system, i.e. its optimal parameters, is the maximum value of the net present value when the conditions for achieving of the design oil recovery ratio are met. The calculation of economic parameters is carried out according to the dependencies inherent in the two-dimensional semi-analytical simulator, which allows the entire cycle of technical and economic analysis in one tool. In particular, this technique is extremely relevant for fields with low permeability and disjointed reservoir. Since the key feature of this approach is the account of geological heterogeneity.


1. Antonenko D.A., Pavlov V.A., Sevastyanova K.K. et al., Integrated modeling of the Priobskoe oilfield (In Russ.), SPE-117413-RU, 2008, https://doi.org/10.2118/117413-RU.

2. Sidel'nikov K.A., Vasil'ev V.V., Analysis of applications of mathematical modeling of reservoir systems based on the streamline method (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, no. 1.

3. Chawathé A., Taggart I., Insights into upscaling using 3D streamlines,

SPE-88846-PA, 2004, https://doi.org/10.2118/88846-PA.

4. Ates H. et al., Ranking and upscaling of geostatistical reservoir models using streamline simulation: A field case study, SPE-81497-MS, 2003, https://doi.org/10.2118/81497-MS.

5. Portella R.C.M., Hewett T.A., Upscaling, gridding, and simulating using streamtubes, SPE-65684-PA, 2000, https://doi.org/10.2118/65684-PA.

6. Baker R.O., Kuppe F., Chugh S. et al., Full-field modeling using streamline-based simulation: 4 case studies, SPE-66405-MS, 2001, https://doi.org/10.2118/66405-MS.

7. Idrobo E.A., Choudhary M.K., Datta-Gupta A., Swept volume calculations and ranking of geostatistical reservoir models using streamline simulation,

SPE-62557-MS, 2000, https://doi.org/10.2118/62557-MS.

8. Viktorov E.P., Nurlyev D.R., Rodionova I.I., Tight reservoir simulation study under geological and technological uncertainty (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 6063.

9.  Willhite G.P., Waterflooding, SPE Textbook Series, 1986.

10. Baykov V.A., Zhdanov R.M., Mullagaliev T.I., Usmanov T.S., Selecting the optimal system design for the fields with low-permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 8497.

11. Rabtsevich C.A., Kolonskikh A.V., Mustafin R.Kh., Kostrigin I.V., Designing of oilfield development using software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Vestnik PAO Rosneft', 2014, no. 2, pp. 813.

12. Krylov A.P., Sostoyanie teoreticheskikh rabot po proektirovaniyu razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy i zadachi po uluchsheniyu etikh rabot (The state of theoretical work on the design of oil fields and the tasks to improve these works), Collected papers Opyt razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy i zadachi po uluchsheniyu etikh rabot (Experience in the development of oil fields and tasks to improve these works), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdast Publ., 1957, pp. 116139.

13. Muskat M., The flow of homogeneous fluids through porous media, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1937.

14. Kanevskaya R.D., Matemeticheskoe modelirovanie razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza s primeneniem gidravlicheskogo razryva plasta (Mathematical modeling of the development of oil and gas using hydraulic fracturing), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 1999, 212 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-54-57

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L.R. Gilyazeva (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), T.Ya. Gadomskiy (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Zabrodina (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Oil correlation method at Bashkortostan Republic fields on the basis of trace elements composition

Keywords: metals, atomic absorption, correlation, relations, oil

In oil composition of the Republic of Bashkortostan, along with historically defined metals (V, Ni), two dozen other elements can be found, which are of practical interest in terms of genesis of hydrocarbon fluids, their transformation and determination of migration paths during the geological evolution of the Earth. The article presents the results on adaptation of the method for determination of metals in oil by atomic absorption method with preliminary decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons in microwave system of mineralization and the application of this approach for oil correlation by trace element composition.

On the basis of obtained data on the content of metals in the fractions of the investigated oil of the western and northern parts of the Republic of Bashkortostan, two groups of characteristic ratios of microelements are proposed (each group contains ten characteristic pairs of metals). In the selection of characteristic ratios, the main role was played by the belonging of metals to a certain fraction of oil, reproducibility over time and upon changing measurement conditions, as well as clear separation of obtained spectra of elements. The first group of metal ratios characterizes the proximity of compositions of individual fractions and oil in general to each other and is associated with primary processes of oil formation, the second group allows to estimate the degree of transformation of oil composition as a result of secondary processes (catagenesis, migration, hypergenesis, biodegradation). This method of correlation allows establishing the proximity of oil with different physicochemical properties and the difference of oil with similar physicochemical properties. The combination developed method of oil correlation with other geochemical methods of research, will allow clarifying geological structure of fields and supplementing the model of formation of oil reserves.


1. Maryutina T.A., Katasonova O.N., Savonina E.Y., Spivakov B.Y., Present-day methods for the determination of trace elements in oil and its fractions (In Russ.), Zhurnal analiticheskoy khimii = Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2017, no. 5, pp. 417436.

2. Caumette G., Lienemann C.P., Merdrignac Is. et al., Element speciation analysis of petroleum and related materials, J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 2009, V. 24, DOI: 10.1039/B817888G.

3. Hunt J., Petroleum geochemistry and geology, W.H.Freeman and Company, New York,1995, 743 p.

4. Khadzhiev S.N., Shpirt M.Ya., Mikroelementy v neftyakh i produktakh ikh pererabotki (Trace elements in the oils and products of their processing), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2012, 222 p.

5. Russkikh E.V., Murinov K.Yu., Using the chromatographic analysis for comparison of oil compositions and separation of production of wells, exploiting multilayer objects (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 2832.

6. Babaev F.R., Punanova S.A., Martynova G.S., Typification of oils of South-Caspian region on the basis of microelement content (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 7, pp. 3842.

7. Tsombueva B.V., Sokhorova Z.V., Fadeeva I.Yu., Ubushaeva B.V., Trace element characteristics of crude oils of some deposits of the Republic of Kalmykia (In Russ.), Uspekhi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya = Advances in current natural sciences, 2019, no. 1, pp. 1823.

8. Aliev Ad.A., Guliev I.S., Geochemical oil indicators (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2011, no. 2, pp. 98102.

9. Punanova S.A., Vinogradova T.L., Geochemical peculiarities of supergene-transformed oils (In Russ.), Geologiya, gefizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2011, no. 10, pp. 2730.

10. Baymukhametov K.S., Viktorov P.F., Gaynullin K.Kh., Syrtlanov A.Sh., Geologicheskoe stroenie i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy Bashkortostana (Geological structure and development of Bashkortostan oil and gas fields), Ufa: Publ. of RITs ANK Bashneft', 1997, 424 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-58-62

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622.276.1/.4 (571.)
A.N. Pomazov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.E. Bragin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
The first results of drilling horizontal sidetrack wells on the Tyumen suite of the Krasnoleninskoye field

Keywords: Tyumen suite, unconventional reserves, geological support while drilling, horizontal sidetrack wells, geological model, multistage hydraulic fracturing, low permeability reservoirs, remaining oil in place

The article presents the first field trial results of drilling horizontal sidetrack wells on Tyumen suite of Talinsky license area of the Krasnoleninskoye oil and gas condensate field. A brief description of the area of ongoing work and the prerequisites for drilling horizontal sidetrack wells in the Talinsky license area are given. The advantages of drilling horizontal sidetrack wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing under conditions of low permeability reservoirs and high share of idle and low-production directional wells are shown. The main criteria used in the selection of candidate wells and the stages of preparation of drilling areas are reflected. The methods used to reduce uncertainties, both at the planning stage and during the drilling process, ensuring high efficiency of well drilling in the target interval, are described. A principal diagram of the well profile and trajectory control methods during drilling in a limited set of well logs are presented. set of measures before and after drilling, which provide high starting production rates, as well as involvement in the development of previously not drained unconventional reserves are presented. The first results, comparison of planned and actual wells indicators and perspectives of drilling horizontal sidetrack wells on Tyumen suite, as well as other objects of the Krasnoleninskoye oil and gas condensate field of RN-Nyaganneftegas are shown. Completed and planned activities to improve the quality of performed work are presented. The main conclusions based on the results of the pilot industrial work and the development plan for the direction of drilling horizontal sidetrack wells at the facilities of RN-Nyaganneftegas are shown.


1. Chusovitin A.A., Gnilitskiy R.A., Smirnov D.S. et al., Evolution of engineering solutions on the development of Tyumen suite oil reserves on an example of Krasnoleninskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 5458.

2. Klubkov C., Stimulating the development of hard-to-recover reserves will help maintain the level of oil production in Russia (In Russ.), Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2015, no. 67.

3.  Emel'yanov D.V., Zharkov A.V., Smirnov D.S. et al., Modern approaches to support drilling of horizontal wells in facies-unstable low permeable reservoirs of Tyumen suite of Krasnoleninskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 2226.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-64-67

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E.O. Timashev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), K.R. Urazakov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), M.G. Volkov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.R. Garifullin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.S. Khalfin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.R. Brot (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Method of calculation for installations with electrical submersible reciprocating pump for oil production

Keywords: submersible plunger pump, linear electrical submersible motor, electrical submersible reciprocating pump, axial loads, power consumptio

The article describes a pilot version of a complex method for calculating installations with a electrical submersible reciprocating pump for oil production, based on mathematical models of individual elements of the installation and the well. The main differences between the calculation of parameters of a submersible plunger pump and a rod pump are considered. Algorithms are given for calculating the feed, the speed of the plunger during the up and down stroke, the power consumption and the equivalent power. The design features of a submersible plunger pump are determined by the absence of a rod column, an increased diameter of the valves, another point of application of axial loads, a higher speed of movement of the plunger, a minimum "dead" space and the presence of temporary pauses between the moves of the plunger. The main operating parameters and power factors that form the axial loads on the plunger pump rod in the phases of the swing cycle are considered. The method was tested by calculating the operating parameters of the installation. The results of the calculations demonstrate the independence of the plunger speed and power consumption during the up or down stroke from the number of swings for a given current frequency and length of the plunger stroke. In this case, the feed, the equivalent power and the duration of the pause between the double moves depend on the number of swings. The ratio of operating parameters of installations with a electrical submersible reciprocating pump, calculated according to the developed method, and installations of rod pumps according to the RosPump program, as well as installations of electric centrifugal pumps is shown. For the calculation conditions, in comparison with SRP, the RESP has a higher feed coefficient-0.92 vs. 0.86, and lower axial loads-7.9 kN vs. 39, respectively. The equivalent power of the RESP is 7.6 kW, the ESP is 11.9 kW, and the specific power consumption is 15.4 and 23.9 kWh/(m3day), respectively.  The results obtained will allow more successful application of a new promising technology for cost-effective operation of low-yield well stock.


1. Vdovin E.Yu., Lokshin L.I., Lur'e M.A. et al., New technologies for operating low-yield and periodic stock (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2017, no. 11, pp. 4043.

2. Zhu Shijia, Lei Derong, Liu He, Hao Zhongxian, Zhang Lixin, Application of Low-Carbon, rodless artificial lift in low-production, low-permeability oilfields,

SPE-192071-MS, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2118/192071-MS.

3. Aipov R.S., Valishin D.E., Leont'ev D.S., Mathematical model of the plunger pump with a cylindrical linear induction motor in the drive (In Russ.), Nauchnyy zhurnal KubGAU = Scientific Journal of KubSAU, 2014, no. 96(02), pp. 573583.

4. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Latypov B.M., Ishmukhametov B.Kh., Fluid leakage in a sucker-rod pump with regular micro-relief at surface of the plunger (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, V. 14, no. 4, pp. 3339.

5. Urazakov K.R., Bogomol'nyy E.I., Seytpagambetov Zh.S., Gazarov A.G., Nasosnaya dobycha vysokovyazkoy nefti iz naklonnykh i obvodnennykh skvazhin (Pumping of high-viscosity oil from inclined and watered wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2003, 302 p.

6. Timashev E.O., Urazakov K.R., Dynamics of flow rate and pressure in the tubing of plunger pumps with downhole drive (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2019, no. 5, pp. 4555.

7. Volkov M.G., Khalfin R.S., Brot A.R. et al.,  Method of calculation and selection of designs installations of PCP pumps with submersible and surface drive for oil production (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2018, no. 6, pp. 3237.

8. Certificate of official registration of a computer program no. 2006614402. OOO "YUNG-NTC Ufa". RosPump, Authors: Urazakov K.R., Bondarenko K.A., Khabibullin R.A.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-72-76

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V.N. Abrashov (Sibneftegas JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy), V.V. Zhonin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa), R.N. Imashev (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa), K.V. Litvinenko (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa), A.G. Mikhaylov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa), M.I. Nasyrova (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, Ufa), M.A. Skorobogach (Sibneftegas JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy), A.T. Faritov (Akrus-M SPE LLC, RF, Ufa)
Experimental methodology for determining gas-abrasive wear of field equipment elements

Keywords: erosion, gas-abrasive wear, mineral impurities, gas field equipment, experiment, laboratory test, impact angle, velocity, mass loss

The article is devoted to development of a methodology for studying the phenomenon of solid particles erosion of metals during interaction of a target material with abrasive particles in a gas stream. Gas-abrasive wear of gas field equipment elements as a result of mineral impurities removal from the formation is a common problem in the oil and gas industry, which is the cause of industrial accidents, outage, production losses, and expensive repair procedures due to premature failure of most significant elements of field equipment.

While developing a comprehensive erosion model, it is very important to determine the area of applicability and empirical data corresponding to the selected model. The current paper demonstrates a methodology for performance of laboratory sand blasting tests of materials, representing a pair abrasive particles steel, in order to determine different steels gas-abrasive wear resistance ability, as well as to identify the most aggressive conditions from the point of view of erosion phenomenon. Sand blasting tests of materials were performed with the use of a special laboratory equipment installation, consisting mainly of an ejector tube for directing the atmospheric air flow containing mineral impurities, which is installed right in front of the rigidly fixed steel sample. The main goal of the experiments was to determine the dependences of the target material mass loss on the abrasive particles velocity magnitudes, the size of the particles, impact angle, and particles parcel mass. The design of the fastening of the target made it possible to install the sample at arbitrary angles to the air flow direction. Quartz sand was used as the material of abrasive particles. To capture the particle velocity, high-speed video shooting technology was used. According to the obtained data representing a range of dependences, basic empirical parameters such as a material constant and a velocity exponent were identified, and considered to be necessary for further mathematical modeling.

Experimental data obtained from the laboratory sand blasting tests will be used as input data for further numerical modelling of gas field equipment elements based on a new methodology for predicting of erosion rate of a range of field equipment and gas gathering pipeline system elements.


1. Presnyakov A.Yu., Khakimov A.M., Voloshin A.I. et al., Justification of technologies selected to protect difficult production wells (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2017, no. 7(60), pp. 4547.

2. Kleis I., Kulu P., Solid particle erosion: Occurrence, prediction and control,  London: Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2008, 206 p.

3. Aperador W., Caballero-Gómez J., Delgado A., Erosion corrosion evaluation of CrN/AlN multilayer coatings, by varying the velocity and impact angle of the particle, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2013, V. 8, pp. 67096721.

4. Naza M.Y., Ismailb N.I., Sulaimana S.A., Shukrullahc S., Erodent impact angle and velocity effects on surface morphology of mild steel, Procedia Engineering, 2016, V. 148, pp. 896901.

5. Malik J., Toor I.H., Ahmed W.H. et al., Investigations on the corrosion-enhanced erosion behavior of carbon steel AISI 1020, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2014, V. 9, pp. 67656780.

6. Karasik I.I., Metody tribologicheskikh ispytaniy v natsional'nykh standartakh stran mira (Tribological test methods in national standards): edited by Kershenbaum V.S., Moscow: Publ. of  Nauka i tekhnika Centre, 1993, 328 p.

7. Nguyen V.B., Nguyen Q.B., Zhang Y.W. et al., Effect of particle size on erosion characteristics, Wear, 2016, V. 348349, pp. 126137, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.wear.2015.12.003

8. Naim M., Bahadur S., Work hardening in erosion due to single-particle impacts, Wear, 1984, V. 98, pp. 1526.

9. Divakar M., Agarwal V.K., Singh S.N., Effect of the material surface hardness on the erosion of AISI316, Wear, 2005, V. 259, pp. 110117.

10. Oka Y.I., Yoshida T., Practical estimation of erosion damage caused by solid particle impact, Part 2: Mechanical properties of materials directly associated with erosion damage, Wear, 2005, V. 259, pp. 102109.

11. Finnie I., Stevick G.R., Ridgely J.R., The influence of impingement angle on the erosion of ductile metals by angular abrasive particles, Wear, 1992, V. 152, pp. 9198.

12. Felten F.N., Numerical prediction of solid particle erosion for elbows mounted in series, ASME-FEDSM201421172.

13. Ukpai J.I., Erosion-corrosion characterisation for pipeline materials using combined acoustic emission and electrochemical monitoring: PhD thesis, The University of Leeds, 2014, 296 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-78-82

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A.G. Khramov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), S.V. Romashkin (ROSPAN INTERNATIONAL JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy), V.V. Buleiko (ROSPAN INTERNATIONAL JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy), A.Yu. Lomukhin (ROSPAN INTERNATIONAL JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy), A.V. Slobodyanyuk (ROSPAN INTERNATIONAL JSC, RF, Novy Urengoy)
Integrated model as a tool for solving practical problems during development of gas-condensate fields

Keywords: integrated model, optimization, Corporate Research and Design Institute (KNIPI), technological mode, automation

To carry out reliable calculations to determine the quantity of commercial products and the parameters of the collection system in the area from the bottom of the well to the point of delivery to the consumer, there is a need to use both training models and collection system models, each of which describes its part of the process. An integrated approach to modeling allows us to describe the production process in more detail and to get away from the assumptions that are characteristic of generally accepted approaches to modeling. As a result, iterations aimed at coordinating the decisions on the development of the reservoir with the decisions adopted on the surface infrastructure are minimized. Using an integrated modeling approach allows you to quickly perform calculations of the forecast profile of hydrocarbon production, taking into account all the elements of the reservoir - well - collection system - gas processing facility system, find bottlenecks in the collection and preparation system, and optimize the system according to various criteria.

To date, Rosneft Oil Company has created an integrated model that includes a hydrodynamic simulator of the license area in the format of the Eclipse E100 simulator, a gas collection network model in the IPM GAP software, and a gas treatment model in the HYSYS software package. The article describes the integrated model used and provides examples of solving practical problems that arise during the development of a gas condensate field: forecasting and optimization of technological modes of well operation, optimization of field operation in accordance with given restrictions, calculation of gas-gathering system reconstruction options, conceptual design of compressor equipment, calculation of the optimal mode work apparatus training installation. The article also presents the advantages of an integrated modeling approach in comparison with traditional industry approaches.


1. Ignat'ev A. et al., The features of building the integrated model for development of two gas-condensate formations of Urengoyskoe field (In Russ.), SPE 166892-RU, 2013, https://doi.org/10.2118/166892-RU.

2. Bikbulatov S. et al., Optimization of operation of the system reservoir-well-pipeline-GTU based on the integrated modeling (In Russ.), SPE 171220-RU, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2118/171220-RU

3. Bikbulatov S.M., Vorob'ev D.S., Smirnov A.Yu. et al., Improvement of the well performance optimization methodology based on integrated modeling (In Russ.), SPE-176581-RU, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2118/176581-RU.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-84-88

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M.M. Veliev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), V.A. Bondarenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Le Viet Dung (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Le Dang Tam (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), B.N. Mastobaev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Stages of implementing the system for associated petroleum gas treatment and disposition at White Tiger field

Keywords: associated gas, utilization, process flow diagram, gathering system, compressor station, liquefied petroleum gas, gas flaring, compression platform, process needs

Associated petroleum gas (APG) is by-product fr om oil recovery. It was considered as oil contaminant and has been flared directly within the oil production facility at the oil producing well, which resulted in environment contamination. A short while ago, APG, which comes with the oil recovery, was considered as a valuable product for further processing. Hence, oil companies started placing greater focus on efficient use of associated gas.

Based on production and gas disposition balance, as well as on technical-economic analysis, identified major ways to use associated gas of White Tiger field. Efficient use of fuel and energy resources is one of the most prioritized issues of social and economic development of Vietnam, especially for Southern regions of the country, wh ere oil and gas production from White Tiger field is placed. Primarily, flared associated gas can be wisely used for fuel and energy needs of the field and technological processes of oil production, while the remaining gas can be delivered to the shore-based consumers. The maximum disposition of associated gas at White Tiger field aimed on process needs of the field by use in power units, covering the needs for heating energy during gas treatment and transportation, gas lift systems and gas transportation on-shore. The article covers the stages of implementing the system for APG treatment and disposition at White Tiger field.


1. Tu Thanh Nghia, Veliev M.M., Bondarenko V.A. et al., Historical aspects of straight gaslift implementation in Vietsovpetro JV (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 127131.

2. Veliev M.M., Bondarenko V.A., Ivanov A.N. et al., Compressor-assisted gaslift implementation on White Tiger field (Vietnam) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 2, pp. 6165.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-89-94

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A.Yu. Lyapin (Transneft PJSC, RF, Moscow), F.V. Timofeev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Topical issues of oil and oil product quality management in pipeline transport

Keywords: oil, oil products, pipeline, pumping, quality, quality management, factors, optimization of cargo flows, control actions, quality assurance

The paper addresses the oil and oil product quality management in the pipeline transport. Large volumes of oil and oil products are transported in conditions of continuous toughening of requirements for their quality. At the route destinations, the oil and oil product quality must comply with the terms of transportation contracts and current standards. The pumping process features are structural, climatic and operational factors that affect the intensity of physical and chemical processes and, consequentially, the quality of oil and oil products. It is shown that under these conditions an analysis of the quality change causes and possible control actions is required. The quality management is possible through the implementation of a set of control actions, including administrative, methodological and process tasks. These tasks form a three-link system in which the solution of one problem leads to a response in neighboring links. Ensuring the energy resource quality preservation is achieved through the integrated task solution at all levels of the process. For oil transportation, integrated management is to stabilize the oil quality in accordance with the quality requirements established for each specific cargo flow direction. The quality stabilization is achieved through timely processing of information on the planned volumes of oil delivery by consignors, its quality level with reference to the delivery points, obtaining on-line information about the oil quality in the pipeline system and the implementation of the tank battery and mixing point capabilities. The main areas of the oil product quality management are tasks aimed at reducing the harmful effects of transportation conditions on the oil product quality, optimizing cargo flows taking into account the possibilities of sequential pumping of different types of oil products, and organizing the oil product quality monitoring during transportation using in-line and mobile means. The development and implementation of new, including innovative, technical solutions will ensure the high efficiency of the quality management system and ensure the oil and oil product quality safety in pipeline transport in general. 


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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-96-101

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502.6: 622.276.5
.. Soromotin (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen), .Yu. Solodovnikov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
The current ecological condition of natural environment within the territory of Surgutneftegass sites on the left bank of the Bolshoy Yugan River

Keywords: subsurface site, ecological monitor, surface waters, bottom clays, soils

For the long time all the activities of Surgutneftegas PJSC in Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district Yugra were located in northern part of the Surgut region on the right bank of the Ob River. Over a 50-year period of oil and gas production, hydrocarbon reserves have declined significantly. To keep the level of oil extraction the company performs different measures, including geological prospecting work. The south of Surgut district is one of such territories.

Respect for the environment is the basic principle of sustainable development of Surgutneftegas PJSC. To determine the background and current state of surface water, including bottom sediments, soil, and atmospheric air, Surgutneftegas PJSC carries out monitoring studies in accordance with the current legislation of the Russian Federation. They acquire particular relevance at the initial stage, when the territory of the deposits is not yet subjected to anthropogenic impact and it is possible to fix the background state of natural environments. This is important from the point of view that not only the oil industry contributes to the formation of the geochemical situation in the territory, but above all, nature itself.

It is known that at the stage of prospecting and exploration, environmental impact occurs, accompanied by a change in the appearance of landscapes and the initial geochemical environment of natural environments. On some components of nature (soil and vegetation cover) the effect is point-like and is limited to construction sites, on others (aquatic environment) it is somewhat larger due to the nature of the natural component. When working in subsoil areas, in accordance with the licensing agreement on the conditions for the use of subsoil, Surgutneftegas PJSC conducts studies to determine the environmental impact through environmental monitoring of natural environments. The research results are included in the determination of both the background and the current state, which will allow us to further evaluate the degree and consequences of the impact of oil and gas production on the environment.


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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-102-106

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R.Kh. Musin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.R. Galieva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), T.G. Kudbanov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), N.A. Kurlyanov (EcoStandart Group. Technical solutions LLC, RF, Novosibirsk)
The impact of oil refinery and petrochemical system on the hydrosphere of Nizhnekamsk industrial zone in the Republic of Tatarstan

Keywords: surface and groundwater, industrial zone, petrochemical production, water quality, pollution, buffer (protective) properties of environment

The authors consider the features of the composition of surface and ground water in the Nizhnekamsk industrial zone and its surroundings in 19792018. Nizhnekamsk industrial zone is one of the largest in Europe. It is located in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan and includes many large petrochemical and oil refineries. According to the analysis of hydrochemical data, the authors can claim that the composition of natural waters in the vicinity of the industrial zone has not changed significantly over the past 40 years. Waters with a salinity of less than 0,5-0.6 g/l and a total hardness of less than 78 mmol/l with the composition HCO3/Ca and HCO3/Mg-Ca are most common here. Groundwater salinity can reach 1.25 g/l, hardness can reach 17.7 mmol/l, and permanganate index can reach 17.3 mgO/l within industrial zones. The composition of groundwater has the strongest changes within and near industrial landfill sites. Salinity can reach 12 g/l here; the hardness is 135 mmol/l; and the concentrations of the most characteristic pollutants are following (mg/l): petroleum products - no more than 500982; phenols - no more than 13.9; total iron - no more than 153. However, the concentrations of many pollutant components can decrease by 1-2 orders of magnitude already at a short distance from the landfill (at a distance of 150-200 m), and at a distance of 1.0-1.5 km from it, signs of pollution of natural waters disappear. The composition of natural waters in the vicinity of the Nizhnekamsk industrial zone named does not change over time due to the high buffer (protective) properties of its geological environment.


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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-3-108-112

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