330.524 : 620.9
The paper considers the problems of the mankind transition to the energy of the future, called the Energy Transition (or Global Energy Transformation). The reasons for the transition necessity, the possibilities and conditions of its implementation, including the required investments, are analyzed. It is shown that the energy transition became possible as a result of a number of technological innovations achieved at the beginning of the XXI century in the energy industry of the world economy. The analysis of the main prognostic studies and scenarios of the transition to the energy of the future is carried out, the influence of various factors determining the global demand for energy resources and its structure up to 2040-2050 is shown: increase in energy efficiency, introduction of low-carbon technologies, development of renewable energy sources and increase in their share in total consumption primary energy carriers. Possible results of energy transfer are shown: volumes and structure of global energy consumption, dynamics of demand for oil and natural gas. It is concluded that during the transition period (until 2035–2040), oil will retain a significant role in shaping the global energy balance, but demand for it will decrease. The role of technological innovations is noted, the main factors determining the predicted reduction in oil requirements are considered: the electrification of cars, passenger and light commercial vehicles; increased fuel efficiency; increased use of biofuels and natural gas in vehicles; reduced use of petroleum products in shipping; transition to the production of bioplastics and the growth of plastic recycling. The role of oil and gas companies in the context of the energy transition and the challenges they face are shown, Eastern Economic Forum recommendations for politicians and governments are given.
1. Mastepanov A.M., Mirovaya energetika: osnovnye problemy i tendentsii razvitiya (World energy: main problems and development trends), In: Sovremennaya mirovaya politika (Modern world politics): edited by Bazhanov E.P., Moscow: Dashkov i K Publ., 2018.
2. Mastepanov A.M., The main trends and factors in the development of World Energy in the 2010s (In Russ.), Vestnik Diplomaticheskoy akademii MID Rossii. Rossiya i mir, 2019, no. 2(20), pp. 40–63.
3. Top 10 Emerging Technologies 2019. Insight Report. World Economic Forum, June 2019,
URL:http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Top_10_Emerging_Technologies_2019 – Report.pdf
4. Future of Energy. Global Issue. Co-curated with: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, URL: https://intelligence.weforum.org/topics/a1Gb00000038oN6EAI?tab=publications
5. Sidorovich V., Kuda v energetike veter duet (Where in the energy wind blows), URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2019/07/15/806611-kuda-v-energetike-veter-duet?utm_campaig...
6. Fostering effective energy transition, 2019 edition. Insight Report. World Economic Forum, March 2019, URL: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Fostering_Effective_Energy_Transition_2019.pdf
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9. World Energy Outlook 2018, OECD/IEA, 2018,
10. Mastepanov A.M., Oil in perspective global energy balance: at the crossroad of opinions and estimates (In Russ.), Problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom, 2019, no. 4 (172), pp. 5–8.
11. Perspectives for the Energy Transition: Investment needs for a low-carbon energy system (OECD/IEA and IRENA 2017),
URL: https://www.irena.org/publications/2017/Mar/Perspectives-for-the-energy-transition - Investment-needs-for-a-low-carbon-energy-system
12. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. 2018 OPEC World Oil Outlook, September 2018, URL: http://www.opec.org.
13. Druzhina V., Miru nuzhno budet vse men'she nefti v blizhayshie desyatiletiya (The world will need less oil in the coming decades), URL: https://www.vedomosti.ru/business/blogs/2016/07/13/649045-miru-menshe-nefti
14. Hydrogen scaling up, A sustainable pathway for the global energy transition, Hydrogen Council November 2017,
15. Berns M., Brognaux C., Dewar A. et al., In a warming world. How should big oil navigate the future, URL: https://www.bcg.com/publications/2019/warming-world-big-oil-navigate-future.aspx
16. How is big oil is transitioning to power the future, URL:
17. Oil and gas industry, Co-curated with: James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University,
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The article presents the methodology for economic evaluation of oil and gas investment projects in Kazakhstan. The economic assessment includes technological options, on the basis of which a feasibility study of the oil recovery methods is carried out in order to justify the most effective of them. When drawing up models of calculations of economic indicators and an assessment of variants of development, the principal feature of belonging of fields, layers, reservoir objects to two main groups is considered. These are new (green) fields, layers, reservoir objects with growing production and "old" (brown) ones being developed, with declining oil (gas) production. These groups of fields require the different depth of research, methods of calculation of economic indicators, a regulatory and information base, and conditions of comparison and evaluation of the effectiveness of field development. At the time of project development, only residual reserves are subject to economic valuation. For the calculation of capital investments and operating costs for oil and gas production, special cost standards are required, differentiated by the considered well placement systems (cases) and design stages. Standards of capital and operating costs are justified by the authors of the projects on the basis of design estimates and analysis of actual information, taking into account the inflation price indices developed and approved by the government.
On the example of one of the fields of Kazakhstan, a comparative calculation of the main economic indicators was carried out according to the Kazakh and Russian methods, taking into account the tax models operating in the subsoil use legislation. The presented results indicate that, compared to the current Russian model, the tax model of Kazakhstan can increase the income of the investor, due to the tax "maneuver" based on the use of sliding scales for the payment of taxes. The flexibility of the tax model of Kazakhstan allows to differentiate tax rates depending on the level of production and prices, which allows to maintain the stability of the tax system in oil production due to the high capital intensity of production, long payback periods of projects, high geological risks associated with uncertainty in the volume and quality of reserves, as well as high volatility of oil prices.
1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenke effektivnosti investitsionnykh proektov (Methodical recommendations according to efficiency of investment projects), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Economics RF, Ministerstvo finansov RF, 2008, 221 p.
2. Kodeks Respubliki Kazakhstan ¹ 120-VI ZRK (Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan no. 120-VI), URL: https://zakon.uchet.kz/rus/docs/K1700000120
3. Ponomareva I.A, Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A., Kompleksnaya ekonomicheskaya otsenka mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya v investitsionnykh proektakh (A comprehensive economic evaluation of hydrocarbon fields in investment projects), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2006, 134 p.
4. Ponomareva I.A, Bogatkina Yu.G., Tax system improvement in investment projects of oil fields development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 4, pp. 5–8.
5. Bogatkina Yu.G., Use of an artificial intelligence theory for an estimation of oil-and-gas investment projects (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10, pp. 38–39.
6. Bogatkina Yu.G., Ponomareva I.A., Eremin N.A., Primenenie informatsionnykh tekhnologiy dlya ekonomicheskoy otsenki neftegazovykh investitsionnykh proektov (The use of information technology for the economic evaluation of oil and gas investment projects), Moscow: Maks Press Publ., 2017, 148 p.
7. Rustem A., Ivakhnenko A.P., Zhandos A., Eremin N.A., The associative polymer flooding: an experimental study, Journal of petroleum exploration and production technology, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-019-0696-8
8. Abukova L.A., Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A., Digital modernization of Russian oil and gas complex (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 54–58, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-10-54-58
9. Certificate of state registration of a computer program no. 2017663905 RF “Intellektual'no-logicheskaya programma graf” (Intellectual logic program graph), Authors: Bogatkina Yu.G., Dmitrievskiy A.N., Eremin N.A.
10. Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A., Intelligent modeling technologies calculation of economic indicators for eval uation oil and gas deposits (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tul'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Nauki o Zemle, 2019, no. 3, pp. 344-355.
11. Ponomareva I.A., Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A. Economic and mathematical estimation of oil and gas field by the method of real options with the risk factors application (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 2, pp. 12–14.
12. Ponomareva I.A., Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A., Multiobjective optimization of the field development variant in an investment project (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 106–109.
13. Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A., Comparison of the taxation models of Kazakhstan and Russia, with reference to the economic evaluation of the Musyurshorsky field (In Russ.), Aktual'nye problemy nefti i gaza, 2016, V. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–15, DOI: 10.29222/ipng.2078-5712.2016-13.art15
14. Lakhanpal V., Samuel R., Implementing blockchain technology in oil and gas industry: a review, SPE-191750-MS, 2018.
15. Rassenfoss S., Can putting blockchain on drilling rigs really get everyone on the same screen, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 2018, V. 70, no. 9, DOI:10.2118/0918-0044-JPT16. Alkinani H.H., Al-Hameedi A.T.T., Dunn-Norman S., Prediction of lost circulation prior to drilling for induced fractures formations using artificial neural networks, SPE-195197-MS, 2019.
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338.23 : 622.276
The current state of the world and domestic economies can be characterized as a process of constant transformation. Global transformations in the world occur as a result of the acceleration of scientific and technological progress. New technologies seriously transform business conditions, intensifying competition in world markets, and forcing companies to find more efficient business-models that allow them to fully reveal the potential of the company, to be competitive in the market. Existing trends in the development of industries show that in the long term, companies with the ability to quickly adapt to changing external and internal environment, be flexible, see new opportunities in the unstable market conditions and successfully use them will have greater competitiveness. The purpose of the study is to develop an integrated approach to creating a mechanism for the formation of an effective business-model for an oilfield service company, which allows it to be competitive in the medium and long term. Conceptual approaches to the construction of business-models are identified and analyzed. The specific factors of the oilfield services market are shown that must be considered when building the business-model of the oilfield services company. The 11 stages of the formation of the business-model, the full implementation of which will improve the efficiency of oilfield services company’s activities are highlighted. The environmental factors that influence the development of the oil service industry are grouped according to five characteristics: economic, political, social, scientific, technical, and natural. Accounting for external factors will increase the credibility of the scenarios for the development of the oilfield services industry. The proposed mechanism for the formation of the business-model of the oilfield services company includes a stage of evaluating the effectiveness of the business-model built, for which general performance indicators are highlighted, as well as private ones - in the context of three segments of the oilfield services business: current and capital repairs, drilling, and geophysical exploration of wells.
1. Kotlyarov I., The outsourcing-based model of organization of oil and gas industry in Russia: Problems and ways of solving (In Russ.), Voprosy ekonomiki, 2015, no. 9, pp. 45–64.
2. Rynok sliyaniy i pogloshcheniy v Rossii v 2018 (M&A market in Russia in 2018), URL: https://home.kpmg/ru/ru/home/insights/2019/02/russian-2018-ma-overview.html
3. Rynok nefteservisa transformiruetsya vnov': sem' strategiy ustoychivogo uspekha (The oilfield services market is transforming again: seven strategies for sustainable success), URL: https://www2.deloitte.com/ru/ru/pages/energy-and-resources/articles/2017/oil-field-services-sector-t...
4. Oilfield equipment and services winners, 2016, April, Quarterly Special, 10 p.
5. The Russian oilfield services market in 2016–2017 – Invest in Russia, KPMG, URL: https://investinrussia.com/data/files/sectors/ru-en-oilfield-service-companies.pdf
6. Vyzhit' v trudnye vremena: Neftyanym servisnym kompaniyam pora uchest' svoi nedostatki i nayti strategicheskie resheniya (Surviving difficult times: Oil service companies need to consider their shortcomings and find strategic solutions), URL: www.strategyand.pwc.com
7. Samoylenko V., Business models of oilfield services and the efficiency of oil companies (In Russ.), Ekonomika i upravlenie: nauchno-prakticheskiy zhurnal, 2016, no. 4 (132), pp. 87–93.
8. Debelak D., Successful business models: Surefire ways to build a profitable business, Entrepreneur Press, 2003, 260 p.
9. Osterwalder A., Pigneur Y., Business model generation: A handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers, Published by Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur, 2010, 288 p.
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11. Sbrauer A.V., Business models of the development of oil and gas services in Russia (In Russ.), Rossiyskoe predprinimatel'stvo, 2011, no. 10 (1), pp. 107–112.
12. Shvaytser L., The concept and evolution of business models (In Russ.), EKOVEST, 2007, URL: http://www.research.by/webroot/delivery/files/2007n2r01.pdf
13. Gerasimenko A., Starring in a technology race. Why Russian oilfield service loses to foreigners in their field and how to change this situation (In Russ.), Oil&Gas Journal, 2018, no. 12(132), pp. 46–49.
14. Mercer Z. Ch., Harms T.W., Business valuation: An integrated theory, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, 320 p.15. Khotinskaya G.I., Delovaya aktivnost' biznesa kak faktor ekonomicheskogo rosta (otsenochnye modeli i finansovye instrumenty) (Business activity of a business as a factor of economic growth (valuation models and financial instruments)), Moscow: Rusayns Publ., 2018, 480 p.
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Research of the Rosneft Oil Company in the West Prinovozemelsky zone is focused on the reconstruction of the depositional environments of the Paleozoic section of the Admiraltey swell and identifying reservoirs and seals. The study area is situated in the north-eastern part of the Barents Sea basin near the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. It confines to the Admiralty-Prednovozemelsky potentially oil and gas region. Its industrial hydrocarbon potential has not yet been proven. Admiralteyskaya-1 well was drilled within the Admiralty swell. It penetrated terrigenous Upper Permian-Lower Triassic (3695 m) and carbonate Middle Carboniferous-Lower Permian (only 60 m) intervals.
The research is intended to create the most complete (at the present stage of study) depositional model at the Late Paleozoic (Carboniferous-Lower Permian). The work is based on the results of a complex interpretation of seismic data using principles of sequence stratigraphy. Unconformities were chosen as main framework surfaces. Their age reference with some uncertainties was based on a comparison with the rock outcrops on the northern island of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. As the result of the work two paleo-zones have been identified. They were influenced by different depositional environments. Northeastern zone, located closer to the source area in the Carboniferous and Early Permian is characterized by significant variability in sedimentation. Depositional environments were terrigenous in the Tournaisian-Early Visean and terrigenous-carbonate in the Middle Carboniferous-Permian time. In Upper Visean-Serpukhov reef complex was formed. In the southwestern zone shallow water environments with terrigenous-carbonate deposition dominated during all considered period.
1. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Masshtab 1:1000000 (State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Scale 1: 1000000), Page S-38-40. Matochkin Shar (Matochkin Sphere), St. Petersburg: Publ. of Cartographic factory of VSEGEI, 1999, 203 p.
2. Ustritskiy V.I., Tugarova M.A., Barents sea - Permian and Triassic reference section, encountered by the well Admiralteyskaya-1 (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2013, V. 8, no. 2, pp. 1–20, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/2/ 18_2013.pdf.
3. Nikishin A.M., Tektonicheskie obstanovki. Vnutriplitnye i okrainnoplitnye protsessy (Tectonic environment. Intraplate and marginal plate processes), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2002, 366 p.
4. Startseva K.F., Nikishin A.M., Malyshev N.A. et al., Geological and geodynamic reconstruction of the East Barents megabasin from analysis of the 4-AR regional seismic profile (In Russ.), Geotektonika = Geotectonics, 2017, no. 4, pp. 51–67.
5. Stupakova A.V., Structure and petroleum potential of the barents-kara shelf and adjacent territories (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2011, no. 6, pp. 99–115.6. Nikishin A.M., Malyshev N.A., Petrov E.I., Geological structure and history of the Arctic ocean, EAGE Publications bv, 2014, 88 p.
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The article provides the petrological and petrophysical characteristics of rocks of the volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the north-eastern framing of the Krasnoleninsky arch. Information is given on the petrotypes of rocks, their oil saturation, and filtration and capacitive properties. According to the results of core studies, rocks are divided into ten petrological types: effusives of acid composition (dense constitution and with voids); volcano-clastic rocks of acid composition; volcanic rocks transformed under the influence of post-magmatic processes, including rocks with a high content of minerals with a high and low specific gravity; weathering crust rocks; volcano-sedimentary rocks; sedimentary rocks; alkaline effusives and their transformed types. The possibility of petrological separation of rocks of the volcanic-sedimentary sequence is shown by comparing the geophysical parameters of the standard complex of geophysical methods. Alkaline effusives, their hydrothermally transformed types and sedimentary rocks, characterized by low values of natural radioactivity and increased values of bulk density can be identified with high confidence. Acidic and alkaline-acidic effusives of dense constitution are characterized by increased values of bulk density and resistance and reduced interval time of elastic waves and hydrogen content. Low density effusives of acidic and alkaline-acidic composition are identified by a decrease in bulk density, electrical resistance, and an increase in the interval time of elastic waves and hydrogen content. The change in geophysical parameters occurs gradually from effusive rocks to volcaniclastic rocks due to changes in the void space and the nature of saturation. The possibility of separating reservoirs by combining indirect qualitative features and quantitative criteria of geophysical parameters obtained by matching data from well logging, testing and geological and technological studies is shown. The presence of reservoir rocks, in addition to using quantitative criteria, is established at a qualitative level by the dissonance between the values of the interval time and the attenuation coefficient of the Stoneley surface wave with the background readings of the parameters under consideration characteristic of impermeable rocks. To increase the reliability of the petrophysical interpretation and reservoir identification in the section of the volcanic-sedimentary sequence it is recommended to perform special methods of well logging.
1. Shadrina S.V., Kondakov A.P., New data on the basement of the north-eastern framing of Krasnoleninskiy arch (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 94–99.
2. Korovina T.A., Kropotova E.P., Romanov E.A., Shadrina S.V., Geologiya i neftenasyshchenie v porodakh triasa Rogozhnikovskogo LU. Regional'nye seysmologicheskie i metodicheskie predposylki uvelicheniya resursnoy bazy nefti, gaza i kondensata, povyshenie izvlekaemosti nefti v Zapadno-Sibirskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Geology and oil saturation in the Triassic rocks of the Rogozhnikovsky license area. Regional seismological and methodological prerequisites for increasing the resource base of oil, gas and condensate, increasing oil recoverability in the West Siberian oil and gas province), Collected papers “Sostoyanie, tendentsii i problemy razvitiya neftegazovogo potentsiala Zapadnoy Sibiri” (The state, trends and problems of the development of oil and gas potential of Western Siberia), Proceedings of mezhdunarodnoy akademicheskoy konferentsii, Tyumen, 2006, pp. 26–28.
3. Kropotova E.P., Korovina T.A., Romanov E.A., Fedortsov I.V., Sostoyanie izuchennosti i sovremennye vzglyady na stroenie, sostav i perspektivy doyurskikh otlozheniy zapadnoy chasti Surgutskogo rayona (Rogozhnikovskiy litsenzionnyy uchastok) (The state of knowledge and modern views on the structure, composition and prospects of pre-Jurassic deposits of the western part of the Surgut region (Rogozhnikovsky license area)),Proceedings of IX scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2006, pp. 133–146.
4. Karlov A.M., Usmanov I.Sh., Trofimov E.N. et al., Makroizuchenie neftenasyshchennykh vulkanitov doyurskogo kompleksa Sidermskoy ploshchadi Rogozhnikovskogo mestorozhdeniya (Macro-study of oil-saturated volcanics of the pre-Jurassic complex of the Sidermskaya area of the Rogozhnikovskoye field) Proceedings of X scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2007, pp. 295–307.
5. Shadrina S.V., Kropotova E.P., Kharakter neftenasyshcheniya porod doyurskogo kompleksa yugo-vostochnogo obramleniya maloatlymskogo vala (The nature of oil saturation of rocks of the pre-Jurassic complex of the southeastern framing of the Atoll) Proceedings of X scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2007, pp. 379–382.
6. Shadrina S.V., Kritskiy I.L., The formation of volcanogenic reservoir by hydrothermal fluid (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 8, pp. 18–21.
7. Kiryukhin A.V., Shadrina S.V., Puzankov M.Yu., Modeling the thermohydrogeochemical conditions for the generation of productive reservoirs in volcanogenic rocks (In Russ.), Vulkanologiya i seysmologiya = Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 2013, no. 2, pp. 90–104.
8. Khamatdinova E.R., Filtration and capacity properties of west siberian effusive reservoirs (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2008, no. 12 (177), pp. 19–35.
9. Glebocheva N.K., Telenkov V.M., Khamatdinova E.R., Effusive reservoir capacity space structure from logs and core (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2009, no. 6 (183), pp. 3–10.
10. Gorokhova E.R., The features of application of a complex of methods (acoustic logging, a neutron-neutron logging on thermal neutrons, gamma-gamma-density logging) for definitions of lithology and porosity of sour igneous rocks (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2006, no. 9, pp. 93–110.
11. Khamatdinova E.R., Lithological subdivision of effusive reservoirs based on well logging data (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2008, no. 10 (175), pp. 66–80.
12. Koshlyak V.A., Granitoidnye kollektory nefti i gaza (Granitoid collectors of oil and gas), Ufa: Tau Publ., 2005, 256 p.
13. Smirnova E.V., Borkun F.Ya., Bogomaz E.F., Justification of methods of stratigraphic differentiation of the pre-Jurassic basement rocks on production logging data (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2015, no. 3(53), pp. 74–79.
14. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza ob’emnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersil’e V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow – Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003. 261 p.
15. Mosunov A.Yu., Efimov V.A., Sozdanie tekhnologii issledovaniya i metodiki vydeleniya pronitsaemykh intervalov v doyurskikh kollektorakh treshchinno-porovogo tipa po dannym spetsial'nykh GIS (Creation of research technology and methods for identifying permeable intervals in pre-Jurassic fracture-pore reservoirs according to special well logging) Proceedings of VIII scientific and practical conference “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO” (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2005, Part 2, pp. 219–226.16. Kozyar V.F., Telenkov V.M., Egorov V.V., Kozyar N.V., Qualitative parameter evaluation for unconventional reservoir rocks (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2007, no. 10, pp. 49–61.
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In the Paleozoic section of Bashkortostan the Lower Carboniferous terrigenous sequence is the largest hydrocarbon reserve. Significant oil accumulations in these deposits were discovered back in the 40s of the last century. However nowadays in Bashkortostan exploratory drilling has been actively conducted. So oil deposits discoveries replenished significantly. New licensed areas have not enough petrophysical information. So in this work the available geological and petrophysical information has been summarizing. The methodology of the work is based on a consistent study of data complex including detailed core study, lithotypes of rocks identification, comparing them with petrophysical heterogeneity and justification of factors affecting the reservoir properties. Mass clay can be used as a determining factor affecting the structure and filtration and capacitive properties of terrigenous rocks. All terrigenous differences were divided into three petrophysical classes according to boundaries selected by clay. For each class of rocks their own petrophysical dependencies are obtained and the boundary values of the filtration and capacitive parameters for reservoir identification were determined. Based on the core and well logs analysis results a lithofacial analysis has been carried out for electrofacies identification according to V.S. Muromtsev methodology. The filtration and capacitive properties distribution described by the petrophysical classes in accordance with the identified facies zones is shown, which gives an understanding of terrigenous deposits collector properties predicting possible accuracy by using lithofacial heterogeneity maps. So lithological heterogeneity of terrigenous rocks is revealed and confirmed. Proposed methodology also allows specify deposits geological structure when reservoir productivity predicting.
1. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftenosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil content of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.
2. Bayburina G.F., Sharipov R.F., Dushin A.S. et al., Clarification of the lithofacies structure of the terrigenous thickness of the Lower Carboniferous of the Republic of Bashkortostan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 9, pp. 88–92.
3. Khanin A.A., Porody-kollektory nefti i gaza neftegazonosnykh provintsiy SSSR (Reservoir rocks of oil and gas of the USSR petroliferous provinces), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1969, 368 p.
4. Tiab D., Donaldson E.C., Theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2004, 880 p.
5. Guseva A.I., Kireev V.S., Kuznetsov I.A., Bochkarev P.V., An investigation of algorithms for multi-dimensional classification of scientific data, Part 5 (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2015, no. 11, pp. 868–874.
6. Camponogara E., Nazari L.F., Models and algorithms for optimal piecewise-linear function approximation, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2015, Article ID 876862, 9 p.7. Gudok N.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Martynov V.G., Opredelenie fizicheskikh svoystv neftevodosoderzhashchikh porod (Determination of the physical properties of oil-and-water-containing rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 592 p
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The article is devoted to some aspects of optimizing the process of digital geological modeling of oil and gas fields. The algorithm for constructing fluid contact surfaces is proposed, which allows to automate the stage of geometrization of oil and gas deposits, speed up the modeling process, and reduce the number of errors at the same time. The algorithm contains the following computing units:
– analyzing and pre-processing the initial data, namely, geophysical “collector – non-collector” interpretation, “gas – oil – water” interpretation and zone markers;
– calculating the surface of fluid contacts by minimizing the deviation of known initial data relative to a certain surface;
– data declustering allowing to reduce the influence of tightly located data groups;
– minimizing discrepancies between the calculation result and the initial data, which allows “to hook” the obtained contact surface onto the markers.
Obtained results have been illustrated by examples of automated construction of contact surfaces on deposits of the West Siberian and Volga-Urals oil and gas provinces. The proposed algorithm can be used manually and automatically for updating and adaptation of fluid contact surfaces to changed input data at the stage of reservoir geometrization. The algorithm most effectively manifests itself in large oil and gas fields with a large number of wells. In addition to constructing fluid contact surfaces, the application of the algorithm allows the geologist-designer to analyze the well data for the presence of wells with significant inclinometry errors.
1. Saakyan M.I., Zakrevskiy K.E., Gazizov R.K. et al., The prospects of corporate geological modeling software creation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 50–54.
2. Journel A.G., Nonparametric estimation of spatial distributions, Mathematical Geology, 1983, V. 15, no. 3, pp. 445–468.
3. Pyrcz M.J., Deutsch C.V., Declustering and debiasing, 2007, URL: http://www.gaa.org.au/pdf/DeclusterDebias-CCG.pdf
4. Vestnik Roxar, 2015, no. 8 (22), pp. 3–11, URL: http://roxar.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/%D0%92%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA-Roxar-%D0%9E%D...
5. Manchuk J., Neufeld C., Deutsch C.V., Petrel plugins for declustering and debiasing, URL: https://www.ccgalberta.com/ccgresources/report09/2007-403_petrel_plugin_for_declustering.pdf6. Baykov V.Ya., Bakirov N.K., Yakovlev A.A., Matematicheskaya geologiya (Mathematical geology), Part 1. Vvedenie v geostatistiku (Introduction to geostatistics), Moscow – Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2012, 228 p.
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Coarsening of computational spatial grids is one of the main ways to reduce the cost of computing resources in geological and hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The procedure of overriding reservoir properties in an upsized cell of the computational grid is called upscaling (averaging). The quality of this procedure is determined by degree of prognostic capability decreasing of applied models. The traditional way for determining the average value as the arithmetic mean is not always applicable in practice, since it does not take into account the spatial heterogeneity of the averaged values distribution. In this paper, we consider the case of a reservoir with formation reservoir properties (permeability and porosity) values close to power functions of the spatial variable. Proximity of reservoir properties to power function indicates to a fractal inhomogeneity of the porous medium. The power-law upscaling procedure is proposed for this case. An initial-boundary-value problem for a one-dimensional fractal model of unsteady-state filtration is considered. The identification procedure of fractal quantities of this model is proposed and investigated. The proposed methods tested on data from one of the fields in Western Siberia. A comparative analysis with the arithmetic mean method is performed on permeability data. The proposed techniques have a potential for use in reservoir engineering and monitoring.
1. Mandelbrot B.B., The fractal geometry of nature, San Francisco: Freeman, 1992, 750 p.
2. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Modelirovanie protsessov neftegazodobychi. Nelineynost’, neravnovesnost’, neopredelennost’ (Modelling of oil and gas production processes. Nonlinearity, disequilibrium, uncertainty), Moscow-Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2004, 368 p.
3. Feder J., Fractals, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013, 283 p.
4. Uchaykin V.V., Metod drobnykh proizvodnykh (Fractional derivative method), Ul'yanovsk: Artishok Publ., 2008, 512 p.
5. Barabanov V.L., The rocks capillary imbition – The primary stage; fractal modelling (In Russ.), Aktual'nye problemy nefti i gaza, 2016, no. 1(13), pp. 5/1-16.
6. Yu B., Analysis of flow in fractal porous media, Applied Mechanics Reviews, 2008, V. 61, no. 5, pp. 1–19.
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8. Bagmanov V.Kh., Baykov V.A., Latypov A.R., Vasil'ev I.B., The technique of interpretation and determination of the parameters of the filtration equation in a porous medium with fractal properties (In Russ.), Vestnik UGATU, 2006, V. 7, no. 2, pp. 146–149.
9. Xu P., Yu B., Developing a new form of permeability and Kozeny–Carman constant for homogeneous porous media by means of fractal geometry, Advances in water resources, 2008, V. 31, no. 1, pp. 74-81.
10. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Teoriya nestatsionarnoy fil'tratsii zhidkosti i gaza (The theory of non-stationary filtration of liquid and gas), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1972, 288 p.
11. Kostin A.B., Recovery of the coefficient of u t in the heat equation from a condition of nonlocal observation in time (In Russ.), Zhurnal vychislitel'noy matematiki i matematicheskoy fiziki, 2015, V. 55, no. 1, pp. 89–104.
12. Bakhvalov N.S., Panasenko G.P., Osrednenie protsessov v periodicheskikh sredakh: Matematicheskie zadachi mekhaniki kompozitsionnykh materialov (Averaging of processes in batch media: Mathematical problems in the mechanics of composite materials), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1984, 352 p.
13. Baykov V.A., Zhonin A.V., Konovalova S.I. et al., Petrophysical modeling of complex terrigenous reservoirs (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2018, no. 11, pp. 34–38.
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It is known that in the pore space of many gas and gas condensate fields, along with residual water, relict residual oil is also contained. Relict oil is also found in the gas caps of oil and gas and oil and gas condensate fields. It is also believed that the oil reserves in gas caps are so small or not drainable that they are neglected during modeling. However, relict oil can significantly affect the hydrodynamic relationship between gas and oil saturated reservoirs. In the vicinity of the gas-oil contact, where oil was displaced by gas during the formation of the reservoir, the relict oil saturation should be close to the residual characteristic for this process with insignificant mutual dissolution. The presence of liquid and solid hydrocarbons in gas deposits sometimes reaches such volumes that the adjustment of the estimated parameters in the direction of reducing the useful capacity of the gas occupied becomes necessary. Relict oil is inherently motionless with any filtration mechanism. Residual oil saturation during the introduction of oil into the gas cap is formed from its capillary- blocked part and relict oil saturation. Accounting for relict oil saturation allows to improve the quality of the forecast, as well as to consider design decisions in the field of reservoir development, previously not taken into account. The article considers the influence of the initial (relict) oil saturation in gas caps on the rate of hydrocarbon production when using various methods for setting relict oil over a gas-oil contact. In addition, the necessity of dividing reservoirs into classes is discussed to justify the critical and residual values of oil and gas saturation, not only in terms of permeability and degree of hydrophilicity, but also in the nature of the initial saturation of reservoirs with hydrocarbons. On the example of one of the objects of the oil and gas condensate field shelf island Sakhalin, it is shown that assigning relict oil and revising the concept of the amount of residual oil saturation allows us to exclude a significant amount of losses of oil and gas products in the gas cap and to take a fresh look at the effectiveness of advanced gas development or joint development of a gas cap and rim.
1. Martyntsev O.F., Oil recovery during the invasion of the oil rim in the gas-saturated part of the reservoir fluid during the directional discharge of water (In Russ.), Neftyanaya i gazovaya promyshlennost', 1973, no. 3, pp. 23–24.
2. Masoudi R., Karkooti H., Othman M., How to get the most out of your oil rim reservoirs, IPTC 16740, 2013, DOI: 10.2523/16740-MS.
3. Olamigoke O., Peacock A., First-pass screening of reservoirs with large gas caps for oil rim development, SPE-128603-MS, 2019.
4. Penland C., Itsekiri E., Mansoori S. et al., Measurement of non-wetting phase trapping in sand pack, SPE-115697-MS, 2008.
5. Durmish'yan A.G., Gazokondensatnye mestorozhdeniya (Gas condensate fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 333 p.
6. Dvorak S.V., Sonich V.P., Nikolaeva E.V., Zakonomernosti izmeneniya neftenasyshchennosti v gazovykh shapkakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Patterns of changes in oil saturation in gas caps in Western Siberia), Collected papers “Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy Sibiri” (Improving the development of oil fields in Western Siberia), Tyumen', 1988.
7. Mikhaylov N.N. et al., Physicochemical peculiarities of absorbed oil in core samples of gas condensate deposit (In Russ.), DAN = Doklady Earth Sciences, V. 466, no. 3, pp. 319–323.
8. Cheremisin N.A., Rzaev I.A., Borovkov E.V. et al., Improving the full-scale hydrodynamic model formation AV1-5 Samotlorskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 10, pp. 49–53.
9. Suicmez V.S., Piri M., Blunt M.J., Pore-scale modeling of three-phase WAG Injection: Prediction of relative permeabilities and trapping for different displacement cycles, SPE-95594-MS, 2006.
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The development of multi-layer objects by a single filter leads to the impossibility of regulating the created depression on each layer independently of each other, which necessitates the use of special methods for monitoring energy, production and filtration properties. One of such methods is the use of permanent downhole gauges (PDG), which measure parameters such as pressure, temperature, flow, moisture content in front of each stratum with a string of complex geophysical instruments. High values of water cut and differentiation of reservoir pressures of a multi-layer development facility, which is a characteristic feature of the middle and late stages of development of the Republic of Bashkortostan, lead to a distortion of the recorded parameters. Therefore, special well tests are required to control reservoir pressure, productivity and reservoir development. To determine the individual values of reservoir pressure and the reservoir productivity index of a multi-layered object, an analysis was performed using methods proposed by a number of authors in the middle of the 20th century. To refine the composition of the inflow, a method based on the Joule – Thomson effect is proposed. Similar to the analysis of steady-state studies using an indicator diagram, the Joule – Thomson coefficient was determined from the pressure-temperature plot, constructed from the points obtained when stabilizing the bottomhole pressure and temperature at several steady-state regimes. Application of thermo-hydrodynamic methods of well tests allowed to determine individual values of reservoir pressure, productivity index, hydroconductivity, permeability and skin factor of each of the investigated layers of a multi-layered object.
1. Blinov A.F., Diyashev R.N., Issledovanie sovmestno ekspluatiruemykh plastov (Study of the jointly exploited layers), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971, 176 p.
2. Diyashev R.N., Mekhanizmy negativnykh posledstviy sovmestnoy razrabotki neftyanykh plastov (Mechanisms of negative consequences of joint development of oil reservoirs), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 2004, 192 p.
3. Murav'ev V.M., Spravochnik mastera po dobyche nefti (Handbook of the production foreman), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 264 p.
4. Fatikhov S.Z., Fedorov V.N., Interpretatsiya KVD s uchetom poslepritoka v PO “Sapfir” (Interpretation of pressure build-up curve with allowance for after-flow in the software "Sapphire"), Proceedings of 14th International scientific and technical conference “Monitoring razrabotki neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy: razvedka i dobycha” (Monitoring of development of oil and gas fields: exploration and production), Tomsk: Publ. of TSU, 2015, pp. 56–57.
5. Gimaev A.F., Fatikhov S.Z., Fedorov V.N., Malov A.G., A comprehensive analysis of bottomhole pressure and productivity measurements of the multilayer object in wells equipped with permanent downhole gauge systems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 76–80.
6. Fatikhov S.Z., Fedorov V.N., Malov A.G., Using permanent downhole gauges at oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 56–59.
7. Mel'nikov S.I., Metodika razdel'nogo promyslovo-geofizicheskogo kontrolya sovmestno ekspluatiruemykh neftyanykh plastov (The method of separate field-geophysical control of jointly exploited oil reservoirs): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2015.
8. Chekalyuk E.B., Termodinamika neftyanogo plasta (Thermodynamics of oil reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1965.
9. Ramazanov A.Sh., Teoreticheskie osnovy skvazhinnoy termometrii (Theoretical foundations of downhole thermometry), Ufa: Publ. of BashSU, 2017, 112 p., URL: https://elib.bashedu.ru/dl/read/Ramazanov_Teoreticheskie osnovy skvazhinnoj termometrii_up_2017.pdf.10. Pityuk Yu.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Musin A.A. et al., Estimation of various temperature effects influencing temperature change near bottomhole formation zone (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 28–34.
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Currently, pilot project on heavy oil production by SAGD technology is being implemented in Tatarstan fields. An essential factor complicating heavy oil production is presence of oil-water transition zones penetrated by production wells. Other adverse factors include presence of gas and water zones, lack of distinct reservoir continuity, mudded interlayers, high variability of OWC depth over short intervals in new fields and uplifts. All these factors result in either man-induced or natural migration of underlying mineral waters into the overlying fresh water aquifers. At the same time, a number of issues should be addressed prior to production operations, including selection of optimal composition based on rock mineralogy in the interwell space, and calculation of the required injected amount and concentration of chemicals, which will depend on reservoir rocks (clay and carbonate content). On the one hand, the amount of the injected composition should be sufficient for efficient treatment of the interwell space; on the other hand, it is necessary to prevent channeling between parallel horizontal wells (injector and producer), which will eventually result in steam breakthrough. It is critical to solve the problem of minimizing the adverse impact on the tubing string and the screen pipe by selecting an optimal composition and stimulation option. Some engineering aspects must also be addressed concerning treating either the entire horizontal wellbore or the selected borehole sections. This will require application of emulsion compositions.
To date, due to concerted efforts of engineers from scientific and production units of Tatneft PJSC, a suite of technology has been developed to significantly mitigate the negative effect of the above-mentioned factors when producing heavy oil by SAGD method.
1. Takhautdinov Sh., Ibragimov N., Khisamov R. et al., Modern SAGD technology - From modeling to field monitoring, Proceedings of World Heavy Oil Congress, 5-7 March 2014, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 257 p.
2. Shaykhutdinov D.K., Zaripov A.T., Khafizov R.I., Beregovoy A.N., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki zalezhey SVN s primeneniem geleobrazuyushchikh kompozitsiy na gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh (Increasing the efficiency of the development of high viscous oil deposits using gel-forming compositions on horizontal wells), Collected papers “Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny i GRP v povyshenii effektivnosti razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy” (Horizontal wells and fracturing in increasing the efficiency of development of oil fields), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference devoted to the founder of horizontal drilling – Grigoryan A.M., Kazan', 6-7 September 2017, Kazan': Slovo Publ., 2017, pp. 280–282.
3. Patent no. 2483092 RF, MPK C 09 K 8/42, Composition of polysaccharide gel for killing of high-temperature wells, Inventors: Ibatullin R.R., Amerkhanov M.I., Rakhimova Sh.G., Beregovoy A.N., Zolotukhina V.S., Ibragimov N.G., Fadeev V.G.
4. Patent no. 2522369 RF, MPK E 21 B 43/24, Method for development of high-viscosity oil and/or bitumen deposits with oil-water zones, Inventors: Amerkhanov M.I., Shesternin V.V., Beregovoy A.N., Vasil'ev E.P.
5. Amerkhanov M.I., Zaripov A.T., Beregovoy Ant.N. et al., Innovative solution for enhanced of oil recovery at shallow deposits of heavy oil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 7, pp. 24–27.
6. Beregovoy Ant.N., Knyazeva N.A., Vasil'ev E.P. et al., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki zalezhey sverkhvyazkoy nefti s uplotnennymi i zaglinizirovannymi kollektorami (Improving the efficiency of the development of extra-viscous oil deposits with seal and mudded-off collectors), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / Tatneft PJSC, Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2019, V. 87, pp. 137–144.
7. Ibatullin R.R., Tekhnologicheskie protsessy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Technological processes of development of oil deposits), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2011, 304 p.
8. McLeod H.O., Coulter A.W., The use of alcohol in gas well stimulation, SPE-1663-MS, 1966, https://doi.org/10.2118/1663-MS.
9. Patent no. 2686768 RF, MPK E21B 43/27, E21B 43/24, E21B 7/04, E21B 49/00, C09K 8/72, Method for development of super-viscous oil and/or bitumen deposit in compacted and clogged reservoirs (versions), Inventors: Amerkhanov M.I., Beregovoy A.N., Vasil'ev E.P., Knyazeva N.A., Razumov A.R.
10. Amerkhanov M.I., Beregovoy Ant.N., Vasil'ev E.P. et al., Primenenie rastvoriteley dlya povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki zalezhey sverkhvyazkoy nefti s ispol'zovaniem parogravitatsionnogo drenirovaniya (The use of solvents to increase the efficiency of the development of deposits of super-viscous oil using steam and gravity drainage), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / PAO “Tatneft'”, 2018, V. 86, pp. 105–111.
11. Beregovoy Ant.N., Knyazeva N.A., Rakhimova Sh.G. et al., Fizicheskoe modelirovanie razlichnykh variantov zakachki rastvoritelya dlya povysheniya dobychi sverkhvyazkoy nefti (Physical modeling of various solvent injection options to increase the production of super-viscous oil), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / PAO “Tatneft'”, 2018, V. 86, pp. 179–183.12. Akhmetzyanov F.M., Zaripov A.T., Beregovoy Ant.N. et al., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki zalezhey sverkhvyazkoy nefti s primeneniem metoda parogravitatsionnogo drenirovaniya za schet vnedreniya usovershenstvovannoy tekhnologii zakachki uglevodorodnogo rastvoritelya (Improving the efficiency of the development of super-viscous oil deposits using the method of steam gravity drainage due to the introduction of an improved technology for the injection of hydrocarbon solvent), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / Tatneft PJSC, Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2019, V. 87, pp. 153–157.
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The main producing formations of Central-Khoreiver uplift fields are carbonate Devonian deposits (Famenian stage) that are characterized by mixed-wet surface, reservoir temperatures around 70°C and high salinity formation water – up to 210 g/l. A study is currently in progress these object to evaluate the injection of different chemical agents to increase oil recovery factor. The paper includes the scheme of surfactant and surfactant-polymer composition selection and the approach to evaluate potential results of injection of the most prospective composition. Application of surfactant compositions was evaluated for high salinity treated formation water (without applying salinity gradient). The first step of surfactant composition selection included testing of water solution stability in formation water with salinity that is characteristic for Central-Khoreiver uplift conditions. Then interfacial tension of surfactant water solution with oil was measured, as well as adsorption properties. Surfactant water solutions cannot reach the conditions to form Winsor type (III) microemulsions with oil at that high salinity. The target values of interfacial tension were set in the range around 10-2, and not higher than 10-1 mN/m. Three most promising surfactant compositions were selected from the results of physical-chemical experiments, with acceptable IFT and static adsorption properties. Filtration experiments on composite core model were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of selected composition. The maximum obtained level of incremental oil recovery from the porous medium in comparison with water injection was 22%; surfactant recommended for additional experimental program. On the next stage, polymers were selected, dynamic adsorption of surfactant and polymers was measured on water-saturated core and mixed surfactant-polymer composition properties were evaluated. Low interfacial tension confirmed on the interface of surfactant-polymer composition with oil and there was no negative influence of surfactant on polymer viscosity. Obtained parameters were used to build a sector model of field development unit. Technological efficiency is high for the selected scheme of composition injection in the considered conditions.
1. VNIIneft' enterprise standard “Metodiki testirovaniya khimicheskikh reagentov dlya obrabotki prizaboynoy zony plasta dobyvayushchikh i nagnetatel'nykh skvazhin” (Testing methods for chemical reagents for treatment of the bottom-hole zone of the reservoir of producing and injection wells), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2017, 33 p.
2. API RP 63-1990. Recommended practices for evaluation of polymers used in enhanced oil recovery operations, 1990, 95 p.
3. VNIIneft' enterprise standard “Neft'. Metod opredeleniya koeffitsienta vytesneniya nefti vodoy v laboratornykh usloviyakh” (Oil. Method for determining the coefficient of oil displacement by water in laboratory conditions), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2017, 26 p.
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The possibilities of increasing the operating efficiency of oilfield exploitation with a well-developed oil gathering system complicated by highly viscous emulsions due to targeted use of the demulsifier at certain points in the pipeline system to reduce the viscosity of the transported oil-water emulsion during the course of demulsification are discussed and shown. By the example of the redistribution of the dosing points of the demulsifier, the necessity and sufficiency of supplying the reagent strictly in certain parts of the system is shown. The question of the local effect of "re-dispersion" due to overdose of the demulsifier during the transportation of oil-water emulsion is considered. It was noted that when analyzing oil gathering systems, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive measures to establish the causes of increased pressure, which are the result of various complicating factors (asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits, scaling, gas hydrates, oil-water emulsions, etc.), and technological reasons - excess flow, changes in fluid viscosity, etc. The main technological effect of the fight against highly viscous emulsions is to reduce the linear pressure in the system of oil-gathering pipelines, which not only positively affects the integrity of the system, but also leads to a significant economic effect, which consists of several components. First, there is a reduction in the total energy consumption for transporting the produced fluid; secondly, reduction of electricity consumption by sucker-rod downhole pumping equipment; and, thirdly, the most significant contribution is made by the possibility of increasing the volume of oil produced during the operation of wells with the help of electrical centrifugal pumping equipment. This approach is recommended for introduction in mature fields that are at a late stage of development, having a developed oil gathering system and having various types of complications that reduce throughput.
1. Borkhovich S.Yu., Kholmogorova D.K., Vasil'eva E.A., Yatskovskaya A.S., Termopolymeric techniques of development of complex structure fields with viscous and high-viscosity oil in carbon-bearing reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, V. 11, no. 2, pp. 95–104.
2. Gidravlicheskiy raschet truboprovodov, transportiruyushchikh gazozhidkostnye smesi (Hydraulic calculation of pipelines transporting gas-liquid mixtures)b Moscow: Publ. of VNIIGaz, 1985.
3. Metodika gidravlicheskogo rascheta truboprovodov dlya transporta gazozhidkostnykh smesey (The method of hydraulic calculation of pipelines for the transport of gas-liquid mixtures), Samara: Publ. of Giprovostokneft', 1970.
4. Medvedev V.F., Sbor i podgotovka neustoychivykh emul'siĭ na promyslakh (Gathering and preparation of unstable emulsions in the fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 144 p.
5. Dunyushkin I.I., Mishchenko I.T., Eliseeva E.I., Raschety fiziko-khimicheskikh svoystv plastovoy i promyslovoy nefti i vody (Calculations of physicochemical properties of reservoir and field oil and water), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2004, 448 p.
6. Tronov V.P., Promyslovaya podgotovka nefti (Field oil treatment), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2000, 416 p.
7. Markin A.N., Nizamov R.E., Sukhoverkhov S.V., Neftepromyslovaya khimiya: prakticheskoe rukovodstvo (Oilfield chemistry: a practical guide), Vladivostok: Dal'nauka Publ., 2011, 294 p.
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10. Usova L.N., Minnigalimov R.Z., Safonov V.E., Golubev M.V., The rationale for the selection of rational supply points of the demulsifier in the produced liquid during the directional discharge of water (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2007, no. 1, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Usova/Usova_2.pdf
11. Lutoshkin G.S., Sbor i podgotovka nefti, gaza i vody k transportu (Collection and processing of oil, gas and water), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 204 p.
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The article discusses the results of a study of existing models for the implementation of tank farms of oil terminals in the Russian Federation and identifies existing approaches to the formation of tank farms as tools for storing and transshipment of oil and oil products. The analysis of existing marine terminals is carried out according to the criteria of their working conditions, characteristics of oil and oil products storage parks and the volume of oil transshipment. General models of the formation of storage parks are identified depending on the specified criteria. Criteria for the implementation of the models, the main factors affecting the choice of the model depending on the functional purpose of the marine terminal are determined. The authors carried out analysis of the criteria for the optimal design of the oil tank at the offshore terminal, taking into account the requirements of the regulatory and technical documentation of the Russian Federation. The article presents the factors influencing the choice of the optimal reservoir design for an offshore oil transshipment terminal. The analysis is made to find the optimal design of the tank of the marine terminal from the lineup, the most used designs in the Russian Federation. The statement of the problem of researching the reliability and safety of reservoir designs that are most optimally suited to the functioning of the offshore oil transshipment terminal is proposed.DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-1-77-80
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Exploitation of hydrocarbon fields is characterized by water content increase in the extracted products over the development time. The increase in water cut of the extracted products complicates the operation of field pipelines. The transported products of field are stratified into phases under the influence of low flow rates in pipeline, differences in densities of phase, changes in thermobaric conditions. This leads to the formation of stagnant zones along the pipeline, which intensifies the rate of corrosion processes, causes a decrease in the flow section of pipelines and increases energy consumption for transportation.
The article is devoted to improvement of algorithms for predicting characteristics of the mode of operation of field pipelines in conditions of risk of formation water accumulations. Approach allows for a cost-justify the choice of the optimal period between two cleanings of field pipelines with characteristics of the pipeline section, its profile, and mode of operation, dynamics of formation of water clusters and their impact on pressure losses and the costs of cleaning operation of pipeline. In developing the new approach, the main parameters affecting on formation of water clusters have been identified. Using a dynamic hydraulic simulator, multivariate simulation for selected parameters is performed. On the basis of the array of data obtained, a simplified mathematical model of the process of formation of water clusters in field pipelines is formed. Model allows predicting the volume of water clusters and pressure losses in the pipeline without use of a resource-intensive simulator for dynamic hydraulic modeling. Results of proposed approach for determining the inter-treatment period have been presented by examples in comparison with the previously applied criterion, which took into account only the increase in pressure losses in pipeline.
1. Charnyy I.A., The effect of terrain and fixed inclusions of liquid or gas on the throughput of pipelines (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1965, no. 6, pp. 51–55.
2. Al-Wahaibi T., Angeli P., Predictive model for critical wave amplitude at the onset of entrainment in oil-water flow, Multiphase Production Technology, 2005, no. 12, pp. 627–641.
3. Xu Guang-li et al., Trapped water displacement from low sections of oil pipelines, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2011, V. 37, no. 1, pp. 1-11.
4. Kasperovich V.K., Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya udaleniya vody i vozdukha iz nefteproduktoprovodov (Experimental studies of the removal of water and air from oil pipelines): thesis of candidate of technical science, 1965.
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The aim of this article is to justify the field of rational application of drag reducing additives (DRA) – DR technology and substantiation of the methodology for optimizing the technological modes of operation of the main oil pipeline taking into account the properties of the DRA in terms of energy and economic efficiency of the pumping process. A methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of the use of pumping technology with DRA, based on the fundamental principles of a methodology for quantifying the effectiveness of oil transportation, is proposed. The efficiency criterion is the ratio of the calculated pumping parameters to the actual values recorded by the standard means of the Dispatch Control and Pipeline Management System, which allows real-time identification of the components of the efficiency factor of the technological section of the main pipeline. Monitoring the components of the efficiency factor of the technological section of the main pipeline allows to identify reserves for reducing energy consumption in the main transport of oil and oil products, as well as to compare the performance indicators of various production facilities of Transneft with each other, taking into account the whole variety of design decisions of the technological section of the main pipeline: looping, inserts, discharges and pumping, tees, valves, etc. In the framework of the proposed performance criterion, the features of the technology of using DRA to shut off part of pumping units in order to save energy resources and to temporarily increase the pumping capacity in excess of the capacity of the existing oil pipeline are considered. It is shown that the cost of the agent for reducing hydraulic resistance (5-12 USD/kg) is a significant limiting factor for the widespread use of DR technology, which limits the appropriate concentration of additives to 10 ppm in terms of reducing operating costs for pumping (specific energy consumption and costs on DRA).
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Pipeline pulling is the final and one of the most responsible process operation during construction of the trunk line underwater passage using directional drilling method. The analysis of tractive forces for pipeline pulling during construction of the trunk line underwater passage using directional drilling method demonstrated that the process complications in terms of growth of the tracking forces while pulling are caused by the following reasons: the available the borehole curvilinear sections; the borehole shoulders formed when passing in the interstratified soils with different physical and mechanical properties; the obstacles in terms of the soil massifs upstream the pipeline outlet due to available mud pads formed as a result of insufficient removal of drilling cuttings or collapse of the borehole constructed in the non-cemented soils; the borehole flow area reduction as a result of squeezing the high plasticity clays into the well. Thus, the changes introduced in the borehole geometry parameters and the passage profile during drilling and the pilot bore hole enlargement are the main reason for growth of tractive forces in the course of pipeline pulling. Therefore, prior to perform the pipeline pulling process, it is important to have the instrumental procedure for the borehole condition evaluation. Today, the only instrumental procedure to control the bore hole spatial attitude and its available deviations from the design position is inclinometer surveying method The inclinometer surveying method is used both for telemetry monitoring of the drilling tool position during pilot borehole construction and for passage profile assessment after the last stage of enlargement. In the article the main conclusions and regulations obtained as a result of the process complications and emergencies analysis during construction of the trunk line underwater passages and the causes for the process complications and emergencies occurrence are considered. The method and criterion for borehole condition assessment is given according to the data of the well inclinometer surveying. The assessment of the bore hole condition according to the data of inclinometer surveying carried out after the well enlargement, allows for developing stringent requirements to contractors' operation and acceptance of their performance results, as well as for preventing process complications and emergencies in during pipeline pulling.
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5. Kharitonov V.A., Bakhareva N.V., Organizatsiya i tekhnologiya stroitel'stva truboprovodov metodom gorizontal'no-napravlennogo bureniya (Organization and technology of construction of pipelines using horizontal directional drilling), Moscow: ASV Publ., 2011, 344 p.6. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Stroitel'stvo podvodnykh perekhodov magistral'nykh nefteprovodov metodom naklonno-napravlennogo bureniya (Construction of underwater crossings of oil trunk pipelines using directional drilling), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2019, 357 p.
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