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E.V. Lozin BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa
Geological and exploration oil-gas works in Bashkortostan: scientific views and practical results

Keywords: oil-gas field, Paleozoic cover, oil-gas-bearing zone, West European Platform margin, anticline, theoretical view, plastic series

The article is devoted to development of science and practice for geological prospecting-exploration works in Bashkortostan. Suitably the first exploratory wells have been projected in Pre-Urals foreland depression. Predominance scientific opinions were established on connection between genesis platform structures and block-clod tectonic of crystalline foundation. The processes of tectonic deformations have been present itself are equal as platform and as fold basins. On platforms this deformations are smaller than in fold basins, consequently there forms more flattening structures. In Bashkortostan priority at our country there were the scientific basis exploration platform oil fields.

According to the mechanics of rocks in Bashkir Paleozoic geological section there are two plastic thick series: Tymanian (Kennovian) (clay and claystone) and Kungur (anhydrite and salt). These two plastic series have different stress sensitivity on local zones in geological section in comparison with rigid rocks. And ones carrying out compensation function during tectonic evolution all Paleozoic cover. Denomination has expressions in discording structural plans of upper and lower horizons.

h lax on latitude crystalline foundations intensify, step by step, load from meridian Tuimazinskoye field to south-west towards Pre-Urals depression at 1,6 to 18-20 km and clear away by depth fractures N-V, sub-lax and S-W (sub-Urals) extend. The S-W fractures are presents mostly young ones and responsible for form zones oil-gas-bearing which check by small grabens. Extending to Paleozoic cover it acted the fluid conductor function at first and at the follow role fluid isolation. Discovery by Bashkir geologists the new oil-gas-bearing zones check small grabens had helped to radical revise opinions about geological framework of NW Western European Platforms margin. Within their zones there had opened mostly of summary 35 oil-gas-bearing zones of Bashkortostan. Other oil-gas-bearing zones represent the zones of regional anticlines; structural upheavals; border and axial zones Kama-Kinel depressions; reefs and biogerms; atectonic deposits and other.

Geological prospecting-exploration works in Bashkortostan accompany with development of theoretical views and permanent perfection of methods exploration oil-gas deposits. In result there are opening more 210 oil and gas deposits of tuimaza, arlan, ishimbay, kinzebulatovo, sergeevsky and other types. There were large feedstock raw basic of hydrocarbons.


1. Trofimuk A.A., Neftenosnost' paleozoya Bashkirii (Oil content of the Paleozoic of Bashkortostan), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1950, 248 p.

2. Rozanov L.N., Istoriya formirovaniya tektonicheskikh struktur Bashkirii i prilegayushchikh oblastey (History of formation of tectonic structures of Bashkiria and adjoining areas), Ufa: Publ. of UfNII, 1957, 207 p.

3. Golubev V.S., Kharakter sootnosheniya struktur v razlichnykh strukturno-tektonicheskikh zonakh platformennoy chasti Bashkirii (The nature of the correlation of structures in various structural-tectonic zones of the platform part of Bashkiria), Proceedings of UfNII, 1963, V. 910, pp. 98105.

4. Ovanesov G.P., Formirovanie zalezhey nefti i gaza v Bashkirii, ikh klassifikatsiya i metody poiskov (Formation of oil and gas deposits in Bashkiria, its classification and search methods), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1962, 296 p.

5. Dragunskiy A.K., Nekotorye osobennosti tektoniki i neftenosnosti Priufimskogo rayona Bashkirii Bashkirii (Some features of tectonics and oil content of Ufa district of Bashkiria in Bashkortostan), Proceedings of UfNII, 1966, V. KhV, pp. 127136.

6. Baymukhametov K.S., Kukharenko Yu.N., Khat'yanov F.I., Khlebnikov V.D., The geological structure of the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous sediments and the method of geological prospecting for oil and gas in the eastern part of the Bashkir ASSR (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1971, no. 9, pp. 814.

7. Lisovskiy N.N., Khlebnikov V.D., Kukharenko Yu.N., Khat'yanov F.I., The new oil-bearing zone, controlled by graben-like troughs in Bashkortostan (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1974, no. 12, pp. 2229.

8. Lozin E.V., Tektonika i neftenosnost platformennogo Bashkortostana (Tectonics and oil-bearing platform of Bashkortostan), Moscow: VNIIOENG Publ., 1994, 138 p.

9. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftenosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil content of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.

10. Egorova N.P., Khalimov E.M., Ozolin B.V. et al., Zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya i usloviya formirovaniya zalezhey nefti i gaza Volgo-Ural'skoy oblasti (Regularities of location and conditions for the formation of oil and gas deposits in the Volga-Urals region), Part 4. Bashkirskaya ASSR (The Bashkir ASSR), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 240 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-32-37

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A.V. Arzhilovskiy (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.R. Privalova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), K.D. Shumatbaev (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), G.R. Amineva (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Changes in the petrophysical models for mature fields with account taken of the new researches results

Keywords: petrophysical model, reservoirs typification, lithotypes, petrophysical classes, volumetric parameters

The basic prerequisites and factors leading to changes in petrophysical models of reservoirs of the fields at the late stage of development are considered on the example of oil fields at the platform part of the Republic of Bashkortostan. These oil fields are characterized by a limited complex of well log data, low and uneven removal of the core, lack of complex of the laboratory research, lack of accurate reference of the core to the depth. These disadvantages contributed to a significant difference in the approved parameters by the neighboring fields which are located in the same lithofacies zones. A prerequisite for reviewing of the reservoir model of the carbonate layer of Tournaisian Stage of some fields is a mismatch of the dynamics of watering in the oil deposits with equal effective thicknesses. Different rate of watering attests the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Analysis of production availability revealed deposits with low reserve multiplicity, while the decline in production in these deposits is not observed. The logical explanation is the underestimation of the pore volume. Significant factors which need to be taken into account for changing the traditional view of reservoir properties are noted during the revising of the petrophysical models. They include the problem of selection of analogues in conditions of low core removal, the typification of reservoirs by lithological and structural features, and the influence of the properties of modern research (methods and techniques) of the core. Also the analysis of the influence of changes in the petrophysical model on the volumetric parameters which are obtained from the interpretation of geophysical well data is shown in this proposed article. In most cases, a decrease in the leads of reservoir boundary values to an increase in the effective thickness and a decrease in the weighted average porosity. The application of modern methodological approaches to the creation of petrophysical models leads to a differentiated assessment of the quality of the reservoir and should be accompanied by changes of dynamic parameters.


1. Khusainova A.M., Burikova T.V., Privalova O.R. et al., The influence of structural and lithological features on the saturation model of Middle Carboniferous reservoirs of the Republic of Bashkortostan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 8, pp. 7477.

2. Khusainova A.M., Burikova T.V., Savel'eva E.N. et al., Razrabotka interpretatsionnoy modeli pri rayonirovanii karbonatnykh kollektorov turneyskikh otlozheniy (na primere mestorozhdeniy Respubliki Bashkortostan) (Development of an interpretation model for the regionalization of carbonate reservoirs of the Tournaisian deposits (on the example of deposits in the Republic of Bashkortostan)), Collected papers Aktual'nye nauchno-tekhnicheskie resheniya neftedobyvayushchego potentsiala PAO ANK Bashneft' (Current scientific and technical solutions to the oil production potential of Bashneft PJSC), 2016, V. 124, pp. 6875.

3. Privalova O.R.,  Khusainova A.M., Amineva G.R., Analiz elektricheskikh svoystv i nasyshcheniya dlya razlichnykh petroklassov po dannym GIS karbonatnykh otlozheniy srednego i nizhnego karbona (Analysis of electrical properties and saturation for various petroclasses according to well log data of carbonate deposits of Middle and Lower Carbon), Proceedings of  petrophysical scientific workshop Sovremennye podkhody k interpretatsii GIS, issledovaniy kerna i petrofizicheskogo modelirovaniya (Modern approaches to the interpretation of well log data, core research and petrophysical modeling), Tyumen', 2017, p. 9.

4. Shumatbaev K.D., Privalova O.R., Amineva G.R., Dvorkin  A.V., Razdelenie karbonatnykh kollektorov po dobychnomu potentsialu v usloviyakh ogranichennogo kompleksa GIS, na primere mestorozhdeniy RB i NAO (Division of carbonate reservoirs by the production potential in conditions of a limited well log complex, on the example of the deposits of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District), Proceedings of  petrophysical scientific workshop Sovremennye podkhody k interpretatsii GIS, issledovaniy kerna i petrofizicheskogo modelirovaniya (Modern approaches to the interpretation of well log data, core research and petrophysical modeling), Tyumen', 2017, p. 10.

5. Chervyakova A.N., Zubik A.O., Dushin A.S. et al., Methodological approaches, experience and prospects of Tournaisian stage oil deposits development by horizontal wells at Znamenskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 3335.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-38-41

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T.V. Burikova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.S. Dushin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.R. Privalova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.V. Akhmetzyanov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), N.A. Neudachin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.R. Kinzikeeva (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Chervyakova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Petrophysical heterogeneity and associated lithotypes of carbonate reservoirs of Upper Devonian platform in the Republic of Bashkortostan

Keywords: structural and facies zones, carbonate rocks, reservoir type, lithotype, void space, petrophysical heterogeneity

Carbonate reservoirs are well known for their heterogeneity with the properties such as flow capacity and storage varying in a very wide range both laterally and vertically. This intrinsic complexity impedes the evaluation of such reservoirs and limits any reliable predictions of their petrophysical characteristics from well log interpretation. Hence it becomes essential for any rock physics model to establish and validate any relevant justifiable correlations between the petrophysical and lithological parameters given the degree of geological heterogeneity related to the depositional environments and diagenetic processes and changes. This problem required careful and thorough examination and review of all the knowledge accumulated on the Upper Devonian carbonates developed on the East European Platform within the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The findings were used as a framework for a reference petrophysical database and corresponding rock physics model consistent with the established depositional environments.

The paper presents the correlation of identified lithologic and facies heterogeneity and petrophysical properties of the Upper Devonian carbonate plays within the Republic of Bashkortostan. Each structural and facies zone (SFZ) is characterized by a prevailing association of lithotypes with specific inherent lithologic, structural and textural features. The main criterion for differentiating petrophysical classes in the Upper Devonian carbonate sequence is proved to be the type of the void space in lithologically homogeneous rocks subject to secondary diagenetic changes. The petrophysical classes are characterized by their own rock physics parameters and correlation functions, invariables and regular cut-off values.

The developed petrophysical model will be used for reliable assessment of volumetric parameters in reserve calculations for the producing Upper Devonian platform carbonate plays in Bashkortostan.


1. Flügel E., Microfacies of carbonate rocks. Analysis, interpretation and application, Springer, 2004, 996 p.

2. Sadeq Q.M., Yusoff W.I.B.W., Porosity and permeability analysis from well logs and core in fracture, vuggy and intercrystalline carbonate reservoirs, Aquaculture Research and Development, 2015, no. 10, pp. 15.

3. Dobrynin V.M., Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)), Moscow: Neft' i gaz, 2004, 369 p.

4. Khusainova A.M., Burikova T.V., Privalova O.R., Nugaeva A.N., The method of determining carbonate reservoir voids based on complex GIS data using V.M. Dobrynins crossplot, Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil industry, 2016, no. 6, pp. 6063.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-42-45

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R.Kh. Masagutov (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa), O.D. Ilemenova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), V.N. Minkaev (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa)
Geochemical criteria for characterization of the Devonian and Carboniferous organic-rich formations of Bashkortostan and their petroleum generation potential

Keywords: the Republic of Bashkortostan, organic-rich formations, organic matter, vitrinite reflectance, pyrolysis, geochemical criteria, bitumen

The paper reviews the composition, specific features, lateral and vertical distribution of the Devonian and Carboniferous organic-rich formations. The study is aimed at the detailed understanding of the organic-rich sediments and their role as a source for petroleum generation in Bashkortostan. The organic-rich sediments typical of the Domanic formation are widespread throughout the territory of the Cis-Ural Bashkiria whereas those of the Upper Frasnian, Famenian and Tournaisian are confined only to structural lows the axial parts of the Shalym, Aktanysh-Chishmy and Inzer-Usolsk paleo depressions of the Kama-Kinel System of Troughs. The results of pyrolysis (Rock-Eval) on samples from the Domanikian Formation, as well as the domanicoid sediments from the Tournaisian and Famenian sequences are compared and analyzed. The samples from the Domanic formation are characterized by significantly higher TOC values as compared to the Tournaisian and Famenian samples. The obtained results of pyrolysis and measured vitrinite reflectance indicate highest level of thermal maturity of the organic matter in the Domanic formation which corresponds to 1-2 stages of catagenesis (mesocatagenesis) or the main oil window. The organic matter of the Tournaisian-Famenian sediments is characterized by relatively low thermal maturity. This observation is based on the value of vitrinite reflectance which indicates the 31 early stages of catagenesis (proto- and mesocatagenesis), also supported by the Pyrolytic Oil-Productivity Index values and max. The difference in the level of maturity of the organic matter in the Domanic formation as compared to the Tournaisian and Famenian is explained by the difference in the initial composition of the deposited organic matter, tectonic evolution and burial history. The results of gas-liquid chromatography and chromate-mass-spectrometry are used for comparative characterization of bitumen from the Domanic formation and organic-rich formations of the Famenian to liquid hydrocarbons discovered in the Paleozoic reservoirs of Bashkortostan. The parameters of various groups of normal alkanes and isoprenoids in the analyzed samples of the Paleozoic oils and bitumen from the Domanic Formation may be easily correlated whereas the bitumen from the Famenian is quite different based on the geochemical criteria. The findings support the genetic origin of the bitumen of the Domanic Formation and petroleum found in the Devonian and Carboniferous plays of the Cis-Ural Bashkortostan. The organic-rich formations of the Upper Frasnian, Famenian and Tournaisian may also be regarded as an additional source of hydrocarbons.


1. Ashirov K.B., Geologicheskaya obstanovka formirovaniya neftyanykh i neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy Srednego Povolzh'ya (Geological environment of formation of oil and oil and gas deposits in the Middle Volga region), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1965. 172 s.

2. Egorova N.P., Studenko N.S., Ilemenova O.D., Borisova T.G., Perspektivy neftegazonosnosti domanikovykh bituminoznykh formatsiy devona Bashkirii (Prospects of oil and gas content of house-building bituminous formations of Devonian Bashkiria), Proceedings of Bashnipineft', 1988, V. 77, pp. 58-65.

3. Maksimova S.V., Ekologo-fatsial'nye osobennosti i usloviya obra-zovaniya domanika (Ecological and facial features and conditions for the domanik formation), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1970, 101 p.

4. Gulyaeva L.A., Zav'yalov V.A., Podel'ko E.Ya., Geokhimiya domanikovykh otlozheniy Volgo-Ural'skoy oblasti (Geochemistry of domanik deposits of the Volga-Ural region), Moscow: Publ. of USSR AS, 1961, 102 p.

5. Syundyukov A.Z., Litologiya, fatsii i neftegazonosnost' karbonatnykh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Bashkirii (verkhniy devon, karbon, nizhnyaya perm') (Lithology, facies and oil and gas content of carbonate deposits of Western Bashkiria (Upper Devonian, Carboniferous, Lower Permian)), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 173 p.

6. Wavrek D.A., Quick J.C., Geochemical evaluation of selected rocks and crude oils from Volga-Ural region, Russia, South Carolina: Publ. of Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, 1993, 88 p.

7. Ilemenova O.D., Masagutov R.Kh., Lozin E.V., Usloviya realizatsii neftegeneratsionnogo potentsi-ala v domanikitakh Bashkortostana (Conditions for the realization of the oil-and-gas potential in the homes of Bashkortostan), Collected papers Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Respubliki Bashkortostan, problemy i perspektivy osvoeniya mineral'no-syr'evoy bazy (Geology and minerals of the Republic of Bashkortostan, problems and prospects for the development of the mineral resources base), Proceedings of  III Republican Geological Conference, Ufa: Publ. of IG UNTs RAN, 1999, pp. 197-199.

8. Masagutov R.Kh. Minkaev V.N., Ilemenova O.D., Kompleksnoe geologo-geokhimicheskoe izuchenie domanikovykh otlozheniy Volgo-Ural'skoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (na primere Bashkortostana) (Comprehensive geological and geochemical study of the domanik deposits of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province (based on the example of Bashkortostan)), Proceedings of XVII scientific and practical conference Geologiya i razrabotka mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami (Geology and development of deposits with hard-to-recover reserves), Sochi, 2017, Moscow: Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo Publ., 2017, p. 23.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-46-49

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G.F. Gaymaletdinova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.S. Dushin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), R.V. Akhmetzyanov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.V. Chernova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Depositional model as basis for predicting reservoir properties in carbonate buildups, R. Trebs and A. Titov oil fields

Keywords: Syrachoy formation, barrier carbonate buildup, microbial mat deposits, depositional model, reservoir type, porosity and permeability

The paper discusses the approach to the study of sediments related to the development of organic buildups in the Syrachoy formation of R. Trebs and A. Titov oil fields. Characterization of the depositional environments in which the Upper Devonian carbonate sediments were accumulated within the license area comprising these two fields presents a challenging task due to the geological complexity of this reservoir. This complexity is caused by high facies heterogeneity of the deposits, the influence of secondary diagenetic changes and the geometry of the void space. It is well established in the industry that the prediction of storage and flow properties for such reservoirs is possible only by means of their integrated studies and comprehensive analysis of all the available G&G and production data including core, well logs and seismic.

The first step to understanding the geology of the study area was the identification of the sedimentary conditions, i.e. the primary initial factors that predetermine the geometry of the void space, its complexity and trends in its spatial distribution and at the same time control all further stages of the reservoir formation. Lithological typification of the section coupled with the well log interpretation and seismic data helped to establish the main depositional trends. The findings were used to identify three facies zones, i.e. back reef, the reef crest (build-up itself) and fore reef. The results of core studies on conventional plugs and whole-core samples provided evidence on the prevailing types of the reservoir rock proved in the survey area: fine vuggy, fractured-vuggy-porous, fractured-vuggy and fractured-porous. The depositional model calibrated against the established geological heterogeneity may be used to predict spatial changes in reservoir properties and determine the most promising zones.


1. Nikonov N.I., Bogatskiy V.I., Martynov A.V. et al., Timano-Pechorskiy sedimentatsionnyy basseyn. Atlas geologicheskikh kart (litologo-fatsial'nykh, strukturnykh i paleontologicheskikh) (Timano-Pechora sedimentary basin. Atlas of geological maps (lithologic-facies, structural and paleontological)), Ukhta, 2000, 152 p.

2. Musikhin A.D., Eastern edge of Khoreyver petroleum sub-basin (Timan-Pechora basin) - petrogenesis of the Famennian reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 2, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/4/27_2012.pdf

3. Fortunatova N.K. et al., Atlas strukturnykh komponentov karbonatnykh porod (Atlas of the structural components of carbonate rocks), Moscow: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2005, 440 p.

4. Zhemchugova V.A., Rezervuarnaya sedimentologiya karbonatnykh otlozheniy (Reservoir sedimentology of carbonate deposits), Moscow: Publ. of EAGE, 2014, 232 p.

5. Antoshkina A.I., Rifoobrazovanie v paleozoe (na primere severa Urala i sopredel'nykh territoriy) (Reef formation in the Paleozoic (on the example of the north of the Urals and adjacent territories)), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of UB RAS, 2003, 304 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-50-53

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L.R. Minikeeva (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa; Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa), O.V. Nadegdin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.R. Nugumanov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Markov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), D.V. Efimov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Development of methods for automation of multi-well logging data interpretation and core analysis

Keywords: processing of geophysical well logging and core data, logging data interpretation, core analysis, petrophysical modeling, quality check, calibration, log splicing, normalization, petrophysical functions, interpretation model

The process of interpretation and petrophysical modeling of well logging methods includes great number of stages from initial work of data preparing to development of petrophysical models. The number of data analysis steps performed depends on data quality, the complexity of geological section under study, required level of detail of the analysis. To build self-consistent model specialist has to gather mix of information from all analyzed wells. During interpretation modeling of well logging methods, they face routine tasks that take a lot of time. Therefore, it is imperative to develop methods and automate the process of multi-well analysis and well logging and core data interpretation.

During this work, the procedures of multi-well analysis and well logging and core data interpretation were developed and automated. As a result, there was implemented analytical application to execute different operations that specialist usually performs during interpretation modeling of well logging. Also we gave examples of different technologies of multi-well data processing at the stages of analysis and interpretation of well logging and core data: initial data unification, quality check, depth matching of well logging curves (single- an multi-type), calibration, splicing of well logging curves, normalization of well logging curves, depth matching of permeability and porosity properties, development of consistent with logging and core data petrophysical functions and interpretation models including parameters adaptation.


1. Merkulov V.P., Posysoev A.A., Otsenka plastovykh svoystv i operativnyy analiz karotazhnykh diagramm (Evaluation of reservoir properties and operational analysis of well logs), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2004, 176 p.

2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003, 261 p.

3. Khabarov A.V., Glebov A.S., Utkin A.S., Chusovitin A.A., Novye tekhnologii interpretatsii GIS Samotlorskogo mestorozhdeniya dlya resheniya zadach modelirovaniya i podscheta zapasov (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 10, pp. 16-20.

4. Khabarov A.V., Metodika interaktivnogo petrofizicheskogo modelirovaniya nedonasyshchen-nykh zalezhey nefti (po dannym kerna, GIS i istorii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy Salymskoy grup-py) (Technique of interactive petrophysical modeling of undersaturated oil deposits (according to core data, well logging and history of Salym group deposits development)): thesis of candidate of technical science, 2010.  
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-54-57

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G.R. Amineva (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Dvorkin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), T.V. Burikova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), K.D. Shumatbaev (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), O.R. Privalova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Microporous rocks features and identification on the base of core and well logging data

Keywords: structure of the porous space, porosity, permeability, residual water saturation, electric resistivity, microlog, normalization of logging data, nuclear magnetic logging, capillary tests

The paper describes the study of microporous rocks based on core laboratory analysis, their characterization and evaluation from wireline logs. Very fine grained fabric of carbonate rocks with significant concentration of micrite creates pores in the groundmass at the micro level attributed to the microporous type of the void space, characterized by lower permeability, higher residual water saturation and lower electrical resistivity as compared to fractured-vuggy-porous types. Taking into account the characteristics of microporous rocks identified in core laboratory studies such parameters as residual water saturation and electrical resistivity are analyzed as criteria for the identification and evaluation of microporous rocks in well logs. In the absence of standard well logging special methods in the carbonate sediments, it is possible to identify microporous rock type using the following methods. In the zone of maximum saturation for normalization of electrical logging and neutron gamma ray logging curves, there is the absence of increments of these methods for microporous non-reservoir rocks (porosity 5-10%) is typical. Irrespective of reservoir saturation, microporous limestone is distinguished by higher absolute values of electrical resistivity on microprobes as compared to pore-cavern reservoir when recording logging in a well drilled with clay drilling mud and the absence of micropotential-probe values increment as compared to microgradient-probe values increment for microporous non-reservoir rocks.

So application of proposed algorithm allows microporous rocks intervals identifying by electrical logging which allows specifying thickness of reservoir and, consequently, fundamentally changes the concept of fluid model.


1. Kudajarova A.R., Rykus M.V., Kondrat'eva N.R. et al., Methods of geological and hydrodynamic modeling tournaisian carbonate deposits of Znamenskoye field (the Republic of Bashkortostan) (In Russ.), Neftjanoe hozjajstvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 1820.

2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003. 261 p.

3. Burikova T.V., Savel'eva E.N., Husainova A.M. et al., Lithological and petrophysical characterization of Middle Carboniferous carbonates (a case study from north-western oil fields of Bashkortostan) (In Russ.), Neftjanoe hozjajstvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 1821.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-58-61

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E.V. Lozin (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Arzhilovskiy (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Chervyakova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.G. Gareev (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.R. Nurov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), T.V. Sibaev (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
theory of elastic regime, well, elastic energy content, plural outage of wells, technology indicators of exploitation, discharge, water content, well, oil, liquid

Keywords: theory of elastic regime, well, elastic energy content, plural outage of wells, technology indicators of exploitation, discharge, water content, well, oil, liquid

Prof. V.N. Schelkachev at first made theory of elastic regime for oil-gas bedding systems on based the investigations the plural outage wells in Groznys oil field at war conditions in 1942 ye. After putting in operation the wells (for increase it amount there no having finance and physical resources) have more dynamic levels than before and start to more production. This are explained with elastic reaction of porosity-permeability medium and saturation liquid.

Analogy conditions were being in Russian oil industry at beginning 90s last century: there were not turn-over capitals to putting in operation outage wells; its amount were growth. Average period downtime of one well set up 5-7 years. Main these wells put in operation after downtime.

In article were made analyses of hydrodynamics effect from long downtime of many produce wells at main object development Arlanskoye oil field terrigenous low carbonic thick series. Criterions on representative wells are work out and analyses made only for its. Representative wells make up 24.0% from total quantity of outage ones.

In result objective geology & petroleum date confirmed main statement of theory elastic regime: elastic energy content growth up; in conformity with present process growth seam pressure and hydrodynamic conditions support the increase of summary producing of oil from terrigenous low carbonic thick series and Arlanskoye oil field common.


1. Shchelkachev V.N., Itogi vypolnennykh v voennykh usloviyakh (1941-1944) issledovatel'skikh rabot na groznenskikh neftyanykh promyslakh (The results of research on the Grozny oil fields which was done in time of war (1941-1944)), In: Vazhneyshie printsipy nefterazrabotki. 75 let opyta (The most important principles of oil production. 75 years of experience), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2004, pp. 261263.

2. Shchelkachev V.N., Osnovy i prilozheniya teorii neustanovivsheysya filtratsii (Fundamentals and applications of the theory of unsteady filtration), Moscow: Neft i gaz Publ., 1995, 1077 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-62-65

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R.F. Yakupov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), A.A. Gimazov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), V.Sh. Mukhametshin (Branch of Ufa State Petroleum Technological University in Oktyabrsky, RF, Oktyabrsky), R.I. Makaev (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Analytical method for estimating efficiency of oil recovery technology in case of bottom water-drive reservoir, verified on the hydrodynamic model

Keywords: oil cone, underlying water, reduced watercut, analytical solution

The article considers the technology of formation of the converse oil cone below the level of water-oil contact (WOC). The use of this technology makes it possible to reduce the water cut in the production of covert oil on waterfowl. It is important to choose the optimal technological parameters. For the effective application of the technology, a complete cone formation is necessary. This task can be solved by the methods of hydrodynamic modeling, but for the processing of a large array of wells and initial selection of candidates, the development of an analytical technique is advisable.

In this paper, we propose an analytical technique for estimating the formation time of the inverse cone of oil, depending on the properties of the formation and fluids. The basis was the formula for calculating the time of raising the water cone above the WOC level in the case of immiscible liquids in the reservoir with an isotropic absolute permeability. Based on the hydrodynamic modeling a method for taking into account relative phase permeability is proposed. To account for the anisotropy coefficient with the help of hydrodynamic modeling the time dependence of the formation of the oil cone on the anisotropy coefficient for different viscosity ratios of water and oil was constructed. These results are described with sufficient accuracy by a power law. Thus, the formula for calculating water cone parameters is adapted to calculate the oil cone data below the WOC level.

An algorithm for the analytical calculation of the formation time of the oil cone is developed on the basis of well sampling parameters, which makes it possible to quickly estimate the formation time of the oil cone for the given conditions. The proposed algorithm is verified on hydrodynamic models and has a good predictive ability. The practical value of the developed algorithm is the ability to quickly calculate the time of formation of an oil cone for a large number of wells.


1. Kazakov A.A., Solov'ev I.G., Model of dynamics regarding coning of bottom water in oil well (In Russ.), Vestnik kibernetiki, 2009, no. 8, pp. 411.

2. Karpychev V.A., To the problem of the cone of bottom water in an inhomogeneous formation (In Russ.), PMTF AN SSSR, 1960, no. 3, pp. 88113.

3. Kuvanyshev U.P., Nekotorye zadachi prostranstvennoy fil'tratsii v anizotropnykh plastakh (Some problems of spatial filtration in anisotropic formations), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 1965, no. 8, pp. 205214.

4. Skvortsov V.V., Determination of the time of water breakthrough taking into account the difference in viscosities of oil and water (In Russ.), Tatarskaya neft', 1961, no. 4, pp. 2128.

5. Telkov A.P., Yagafarov A.K., Sharipov A.U., Kleshchenko I.I., Interpretatsionnye modeli neftyanoy zalezhi na stadii razrabotki (Interpretational models of oil deposit under development), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1993, 72 p.

6. Yakupov R.F., Mukhametshin V.Sh., Zeygman Yu.V. et al., Metamorphic aureole development technique in terms of Tuymazinskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 10, pp. 3640. 

7. Khisamov R.S., Abdrakhmanov G.S., Kadyrov R.R., Mukhametshin V.V., New technology of bottom water shut-off (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 126128.

8. Kadyrov R.R., Nizaev R.Kh., Yartiev A.F., Mukhametshin V.V., A novel water shut-off technique for horizontal wells at fields with hard-to-recover oil reserves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 5, pp.4447.

9. Kurbanov A.K., Sadchikov P.B., O sovmestnoy dobyche nefti i vody iz zalezhey nefti s podoshvennoy vodoy i gazovoy shapkoy (About joint extraction of oil and water from oil deposits with bottom water and a gas cap), Collected papers Dobycha nefti (Oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1964, pp. 5762.

10. Danilov V.L., Kats R.M., Gidrodinamicheskie raschety vzaimnogo vytesneniya zhidkostey v poristoy srede (Hydrodynamic calculations of mutual displacement of liquids in a porous medium), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, 347 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-66-69

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E.O. Sazonov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Nugaeva (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Chervyakova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
New approaches to equilibrium initialization of the BlackOil model and free water level evaluation

Keywords: equilibrium initialization, initial saturation cubes, Leverett J-function, pseudo-J-function, free water level, oil-water contact, transition zone

The paper presents a new technique that allows to obtain cubes of saturation that do not contradict the physics of equilibrium initialization and corresponding to the results of the well logs interpretation, the value of the historical water-cut for each well, well testing. One of the sections of the work is devoted to a new approach for equilibrium initialization of the BlackOil model and free water level evaluation. Other section of the article presents a comparative analysis of the proposed and regular approaches to initialization, highlights the pros, cons of both methods and accepted assumptions. Since the initial data have different degrees of reliability and often contradict each other, then, for the correct account of them in the model, in the section "basic definitions, designations and assumptions of the proposed method", a rating of types of well studies in order of increasing the error in the free water level evaluation is proposed.

Also in the work the influence of the product of the surface tension between oil and water phases and the cosine of the boundary wetting angle under reservoir conditions on the size of the capillary impregnation zone, and, accordingly, on the reserves, is investigated. The value of this product is generally unknown and is an uncertainty parameter. Therefore, the paper proposes two options for its evaluation - by calculating the residuals of the starting water-cut and the cumulative values on the hydrodynamic model on the one hand, and on the other - an operational assessment of the variation of pairs and the values of the free water level.


1. Leverett M., Capillary behavior in porous solids, SPE 941152-G, 1941.

2. Kotyakhov F.I., Fizika neftyanykh i gazovykh kollektorov (Physics of oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 363 p.

3. Gimatudinov Sh.K., Fizika neftyanogo i gazovogo plasta (Physics of the oil and gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971, 312 p.

4. Fanchi J.R., Principles of applied reservoir simulation, Gulf Professional Publishing an imprint of Butterworth-Heinermann, 2001.

5. Aziz K., Settari A., Petroleum reservoir simulation, London: Applied science publishers ltd, 1979.

6. Buckley S.E., Leverett M.C., Mechanism of fluid displacement in sands, SPE 942107-G, 1942.

7. Bedrikovetsky P., Mathematical theory of oil and gas recovery: with applications to ex-USSR oil and gas fields, Netherlands Springer, 2013.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-70-75

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A.F. Gimaev (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa) , S.Z. Fatikhov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), V.N. Fedorov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa), A.G. Malov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa)
A comprehensive analysis of bottomhole pressure and productivity measurements of the multilayer object in wells equipped with permanent downhole gauge systems

Keywords: well test, permanent downhole gage, reservoir pressure, pressure buildup curve, inflow performance relationship, multilayer object of development

In fields with a large number of oil-saturated layers it is not uncommon to combine several layers into a single object of development. In most cases, they are developed by a single filter, it is leads to the need for special methods to control energy, productive and filtration parameters of multilayer objects.

On the example of the use of permanent downhole gauge systems hardware and software complex SPRUT at the fields of the Republic of Bashkortostan the features of control of energy and filtration properties of multilayer objects by a single filter are considered. The method inflow performance relationship is used to estimate reservoir pressures and coefficients of productivity of each object. It is shown that to control the change in reservoir pressure build-up test method should be supplemented with information on the productivity index of each formation and the magnitude of the steady flow between the layers. In the absence of special studies, reservoir productivity indexes can be obtained only using inflow performance relationship. And reliable information about the flow is available only on the flow meter sensor, i.e. the conditions for the reliability of flow measurements for mechanical flow meters must be fulfilled.

It is shown that at different reservoir pressures, the cessation of production from the well will correspond to the well test by the method of pressure stabilization curve (productivity analysis). Therefore, to determine the filtration properties of layers in the interpretation of such well tests, the values of reservoir pressures and the flow between the layers are the input parameters. On the real example of such well test two approaches of data interpretation are demonstrated: the first one, in case of availability of reliable data on the amount of flow and formation pressures using the method of pressure stabilization curve; the second in the absence of these data using modeling.

The article also specifies the limitations and conditions of permanent downhole gauge systems of multi-layer objects by a single filter, and offers recommendations for increasing the information content of such systems.


1. Diyashev R.N., Mekhanizmy negativnykh posledstviy sovmestnoy razrabotki neftyanykh plastov (Mechanisms of negative consequences of joint development of oil reservoirs), Kazan':  Publ. of KSU, 2004, 192 p.

2. Blinov A.F., Diyashev R.N. Issledovanie sovmestno ekspluatiruemykh plastov (Study of the jointly exploited layers), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971,  176 p.

3. Fatikhov S.Z., Fedorov V.N., Opyt ispol'zovaniya telemetricheskikh sistem na mestorozhdeniyakh Respubliki Bashkortostan (Experience in the use of telemetric systems in the fields of the Republic of Bashkortostan), Collected papers Fiziko-khimicheskaya gidrodinamika: modeli i prilozheniya (Physicochemical hydrodynamics: models and applications): edited by Khabibullin I.L., Ufa: Publ. of  Bashkir State University, 2016, pp. 174183.

4. Mel'nikov S.I., Metodika razdel'nogo promyslovo-geofizicheskogo kontrolya sovmestno ekspluatiruemykh neftyanykh plastov (The method of separate field-geophysical control of jointly exploited oil reservoirs): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2015.

5. Fatikhov S.Z., Fedorov V.N., Malov A.G., Using permanent downhole gauges at oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 5659.

6. Murav'ev V.M., Spravochnik mastera po dobyche nefti (Handbook of the production foreman), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 264 p.

7. Fatikhov S.Z., Fedorov V.N., Interpretatsiya KVD s uchetom poslepritoka v PO Sapfir (Interpretation of pressure build-up curve with allowance for after-flow in the software "Sapphire"), Proceedings of 14th International scientific and technical conference Monitoring razrabotki neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy: razvedka i dobycha (Monitoring of development of oil and gas fields: exploration and production), Tomsk:  Publ. of TSU, 2015, pp. 5657.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-76-80

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I.V. Nasyrova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.M. Askarova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
On the rationality of applying hybrid (wind-sun) installations for service the oil industry objects

Keywords: hybrid installation, pipelines, solar energy, wind power, rationality, efficiency

The question of the method of power supply for the maintenance of pipelines today is very acute. This problem becomes urgent when laying pipelines in remote areas from the power supply. This work is aimed at the comparative analysis of traditional (from transmission lines) and renewable (solar, wind) methods of power supply to remote line consumers and the selection of the most efficient of them.

The traditional way of supplying electricity to consumers by means of power lines implies electricity from a high-voltage along-route line with the installation of a transformer substation in the immediate vicinity of the pipeline.

In practice, for transmission of electrical energy over long distances, this method is usually used. However, this method is far from perfect and has a number of significant drawbacks, due to large losses of electricity in the wires, and because of the occurrence of accidents from short circuits on the line and from hazardous weather conditions, such as strong wind and ice on the wires.

In the case of hybrid wind-solar installations, whose autonomy, low operating costs and unattended items are indisputable advantages, there are also disadvantages, first of all, dependence on natural conditions, therefore, in Russia only one of the presented power supplies: wind generators or photovoltaic panels, may not always be justified due to the volatility and unregulated sources of renewable energy.

The above calculations and analysis of information in the work are aimed at finding the most rational way of using alternative sources of electricity in the oil industry.


1. Gamizin S.I., Pupin V.M., Tsyruk S.A., Short-term disturbances of normal powersupply to consumers and modern methods of protection against them (In Russ.), Elektrika, 2008, no. 7, pp. 811.

2. Murmanskaya N.P., Elektrostantsii budushchego (Power Plants of the Future), Moscow: Knizhnyy mir Publ., 2014, 213 p.

3. Al'ternativnaya energiya (Alternative energy), URL: http://altenergiya.ru.

4. Lins C., Musolino E., Petrichenko K., Renewable energy policy. Network for the 21st century, France, 2015, 32 p. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-81-83

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A.S. Sulima (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Avilov (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), S.A. Chukhlantsev (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen), V.A. Palaguto (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
Laboratory technique for measuring anisotropy of rock samples resistivity and permeability

Keywords: true resistivity, absolute gas permeability, cubic rock samples, anisotropic rock properties

This paper is focused on laboratory technique for measuring anisotropy of rock resistivity and permeability. Sedimentation, postsedimentation mineral changes and rock compaction determine vertical and horizontal rock properties anisotropy. Consideration of the electrical anisotropy enhances the accuracy of well log interpretation in case of directional and horizontal wells. Permeability anisotropy data is required for hydrodynamic simulation, design and control of oil and gas field exploration.

Realistic anisotropy data analysis is possible on large statistical sampling due to rock properties variability. That is why the representative core samples collection studies are required for each hydrocarbon bed characterization. The increasing amount of laboratory studies requires the optimization both the laboratory technique and data storage.

Integrated approaches to measuring anisotropy of rock resistivity and permeability and data storage are shown at the example of workflow of Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft. Cubical samples are using for measuring permeability and resistivity in three directions. All steps of process are shown. They include choosing of sample place in full core column, sample cutting, measuring, data storage, systematization of data in laboratory information system. Data holding in laboratory information system makes it possible both to process anisotropy data and to compare it with routine and special core analysis. Permanent interaction of different laboratories and data quality control gives an opportunity to optimize the workflow and to minimize the possible errors.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-84-86

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A.R. Davletova (RN-UfaNIPIneft, RF, Ufa), V.V. Kireev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), S.R. Knutova (RN-UfaNIPIneft, RF, Ufa), A.V. Pestrikov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.I. Fedorov (RN-UfaNIPIneft, RF, Ufa)
Development of corporate geomechanics simulator for wellbore stability modeling

Keywords: geomechanical modeling, wellbore stability, stress-strain state, model of mechanical properties, well drilling, software development, import substitution

Geomechanical modeling of the wellbore stability is an effective tool for reducing technological risks during well drilling and operation. At the well design stage, geomechanical modeling of the wellbore stability allows to predict the drill problems due mechanical reasons, to optimize the well trajectory and construction, to determine the safe drilling mud density window. Geomechanical modeling of wellbore stability during drilling process allows refining the model on-line and promptly making the necessary corrective engineering and management decisions. At the stage of well operation, geomechanical modeling of the wellbore stability allows solving the problems of hydraulic fracturing planning and predicting the risk of sand production in cases of weakly cemented reservoirs.

In the absence of complex formation conditions, faults, salt tectonics in the area of the target wells, the wellbore stability analysis is successfully performed using 1D modeling. The availability of software for geomechanical modeling is a critical aspect for development of the engineering culture of geomechanical modeling and the growth of the number of specialists in the field of drilling, geology and reservoir development that can perform the necessary geomechanical calculations. The development of in-house software allows the company's engineers to significantly expand the application of geomechanical modeling, reduce possible risks in well operating and improve the economic and production efficiency of oil and gas production.

The fundamental mathematical models and empirical correlations for 1D geomechanical modeling, as well as the experience of corporate geomechanical simulator development are discussed in this article.


1. Pavlov V.A., Lushev M.A., Korel'skiy E.P., Laskin P.G., The development of geomechanical modeling in Russia (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2017, no. 6, pp. 3-9.

2. Kirsch E.G., Die theorie der elastizität und die bedürfnisse der festigkeitslehre, Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, 1898, V. 42, pp. 797807.

3. Coulomb C.A., Essai sur une application des règles de maximis et minimis à quelques problèmes de statique, relatifs à larchitecture, Mémoires de mathématique & de physique, présentés à lAcadémie Royale des Sciences par divers savans, 1776, V. 7(1773), pp. 343382.

4. Mohr O.Z., Welche umstände bedingen die elastizitätsgrenze und den bruch eines materials, Ver. Deut. Ingr., 1900, V. 44, pp. 1524-1530.

5. Al-Ajmi A.M., Zimmerman R.W., Stability analysis of vertical boreholes using the Mogi-Coulomb failure criterion, Int. J. Rock Mechanics & Mining Science, 2006, V. 43, pp. 1200-1211.

6. Hoek E., Brown E.T., Underground excavations in rock, London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 1980, pp. 527.

7. Ewy R.T., Wellbore stability predictions by use of a modified Lade criterion, SPE 56862-PA, 1999.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-88-92

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V.A. Yanovsky (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), A.D. Fenzel (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), M.O. Andropov (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), R.S. Fakhrislamova (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), A.S. Zakharov (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), R.A. Churkin (Tomsk State University, RF, Tomsk), K.M. Minaev (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk)
The effect of synthesis conditions of emulsifier on the properties of oil-based drilling muds

Keywords: emulsifier, surfactant, fatty acid diethanolamides, oil-based mud, oil-in-water emulsion mud

The present work is dedicated to the study of the effect of emulsifier synthesis parameters on the stability, rheological properties and fluid loss of oil-based drilling muds. The duration and temperature mode of direct amidation of fatty acids by diethanolamine are shown to have a marked impact on the composition of the products obtained, and, hence, the properties of drilling muds stabilized by these products. The dependencies of electrical stability of drilling muds on the time of emulsifier synthesis proceed through maximum point, while similar dependencies of structural-mechanical properties proceed through minimum points. Herein, for each synthesis temperature, the value of maximal electrical stability corresponds to position of minimum points of yield point and gel strength. An increase of the temperature of synthesis promotes increasing of electrical stability of drilling mud and reduction of its structural-mechanical (shear stress) properties. The ranges of optimal process duration are determined for three temperatures, i.e. 150 2-5 h, 170 C 1-2 h, and 190 30-60 min. Plastic viscosity, thixotropic properties and fluid loss of drilling mud are shown to be independent on the emulsifier synthesis conditions. It is also concluded that the degree of conversion of fatty acids and the amount of water formed during the synthesis cannot be considered the criteria for completion of the process.


1. Glushchenko V.N., Obratnye emulsii i suspenzii v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Inverse emulsions and suspensions in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2008, 725 p.

2. Konesev V.G., Khomutov A.Yu., Application of oil-based drilling muds in reservoir rocks of Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas JSC fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 4445.

3. Minaeva E.V., Nedelko E.S., Skotnov S.N. et al., Developing and implement high-weighted muds. Oil based drilling muds with a flat rheology profile for penetration of productive horizons with high pressures (In Russ.), Neft. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, no. 9 (188), pp. 3033.

4. Yanovskiy V.A., Andropov M.O., Churkin R.A. et al., The effect of the chemical nature of emulsifiers of some fatty acid derivatives and ethanolamines on the oil-based drilling fluids properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 1, pp. 4247.

5. Ibragimov N.G., Musabirov M.Kh., Dmitrieva A.Yu., Development of formulation of hydrophobic emulsion for selective acidizing of fractured-cavernous carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 129131.

6. Yanovskiy V.A., Churkin R.A., Andropov M.O., Kosova N.I., Synthesis and study of properties of emulsifiers for reverse emulsions based on derivatives of acids of tall oil distillate and ethanolamines (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gos. universiteta, 2013, V. 370, pp. 194199.

7. Yanovsky V.A., Andropov M.O., Fakhrislamova R.S. et al., Rheological properties of inverse emulsions stabilized by ethanolamides of tall oil fatty acids, MATEC Web Conf., 2016, V. 85, pp. 17.

8. Maag H., Fatty acid derivatives: important surfactants for household, cosmetic and industrial purposes, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 1984, V. 61, no. 2, pp. 259267.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-93-97

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D.R. Yulmukhametov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.R. Yamalov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Optimization of welltesting schedule for pressure mapping

Keywords: well test, well network, reservoir pressure map, reservoir engineering, optimization of well tests, hydrodynamic simulation

The paper discusses a method of defining a relationship between the quantity and frequency of well tests on one hand and pressure map accuracy on the other hand. Dependence of average reservoir pressure deviation between two wells from distance between them is calculated using results of reservoir simulation model calculation. Similarly, variation of the average reservoir pressure over time is estimated. Knowing the location of each well and the distance between all wells, it is possible to estimate the minimum number of wells needed to cover the entire field with a well test grid with a given maximum distance from every well to the nearest tested well. The obtained dependences of reservoir pressure deviation from distance and time allow to estimate the minimum required number of well tests to calculate a reservoir pressure map with a specified maximum permissible mean error. It is also possible to determine the optimal frequency of well tests on the same well, which allows to form an optimal well test program for reservoir pressure mapping. The application of the proposed method for estimating the required number of well tests per year and the frequency of well tests on the same well to achieve a given maximum permissible mean error is considered using a Western Siberian oil field as an example. The conclusion is made about the choice between the increase in the number of grid wells and the frequency of well tests in conditions of limiting the total number of well tests per year.


1. Earlougher R.C. Jr., Advances in well test analysis, SPE Monograph Series, 1977, V. 5., 264 p.

2. Materon Zh., Fundamentals of applied geostatistics (translation from French), Moscow Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Research, 2009, 460 p.

3. Baykov V.A. et al., Matematicheskaya geologiya (Mathematical geology), Part 1. Vvedenie v geostatistiku (Introduction to geostatistics), Moscow Izhevsk:: Publ. of Institute of Computer Research, 2012, 228 p.

4. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.Ya., Khabibullin I.L., Modeling of the reservoir pressure difference between injection and production wells in low permeable reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo Universiteta, 2016, V.  21, no. 3, pp. 537544.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-98-101

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I.V. Kovalenko (Gazpromneft NTC, LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), G.M. Nemirovich (Messoyakhaneftegas JSC, RF, Tyumen), I.R. Iliasov (Messoyakhaneftegas JSC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Buyanov (Polycod LLC, RF, Moscow), D.N. Gulyaev (Polycod LLC, RF, Moscow)
The usage of impulse-code interference technology during water flooding in difficult geological conditions

Keywords: areas of reserves recovery, interwell space, impulse-code interference, reservoir pressure maintenance

During the oil reservoir development it is very important not only to know the correct prediction of wells behavior but also areas of reserves recovery for proper waterflooding management and for the planning of new wells drilling. This knowledge will allow to make simulation model not only on the basis of data from wells but also on the data from crosshole space that will certainly increase the quality of geological model and understanding of the dynamics of processes occurring in reservoir.

This paper presents the interwell space researching during the work of oil and water injection wells by the method of pulse-code interference. The proposed approach allows specifying geological model of the reservoir by direct measurement of the instrument and giving recommendations to the development of the considered oilfield.

We give an example of use of pulse-code interference at highly compartmentalized area with low reservoir properties of the layer PK1-3 of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye fields. The research was made on the well cluster No. 39 in the cyclite B. Modes of operation of two injection wells were changed for a given algorithm. In producing oil wells the incoming disturbance were recorded with decoding of the received signals. As a result of research the response of the pressure disturbance were successfully detected in the majority of intervals, effective oil-saturated thicknesses in the inter-well space were refined. It was also determined that the front of water takes place primarily in net pay thickness (there were suggestions that the water will go down into the underlying water thickness). During water injection it is not expected to have fast water breakthroughs by thin highly permeable layers.

After these researches recommendations were given for expansion of the system of reservoir pressure maintenance by water injection in areas with similar geological structure of the PK1-3 of Vostochno-Messoyakhskoye oilfield.


1. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Gulyaev D.N., Informatsionnoe obespechenie i tekhnologii gidrodinamicheskogo modelirovaniya neftyanykh i gazovykh zalezhey (Information support and technologies of hydrodynamic modeling of oil and gas deposits), Izhevsk: Publ. of Izhevsk Institute of Computer Research, 2011, 896 p.

2. Krichevskiy V., Farakhova R., Taipova V. et al., Verifying reserves opportunities with multi-well pressure pulse-code testing (In Russ.), SPE 187927-RU, 2017.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-102-106

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M.R. Ganaeva (SakhalinNIPImorneft LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), S.S. Sukhodanova (SakhalinNIPImorneft LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Ruslan R. Khaliulin (SakhalinNIPImorneft LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Rustam R. Khaliulin (SakhalinNIPImorneft LLC, RF, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk)
Sakhalin offshore oilfield hydraulic fracturing optimization by building a 3D geomechanical model

Keywords: geomechanical modeling, hydrodynamic simulation, fracturing, drilling supervision, Sakhalin, offshore, uncertainty analysis

Hydraulic fracturing is one of the methods for enhancing oil recovery in clastic reservoirs used all over the world, but there are not any fracturing operations provided by Oil and Gas operators in Sakhalin offshore. That is why care must be taken in fracturing operations planning and all associated risks should be accounted for. The 3D geomechanical model was built based on the geological information and coupled with hydrodynamic simulations. Deformations, total and effective stress values and faults characteristics were obtained. The results were compared to the 1D geomechanical models that were used as a basis.

The conducted studies showed that the reservoir is very heterogeneous due to depositional environment, bioturbation process and tectonic activity, so the areas of oil recovery and pore pressure reduction have an uneven shape as well. Under these circumstances the pore pressure and effective stresses values variation significantly impacts the final oil recovery. This variation should be considered during fracturing design and prior to well drilling, since the minimum horizontal stress and corresponding loss gradient will be different compared to the initial state. Due to the reservoir heterogeneity the 1D geomechanical model is not enough to properly support fracturing operations, though it can be used for drilling support.

As the result of the work, some major uncertainties were indicated. The regional stress regime is defined truly by the active Sakhalin-Hokkaido strike-slip, but the local stress regime is still questionable. It can be either strike-slip or normal. Nevertheless, the fracturing design is quite optimistic, because in both cases fractures will grow normally to the minimal stress, consequently vertically ensuring the maximum drainage area if the well is drilled in the minimal stress direction. The first fracturing operation data and extended logging data from future wells will be required to confirm the stress regime and the caprock properties.

This complex model will provide engineers with all the necessary data for safe well drilling, optimal fracturing design and for improving hydrocarbons recovery at any time of the field lifecycle. These data include porosity, permeability, saturation, pressure, deformations distributions as well as faults stability and stress values and directions.


1. Pavlov V., Korelskiy E., Butula K. et al., 4D geomechnical model creation for estimation of field development effect on hydraulic fracture geometry (In Russ.), SPE 182020-RU, 2016.

2. Sim L.A., Bogomolov L.M., Bryantseva G.V. et al., Neotectonics and tectonic stresses of the Sakhalin Island (In Russ.), Geodinamika i tektonofizika = Geodynamics & Tectonophysics, 2017, V. 8, no. 1, pp. 181-202.

3. Twiss R.J., Moores E.M., Structural geology, New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2007, 736 .

4. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 505 .
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-108-111

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622.276.43 5
K.A. Sidelnikov (INNC CJSC , RF, Izhevsk), V.P. Tsepelev (INNC CJSC , RF, Izhevsk)
Integrated cyclic waterflooding management in the oil fields of Udmurtneft OJSC

Keywords: pressure maintenance, non-stationary waterflooding, cyclic injection, workover operation, reservoir simulation

Improved oil recovery during 70-90s in multilayer oil fields with multiple completion wells resulted in very poor sweep efficiencies and forced unfavorable fluid withdrawal conditions. At present, development of mature multilayered fields in Udmurtneft OJSC is carried on with multiple completion wells to produce oil from low-permeable and non-commercial reservoirs. In this case under the noted unfavorable conditions the most effective oil reservoir development is cyclic waterflooding (injection) based on pressure gradient across layer due to time-periodic water injection. Traditionally, the optimal mode of cyclic injection is obtained by detailed reservoir simulation that, on the first hand, depends on discretization parameters and history-matching quality and, on the other hand, requires significant time efforts. Thats why we propose rapid assessment method to find optimal cycle period. The method is based on the reduced-order model for two-phase displacement. The governing system of equation for the model is solved numerically and implemented as a software tool that is usable for the reservoir engineers without experienced simulation specialist involvement. In addition, we consider candidate well selection for cyclic injection and identification of cyclic injection mode based on daily rate reports. The authors developed and tested their own algorithm to recognize cyclic injection mode. Consequently, the work is devoted to integrated cyclic waterflooding management. Two-layer reservoir model is used to sel ect optimal cycle period. Cyclic injection mode identification algorithm is developed that uses daily rate reports. We propose an approach to estimate efficiency of existent cyclic waterflooding. All the results were successfully tested on real data obtained fr om oil fields of Udmurtneft company.


1. Ibragimov N.G., Khisamutdinov N.I., Taziyev M.Z. et al., Sovremennoye sostoyaniye tekhnologiy nestatsionarnogo (tsiklicheskogo) zavodneniya produktivnykh plastov i zadachi ikh sovershenstvovaniya (The current state of unsteady (cyclic) flooding technology and problems of their improving), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2000, 112 p.

2. RD 39-3-507-80, Rukovodstvo po vyravnivaniyu fronta nagnetayemoy vody i regulirovaniyu vyrabotki plastov za schet primeneniya tsiklicheskogo zavodneniya i peremeny napravleniya filtratsionnykh potokov (Guidelines for alignment of the front of the injected water and regulating the production of reserves using a cyclic waterflood and reversing the direction of the filtration streams), 1980.

3. Tsinkova O.E., Myasnikova H.A., Nestatsionarnoye gidrodinamicheskoye vozdeystviye na neftyanyye plasty (Nonstationary hydrodynamic effects on oil reservoirs), Osobennosti razrabotki slozhnopostroyennykh zalezhey nefti (Features of the development of complex oil deposits), Proceedings of VNII, 1986, V. 94, pp. 5364.

4. Sharbatova I.N., Surguchev M.L., Tsiklicheskoye vozdeystviye na neodnorodnyye neftyanyye plasty (Cyclical effects on heterogeneous oil layers), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 121 p.

5. Tsepelev V.P., Nasyrov V.A., Kachurin S.I., Analysis of the effectiveness of the use of non-stationary waterflooding at the fields of Udmurtneft OAO (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2011, no. 4, pp. 3034.

6. Cycle detection, URL: https://en.wikipedia.org.

7. Sidelnikov K.A., Automated search of injection wells with cyclic change of injection according to dayly data (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2016, no. 3, pp. 3034.

8. Arsenevskiy I.S., Proxy-model of building of wells drainage zones to correct prediction of production and estimation of residual extractable resources by wells (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2016, no. 6, pp. 3238.

9. Baykov V.A., Rabtsevich C.A., Kostrigin I.V., Sergeychev A.V., Monitoring of field development using a hierarchy of models in software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft, 2014, no. 2, pp. 1417.

10. Potryasov A.A., Mazitov M.R., Nikiforov S.S. et al., Management over oil field flooding process at the basis of proxy modeling (In Russ.), Neft. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, no. 12(191), pp. 3237.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-112-116

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B.G. Ganiev (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk), I.A. Guskova (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), R.Z. Nurgaliev (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk), A.T. Gabdrakhmanov (Almetyevsk State Oil Institute, RF, Almetyevsk)
Study of optical properties of oil of Vishnevo-Polyanskoe deposit

Keywords: refractive-densimetric studies, Vishnevo-Polyanskoye deposit, high viscosity oil, refraction index, specific refraction, refraction intercept, identification card, spectrophotometry

Oil change can be significant in a number of parameters: density, viscosity, fractional composition, saturation pressure, gas factor, sulfur content, tar, asphaltenes and paraffin during development. However, changing the values of these parameters is often within the limits of measurement errors, and the laboratory determination of most of them is very laborious. Optical characteristics, as the most sensitive, fairly quickly and accurately determined integral parameters of oil can serve as a tool for assess the effectiveness of the technologies being developed. The results of a complex of optical studies using spectrophotometry and refractive-densimetry are presented in the article. In field practice, spectrophotometers have been widely used to solve a wide range of tasks. In this paper, for the analysis of optical properties, the values of the coefficient of light absorption at the appropriate wavelengths, characterizing the total content of chromophore compounds, vanadium porphyrins, and the content of vanadium porphyrins vanadium etioporphyrins in oil were used, spectral coefficients correlated with the oil type in density and with the content of aromatic compounds. To identify chemical compounds, quantitative and structural analysis, and to determine the physicochemical parameters of substances, a refractive - densimetric method was also used. In the article, on the basis of the refractive index, the conversion factors were used, with the help of which the identification refractive- densimetric maps were constructed, which made it possible to visualize the grouping of samples of high-viscosity oil produced by composition. The results of the studies are important and are the basis for assessing the effectiveness of the application of oil recovery technologies at the Vishnevo-Polyanskoye high-viscosity oil field. The experiments are aimed at assessing the completeness of the production of reserves at various parameters of the impact on the reservoir system for working out the optimal technology.


1. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Kuvshinov I.V., Nizkotemperaturnye fiziko-khimicheskie tekhnologii uvelicheniya nefteotdachi zalezhey vysokovyazkikh neftey (Low-temperature physico-chemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery of high-viscosity oil deposits), Collected papers Osobennosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy netraditsionnykh uglevodorodov (Features of exploration and development of deposits of non-traditional hydrocarbons), Kazan: Ikhlas Publ., 2015, pp. 26 - 29.

2. Kokorev V.I., Darishchev V.I., Akhmadeyshin I.A. et al., Field test results and prospects of thermal gas treatment technologies for the Bazhenov formation development in RITEK OJSC (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 11, pp. 2628.

3. Bokserman A.A., Vlasov V.N., Plynin V.V. et al., Initial appreciation of water-air ratio influence on efficiency of Bazhenov series development by thermal-gas method (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2011, no. 2, pp. 1215.

4. Muslimov R.Kh., Abdulmazitov R.G., Khisamov R.B. et al., Neftegazonosnost' Respubliki Tatarstan. Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oil and gas bearing of the Republic of Tatarstan. Geology and development of oil fields), Part 2, Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 524 p.

5. Gus'kova I.A., Gabdrakhmanov A.T., Assessment of EOR methods' effect on oil properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 4, pp. 101103.

6. Safieva R.Z., Khimiya nefti i gaza. Neftyanye dispersnye sistemy: sostav i svoystva (Chemistry of oil and gas. Oil dispersed systems: composition and properties), Part 1, Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2004, 112 p.

7. Akhmetov B.R., Evdokimov I.N., Eliseev D.Yu., Eliseev N.Yu., Vliyanie nadmolekulyarnykh struktur asfal'tenov romashkinskoy nefti na nadezhnost' opticheskikh metodov kontrolya (Influence of supramolecular structures of asphaltenes of Romashkinskoye fields oil on reliability of optical control methods), Collected papers Bol'shaya neft': realii, problemy, perspektivy (Big oil: realities, problems, prospects), Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference, Part 2, Al'met'evsk:  Publ. of  Almetyevsk State Petroleum Institute, 2001, pp. 360363.

8. Akhmetov B.R., Evdokimov I.N., Eliseev D.Yu., Features of optical absorption spectra of oil and petroleum asphaltenes (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologiya uglevodorodov, 2002, no. 3, pp. 2530.

9. Evdokimov I.N., Losev A.P., Vozmozhnosti metodov issledovaniy v sistemakh kontrolya razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Possibilities of research methods in oilfield development control systems), Moscow: Neft I Gas Publ., 2007, 228 p.

10. Nikolaev V.F. et al., Visualization of the group composition of light oil products and liquid products of organic synthesis (In Russ.), Vestnik tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2015, V. 22, pp. 4346.

11. Bogomolov A.I., Temyanko M.B., Khatyntseva L.I., Sovremennye metody issledovaniya neftey (Modern methods of oil analysis), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 430 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-117-120

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V.E. Vershinin (Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen), A.I. Varavva (Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Tatosov (Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen), A.N. Lishchuk (MC HMS Group LLC, RF, Moscow)
The thermal effect estimation of the bottomhole formation zone treatment by heat-producing binary mixtures

Keywords: Thermal gas chemical methods, binary aqueous mixture, heavy oil production stimulating methods, multiphase filtration in a porous media

The article is concerned with methods of stimulating production by the injection of chemically active components (binary mixture) into the bottomhole zone of the high viscos oil reservoir. The method is about injected chemical reagents reaction into the well, resulting in gas and heat emission after decay. Consequently, the bottomhole formation zone is heated, the oil viscosity reduces, a clogging of bottomhole zone disappears, waxes are washed out and the natural fracturing of the carbonate reservoirs increases.

In distinction from widely used steam well treatment, the heat loss in downhole and surface equipment is negligible, due to direct bottomhole heating by binary mixture. Unlike classic thermal gas chemical methods conducted into the well bore, binary mixture treatment is directly initiated in reservoir. As a result, a larger reservoirs volume will be heated.

Mathematical model filtration of chemical reagent mixture was proposed. Numerical solution of equations set based on IMPES (implicit pressure, explicit saturation) method. The simple iteration method was used for non-linear terms calculation. Binary mixture treatment of vertical well was considered. Estimation of the additional oil production, which obtained as a result of borehole formation heating and oil viscosity reducing, is made. Calculations are carried out for various formation permeability, well water cutting and oil viscosity. The proposed concept of calculation, graphs and result charts can be used to approximate estimation of the effect of binary mixture treatment and searching suitable wells for these treatments.


1. Makarevich V.N., Iskritskaya N.I., Bogoslovskiy S.A., Resource potential of heavy oil fields in European Russia (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 3, pp. 116

2. Ruzin L.M., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem teplovogo vozdeystviya na plast (Oil and gas deposits development with thermal influence on a layer), Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2009, 39 p.

3. Khaliulin R., Litus D., Khar'kovskiy A. et al., Integrated thermodynamic reservoir-to-surface modeling: The modern tool for optimizing the cycling steam stimulation heavy oil recovery process  (In Russ.), SPE 187688-RU, 2017.

4. Maksutov R.A., Orlov G.I., Osipov A.V., Techno-technological complexes for development of high-viscosity oils and natural bitumens reserves (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 2, pp. 3437.

5. Volkov K.A., Milovzorov G.V., Volkov A.Ya. et al., Thermocyclic technology of stimulation on the formation using downhole electrical heaters (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2012, no. 6, pp. 204211

6. Ruzin L.M., Kombinirovannye tekhnologii razrabotki zalezhey vysokovyazkikh neftey (Combined technologies for the development of high-viscosity oil deposits), Collected Papers Problemy razrabotki i ekspluatatsii mestorozhdeniy vysokovyazkikh neftey i bitumov (Problems of development and operation of high-viscosity oil and bitumen deposits): edited by Tskhadaya N.D., Proceedings of mezhregional'noy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii, 1213 November 2009, Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2010, pp. 718.

7. Vershinin V.E., Vershinin M.V., Zavolzhskiy V.B. et al., Kinetics of chemical reactions at thermogaschemical impact on a bottomhole zone of wells water solutions of binary mixes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 114117.

8. Aleksandrov E.N., Aleksandrov P.E., Kuznetsov N.M. et al., The high-temperature reaction regime of binary mixtures and enhancement of oil recovery from water-flooded fields (In Russ.), Neftekhimiya = Petroleum Chemistry, 2013, V. 53, no. 4, pp. 312320.

9. Patent no. 2525386 RF, Thermal gas chemical composition and its application for well bottom and remote zones of productive stratum, Inventors: Zavolzhskiy V.B., Burko V.A., Idiyatullin A.R. et al.

10. Aleksandrov E.N., Kuznetsov N.M., Kozlov S.N. et al., Production of hard-to-recover and non-recoverable oil reserves by means of binary mixtures technology (In Russ.), Part 1, Georesursy = Georesources, 2016, V. 18, no. 3, pp. 154159.

11. Aleksandrov E.N., Kuznetsov N.M., Large-scale heating of an oil-bearing formation and liquid hydrocarbon production mode optimization (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2007, no. 4, pp. 113127.

12. Varavva A.I. Vershinin V.E., Idiyatullin R.A., Kinetics of a binary mixture decomposition in relationto the effects on oil reservoir (In Russ.), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Neft' i gaz, 2017, no. 6, pp. 6772.

13. Varavva A.I. Tatosov A.V., Model of feeding binary mixture in layer (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Povolzh'ya, 2017, no. 4, pp. 195200.

14. Varavva A.I. Vershinin V.E., Numerical modeling of thermal effects in well processing by solvent binary mixtures (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2017, no. 6, pp. 2034.

15. Vershinin V., Fedorov K., Lishchuk A., Mechanisms of thermal-pressure induced impact of binary mixture reaction near wellbore (In Russ.), SPE 182048-RU, 2016. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-122-126

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Historical aspects of straight gaslift implementation in Vietsovpetro JV

Keywords: well operation, oil production, operation method, artificial lift, downhole equipment, pilot test, technology implementation, straight gaslift

In the course of oil fields development, the well operation conditions get worse: reduction of reservoir pressure, increase of water-in-oil content. This puts an end to the natural flow and initiates the artificial lift period, when it is necessary to apply additional (to reservoir) energy fr om the surface of any type. Gaslift operation method considers application of a pressurized gas. High content of paraffins and resin, high reservoir temperature and pour point, high gas saturation and bubble pressure, low well productivity indexes are those factors, which lim it the application area for any artificial lift operation type.

The principle of gaslift operation is to produce the well products by injecting the necessary amount of pressurized gas-type working substance into the well. The complicated geotechnical conditions of developed areas in Vietsovpetro JV before approving the technical-technological solutions require the following research and engineering works in oil production techniques and technologies: 1) pilot tests of various artificial lift methods to justify the areas for effective implementation; 2) analysis of the downhole equipment operation and selection of the efficient downhole equipment assembly.

Implementation of the straight gaslift system in the pilot area of Vietsovpetro JV proved the possibility of applying the straight gaslift in the field before constructing the compressor station and gaslift cycle facilities by high-pressure gas offtake from oil wells. Based on the analysis of technological parameters of wells performance and Vietsovpetro JV development areas, defined the well categories, which operate by potential methods, require conversion to straight gaslift, as well as the wells with reserves for production enhancement. The tests proved that the straight gaslift operation method possesses significant potential and high technological effectiveness for fluid production improvement.


1. Repin N.N., Devlikamov V.V., Yusupov O.M., D'yachuk A.I., Tekhnologiya mekhanizirovannoy dobychi nefti (Technology of mechanized oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 175 p.

2. Ty Tkhan' Ngia, Veliev M.M., Gazliftnaya ekspluatatsiya skvazhin (Gas-lift operation of wells), St.Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2016, 384 p.

3. Printsipial'naya tekhnologicheskaya skhema sbora, podgotovki i vneshnego transporta do KPN nefti i gaza severnogo i yuzhnogo svodov mestorozhdeniya Belyy Tigr (The basic technological scheme of collection, preparation and external transport to the CIT of oil and gas of the northern and southern arches of the White Tiger field), Moscow: Publ. of VNIPImorneftegaz, 1989, 144 p.

4. RD-SP-31-89, Kompleks vnutriskvazhinnogo oborudovaniya s klapanom-otsekatelem. Osnashchenie i osvoenie fontannykh i gazliftnykh skvazhin (Complex of downhole equipment with shut-off valve. Equipping and development of fountain and gas lift wells),Vung Tau: Publ.of NIPImorneftegaz, 1989, 54 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-127-131

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S.G. Ashikhmin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), S.E. Chernyshov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), Yu.A. Kashnikov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), D.I.M. Macdonald (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom, Aberdeen)
A geomechanical analysis of the influence of orientation and placement of jet slots on terrigenous reservoir permeability

Keywords: hydro-geomechanics of reservoir rocks, stress strain state of rocks, producing oil well, perforation work

The paper presents the results of a geomechanical analysis of the effects of the placement and orientation of jet slot channels on the wellbore area permeability of terrigenous reservoir in producing oil wells in the Perm region. Various scenarios for the formation of jet slot channels in the reservoir were outlined and assessed; the stress-strain state of the rocks was determined; and the effect of "unloading" on the permeability of rocks and the stability of the slot channels was assessed. The unloading of the rock mass near the jet slots was estimated from changes of average effective pressure. It was established that the best placement scheme for jet slot channels is a system of four slot channels with a phasing of 90. The height difference between jet slots channels does not appear to be significant, because the slot channels interact with each other very weakly in the vertical direction.

The influence of unloading of the rocks on the permeability of the reservoir at a pressure drawdown of 5 MPa was calculated. Functional dependence of all-round effective pressure on the permeability was based on the results of rock tests of the terrigenous reservoirs of the Shershnevskoye oil field. It is demonstrated that without additional work, reservoir permeability is significantly reduced during well exploration under specified conditions; however, the abrasive jet perforation effectively contributes to preservation of the initial permeability. It was also found that jet slot channels in the productive layers with the correct physicomechanical properties and the depression of 5 MPa are stable, since zones of inelastic deformations are very rare.

Thus, in addition to increasing the filtration area in the well-borereservoir system, the abrasive jet perforation ensures the preservation of the reservoir permeability due to unloading of rocks from the operating stresses. The additional positive effect of the proposed technology is the possibility of azimuth orientation of the jet slots channels for different stress scenarios.


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2. Klimov D.M., Karev V.I., Kovalenko Yu.F., Rol' napryazheniy v formirovanii ekspluatatsionnykh svoystv skvazhin (The role of stress in the formation of the operational properties of wells), Collected papers Aktual'nye problemy mekhaniki. Mekhanika deformiruemogo tverdogo tela (Actual problems of mechanics. Mechanics of a deformable solid), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2009, pp. 470476.

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4. Fjaer E. et al., Petroleum related rock mechanics, Elseveir, 2008, 515 p.

5. Krysin N.I., Ryabokon' E.P., Turbakov M.S. et al., Improvement of devices of abrasive jet perforation in oil wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 8, pp. 129131.

6. Dobrynin V.M., Deformatsii i izmeneniya fizicheskikh svoystv kollektorov nefti i gaza (Deformations and changes in the physical properties of oil and gas collectors), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 239 p.

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8. Sonich V.P., Cheremisin N.A., Baturin Yu.E., Effect of reducing reservoir pressure in reservoir properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1997, no. 9, pp. 5257.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-132-135

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I.I. Mazein (LUKOIL-PERM, LLC, RF, Perm), A.V. Usenkov (LUKOIL-PERM, LLC, RF, Perm), A.Yu. Durbazhev (LUKOIL-PERM, LLC, RF, Perm), A.V. Lekomtsev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), P.Yu. Ilyushin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Field test of coalescer in the mobile unit for well production treatment

Keywords: oil treatment, crude oil, separator, oil settler, mobile treatment unit, coalescer

We conducted field tests of coalescers installed in capacitive devices for oil dehydration and desalting of mobile unit for well production treatment. Until now no investigations to determine the optimal gap between the plates intensifying have been conducted. During tests the cassette were mounted in the sump of mobile unit with the distance between the plates of 5 mm (standard design) and 2.5 mm. Investigations carried out in different cases: incoming fluid in the horizontal sump (top and side), the process temperature (60 70 ) and fresh water consumption (increased by 10, 20, 30% compared with the current industrial setting mode). The article shows that the smaller distance between the plates provides a turbulent diffusion in intensifying devices leading to a deeper degree of oil treatment. It is found that desalting processes proceed more intensive at temperature 70 than at 60 C even when the supply of fresh water for 10 and 20%. The increase of fresh water consumption at 30% leads to an appreciable increase in the proportion of water in the drip oil prepared deteriorates desalting process, which affects the results of oil samples after preparation and confirmed weak effect of increasing supply of fresh water for the process. According to the research it was found that the use of intensifying devices the distance between the plates distance of 2.5 mm leads to an improvement of oil treatment degree: decrease of water content by 237 % and the content of chloride salts by 574 % depending on the process.


1. Turbakov M.S., Ryabokon' E.P., Cleaning efficiency upgrade of oil pipeline from wax deposition (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, V. 14, no. 17, pp. 5462, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.17.67.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-136-139

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O.V. Aralov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), I.V. Buyanov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.S. Savanin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), N.A. Shimel (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
Mathematical modeling of a helical flowmeter for oil and oil products

Keywords: mathematical model, modeling, helical flowmeter

The article is devoted to the methodology of mathematical modeling of helical flowmeter for oil and oil products. The problems and features of the development of helical flowmeter for oil and oil products are considered. One of the solutions is the use of mathematical apparatus proposed by the authors to solve the existing problems. We described the general (main) stages of mathematical modeling of the helical flowmeter for oil and oil products: conceptual set up of the problem, mathematical statement of the problem, the selection and justification of the method for solving the problem, the implementation of the mathematical model as a software product, checking the adequacy, practical use. For each stage of mathematical modeling the article provides the technique of conducted research, the main results are presented. The design of the helical flowmeter is considered, generalized conceptual formulae describing the helical rotor and the helical flowmeter are given. The developed mathematical model of the helical flowmeter and software product are described. The requirements for the system software are given. For practical application of the mathematical model and software we tested its adequacy. The initial results of the practical application of the mathematical model are presented. The results of the modification of the real helical flowmeter are considered. In conclusion of the article, general conclusions are made on the results of mathematical modeling of the helical flowmeter for oil and oil products, further ways of research and improvement of the results are considered.


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3. Savanin A.S., Sirotkin V.A., The application perspectives of transportable systems for measurement of quantity and quality indicators of oil products (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2014, V. 13, no. 1, pp. 6466.

4. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., Savanin A.S., Razrabotka sredstv izmereniy raskhoda i plotnosti nefti i nefteproduktov v OOO NII Transneft (Development of measuring instruments for flow and density of oil and petroleum products in NII Transneft LLC), Proceedings of XII All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference Aktualnye problemy razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii (Actual problems of development of the oil and gas complex in Russia), Moscow, 12-14 February 2018, Moscow, 2018.

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DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-140-144

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G.I. Shmal (Union of Oil & Gas Producers of Russia, RF, Moscow), V.Ya. Kershenbaum (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), V.N. Protasov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), O.O. Shtyrev (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Novel approach to the quality management and standardization of the complex technical systems for oil and gas industry

Keywords: oil and gas industry, complex technical systems, elements of the technical systems, standards for the elements, shortcomings of the standards, lack of connection to the system, relevance of the hierarchical approach, methodology of standards development

Oil and Gas industry is utilizing complex technical systems consisting of various elements (equipment types) from various producers. The interconnection and certain dependencies of the technical system elements result in necessity of applying the hierarchical development principle of the technical system and its elements technical requirements. According to this principle, the required quality level of the separate elements of the complex technical system must be determined by the required quality level of the system as the whole and its subsystems, including these elements, or interdependently connected with them. Quality of a technical system is the essence of the system as demanded by the consumer. It is expressed in terms of its properties, metrics of these properties and the norms for these metrics, defining this essence.

The quality level of the technical system as demanded by the consumer is determined by quantitative or qualitative levels of the quality criteria of such system and the national standards, setting the certain limits to the values of these criteria, e.g. its safety level, while ensuring the acceptable for the consumer costs of developing and utilizing such a technical system. The domestic Oil and Gas industry lacks the standards, containing the technical requirements of the Oil and Gas companies to the technical systems they are using. Many standards have been enacted which define technical requirements to the certain elements (equipment types) of the technical systems, which are being developed by the manufacturers without consideration for the technical systems, for which they are destined. These results into the mismatch between the actual characteristics of the Oil and Gas industry technical systems built from various manufacturers elements and their quality requirements.

A radically new approach to developing standards, hierarchically defining the quality criteria for the technical systems used by Oil and Gas companies, the individual elements of such systems, their structural components and the connections between individual components. Standardized quality criteria of the technical systems and their elements should define the processes of designing, developing and producing such systems.


1. Protasov V.N., Import substitution of oil and gas equipment based on the process approach to the formulation of consumer quality on the hierarchical principle (In Russ.), Upravleniye kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, 2015, no. 4, pp. 8790.

2. Shmal G.I., Kershenbaum V.Ya., Guseva T.A., Belozertseva L.Yu., New stage of standardization in oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 11, pp. 7880.

3. Shmal G.I., Kershenbaum V.Ya., From imports dependence to re-industrialization (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 1013.

4. Kershenbaum V.Ya., Panteleyev A.S., Shmal G.I., Improving the quality management system of drilling fluids (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 2426.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-145-147

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632.954: 504.054
M.A. Troshin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Nikolaeva (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), S.A. Polovkov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow)
The problems of the environmental protection in progress cleaning of the linear part of the pipelines from the tree and shrub vegetation

Keywords: herbicides, pipeline, tree and shrub vegetation, removing technology, imazapyr, glyphosate

The system of organizations of Transneft uses a complex approach to ensuring industrial and environmental safety, relevant on the most harsh modern requirements. One of the safety requirements is ensure unhindered access to any point of the pipeline. For this goal the territory adjacent to the pipeline is cleaned of unwanted tree and shrub vegetation.

The article discusses environmental protection, the technological choice and distinctions of using non-agricultural nonselective herbicides to remove tree and shrub vegetation on the easement area of pipeline. The investigations were carried out for two years using industrial-produced samples of herbicides in the southern, central and northern natural zones of the Russian Federation. The best results on the inhibition of arboreal shrub vegetation in the southern zone showed herbicides based on the active fraction imazapyr and imazapyr in mixture with glyphosate. In the middle and northern parts of the Russian Federation, herbicides show a similar effect, the best results are shown by tank mixtures based on Imazapyr and Glyphosate.

In the The Pipeline Transport Institute developed the optimal technology of removal of tree and shrub vegetation in the area of linear objects. It is shown that the application of the most appropriate to use tank mixes of herbicides based on glyphosate and imazapyr. The best way for the removal of trees and shrubs is to use a combined method. When applying herbicides, the selection of the active ingredients it is advisable in accordance with the climate zone and the type of vegetation. It is shown the most appropriate application is using tank mixes of herbicides based on glyphosate and imazapyr. To reduce the anthropogenic impact on the environment must be strict adherence of using herbicides.


1. Rodionova S.G., Revel-Muroz P.A., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Scientific-technical, socio-economic and legal aspects of oil and oil products transport reliability (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 2031.

2. Polovkov S.A., On the formation of oil traffic in oil trunk pipelines system of JSC Transneft (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 2, pp. 9295.

3. Spiridonov Yu.Ya., Shestakov V.G., Primenenie Arsenala, VK (250 g/l) BASF Agrokemikal prodakts B.V. na obektakh neselskokhozyaystvennogo polzovaniya (Application of Arsenal, VC (250 g/l) BASF Agrochemical products B.V. on non-agricultural objects), Moscow, 2007.

4. Antipov B.V., Mulchernye tekhnologii v polose otvoda zheleznykh dorog: nauchno-prakticheskie aspekty (Shredding technology in the railroad allotment: scientific and practical aspects), Moscow, 2013.

5. Gosudarstvennyy katalog pestitsidov i agrokhimikatov, razreshennykh k primeneniyu na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii i dopolneniya k nemu (The state catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted for use on the territory of the Russian Federation and addenda to it), 2016.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-6-148-152

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