|JSC ZARUBEZHNEFT - 50 years|
Multilateral well, TAML multilateral well’s completion levels, multilateral well construction technology, re-installation of the whipstock.
The article highlights the experience of the first multilateral well construction in Zarubezhneft JSC. Introduction indicates the pressing problem of completeness of oil extraction from producing reservoirs, while the technology of multilateral wells construction is shown as one of the ways to solve the problem. Then the main advantages of multilateral wells are described in comparison with the directional ones as well as the preferred areas of their application. In addition, the main differences are highlighted between the levels of complexities of multilateral wells completion in accordance with the international classification of multilateral wells TAML.
In the article the authors describe the main technological solutions used during the construction of the first multilateral well in Zarubezhneft JSC, including the technology of repeated access to the sidetrack of a multilateral well after the extraction of the whip stock. The problems encountered during the construction of the well and the ways to solve them are indicated. The description of the Russian development in the field of multilateral wells completion is given, as well as its advantages and disadvantages are noted in comparison with similar foreign completion systems.
In conclusion, the final assessment of the results of the Russian technology for multilateral well completion application and of the possibility of its further replication is made.
1. Fraija J. et al., New aspects of multilateral well construction, Oilfield Review, 2002, Autumn.
2. TAML Multilaterals Guidebook, July, 1999, pp. 76–80.
3. URL: http://perfobur.com/
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The article shows the new approaches in development and application of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods based on steam injection and in-situ combustion for carbonate oil fields. The unique laboratory tests were conducted for evaluation of new EOR methods for the hydrophobic carbonate reservoirs with combustion tubes setups. The following set of parameters had been determined along the tests: combustion initiation, combustion maximum temperatures, which can be achieved during combustion front propagation in the reservoir at high pressure air injection. Combustion front velocity, maximum temperatures, composition of the produced fluids and gases are processed from the experimental data for numerical simulation of steam and air injection EOR methods.
The laboratory study has shown the EOR capabilities for complicated tight oil reservoirs. The technological parameters such as air injection rate were determined. For existing development of the oil field by steam injection, the steam temperature was verified experimentally. The steam injection test shows that more than 70 % vol. of recovered oil had been produced at temperature 283 °Ñ. By this fact, present temperature of the steam injection in the oil field was confirmed. It was also shown that increase of steam injection temperature up to 305 °Ñ gave additional recovered oil increase on 10-15 %.
Combustion initiation happened at 200°C in the laboratory model for Central Khoreveyskoye elevation. Stable combustion front had 14,3 cm/h velocity along model. A high displacement coefficient near 80 % OOIP in the model was obtained.
1. Bondarenko T.M., Popov E.Yu., Cheremisin A.N. et al., Laboratory modeling of high-pressure air injection in oil fields of Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 3, pp. 34-39.
2. Alvarado V., Manrique E., Enhanced oil recovery: An update review, Energies, 2010, V. 3, no. 9, pp. 1529–1575.
3. Yang X., Gates I.D., Design of hybrid steam-in situ combustion bitumen recovery processes, Nat. Resour. Res., 2009, V. 18, no. 3, pp. 213–233.
4. Collinson Sh., New Skoltech lab revolutionizes approach to difficult oil deposits, 2017, URL: http://www.skoltech.ru/en/2017/06/23601/.
5. Moore R.G., Mehta S.A., Ursenbach M.G., A guide to high pressure air injection (HPAI) based oil recovery, SPE 75207, 2002.6. Grishin P.A., Features of carbonate core preparation and research, SPE, 2017, URL: http://www.spe-moscow.org/ru/meetings/osobennosti-podgotovki-i-issledovaniya-karbonatnogo-kerna2.htm...
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The use of oil soluble catalyst precursors based on transition metals (iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper) was studied in order to improve the efficiency of oil production by steam injection technology. Experiments of steam impact on heavy oil with additives of catalyst precursors (0.2 % by metal) were carried out in an autoclave at temperatures 250 and 300 °C for 6 h and a pressure of 9 MPa corresponding to the reservoir data. To assess the efficiency of catalysts the composition and structure of heavy oil was characterized before and after steam impact by SARA analysis, elemental analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and MALDI mass spectrometry methods. It is established that the use of catalysts, the active form of which is formed in-situ, provides a reduction of heavy components fraction, as well as reduction of average molecular weight of oil. In addition, the simultaneous usage of catalysts with hydrogen donors can increase the H/C ratio. Nickel-based catalyst was the most suitable among the transition metals studied. Its application together with steam injection allows to reduce the heavy oil viscosity in laboratory conditions. The obtained results show that the use of a cyclic system injection together with aquathermolysis catalysts allows to carry out heavy oil upgrading in reservoir conditions, improve rheological properties of heavy oil and, as a result, increase the current production rate of wells.
1. Shah A., Fishwick R., Wood J. et al., A review of novel techniques for heavy oil and bitumen extraction and upgrading, Energy Environ. Sci., 2010, V. 3, pp. 700–714.
2. Tumanyan B.P., Petrukhina N.N., Kayukova G.P. et al., Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: Chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation (In Russ.), Uspekhi khimii = Russian Chemical Reviews, 2015, V. 84 (11), pp. 1145– 1175.
3. Maity S.K., Ancheyta J., Marroquın G., Catalytic aquathermolysis used for viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils: A review, Energy & Fuels, 2010, V. 24, pp. 2809–2816.
4. Kayukova G.P., Gubaidullin A.T., Petrov S.M. et al., The changes of asphaltenes structural-phase characteristics in the process of conversion of heavy oil in the hydrothermal catalytic system, Energy Fuels, 2016, V. 30, pp. 773–783.
5. Galukhin A.V., Erokhin A.A., Nurgaliev D.K., Effect of catalytic aquathermolysis on high-molecular-weight components of heavy oil in the Ashal’cha field, Chem. Technol. Fuels Oils, 2015, V. 50, pp. 67–69.
6. Wen S., Zhao Y., Liu Y., S. Hu, A study on catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy crude oil during steam stimulation, SPE 106180-MS, 2007.
7. Chao K., Chen Y., Liu H. et al., Laboratory experiments and field test of a difunctional catalyst for catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy oil, Energy Fuels, 2012, V. 26 (2), pp. 1152–1159.
8. Feoktistov D.A., Sitnov S.A., Vahin A.V. et al., The description of heavy crude oils and the products of their catalytic conversion according to SARA-analysis data, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2015, V. 10, pp. 45007–45014.
9. Vakhin A.V., Morozov V.P., Sitnov S.A. et al., Application of thermal investigation methods in developing heavy-oil production technologies, Chem. Technol. Fuels Oils, 2015, V. 50 (6), pp. 569–578.10. Sitnov S.A., Petrovnina M.S., Feoktistov D.A. et al., Intensification of thermal steam methods of production of heavy oil using a catalyst based on cobalt (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 106–108.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The article is devoted to the assessment of geological risks in prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbon deposits. Increasing the efficiency of geological exploration at different stages is associated with the improvement of accounting methods and minimization of geological risks. This requires the analysis of hydrocarbon systems and their elements - source rocks, reservoir rocks, seal rocks, traps, as well as dynamic processes - generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons. In the article, the methodology for assessing geological risks has been tested for geological prospecting in the water area of the north-eastern part of the Sakhalin shelf. To assess the risk models for the regional model of the structure and evolution of the Cenozoic cover of the north-eastern part of the In-Sakhalin shelf 80 regional three-dimensional models were created and analyzed, and for Kirinsky, Ayashsky and East Odoptu sections - 50 risk models. Tornado diagrams were used to evaluate and analyze the results of risk modeling. In order to assess the risks by the Chevron method, geological risk maps were plotted on the license area of the Sakhalin shelf and a scheme for the distribution of perspective objects identified by interpretation of seismic data, determining the quality of reservoirs and spreading the fluid-bearing strata. According to the results of modeling, six large independent centers of oil and gas generation are distinguished: Chayvinsky, Veninsky, Kirinsky, Pogranichny, Piltun-Astakhovsky, Deriuginsky. To build the final maps of geological risks on license areas of the Sakhalin shelf and assign risk coefficients to perspective objects, models and schemes of hydrocarbon systems were used. The results of the analysis showed that all design wells have low risks.
1. Kerimov V.Y., Osipov A.V., Mustaev R.N., Monakova A.S., Modeling of petroleum systems in regions with complex geological structure, Proceedings of 16th Science and Applied Research Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development, GEOMODEL 2014.
2. Bogoyavlenskiy V.I., Kerimov V.Yu., Ol’khovskaya O.O., Dangerous gas-saturated objects in the world ocean: the Sea of Okhotsk (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 6, pp. 43–47.
3. Kerimov V.Yu., Senin B.V., Bogoyavlenskiy V.I., Shilov G.Ya., Geologiya, poiski i razvedka mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov na akvatoriyakh Mirovogo okeana (Geology, prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbon deposits in the waters of the World Ocean), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2016, 410 p.
4. Kerimov V.Yu., Bondarev A.V., Sizikov E.A. et al., The conditions of formation and evolution of hydrocarbon systems in Sakhalin shelf, the Sea of Okhotsk (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 22–27.
5. Kerimov V.Yu., Gorbunov A.A., Lavrenova E.A., Osipov A.V., Models of hydrocarbon systems in the Russian Platform–Ural junction zone (In Russ.), Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye = Lithology and Mineral Resources, 2015, no. 5, pp. 445–458.
6. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S. et al., The shale hydrocarbons prospects in the low permeability Khadum formation of the Pre-Caucasus (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 50–53.
7. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Senin B.V., Lavrenova E.A., Basin modeling tasks at different stages of geological exploration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 26–29.
8. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Serikova U.S. et al., Hydrocarbon generation-accumulative system on the territory of Crimea Peninsula and adjacent Azov and Black Seas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3, pp. 56–60.
9. Kerimov V.Yu., Serikova U.S., Mustaev R.N., Guliev I.S., Deep oil-and-gas content of South Caspian Basin (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5, pp. 50–54.
10. Kerimov V.Yu., Shilov G.Ya., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S., Thermobaric conditions of hydrocarbons accumulations formation in the low-permeability oil reservoirs of Khadum suite of the Pre-Caucasus (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 8–11.
11. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Bondarev A.V., Evaluation of the organic carbon content in the low-permeability shale formations (as in the case of the Khadum suite in the Ciscaucasia Region), Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2016, V. 32, no. 6, pp. 3235–3241.
12. Rachinsky M.Z., Kerimov V.Y., Fluid dynamics of oil and gas reservoirs, Scrivener Publishing Wiley, 2015.
13. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Yandarbiev N.Sh., Movsumzade E.M., Environment for the formation of shale oil and gas accumulations in low-permeability sequences of the Maikop series, Fore-Caucasus, Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2017, V. 33, no. 2, pp. 879-892.
14. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S., Zaytsev V.A., Evaluation of secondary filtration parameters of low-permeability shale strata of the Maikop series of Central and Eastern Ciscaucasia by the results of geomechanics modeling (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 9, pp. 18-21.
15. Kerimov V.Yu., Lapidus A.L., Yandarbiev N.Sh., Physicochemical properties of shale strata in the Maikop series of Ciscaucasia (In Russ.), Khimiya tverdogo topliva = Solid Fuel Chemistry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 58–66.
16. Koblov E.G., Kharakhinov A.V., Tkacheva N.A., Neftegazovyy potentsial i perspektivnye neftegazopoiskovye ob»ekty pribrezhnoy zony shel’fa Severnogo Sakhalina (Oil and Gas Potential and Prospective Oil and Gas Exploration Objects of the Coastal Zone of the North Sakhalin Shelf), Collected papers “Geologicheskie problemy razvitiya uglevodorodnoy i syr’evoy bazy Dal’nego Vostoka i Sibiri” (Geological problems of the development of the hydrocarbon and raw materials base of the Far East and Siberia), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2006, pp. 83–88.
17. Obzhirov A.I., Gas hydrates and methane streams in the Sea of Okhotsk (In Russ.), Morskie informatsionno-upravlyayushchie sistemy, 2013, no. 1(2), pp. 56–65.
18. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Fundamental challenges of the location of oil and gas in the South Caspian Basin (In Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016, V. 471, no. 1, pp. 62-65.19. Kerimov V.Yu, Rachinsky M.Z., Geofluid dynamic concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in natural reservoirs (In Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016, V. 471, no. 2, pp. 187-190.
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To estimate reserves and optimize the development of hard-to-recover hydrocarbons from Middle-Upper Jurassic deposits reliable information on the ownership of the reservoir to certain strtonum is necessary. The question of the dismemberment of the hydrocarbon deposits Naunak and Tyumen suite in the South-East of Western Siberia is still controversial.
Material for study is based on samples from core 7 wells: No. 1, 2, 5 (Dvoinoye field) and No. 446, 170, 430, 301 (Snezhnoye field). The relevance of research is caused by necessity of using the results to update the geological model, calculation of the declared reserves of hydrocarbons and to optimize development of the hard deposits on the Dvoinoye and Snezhnoye fields. Guide fossils for the Tyumen suite (Tomsk phyto-horizon) are the ferns (Coniopteris vialovae, Raphaelia diamensis); czekanowskiales (Czekanowskia irkutensis, Cz. rigida, and Phoenicopsis mogutchevae); equisetaceous plants (Equisetites lateralis). The guiding forms for Naunak suite (Naunak phyto-horizon) in the studied wells are czekanowskiales Czekanowskia tomskiensis. Productive deposits of the Tyumen suite are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, lithological variability, with predominance of more interlayers of mixed breeds (are sandstones are mudstones). According to hydrolysate module values Tyumen suite is composed of continental sediments with the participation of products redeposition weathering and Naunak suite, with a reduced value of the modulus is composed of terrigenous rocks with the participation of volcanic-clastic material. Titanium module values show that Tyumen suite formed in the semi-arid climate. On the background of the prevailing semi-arid conditions at the end of the middle Jurassic era in the study area there were episodes of humidity.
An integrated lithogeochemical, biostratigraphic and facies studies allowed to carry out the dismemberment of the Middle-Upper Jurassic sediments in the studied sections and to clarify the boundary between Naunak and Tyumen suite, as well as to separate deposits of different genesis: the inland waterways (Tyumen suite) and coastal plains, occasionally flooded by sea.
1. Shurygin B.N., Nikitenko B.L., Devyatov V.P. et al., Stratigrafiya neftegazonosnykh basseynov Sibiri. Yurskaya sistema (Stratigraphy of oil and gas bearing basins of Siberia. Jurassic system), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2000, 480 p.
2. Perevertailo T., Nedolivko N., Dolgaya T., Vasyugan horizon structure features within junction zone of Ust-Tym depression and Parabel megaswell (Tomsk Oblast), URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/24/1/012023.
3. Resheniya 6-go Mezhvedomstvennogo stratigraficheskogo soveshchaniya po rassmotreniyu i prinyatiyu utochnennykh stratigraficheskikh skhem mezozoyskikh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Decisions of the 6th Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Meeting to Review and Adopt Refined Stratigraphic Schemes of Mesozoic Deposits in Western Siberia), Novosibirsk, 2004, 114 p.
4. Kirichkova A.I., Kostina E.I., Bystritskaya L.I., Fitostratigrafiya i flora yurskikh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Phytostratigraphy and flora of the Jurassic sediments of Western Siberia), St Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2005, 378 p.
5. Alekseev V.P., Litologo-fatsial’nyy analiz (Lithofacies analysis), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of Ural State Mining University, 2003, 147 p.
6. Shaminova M., Rychkova I., Sterzhanova U., Paleogeographic and litho-facies formation conditions of MidUpper Jurassic sediments in S-E Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast), URL: http://dx.doi.org-10.1088-1755-1315-43-1-012001.pdf.
7. Interpretatsiya geokhimicheskikh dannykh (Interpretation of geochemical data): edited by Sklyarov E.V., Moscow: Intermet Inzhiniring Publ., Part 1, 2001, 288 p.
8. Yudovich Ya.E., Osnovy litokhimii (Fundamentals of lithochemistry), St Petersburg: Nauka Publ., 2000, 479 p.
9. Yudovich Ya.E., Ketris M.P., Geokhimicheskie indikatory litogeneza (Geochemical indicators of lithogenesis), Syktyvkar: Geoprint Publ., 2011, 740 p.
10. Maslov A.V., Osadochnye porody: metody izucheniya i interpretatsii poluchennykh dannykh (Sedimentary rocks: methods for studying and interpreting received data), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of USMU, 2005, 289 p.
11. Gol’bert A.V., Markova L.G., Polyakova I.D. et al., Paleolandshafty Zapadnoy Sibiri v yure, melu i paleogene (Paleolandscapes of Western Siberia in the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Paleogene), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1968, 152 p.12. Shaminova M., Rychkova I., Sterzhanova U., Dolgaya T., Lithologo-facial, geochemical and sequence-stratigraphic sedimentation in Naunak suite (south-east Western Siberia), URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/21/1/012001/pdf.
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The work is aimed at clarifying the geological structure of complex objects by solving a direct problem of seismic exploration. An example of a reservoir considered in this work represents sediments of deep marine slides. In order to confirm the validity of the geological model, synthetic seismic data is calculated and compared with the original seismic cube. Paper concerns the geological model various implementations. The first – includes modeling with no deformation vertical displacements. The second implementation uses data to attract modern systems of deep marine slides, their structure and types of deformations.
The synthetic wave calculation was carried out in a simplified version of the convolutional model. The acoustic properties are selected according to the available analogs. Further, the acoustic impedance model was recalculated into a cube of reflection coefficients, which was fed to the input of the convolution operator. The results of the sensitivity analysis of the method to the parameters of the geological model and fault types are presented. Additionally the results include: results of optimization of cell sizes of the synthetic geological model; approaches to the choice of methods for creating a structural framework; methods of specifying deformations, if necessary, testing hypotheses on the possible magnitude of the displacement; approaches to the method of modeling the acoustic properties of the medium.
The method used is considered as an approach to the restoration of the wave field on the various concepts basis of the geological structure, can be used as a quick and convenient method for testing the concept and analysis of seismic capabilities for the identification of geological objects. The application of the method makes it possible to evaluate the correctness of the structural framework, the nature of the bedding, the size of geological objects, and the distribution of acoustic properties within lithotypes and geological bodies, provided that they can be isolated on a real seismic section.
1. Shpil'man V.I., Mukher A.G., Features of formation of ASP layer in the Salym oil-bearing region (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 1988, no. 12, pp. 44–48.
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13. Souche L., Lepage F., Iskenova G., Volume based modeling – Automated construction of complex structural models, Proceedings of 75th EAGE Conference and Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, 2013.
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According to author’s view, facial modelling is a part of new investigation’s branch – geological forecasting of sedimentary basin’s lithological structure based on seismic and geological data. Previous author’s articles deals with the conceptual model of sedimentary basin constructed for the solution of this problem, and with results of it’s application for vendian terrigenous basin of Siberian Platform. It is very necessary to approbate this model for sedimentary basins of various genetic types. Therefore the main goal of this articles is to attract attention to this issue. It presents systematic analyses of facial modeling as a scientific discipline.
The object of facial modeling is sedimentary basins, the subject - their models as systems of lithological bodies that are in regular spatial relations. The purpose of facial modeling is to construct a conceptual lithological model of the sedimentary basin as an a priori basis for seismic data interpretation. Tasks of the facial modeling are the identification and the forecasting of lithological bodies. The general method of facial modeling is interpolation and extrapolation of lithological functions on the basis of natural lateral sequence of facies and vertical sequences of lithotypes at the well points. The main tool of facial modeling is a conceptual model of the sedimentary basin which describes it as a vertical sequence of facial series bounded by facial unconformities.
By using a simple model example, the facies modeling algorithm was demonstrated. The concept of “facial-conforming sequence of strata” is introduced, which is an explication of the idea of genetically related strata. The concept of "facial unconformity" is introduced, which is an explication of the of N.B. Vassoevich’s idea about mutational boundaries. A classification of facial unconformities is proposed. The facial unconformities of the first kind are the isochronous boundary, which originates in the results of changes of the sedimentary basin’s type. The facial unconformities of the second kind are the isochronous boundary, which originates mainly in the results of transgressions and regressions. The concept of "facial series" is proposed. Facial series is a geological body bounded by facial unconformities. The facial series is a regularly organized lateral sequence of facies, and it is the common object of facial modeling.
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Geophysical research is one of the main sources of oil and gas exploration data. Meanwhile, seismic exploration is the basis for creation of geological and, in particular, geometrical field models, their structural framework. The accuracy and reliability of seismic imaging controls the efficiency of prospecting and exploratory operations in oil and gas industry as a whole. Complication of oil and gas exploration objectives, harder conditions of field development, competitive oil market have placed increased demands to the efficiency of geophysical research.
In view of long-lasting intense field development in the West Siberia, reserves and resource-base additions there are possible mainly through search and discovery of low-relief (10-15 m) and small-size (2-5 km) prospective targets. For reliable detection and study of such targets, the RMS-error of structural imaging should not exceed 5 m. This value is to be considered a currently required level of seismic exploration accuracy. The conventional seismic studies are not capable to provide such high accuracy of the velocity-depth modeling. The most state-of-the-art approach to creation of the velocity-depth models is to perform kinematic inversion of seismic data, which converts seismic wave field parameters to geometric and velocity parameters of the features found in a geological cross-section. At present, there exist different individual solutions, elaborated to one extent or another, and separate kinematic-inversion elements capable to produce the currently required accuracy level of final velocity-depth models, but they do not solve the problem of integration, synergy and coordination between different stages, methods and levels of geophysical research.
It is necessary to develop and apply a specialized integrated technology for acquisition, processing and interpretation of geophysical data, with both technical & methodological aspects of acquiring the initial information and processing & interpretation methodic procedures, as well as methods of parameter and final velocity-depth model accuracy assessment. Further seismic-research efficiency improvement is possible through integration of the available separate solutions into one integrated adaptive technology of seismic data kinematic inversion.
1. Mnogourovnevaya seysmorazvedka i kinematicheskaya inversiya dannykh MOV – OGT v usloviyakh neodnorodnoy VChR (Multilevel seismic prospecting and kinematic inversion of the reflection and common depth point methods data in the conditions of the inhomogeneous upper part of the section), Moscow: EAGE Geomodel', 2014, 212 p.
2. Plessix R.-E., Perkins C., Full waveform inversion of a deep water ocean bottom seismometer dataset, First Break, 2010, V. 28, pp. 71–78.
3. Glogovskiy V.M., Langman S.L., Properties of the solution of the inverse kinematic seismic task (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2009, no. 1, pp. 10–17.
4. Glogovskiy V.M., Structural stability of algorithms for estimation of velocity and depth parameters of the medium (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2011, no. 4, pp. 6–11.
5. Brekhuntsov A.M., Bevzenko Yu.P., On the economy and technology of prospecting for oil and gas fields in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2000, no. 3, pp. 58–62.
6. Bevzenko Yu.P., Brekhuntsov A.M., Dolgikh Yu.N., Results of thefield use of multi-level high-precision seismic technology (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 2002, no. 1, pp. 14–18.
7. Bevzenko Yu.P., Dolgikh Yu.N., Technique and technology of multi-level seismic studies in the north of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2004, no. 2, pp. 31–35.
8. Bevzenko Yu.P., Mnogourovnevaya vysokotochnaya seysmorazvedka v rayonakh razvitiya mnogoletney merzloty (Multilevel high-precision seismic survey in the permafrost areas): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Tyumen', 2004.
9. Dolgikh Yu.N., Povyshenie tochnosti seysmicheskikh nablyudeniy na osnove izucheniya ZMS i ucheta voln – sputnikov v ramkakh tekhnologii mnogourovnevoy seysmorazvedki (Improving the accuracy of seismic observations based on the study of weathering zones and the consideration of satellite waves in the multi-level seismic technology): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science,Tyumen', 2004.
10. Dolgikh Yu.N., On the problem of simplified approaches to accounting the upper part of the section in the conditions of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2006, no. 3, pp. 60–68.
11. Dolgikh Yu.N., Problems of srm-cdp data traveltime inversion in northern regions of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2012, no. 4, pp. 40–50.
12. Dolgikh Yu.N., Post control of shot environments and real shot depth (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2013, no. 1, pp. 65–73.
13. Kuznetsov V.I., Dolgikh Yu.N., Sanin S.S. et al., Methodological results of UNIQ - CMP 3D technologyapplication in the North of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2015, no. 4, pp. 41–46.
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The article briefly reviews geological structure and hydrocarbon presence features of Bukharo-Khiva region. The most appropriate conditions for different trap types’ formation and therefore hydrocarbon accumulations were defined on the basis of the available geological and geophysical data. Different types of discovered accumulations were identified and classified into 3 categories which are in turn divided into 8 types. The most widespread are only 3 of them and the article reviews their localization features and comprises the corresponding typical oil and gas fields’ examples.
As Bukharo-Khiva region is currently well explored, it is appropriate to suppose that all major existing anticline traps are discovered and further regions’ prospects can be related to their non-anticline types (fault, pinch-out, unconformity, etc.). The article contains the analysis of their most probable types which can potentially be further discovered and are identified to date within hydrocarbons accumulation of separate discovered fields.
It’s obvious that identification of different hydrocarbon accumulations’ types requires different strategies of geological exploration. The article also provides with the proposals of the optimal sets of further exploration works on the basis of the achieved results, taking into account the most probable types of potential oil and gas accumulations.
1. Brod I.O., Osnovy ucheniya o neftegazonosnykh basseynakh (Fundamentals of the theory of oil and gas basins), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1964, 57 p.
2. Vasil'ev V.G., Ermakov V.I., Zhabrev I.P. et al., Gazovye i gazokondensatnye mestorozhdeniya (Gas and gas condensate fields): edited by Zhabrev I.P., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 375 p.
3. Khodzhaev A.R. et al., Neftyanye i gazovye mestorozhdeniya Uzbekistana (Oil and gas fields in Uzbekistan), Part II, Tashkent: Fan Publ., 1974.
4. Gazovye mestorozhdeniya SSSR (Gas fields of the USSR): edited by Vasil'ev V.G., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1968, 688 p.
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The upper Triassic sandstone reservoir (Mulussa F formation) is a main hydrocarbon target of the Syria Euphrates graben area. The experimental results; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microprobe (SEM) and Electron Diffraction System (EDS) analysis show that the clay minerals of this reservoir are dominated by kaolinite, illite, chlorites and illite-smectite mixture. Kaolinite is the main clay minerals phase found. Morphologically, it’s recorded as hexagonal to pseudo hexagonal platelets or booklet; consist of particles clusters (10 to 15¼m micrometre) of crystals arranged as sub to euhedral blocky structures often measure between 20 to 60 ¼m in length that partially or completely filled pore spaces. Chlorites are commonly occurred as grain coating, or pore-filling / lining phase, its occupy almost 17 % of the clay volume, and composed of well crystallised, euhedral individual plates 2 to 10 µm with a honeycomb morphology, randomly oriented in aggregates that have retained the outlines of the former framework grain. Illite constitutes about 37 %, and identified as grain coating or pore filling phase composed of well-crystallized lath-like blades (10 ¼m), and short fiber-like morphology partially filled the intergranular pore and has nucleated at the margins of detrital clay surfaces. Illite - smectite mixture is less abundant, constitutes about 20 %, and exists as grain-coating or pore-filling phase, consists of well-developed crystals characterized by platy or wispy edges ranging fr om 2 to 10 µm thick. The early diagenesis of upper Triassic sandstone was characterized first by the mechanically infiltration of the detrital clay, early formation of chlorite, kaolinite and grain-coating illite-smectite. During the burial diagenesis kaolinite precipitation are continued and appears to be change in the morphology with increasing burial depth. The chlorite and illite forming is also minor phase during the burial diagenesis. Illite-smectite mixtures layers also take a place at burial diagenesis stage, wh ere the leaching of the ferromagnesian minerals is being considered to be the source for the necessary ions.
1. Shmyrina V.A., Morozov V.P., Bakhtin A.I., Sedimentological and lithogenetic factors determining the reservoir properties of terrigenous rocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 10, pp. 18-20.
2. Ramm M., Formation of grain - coating chlorite in sandstones; laboratory synthesized vs. natural occurrences, Clay Mineral, 2000, no. 35, pp. 261-269.
3. Burley S.D., Kantorwicz J.D., Waugh B., Clastic diagenesis, In: Sedimentology: Recent developments and applied aspects: edited by Brenchley P.J., Williams B.P.J., Geological Society Special Publication,1985, no. 18, pp. 198-226.
4. Worden R.H., Morad S., Clay minerals in sandstones: A review of the detrital and diagenetic sources and evolution during burial, In: Clay cement in sandstones: edited by Worden R.H., Morad S., International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publication, 2003, no. 34, pp. 3-41.
5. Ketzer J.M., Morad S., Amorosi, A., Predictive diagenetic clay-mineral distribution in siliciclastic rocks within a sequence stratigraphic framework, In: Clay Mineral Cements in Sandstones, International Association of Sedimentologists, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2003, no. 34, pp. 43-61.
6. Burley S.D., Burial diagenesis, In: The Encyclopedia of the Solid Earth Sciences: edited by Keary P., Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford, 1993, pp. 72-76.
7. Schmidt V., MacDonald DA., The role of secondary porosity in the course of sandstone diagenesis. In: Aspects of diagenesis: edited by Scholle P.A., Schuldger P.R., Soc Econ, Paleont Miner, Spec. Publ, 1979, no.15, pp. 175-207.
8. Ehrenberg S.N., Aagaard P., Wilson M.J., Fraser A.R., Duthie D.M.L., Depth-dependent transformation of kaolinite to dickite in sandstones of the Norwegian Continental shelf, Clay Miner, 1993, no, 28, pp. 325-352.
9. McKinley J.M., Worden R.H., Ruffell A.H., Smectite in sandstones: a review of the controls on occurrence and behaviour during diagenesis, In: Clay Mineral Cements in Sandstones: edited by Worden R.H., Morad S., International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publication no. 34, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2003, pp. 109-128.
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The work is devoted to the analysis of the features of the process of deposition of the pore space of rocks (colmatation process) in an overall mathematical description, that is, taking into account the change in the stress-strain state of the rocks. The most relevant is the analysis to determine the reasons for the decrease in the filtration properties of oil reservoirs during oil production, which is accompanied by the injection of water into the reservoir. It is known that in a number of cases the injection of water into the reservoir results in a decreasing in the filtration properties of the some reservoir regions adjacent to the injection wells, and the reasons for this decrease can’t be explained by a violation of the injection technology. The paper considers one of the possible mechanisms for changing the filtration properties of oil reservoirs due to the colmatation of pore space by clay particles. Particles can come along with water pumped into the injection wells, carried out together with a part of the drilling mud or mobilized in the reservoir itself due to erosion processes in the zones with an increased value of the actual filtration rate. A mathematical description of the colmatation process of the porous space of the reservoir is constructed with allowance for the change in its stress-strain state. Accounting for changes in the stress-strain state of the reservoir opens up new opportunities for analyzing the features of the course of erosion-and-colmatation processes during oil production. Calculations for the model are supplemented by experimental studies. Experimental studies were carried out on bulk samples of a porous medium with a change in the permeability coefficient when injecting a solution containing suspended clay particles. In addition, the experimental data of other authors were used. The constructed mathematical model of the process was verified by comparing the results of calculations on the model with the obtained experimental data; as a result, a good correspondence of the calculated and experimental data was obtained.
1. Maksimenko A.A., Mikromekhanicheskiy analiz techeniya nen'yutonovskikh zhidkostey i vzvesey v poristoy srede (Micromechanical analysis of the flow of non-Newtonian fluids and slurries in a porous medium): thesis of candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Moscow, 2001.
2. Ryzhikov N.I., Eksperimental'noe issledovanie dinamiki zakhvata chastits i izmeneniya pronitsaemosti pri fil'tratsii suspenzii cherez poristuyu sredu (Experimental study of the dynamics of particle capture and permeability changes during filtration of a suspension through a porous medium): thesis of candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Moscow, 2014.
3. Jaeger J.C., Zimmerman R.W., Fundamentals of rock mechanics, 4th ed. Oxford, Wiley, 2007.
4. Khramchenkov M., Khramchenkov E., A new approach to obtain rheological relations for saturated porous media, International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 2014, V. 72, pp. 49–53.
5. Dimov C.V., Kuznetsov V.V., Rudyak V.Ya., Tropin N.M., Experimental investigation of microsuspension filtration in a highly-permeable porous medium (In Russ.), Izvestiya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. Mekhanikazhidkosti i gaza = Fluid Dynamics, 2012, no. 2, pp. 47–56.
6. Nikolaevskiy N.V., Geomechanics and fluid dynamics, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
7. Coussy O., Poromechanics, London: Wiley, 2004.
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The article present a study of the specifics of legal regulation of nuclear icebreakers, as design, construction, operation, ownership, property objects participating in ice channeling of the Northern Sea Route, taking into account the unification currently performed. General requirements that imposed by certain regulations, the procedures applicable to nuclear vessels are also enshrined in such international treaties as: International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea of 1974 (SOLAS-74); Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963; Convention on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents of 1986; Convention on Assistance in the Case of Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency of 1986. General rules on nuclear vessels are specified in Chapter VIII of the SOLAS-74. At the national level, the specifics of legal regulation of nuclear icebreakers are enshrined, among other things, in the Commercial Maritime Code of the Russian Federation, the Federal Law “On the Use of Nuclear Energy”, and in subordinate legislation.
Development of legal regulation of the nuclear icebreaker fleet is in progress both at the national and international levels. Adoption of the Polar Code, the introduction of amendments to the SOLAS-74, point to the fact that even with the current struggle for resources and transportation lines, such problems as energy security, safety of navigation, environmental protection are shared by many states and the solution of these problems in terms of international law secures both national interests and the interests of the world community in general.
2. URL: http://tek360.rbc.ru/articles/40 /
5. Romanova V.V., Energeticheskiy pravoporyadok: sovremennoe sostoyanie i zadachi (Energy law and order: current state and tasks), Moscow: Yurist Publ., 2016, 254 p.
9. Ioyrysh A.I., Pravovye problemy mirnogo ispol’zovaniya atomnoy energii (Legal problems of the peaceful use of nuclear energy), Moscow: Nauka Publ.,1979, 222 p.
10. Malinin S.A., Musin V.A., Pravovye problemy morskoy atomnoy deyatel’nosti (Legal problems of marine nuclear activities), Leningrad: Publ.of LGU, 1974, 134 p.
11. Supataeva O.A., Issues of legal support of life cycle of the offshore nuclear power plant (The ONPP) (In Russ.), Pravovoy energeticheskiy forum, 2016, no. 3, pp. 14–25.
12. Sovetskoe atomnoe pravo (Soviet nuclear law): edited by Burgasov P.N., Ioyrysh A.I., Petros’yants A.M., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1986, 208 p.
13. Konventsiya ob operativnom opoveshchenii o yadernykh avariyakh 1986 goda (Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency), URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/nuchelp.shtml
14. Mezhdunarodnaya konventsiya o bor’be s aktami yadernogo terrorizma ot 14.09.2005 (International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism), Byulleten’ mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov, 2008, no. 12, pp. 5–18.15. Romanova V.V., On the development trends of legal regulation of social relations in the field of energy and energy law science objectives (In Russ.), Trudy Instituta gosudarstva i prava, 2016, no. 6, pp. 83–97.
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Drilling of oil and gas wells in the fields of Eastern Siberia is carried out in complex mining and geological conditions, which are caused by the presence of significant intervals of carbonate-halogen deposits, low reservoir pressures, high salinity of the formation water and the presence of tectonic faults. As a result of the use of monosalt drilling fluids on water basis, there is an increased cavernousness of the wellbore, a decrease in permeability of the wellbore zone and a decrease in well productivity. The objective need to improve the quality and technical and economic parameters of well construction requires the improvement of technologies for drilling wells and opening productive layers.
The formulation of the improved drilling fluid, which meets a number of significant conditions associated with the features of the geological section, has been developed. The fulfillment of the above conditions is ensured by the selected component composition and specific properties of the drilling fluid components. The basis of the drilling fluid is represented by a solution of three salts, as a result the total salinity of the filtrate of the drilling fluid is similar to the salinity of the formation water, the problems of limiting the negative consequences of the physicochemical interaction in the drilling fluid filtrate system - rock formation - formation fluids are solved. A certain combination of polymers and the introduction of calcium carbonate-based colmatate into the drilling fluid allow to limit the depth of penetration of the filtrate into the reservoir and preserve the reservoir properties of the formation. The drilling fluid contains an effective lubricant additive with surfactant, which helps to reduce the surface tension, softens the film water structure on the surface of pore space, partially prevents salt solubility, improves structural, mechanical, filtration and lubrication properties.
Laboratory work was performed to prepare and optimize the properties of the model drilling fluid; experiments were conducted to determine the permeability recovery coefficient. Experimental and industrial works were performed to test the developed drilling fluid formulation at the exploratory and production wells of Eastern Siberia. As a result of the application of the polysalt biopolymer drilling fluid formulation, an increase well production rate through new wells was achieved, the formulation showed high technological efficiency.
1. Angelopulo O.K., Podgornov V.M., Avakov V.E., Burovye rastvory dlya oslozhnennykh usloviy (Drilling fluids for complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 135 p.
2. Podgornov V.M., Akhmadeev R.G., Angelopulo O.K., Vliyanie protsessov fil'tratsii burovykh rastvorov na izmenenie pronitsaemosti kollektora (Effect of filtration processes of drilling fluids on the change in the reservoir permeability), Collected papers “Itogi nauki i tekhniki “Razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy” (Results of science and technology "Development of oil and gas fields”), 1975, V. 6, pp. 60–97.
3. Ryabokon' S.A., Balovskaya V.I., Shafranik S.K., Kosilov A.F., Small diameter wells (In Russ.), Interval, 2002, no. 8, pp. 51–59.
4. Ryazanov Ya.A., Spravochnik po burovym rastvoram (Handbook of drilling fluids), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 215 p.
5. Ulyasheva N.M., Tekhnologiya burovykh zhidkostey (Technology of drilling fluids), Ukhta: Publ. of USTU, 2008, 164 p.
6. Orlov L.I., Ruchkin A.V., Svikhnushin N.M., Vliyanie promyvochnoy zhidkosti na fizicheskie svoystva kollektorov nefti i gaza (Influence of drilling liquid on physical properties of oil and gas collectors), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 90 p.
7. Ishbaev G.G., Dil'miev M.R., Khristenko A.V., Mileyko A.A., Bridging theories of particle size distribution (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2011, no. 6, pp. 16–18.8. Sergeev D.L., Lebzin D.E., Zhigulin V.P., Ambarnova L.N., The mechanism of softening of clay (hydromicaceous) rock and drilling fluid technology for sloughing shale and argillite drilling (In Russ.), Tekhnika i tekhnologiya bureniya, 2005, no. 2, pp. 22–23.
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The paper presents cement slurries with adjustable kinetics of expansion that were selected based on previously carried studies. An effect of expansion additives on linear expansion of cement stone were studied on two temperature modes 22 ºC and 75 ºC. Cement compositions setted in water and air conditions. The concentration of expansion additive changed in a range of 3 to 8 % of oil well cement mass. Analysis of obtained experimental data shows direct dependency of expansion from amount of additive; indirect dependency of expansion from temperature; linear expansion in air conditions is lower, than in water. An analysis of experiments results showed that the best results were obtained with addition of mixture CaO /Atren Light in the air at 22 °C. Expansion was up to 4.3% with an additive of 8 %.All mixtures showed consistently good expansion in water at 22 °C, which is achieved with addition of 3 to 4 % of expanding additive. However, with small addition of the additive of 3%, the greatest expansion was achieved with the CaO / Atren Light formulation. In water media CaO/Atren Light recipe had again the best results at 75 °Ñ. With 8 % of concentration CaO/Atren Light recipe gives 5.5 % in linear expansion.
In order to casing oil and gas wells on high level of quality it is recommended to use cement slurries with expanding additives CaO/Atren Light and CaO/CSAM-2M. Its concentration depends on well conditions and varies between 3 to 8 %. Based on carried studies cement slurries with adjustable kinetics of expansion were developed. They are intended to be used in casing of oil wells under conditions of normal and moderate temperatures.
1. Kunitskikh A.A., Chernyshov S.E., Rusinov D.Yu., Influence of mineral additives on the strength characteristics of the cement stone (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 20–23.
2. Patent no. 2536725 RF, Expanding cement slurry with adjustable process properties, Inventors: Chernyshov S.E., Krysin N.I. et al.
3. Nikolaev N.I., Lyu Kh., Kozhevnikov E.V., Study of influence of polymer spacers on bond strength between cement and rock (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, no. 18, pp. 16–22.
4. Bulatov A.I., Regarding the quality of a drilled well and its lining (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2015, no. 10, pp. 10–12.
5. Kozhevnikov E.V., Nikolaev N.I., Rozentsvet A.V., Lyrchikov A.A., Centering equipment for casing columns in sidetrack cementing (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, no. 16, pp. 54–60.
6. Chernyshov S.E., Krapivina T.N., Influence of expansion agent on properties of cement slurry-stone (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2010, no. 5, pp. 31–33.
7. Kunitskikh A.A., Research and development of expansion agents for grouting mortars (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, no. 16, pp. 46–53.
8. Agzamov F.A., Babkov V.V., Karimov I.N., About the required amount of expansion of plugging materials (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2011, no. 8, pp. 14–15.
9. Kozhevnikov E.V., Study of properties of cement slurries for horizontal well and sidetrack cementing (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, no. 17, pp. 24–31.10. Chernyshov S.E., Kunitskikh A.A., Votinov M.V., Research of hydration dynamics and development of expanding additives to oil-well cement (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 8, pp. 42–44.
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The operation of oil and gas fields is associated with maintenance costs. If the fields are operated according to their technical condition and are classified as hazardous industrial, the industrial safety examination (ISE) extending the service terms will be costly. In this case, two time parameters are of special importance: the intended lifetime and residual life of objects, the values of which affect ISE amount performed during operation period. In the absence of relevant tests results or statistics on actual reliability, the life of the objects is usually assigned (for example, for economic reasons or similar to objects of the same type). As practice shows, the designated service life is much less than the actual reliability of objects - a gamma-percentage resource. Therefore, the assigned life time should be adjusted taking into account the actual reliability of objects.
Residual resource is determined according to the technical state of the structural support of objects.
For wells - this is a support consisting of casing and cement cases. If the support is considered as a multicomponent construction its resource is determined by the minimum of the values calculated for each element. Remaining life calculation of casing is correct, the actual strength parameters of string pipes are determined, the presence of strength reserve to operational loads is determined and the dominant damage mechanism is taken into account for the projected period of operation. When calculating the residual life of cement cases, such certainty is absent. The calculation is performed using indirect data and quality metering methods. The result does not reflect either the technical state of the cement case or its residual resource. And yet, this result can determine the residual well resource.
Statistical data on the technical condition for UGS wells testify to the absence of destruction of cement cases as a structural element.
The article examines the role of cement cases for operating life of wells taking into account such statistics. The author substantiates the proposition that operating life of wells should be associated with flow string period of service.
1. Bolotin V.V., Prognozirovanie resursa mashin i konstruktsiy (Forecasting the resource of machines and structures), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1984, 321 p.
2. Bulatov A.I., Formirovanie i rabota tsementnogo kamnya v skvazhine (Formation and work of cement stone in the well), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 409 p.
3. Bulatov A.I., Novokhatskiy A.F., Rakhimov A.K., Korroziya tamponazhnykh shlakovykh tsementov (Corrosion of oil well slag cement), Tashkent: FAN Publ., 1986, 75 p.
4. Shamshin V.I., N.G. Fedorova, Dubenko V.E., Safe lifetime estimation of oil and gas wells operation (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2014, no. 3, pp. 30–32.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The article is devoted to the problem of estimating the oil displacement coefficient. The displacement coefficient is one of the key parameters in calculating recoverable reserves and controlling the development of oil fields. Traditionally, its definition is carried out in the laboratory when oil is displaced by the working agent from the composite core models of the formation under conditions simulating natural occurrence. With insufficient or no cores, the displacement coefficient can be estimated either by analogy with neighboring deposits or using analytical dependencies. In this regard, the receipt of such dependencies is relevant.
Through the generalization and analysis of a significant amount of experimental data, the authors developed a method for estimating the oil displacement coefficient. The initial sample was formed from the known values of the parameters of the reservoir models, which was ranked by the value of the displacement coefficient from the minimum to the maximum. It was possible to trace the influence of sample parameters on the displacement coefficient by means of stepwise regression analysis of the initial sample. In this case, the existence of isolated groups of values was established, which were isolated through linear discriminant analysis. Multidimensional regression equations for selected classes are obtained, which allow one to estimate the value of the oil displacement coefficient without its laboratory determination.
To estimate the displacement coefficient, the values of the formation parameters are used: porosity, permeability, residual water saturation, bulk density of the rock, determined by mass in standard core studies, and oil viscosity.
The developed method is implemented for the Bashkir carbonate deposits of the Bashkir arch and the Solikamsk depression in the Perm region. The obtained multidimensional equations demonstrate the high closeness of the model and experimental values of the displacement coefficient.
1. Khizhnyak G.P., Lyadova N.A., Experience of assessment technique implementation of oil displacement coefficient in the time of projecting of perm oil fields development (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 9, pp. 49–54.
2. Khizhnyak G.P., Tatarinov I.A., Spasibko A.V., The use of biopolymer BP-92 in the laboratory determination of the oil displacement efficiency of the Tournaisian sediments of the Aputaisky deposit (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2007, no. 1, pp. 50–54.
3. Raspopov A.V., Khizhnyak G.P., Determination of displacement (oil by water) efficiency with application of objects-analogues investigation results (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 6, pp. 39–43.
4. Khizhnyak G.P., Petrofizicheskie issledovaniya dinamicheskikh osobennostey struktury porovogo prostranstva porod-kollektorov v svyazi s problemami nefteizvlecheniya (na primere zalezhey Permskogo Prikam’ya) (Petrophysical studies of the dynamic features of the pore space structure of reservoir rocks in connection with the problems of oil recovery (on the example of deposits of Perm Kama region)): thesis of candidate of technical science, Perm’, 2000.
5. Khizhnyak G.P., Poplaukhina T.B., Galkin S.V., Efimov A.A., Experience of assessment technique implementation of oil displacement coefficient in the time of projecting of perm oil fields development (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 8, pp. 42–45.
6. Khizhnyak G.P., Raspopov A.V., Efimov A.A., Methodical approaches to prove oil displacement coefficient in different geological and physical conditions (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 10, pp. 32–35.
7. Galkin S.V., Poplaukhina T.B., Raspopov A.V., Khizhnyak G.P., Estimation of oil recovery ratios for Permskiy Region fields on the basis of statistical models (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 4, pp. 38–39.
8. Lyadova N.A., Yakovlev Yu.A., Raspopov A.V., Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Permskogo kraya (Geology and development of oil deposits of the Perm region), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2010, 335 p.
9. Montgomery D.C., Peck E.A., Introduction to linear regression analysis, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982, 504 p.
10. Galkin V.I., Khizhnyak G.P., Amirov A.M., Gladkikh E.A., Assessment of efficiency of core sample acidizing by means of regression analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 13, pp. 38-48, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2014.13.4.
11. Galkin V.I., Ponomareva I.N., Repina V.A., Study of oil recovery from reservoirs of different void types with use of multidimensional statistical analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2016, V. 15, no. 19, pp. 145–154, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.19.5.
12. Davis J., Statistics and analysis of geological data, Academic Press, 1977, 572 p.
13. Chumakov G.N., Probabilistic estimate of effectiveness of the method of cyclic bed fluid injection (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, V. 13, no. 13, pp. 49–58, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2014.13.5.
14. Chernykh I.A., Determination of bottomhole pressure by using multivariate statistical models (on example of formation TL-BB Yurchukskoie field) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2016, V. 15, no. 21, pp. 320-328, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.21.3.15. Andreyko S.S., Development of mathematical model of gas-dynamic phenomena forecasting method according to geological data in conditions of Verkhnekamskoie potash salt deposit (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2016, V. 15, no. 21, pp. 345-353, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.21.6.
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The results of pilot oriented hydraulic re-fracturing of two wells in the oil fields in the South of Perm region are presented. Generally the idea of oriented hydraulic re-fracturing is to create a system of perforations or lateral radial boreholes in a reservoir oriented perpendicular to the initial fracture and in a vertical plane. The distance between boreholes is determined based on geomechanical calculations. The technology of calculations comes down to the determination of the distance between small lateral boreholes depending on the existing geomechanical conditions and the in-situ stress which will allow the interaction of the boreholes and the subsequent creation of a fracture between them. Also the distance between two fracture systems created using lateral boreholes is determined to allow the propagation of the main fracture through the whole section. In connection with this the thorough study of reservoir geomechanical properties, in-situ stress near the considered wells and the initial hydraulic fracturing results was carried out before performing the oriented re-fracturing treatment. The stress field around the well should have a relatively small anisotropy (ratio more than 0.8 and meet the requirements for the vertical fracture formation). The azimuth of the initial fracture must be clearly known. Additional (highly desirable) condition is that the minimum initial fracture opening width should be no less than 10 mm near the wellbore.
The results of full-wave acoustic logging confirm that during some stages the fracture propagated in the predetermined direction.
1. Latypov I.D., Borisov G.A., Khaydar A.N. et al., Reorientation refracturing on RN-Yuganskneftegaz LLC oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 34–38.
2. Latypov I.D., Fedorov A.I., Nikitin A.A., Research of reorientation refracturing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 74–78.
3. Wright S.A., Conant R.A., Stewart D.W., Byerly P.M., Reorientation of propped refracure treatments, Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering, 1994, August, pp. 29-31.
4. Liu H., Lan Z., Zhang G. et.al., Evaluation of refracure reorientation in both laboratory and field scales, SPE 112445, 2008.
5. Wegner J., Hagemann B., Ganzer L., Numerical analysis of parameters affecting hydraulic fracture re-orientation in tight gas reservoirs, Proceedings of the 3rd Sino-German Conference "Underground Storage of CO2 and Energy", Goslar, Germany, 21–23 May 2013, pp. 117–130.
6. Mikhin A.S., Improvement of hydraulic fracturing technology for the purpose of involve to production not drained zone of layered non-uniform low permeability reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 9, pp. 50–52.
7. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Smetannikov O.Yu., Shustov D.V., Geomechanics research of oriented refracturing development conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 44–47.
8. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Cherepanov S.S. et al., Experience of oriented hydraulic fracture creation at oil fields of LUKOIL-PERM LCC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 40 –43.9. Kashnikov Yu.A., Shustov D.V., Kukhtinskiy A.E., Kondrat'ev S.A., Geomechanical properties of the terrigenous reservoirs in the oil fields of Western Ural (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 32–35.
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Diagnostic fracture injection tests have been conducted in two appraisal wells targeting Sheshminskian deposits of the Olkhovsko-Yuzhno-Chumachkinskoye uplift with the aim to determine formation fracture pressure. Fracturing fluid, namely, water containing 2% KCl, has been injected through the casing string (without packer) using Fidmash H-507 low-capacity pumping unit. No test proppant packs has been used.
According to results, conventional minifrac analysis in shallow wells does not always yield reliable information. It should be combined with fall-off, step-rate, and impulse fracture injection tests, hydraulic impedance measurements and other research methods. For shallow depth (up to 100 m) conditions, it is necessary to measure the full stress tensor; therefore, borehole imagers and scanners should also be applied.
Maximum horizontal stress based on minifrac test data has been evaluated. The value derived from Haimson and Fairhurst equation is consistent with the stress field. It has been found that Ufimian rocks compressive strength cannot exceed 4.77 mPa, which is almost two times lower than the estimate for sandstones from McNally equation. In all cases, it is required to check if the resulting stress values fall within the stress field. Results that fall outside the field are considered gross errors. Moreover, stress field deployment helps make conclusions on the compliance of estimated stress values and rock strength properties. The estimates can provide a clear understanding of hydraulic fracture orientation and the tectonics of the area.
1. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 449 p.
2. Haimson B., Fairhurst C., In situ stress determination at great depth by means of hydraulic fracturing, Proceedings of 11th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 16-19 June 1969, Berkeley, California.
3. Bredehoeft J.D. et al., Hydraulic fracturing to determine the regional in situ stress field Piceance Basin Colorado, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1976, V. 87, pp. 250–258.
4. Barton C.A. et al., In situ stress orientation and magnitude at the Fenton Geothermal Site, New Mexico, determined from wellbore breakouts, Geophysical Research Letters, 1988, V. 15 (5), pp. 467–470.
5. Mavko G, Mukerji T, Dvorkin J., The rock physics handbook. Toîls for seismic analysis of porous media, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009, 511 p.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
Interpretation of the processes occurring during the removal of wax deposits in the oil well by the heat transfer media can be based only on the distribution of temperature fields that take into account the temperature variations in the flow and on the inner surface of the oil well tubing. Taking into account the experience of carrying out flushing with the heat transfer media in oil wells of the Perm region, distributions of temperature in oil wells tubing and wax deposits melting have been obtained, depending on the depth of wax deposits formation. A model for the distribution of temperature fields reflecting the stages of the process of dewaxing the well with the fluid heating medium is constructed.
The process of wax deposits removal during flushing with the heat transfer media in oil wells is a completely physical process. Effective wax deposits removal with the use of water-based heat transfer media can be achieved by adding chemical reagents (additives) that have the desired properties at a temperature between 20 and 90° C, but to determine the temperature regime and the concentration of chemical reagents (efficiency determination) it is necessary to investigate detergency effectiveness.
The article describes the detergency effectiveness of four chemical reagents of well-known Russian producers, as well as fresh water for 14 oil wells in the Perm region. When determining the detergency effectiveness of reagents wax deposits removal the wax deposits composition should be taken into account. The detergency effectiveness of the reagents for wax deposits removal was determined for each type of wax deposits at heat transfer media temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 °C. At the heat transfer media temperature of 50 °C, the detergency effectiveness of fresh water with chemical reagents (additives) was absent.
Based on the studies carried out, the following conclusions can be drawn: for an oil well, it is necessary to sel ect an individual chemical reagent, taking into account the wax deposits composition; flushing efficiency in the wells of oil fields of the Perm region for the purpose of wax deposits removal is maximal at the heat transfer media temperature on the whole area of formation not less than 70 °Ñ, for light oil fields – not less than 60 °Ñ.
1. Tronov V.P., Mekhanizm obrazovaniya smolo-parafinovykh otlozheniy (Mechanism of formation of resin-paraffin deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 192 p.
2. Ibragimov N.G., Khafizov A.R., Shaydakov V.V. et al., Oslozhneniya v neftedobyche (Complications in oil production): edited by Ibragimov N.G., Ishemguzhin E.I., Ufa: Monografiya Publ., 2003, 302 p.
3. Mordvinov V.A., Turbakov M.S., Erofeev A.A., The estimation technique of depth of intensive formation of paraffin sediments on downhole equipment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 7, pp. 112–115.
4. Turbakov M.S., Obosnovanie i vybor tekhnologiy preduprezhdeniya i udaleniya asfal’tenosmoloparafinovykh otlozheniy v skvazhinakh (na primere neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Permskogo Prikam’ya) (Choice of technology for prevention and removal of asphalt, resin, and paraffin deposits in wells (on the example of oil deposits of Perm Kama region)): thesis of candidate of technical science, St. Petersburg, 2011.
5. Turbakov M.S., Ryabokon’ E.P., Cleaning efficiency upgrade of oil pipeline from wax deposition (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, V. 14, no. 17, pp. 54–62. DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.17.67
6. Mordvinov V.A., Turbakov M.S., Lekomtsev A.V., Sergeeva L.V., The effectiveness of measures to prevent the formation and removal of asphaltene deposits in the operation of oil wells in the LUKOIL-PERM LLC (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2008, no. 8, pp. 78–79.
7. Turbakov M.S., Chernyshov S.E., Ust'kachkintsev E.N., Efficiency analysis of technologies for prevention the formation of asphaltene tar wax-bearing deposits on the mines of Perm Prikamy (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 11, pp. 122–123.
8. Ust'kachkintsev E.N., Melekhin S.V., Determination of the efficiency of wax deposition prevention methods (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2016, V. 15, no. 18, pp. 61–70, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.18.7
9. Turbakov M.S., Erofeev A.A., Results of estimation of thermodynamic conditions of sediments formation of asphatlene-resin-paraffin materials in wells of the Sibirskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 11, pp. 106–107.
10. Lekomtsev A.V., Turbakov M.S., Mordvinov V.A., Assessment of intensive paraffin accumulation depth in wells of Nozhovsky group oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 32–34.
11. Safin S.G., Development of compositions for removal of asphalt-resin-wax depositions in the oil-field equipment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 7, pp. 106–109.
12. Sharifullin A.V., Nagimov N.M., Kozin V.G., Hydrocarbon composites for the removal of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, no. 2002, no. 1, pp. 51–57.
13. Zlobin A.A., Experimental research of nanoparticle aggregation and self-assembly in oil dispersed systems (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, V. 14, no. 15, pp. 57–72, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.15.7.14. Zlobin A.A. Study of mechanism of oil magnetic activation in order to protect production wells fr om wax deposition (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2017, V. 16, no. 1, pp. 49–63, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2017.1.6.
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The article describes the dual production technology developed with application of new generation tools for process control and formation parameters monitoring with separate metering of production from each reservoir, as well as the results of the technology pilot tests.
Assemblies 1PROK-ORE with electric controlled valve KPUE-102 described herein were developed for dual production from wells.
Electric valve KPUE-102 allows full closing, opening and choking of tubing bore for lower formation product with remote control of these functions from ESP control panels.
These assemblies are designed for:
- production from two formations with one ESP,
- isolation of upper or lower formation for separate metering of produced fluids,
- measuring of pressure build-up curve of the isolated formation.
Besides, the presented devices help to optimize the fluid recovery from formations in order to achieve maximum flow rates.
For formations operation monitoring purposes the control station supplies power to KPUE valve motor via the ESP motor power cable. This closes the tubing bore, then pressure rises up to the actual formation pressure value of the lower reservoir. A pressure sensor installed in the KPUE valve transmits the pressure readings to the data receiving and processing unit.
This procedure is repeated regularly, e.g. twice a month.
After the pressure measurement the pump operation continues. The process is maintained due to availability of a device eliminating ESP motor current impact onto the KPUE valve operation. At this time the pump in low frequency mode pumps fluid from the upper reservoir. A pressure sensor installed in the submersible telemetry unit records the annular pressure. The required pressure is maintained by predetermining the permissible pressure loss below KPUE valve for optimal operation of the lower formation.
Thus, electric KPUE valve performs two functions: the first one is measuring the lower reservoir formation pressure during pump operation; the second one is shutting off the fluid flow from the lower reservoir.
1. Valeev M.D., Belousov Yu.V., Kalugin A.V., Method of determination of oil inflow from layers at simultaneously-separate wells operation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 10, pp. 62–63.
2. Vedernikov V.Ya., Ryzhov E.V., Principal basis of ejector choosing for simultaneous-separate exploitation of wells with UEZN (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2009, no. 9, pp. 45–47.
3. Leonov V.A., Sharifov M.Z., Garipov O.M., Experience in implementing the dual completion in the fields of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Interval, 2006, no. 11, pp. 17–30.
4. Kazantsev I.Yu., Gordeev A.O., Vakhrusheva I.A., Lutsenko A.A., Experience of introduction of simultaneous-separate operation technology at Verkhnekolik-Yoganskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 2, pp. 44–47.
5. Kazantsev I.Yu., Gordeev A.O., Vakhrusheva I.A., Lutsenko A.A., Opyt vnedreniya tekhnologii odnovremenno-razdel'noy ekspluatatsii na mestorozhdeniyakh kompanii OAO “TNK-BP” (Experience of introduction of technologies of dual completion in TNK-BP), Collected papers “Voprosy proektirovaniya razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza v Zapadnoy Sibiri” (Design of oil and gas fields development in Western Siberia), Tyumen': Slovo Publ., 2010, pp. 55–65.
6. Kryakushkin A.I., Shlyapnikov Yu.V., Agafonov A.A., Nikishov V.I., Results and prospects of dual completion (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2009, no. 12, pp. 50–53.7. Latypov A.R., Nikishov V.I., Slivka P.I., Slabetskiy A.A., Technology of dual completion wells for the joint operation of reservoirs of Priobskoe field (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2008, V. 6, no. 2, pp. 59–62.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
In the process of oil production simultaneously produced formation waters are pumped back into the layer for maintaining formation pressure. The presence of emulsified oil particles and mechanical admixture into the pumped water reduces the return of productive and absorbing layers. That’s why deep cleaning of wastewater is necessary before their reinjection into the layers.
For purification of water from emulsified oil particles the use of magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite with magnetic separator is offered. Finely dispersed particles are absorbed on the surface of the emulsified oil. Then magnetized emulsion drop is removed in the magnetic separator. Such oil particle in a magnetic field will have weak magnetic moment. That’s why the need of the development of magnetic separator coping effectively with this task exists. The cartridge of the device consists of many thin steel rods along which the cleaned water flows. The efficiency of the magnetic separator depends on tension and gradient of the magnetic field in its workspace.
In this work modeling of magnetic fields in the cartridge of the magnetic separator is carried out. Based on the models constructive features are chosen. The advantage of the diamond-shaped arrangement of the rods in the magnetic field is justified. The optimum thickness of the rods and the distance between them are determined. Installation of steel rods with the thickness of 1-10 mm at the distance of 1-2 mm from each other is recommended. The possibility of using magnets the possibility of using magnets is also justified. Making the magnetic trap as a core the use of permanent magnets NdFeB with a square base is offered. Radius of the core from the surface in which the intensity of the magnetic field more than 100 kA/m can be considered as equal to the size of the magnet. The rods in the cartridge must have a diamond-shaped arrangement in the direction of the magnetic field lines.
The model of calculation of the coefficient of the performance of the cartridge of the magnetic separator which is determined with reference to the gradient of the magnetic field and the coefficient of the working area in a cross section of the magnetic separator is introduced.
1. Lyutoev A.A., Smirnov Yu.G., Ivenina I.V., Extraction of oil emulsified impurities from water by means of high-disperse particles of magnetite (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2014, no. 4, pp. 40–45.
2. Lyutoev A.A., Smirnov Yu.G., Numerical simulation of the magnetization of oil emulsions using nanoparticles magnetite for management the system of water treatment from oil products (In Russ.), Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki, 2013, no. 2, pp. 334–342.
3. Katsman M.M., Raschet i proektirovanie elektricheskikh mashin (Calculation and design of electrical machines), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1984, 360 p.
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|FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT|
The strength and load-carrying capacity of frozen rocks is much higher than that of the same rocks in the thawed state. The strength of frozen rocks is determined by the interaction between mineral particles and ice crystals, i.e. ice cement bonds. This type of bond significantly exceeds the cohesion of particles in the thawed rock and intensifies with decreasing temperature. For the entire period of construction and operation of technical facilities, there should be provided for a set of measures to ensure and maintain the specified temperature of frozen soils, as well as the required load-carrying capacity. To ensure the specified temperature of the soils, the installation of seasonal-acting cooling devices - soil thermal stabilizers in the base of industrial and civil objects is widely used. Thermophysical properties of frozen rocks can vary with time, as they depend on the amount of unfrozen water, the density of the rock skeleton, humidity, including as a result of technogenic impact. Therefore, when operating technical objects, the actual temperature of the soils and the cooling capacity of the soil thermal stabilizers are monitored. At checking the operating conditions of the soil thermal stabilizers and analyzing the results of measurements of soil temperature, there are cases when soil thermal stabilizers operate with an increased cooling capacity. This indicates the insufficient effectiveness of measures to ensure the specified soil temperature for actual operating conditions. One of the reasons is the difference between the actual climatic conditions and those taken during the design. The article presents an analysis of the results of meteorological observations indicating changes in climatic conditions at sites located in the Far North, as well as the results of a numerical assessment of the effect of climatic conditions on the effectiveness of measures for temperature stabilization of soils. To assess the effectiveness of the soil thermal stabilizers action, mathematical models have been developed, with the use of which the calculations of the cooling capacity under various climatic conditions have been performed. Based on the developed models, calculations of the compensating measures necessary to ensure the required temperature regime of the soils were carried out.
1. Ivanitskaya E.V., Monitoring of Trans-Alaska pipeline system (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2011, no. 1 (1), pp. 96–101.
2. Lisin Yu.V., Sapsay A.N., Surikov V.I. et al., Stablishment and implementation of innovative construction technologies in the development projects of the oil pipeline system in Western Siberia (projects «Purpe – Samotlor», «Zapolyarye – Purpe») (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2013, no. 4 (12), pp. 6–11.3. Sapsay A.N., Soshchenko A.E., Mikheev Yu.B. et al., Design solutions for the soil thermo-stabilizers and evaluation of their efficiency for providing hard frozen soil condition of foundation basis in the case of above-ground routing (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 1 (13), pp. 36–41.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The article describes the current state of oil production, its problems and difficulties. The degree of influence of "heavy" oil which has fundamentally different physical and chemical properties on the environment is determined. The process of oil distillation, its fractional composition and field of application of distillate products is considered. A typical scheme for the installation of fractional distillation of oil is given. Different methods of crude oil transportation are given. The parameters of liquid cargoes, which must be monitored during loading and unloading operations and warehouse operations, are listed. This paper contains requirements of international safety guidelines for oil tankers and terminals (ISGOTT) for crude oil, providing safe conditions for transshipment operations, such as true vapor pressure (TVP) and Reid vapor pressure (RVP). Requirements to the quality of commercial oil and the rules for estimating the cost of crude oil are given. The procedure for determining the price of OPEC oil basket is shown. The influence of oil transportation method and the amount of pollutants in crude oil at its initial market price is considered. There are the limit values of content of pollutants, reducing the price of a oil barrel. Methods of cleaning and disposal of bottom water are described. Typical technological schemes of sand removal from the bottom water are given.
1. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Mandrik I.E., Influence of technological features of hardly recoverable hydrocarbons reserves output on an oil-recovery ratio (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 5, pp. 76–79.
2. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Panakhov G.M., Abbasov E.M. et. al., High efficiency EOR and IOR technology on in-situ CO2 generation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5., pp. 90–95.
3. Gordon D., Sautin E., Rossiyskaya neft'. Problemy i perspektivy (Russian oil. Problems and prospects), URL: http://carnegie.ru/2013/05/28/ru-pub-52538
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We have considered several strategies for the organization of work to maintain technical condition of trunk pipelines and ensure their reliability: recovery strategy, condition monitored maintenance strategy and the strategy to manage technical condition taking into account possible damages.
In current conditions of limited technical, financial and economic resources, which are necessary to ensure reliable and safe operation of the main pipelines, the most sound strategy should be based on managing of the technical condition, taking into account possible damages, which requires the development of mechanisms for the optimal planning of control actions. Assessment of the technical condition of a pipeline is carried out within the framework of a specialized package of engineering and technical works, which includes acquisition, processing and analysis of a set of heterogeneous data. The model for managing the technical condition of trunk pipelines is based on forecasting, taking into account the differential assessment of the risks of failures on various pipeline sections. Methodical approaches to the planning and implementation of maintenance and repair of main pipelines with the application of a logic-probabilistic approach to ranking pipeline sections are presented.
Assessment of trunk pipeline condition on the basis of risk criteria has shown the exceptional importance of categorization of possible conditions of trunk pipeline sections. The authors have analyzed the most common causes of trunk pipeline failures: corrosion, mechanical damage to pipelines with external interference and failures due to construction defects. The results of the analysis of the causes of typical failures of aging piping systems show that in terms of criticality the most important failures are failures due to corrosion of metal pipes. An example of a description of a logical inference tree is given when analyzing the possibility of corrosion of metal pipes.
1. Lisin Yu.V., Neganov D.A., Varshitskiy V.M., Justified choice of repeated test interval as a guarantee of faultless pipeline operation (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 3, pp. 32–40.
2. Khafizov A.R., Nazarova M.N., Tsenev A.N., Tsenev N.K., On the role of construction and metallurgic defects in destruction failure of main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 3, pp. 24–31.
3. Mazur I.I., Ivantsov O.M., Bezopasnost' truboprovodnykh sistem (Safety of pipeline systems), Moscow: Elima Publ., 2004, 1097 p.
4. Makhutov N.A., Prochnost' i bezopasnost': fundamental'nye i prikladnye issledovaniya (Strength and safety: fundamental and applied research), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2008, 528 p.
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To ensure the safe operation of the pipeline, calculations must be made and the permissible working pressure must be set. Calculation of the permissible operating pressure is carried out by the criterion of ensuring the normative safety factor according to SNiP 2.05.06-85* using data on the actual wall thickness of the pipes measured during in-line diagnostics, category of sections, strength characteristics and results of hydraulic tests.
The characteristic determining the permissible operating pressure of the pipeline is its load-bearing capacity, while the calculations use the standard safety factors; their separate rationing for the operated pipes is absent. The application of the standard coefficients in the calculation of the bearing capacity provides, in fact, a double safety margin of the pipelines in operation. At the same time, with such an approach, excessive rejection of pipe sections, which does not provide the required design bearing capacity for the operating pressure, are possible. The system of standard reserve factors, applied at present in the Russian Federation, has not changed fundamentally since 1975. However, the last 30 years are characterized by a significant development of pipeline transport technologies: progress has been made in construction, technical diagnostics, automation, development of settlement and project software.
In this article, the authors present an algorithm for a detailed analysis of the results of in-line inspections, taking into account the results obtained in determining the improved material reliability factor, used in calculations of bearing capacity of operated pipelines. Calculation of the improved reliability factor for the material is suggested to be performed taking into account the margin for minus tolerance in the manufacture of pipes, analysis of the distribution of the wall thickness within the pipe sections, as well as measurement errors in in-line inspections.
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2. Varshitskiy V.M., Updating calculations to define bearing capacity of laid pipes (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2011, no. 2, pp. 48–49.
3. Lisin Yu.V., Neganov D.A., Sergaev A.A., Defining maximal working pressures for main pipelines in extended operation from the results of in-line diagnostics (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 6, pp. 30–37.
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